The most important reason for the development of mobile communication systems is the continually changing needs. Due to these needs, the demands that are expected from mobile communication are increasing. In the beginning, there were primarily systems where only voice transmission was made. However, recently, new systems have emerged that offer high-quality multimedia transmission and Internet connectivity. One of these systems is the 5G they concentrate on researchers these days. In mobile communications, a rapid change from 1G to 5G technology is taking place. Also, new techniques are constantly emerging to overcome deficiencies of existing systems or to improve existing systems. The current mobile communication standard provides limited service to its users, and the service quality is insufficient.
Therefore, at 5G it is thought that the communication capacity can be improved, the data rate can be increased, the cost can be reduced, and the delay can be minimised. Also, power consumption can be reduced, and thus energy efficiency can be increased. This work aims to address the data speed, latency, energy and cost efficiency and spectrum efficiency that are expected to be improved by 5G, to emphasize the importance of these issues for future communication systems and to make a general assessment of the work done at this point. The ever-evolving wireless communication technologies since the introduction of the electromagnetic wave theory have made a visible breakthrough in recent years. This breakthrough goes from 5th Generation (1G) technology, which started in the 1970s to 5th Generation (5G) technology, which is planned to be ready for use in 2020. As more than 50 million devices are expected to be linked through cloud computing in 2020, 5G technology is expected to be used as soon as possible. Moreover, the fact that these devices can exchange data with each other at the desired place at any time suggests that acute improvements should be made in the mobile data transfer speed. In this context, 5G technology will be a significant development.
One of the problems in wireless communications technology is the electromagnetic spectrum. Because wireless communication data volume is increasing day by day, space will not be available in the electromagnetic spectrum. Another problem is the high data rate in the mobile environment. For example, the development of Internet technology of objects is not possible with low data rate. For this reason, it is necessary to reach high data rate and to provide more efficient and quality service. In addition to these, it is necessary to make energy efficiency studies which is one of the most significant problems of our age and to reduce the cost together with these improvements. Therefore, ongoing work in the name of 5G is in these areas.
The ever-increasing demands of users are the reason for the rapid progress of the wireless communication system, so the 4G, 4.5G systems now being used will leave their places step by step to 5G. Also, service providers are continually working to provide better quality service to their users. They are therefore helping the progress of the 5G process. Thus, the demands expected from 5G technology have emerged. Efforts are underway to overcome the difficulties that will arise in this direction.
Even though industry-oriented studies are not at a sufficient level, the academic field METIS and 5GNOW projects continue to work to create the required standards. The architectural structure and functional requirements of 5G technology have not yet been determined. Some of the projects launched for this purpose are METIS, 5GNOW, COMBO, MOTO. If the focus is on 5G which is planned to be completed around 2020, the primary materials given in Figure 1 will emerge as a counterpoint. These are explained below.
The most critical expectation in wireless communication is that the data rate is sufficient to satisfy the requests of the users insufficient level. So one of the priority issues that 5G technology needs to deal with, provide solutions and support is data speed. Indeed, It is emphasised that 5G technology can achieve high speeds at the gigabit level in the second and must support a wide range of data rates that can be realized. Relevantly high data rates on this topic are among the demands that wireless system designers are continually meeting, and these demands are increasing day by day. It is stated that in 5G, which is planned to be completed around 2020, work is started to realize these demands.
Why should we make an excellent improvement in data rate? Using increasing technological possibilities, users expect higher quality service, and besides, it is necessary to create a wide range of devices which will enable a large number of devices to communicate with each other in the following years. When each of these requirements is assessed for itself, the importance of data speed will be better understood. If a simple example of mobile data speed is given, the 4G system is weak for a high-speed train at speeds of 350 to 500 km / h , although communication speeds for a train at this speed are possible with 4G networks when the average speeds of the currently used rapid trains are considered to be 250 km / h. For high-motion users, in this case, 5G could be considered to form a common system with heterogeneous networks . Indeed, it is reported that the proposed “mobile femtocell (femtocell)” systems contribute to the signal quality with the use of high-motion vehicles.
As can be understood from the reasons stated above, 5G technology must definitely increase the data rate. It is not possible that the diffusion of the Internet of Objects, which is more than 10 billion devices connected with each other, can be met with 4G, and the provision of higher quality service is limited to 4G. Because the data rate available for 4G will not be at the desired level. The space to be formed here needs to be filled with 5G technology. At this point, it is stated that the data transmission speed of up to 30 times of 4G is reached as a result of studies made by Samsung Electronics Company. In this study, it is said that the speed of 1.2 Gbps is reached in case of a movement of 100 km / h. It is also stated that the speed of 7.5 Gbps is reached by using 28 GHz spectrum.
A wireless signal travels in a variety of ways that it may begin to transmit and may experience interference such as reflection, refraction, scattering. Depending on the damping caused by these obstacles, the signal components arrive delayed in a delayed or delayed time where they have to be reached. This delay is a problem that needs to be addressed to meet the requirements in the next generation wireless communication systems, even if it is not at the level that users can notice when compared to the first generation systems. It is emphasised that 5G should support a lesser delay, which is an essential area for various applications such as automotive, health, security, logistics, that is, as little time loss as possible. Therefore, the implementation of a lower delay is not enough to improve the current network system. At this point, the introduction of 5G is considered in the circuit, and the 5G work is planned to reduce the delay as much as possible.
The reduction of delays means that Internet-based access and applications can be realised without interruption, as if in real time. To give an example of how the delay is such an important issue, it is clear that especially in the future, vehicle technology will experience a tremendous improvement. Among these developments, improving the delay in wireless and mobile communication of the driverless car is indispensable for 5G. In support of this indispensable condition, one of the six challenges that the currently used 4G technology does not address as well is less delayed. Therefore, it is stated that 5G has a lower delay to be solved. The delay in the 4G system is 15 ms, and it is requested that this delay is approximately 1 ms for 5G. Because it is necessary to have the reaction time as fast as possible in the application fields such as communication between people and vehicles, communication between objects (Internet of Objects).
As much as possible, a delay of almost 1 GHz for 5 G would allow remote control of massive industrial machines and also help to investigate yet unexplored areas such as the Arctic Zones or parts of the ocean floor. It would be possible to implement a variety of mobile applications that could make significant progress in a system with a delay of 1 ms, which is called “tactile internet”. Through the development of this application, the operations of the data in part related to the sense of touch, not just the auditory part of the internet, could be realised. As the best example, a 5G system in which delay can be performed at deficient levels may allow a doctor to operate remotely with the definition of the necessary perception thresholds through a system that can combine touch-based internet applications.
It has also been noted that patient latency is a crucial point for lower latency in real-time applications such as the application of message transmission, life safety systems, nuclear reactors, and remote drone (drone). Although another study emphasises that the delay should be around 1 ms for 5G, there is little work on how this will happen. When all these situations are examined, it will be seen that a large part of the currently used technology structure needs to be redesigned. Although the 4G system is at the top of its capacity, it can not provide sufficient solution to the problems mentioned above. Work on the planning of 5G for new systems with millions of connected devices is ongoing, and delay in this plan will have to be at a level that can meet the necessary needs. 5G very low air entrances must have delayed transmission mode. Hence, it should allow for a low latency using very short TTIs (Transmission Time Intervals) of 5G waveform. Relevantly, a study on presented a new radio frame format for 5G. In this study, the TTI period was met which can meet the requirements for the delay. Therefore, it seems that the TTI period is an essential point for the delay. Therefore, a shorter TTI time for a lower delay is expected from 5G.
Figure: 5G Architecture Views
5G Key Requirements
It is expected that 5G systems will be able to offer start-ups to many new services efficiently and cost-effectively, thus creating an ecosystem for technical and operational innovation. Also, 5G infrastructure, automotive, energy, food and agriculture, health services and so on. For this reason, we will offer custom networking solutions to support vertical markets. Also, service delivery to all relevant stakeholders will need to be accelerated.
To simplify the required provisions, new high-end architectural systems are required to support and support different vertical industries. Unlike the development of previous generation mobile networks, 5G not only requires advanced network analysis but also requires the complex integration of extensive computing and field infrastructures. Service providers are expected to demand access to the underlying network and the source of the computer infrastructure. Thus, infrastructure providers will provide telecommunication systems to standard mobile broadband or additional vertical operation providers via global connectivity interfaces.
This will provide access to multi-tenancy and multi-service provider as well as mobile or converged set mobile access networks to which different network policies apply. Service providers may propose their services through one or more telecommunication carriers. A telecommunications operator can perform a service provider function as it is today. To serve such a different ecosystem, telecommunications operators will have to distribute orchestrator functions that will determine the appropriate computing and networking resources for services targeting logical networks with different and precise business focus. These logical networks, referred to as so-called network segments, encompass private network and computing functions that meet the desired service provider KPIs.
When a single infrastructure provider cannot support the needs of a service provider alone, 5G networks will protect inter-domain service groups and resource groups in multiple management domains that provide configurable sharing systems. The implementation of these schemes also requires operators in the network function layer (such as the creation of SDN rules) to work together. The abovementioned progress will have to be carried out in a universal and energy efficient manner. Also, the 5G system should be planned for the possibility of smoother transitions in future years. High-speed service availability, new confidence models that support new business and service delivery models in an evolving cyber threat environment. In this new context, innovative solutions are being sought to protect the growing public awareness of user privacy. The ecosystem mentioned above is the expected result of resolving the difficulties resulting from numerous new uses. In the past years, various organisations were working to define new use cases and new use cases, such as research projects around the world.
Figure: Network Softwarization and Programmability Framework
Although there are many cases identified with usefulness, a first level grouping based on basic accepted services is divided into three sections, the main sections. Categories: Extremely mobile broadband (xMBB); large machine different communications (mMTC); and highly reliable vehicle communication (uMTC). However, a separate review based on this organisation is not sufficient, as different use cases can have different characteristics (such as mobile and data traffic patterns) and therefore different amounts for needs (e.g. delay, reliability, user output, etc.). The wide range of services and the numerous endpoints that need to be supported present a number of unprecedented requirements.
5G Design Objectives
In 5G networks, availability is the most important challenge in supporting the enormous mobile traffic demand. The spectrum available today is already crowded. Particularly in very dense deployments, you will need to go for higher spectrum bands. This means that 5G networks will operate in a wide variety of features, including bandwidth and propagation conditions. For this reason, there is a need for appropriate mechanisms in today’s existing 4G systems. Another potential solution may be the adoption of appropriate spectrum sharing techniques. This implies that the new 5G architecture should allow the spectrum to be managed more efficiently by tracking spectrum usage.
States that “in the relevant WRC-15 decision for bands above 6 GHz, the spectrum requirements of WRC-19 should be adequately studied and timely completed. : 5G networks must provide a highly efficient delivery and data processing tool, as an example of this feature, the realization of network functions within the radio protocol stack, eg Extremely low load fast access for control plane signals The new Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) framework will play an important role in meeting the most important requirements. New paradigms and activators such as SDN and NFV are likely to be followed and achieved in all the above capabilities. This is a significant step in the development of new technologies and solutions for the future. However, there is a growing need for a flexible and flexible network of networks that can be deployed in the future. Most likely the different areas of 5G networks (edge, access, transport, core, services) will offer different levels of flexibility. Furthermore, 5G networks will provide solutions to support different air interface variables. This means that the air interface has different numerology, waveform etc. 5GPPP systems are used in conjunction with other user interfaces, such as 5GPPP systems. Also, LTE’s Narrow Band Internet-Of-Things (NB-IOT) has already begun to meet the requirements of 5G. Moreover, 5G networks should address the complexity of advanced communication modules and different beam-forming capabilities. Examples are large antenna arrays, large MIMO, and multiple antenna schemes with a cluster of millimetre wave access points.
Figure: Network elements and interfaces based on the logical CN/RAN split
Therefore, depending on the usage situation and the distribution scenario, different antenna types, e.g. it is necessary to produce multiple antenna arrangements, low/high gain beamforming antenna model, flexible/constant beam setting pattern and analogue / digital/hybrid beams based on the usage and deployment scenarios. There are a lot of different new ways of innovation that differentiate 5G networks from old networks (for example, using a specific user interface with two or more different network connections running in different RATs and using high or very high frequencies). Multicast is an important technology that fulfills 5G demands related to data rate, latency, reliability and usability. In addition, 5G will protect new systems such as point-to-point, network-controlled device-to-device (D2D) interactions, such as multipoint broadcast and broadcast communications. Another new mechanism includes a pay-as-you-go duplex scheme in which a device can act as both a “standard” end-user device (including sensor models) and as a network connection that accesses the infrastructure. These systems will need to be protected over a broad physical distribution range from sequential base stations to centralized cloud-RAN deployments or scattered cloud clouds. Various backhaul, such as linking of optical and wireless carrier network descriptions, will be confirmed taking into account the balance between delay time and capacity. Self-repair is an extra valuable feature where devices can act as base stations and establish wireless backhaul connections to the appropriate transmission base stations. The 5G architecture will implement natural routes for aggregated fixed mobile networks. Operators will have the same physical network to access fixed and mobile users. Ethernet is expected to be used as a common transport platform for integrating new and existing transmission technologies. Virtual networks can then be commanded in parallel slices on the respective physical network. A high level of network operation and management functionality will be provided since only a portion of the overall telecom traffic is mobile, based on SDN over similar infrastructure. Fixed mobile convergence enables the mobile network to reuse the existing fixed network infrastructure. Despite the core access network, it is also necessary to provide a consistent and seamless service application for all end users. 5G networks also have to protect more complex mechanisms than the old methods for tuning traffic to meet various Quality of Service (QoS) requirements from the end-to-end. Note that 5G networks will need to identify and prioritize resources on a common infrastructure for operational and security purposes. Care of the slicing frame should add these QoS requirements to the account. Relevant access networks and networking are special things with ‘wired’ functions. Every adjustment to ever-increasing and heterogeneous market requirements means a significant investment in material exchange and commissioning. A possible solution might be to virtualize a section of the communication base (eg, core / edge segments and access points / macro cells); but other innovative solutions mentioned earlier should also be explored as the correct use of small-cell infrastructures. It is expected that new services, software and resources will be created by “multi-site” infrastructure “software” that is refined and supplied dynamically and flexible. This new situation requires End to End Resource, Infrastructure and Service Orchestration (multi-domain configuration of various programmable infrastructure areas, possibly belonging to various clients / operators). In addition, control and function parameters must be changed to implement integrated services for multiple foundation owners. This allows application providers to find the topmost puzzle (OTT) on multiple networks at the top of the Internet without any distribution guarantee to end users.
Figure : Framework for control, management and orchestration of network functions.
5G networks must provide a large number of new services through multiple specially prepared conditions. This requires scalable new advanced autonomous network control platforms. It also includes the collection and processing of large data volumes from the 5G network and the development of a system for controlling network connections while supporting federation network management. This is very necessary to guarantee QoS even when the network context changes. To this end, research is being conducted on software configurability of 5G networks and devices, and research is being conducted on what levels of software platforms may be autonomous. Self-regulating abilities enable the network to become prognostically effective and provide resources for the network to be improved, protected, structured and enhanced accordingly. Principles will do this by setting the minimum cost for network equipment (CAPEX) and operating cost (OPEX) while adjusting QoS to user requirements with adequate resources. Operational cost includes network resource allocation, service distribution and management, performance degradation and energy efficiency. Furthermore, control platforms perform network resilience mechanisms such as network failures, failures, or conditions such as congestion or performance degradation. They will also recognize serious security issues, such as illegal attacks or endangered network elements, and will communicate with autonomous network managers to take appropriate action. The overall objective is the establishment of a cognitive and autonomous management system that is developed through the application of policies to adapt the various aspects of the network and the external character of the network; The purpose of this system is to organize itself well. Many of these programs should protect tenant environments.
Figure: 5G infrastructure supporting integrated networking and computing facilities
This section describes general concerns about 5G architecture and (i) Mobile Networks, (ii) Physical Network and Computing Facility, (iii) Services and Infrastructure Management and Orchestration, and (iv) Hosting and Distribution Systems. 5G networks are considered to be practical and serviceable with reasonably flexible, highly programmable E2E connectivity and computing infrastructure regarding time, space and content. They represent:
• Improvement in capacity, performance and spectrum penetration in radio network segments; and
• Developing local extensibility and programmability changes across all non-radio 5G network segments including Fronthaul and Backhaul Networks, Access Networks, Collection Networks, Core Networks, Mobile Edge Networks, Software Networks, Software-Defined Cloud Nets, Satellite Networks and IOT Networks.
While 5G Architecture gives new business opportunities that meet a wide variety of application requirements
(i) cost-effective implementation of network segmentation, (ii) 5G evidence that the end-user has passed tomorrow through the administration of both end-users and operational duties, and
(iii) naturally encouraging software development activities,
(iv) combine communication and computing and
(v) incorporating different technologies (including fixed and wireless technologies).
These features suggest some options for 5G networks. One is a high point of elasticity. There is a kind of communication model that has various performance features such as people, machines, devices and sensors. They also want flexibility about where and when they are needed regarding talent, talent, security, flexibility and compatibility. 5G networks point to a shift in network paradigms: from today’s “enterprise networks” to “(virtual) functions.” Also, in some cases, this “virtual function network”, which will cause the existing monolithic network assets to become corrupted, will form a network unit for the next generation systems. These tasks can be performed on an “on-the-fly” basis. In fact, a research theme today defines essential functions or blocks while applying uniformly, and creates responses that makeup network functions. Additional gains in control areas, systems and resource controls are increasing. 5G networks enable uniform management and control processes that are part of the dynamic design of software architects. They can host hosting services on one or more
Figure: 5G Service & Infrastructure Management and Orchestration Architecture
Network Softwarization and Programmability
The proposed framework targets 5G Network segments for all technologies that allow Radio Networks, Fronthaul and Backhaul Networks, Collection and Core Networks, Network Clouds, Mobile Network and technology. Mobile Extension Networks, Service / Software Networks, Software-Defined Cloud Nets, Satellite Network, IOT Network. The directions of this proposal are defined as separate planes. Although they are described separately, the planes are not entirely free: the key items of each are linked to the items on the other side. However, the aircraft is sufficient to simplify the reason for multiple system requirements. The connection between the planes is manifested by a group of interfaces (i.e. reference points) to be used for information exchange and control among the separate (sub) systems sharing borders. Application and Operational Service Plan, Multi-Service Management Plan, Integrated Network Management and Operation Plan, Infrastructure Software Development Plan, Control Plane and Routing / Data Plane.
Figure: – E2E Multi-Domain Management and Orchestration of different infrastructure
domains belonging to different operators
The main system-breaker tasks of the software changeability and programmability framework in the network are:
• 5G Unified Database Taxes spread to the sides of a standard core network and create a distributed flat network. Control plane functions responsible for portability management, QoS control, etc. direct the user traffic to which agnostic access networks. They also integrate complex technologies (including fixed and wireless technologies).
• 5G Infrastructure Software Development Plane functions that are effective for local network software in all 5G network sections interact and provide effective integration of computer processes.
• 5G “(virtual) functional network” is approved as a network system in networks.
• Network architecture can be developed instead of being restored.
The framework for software development and programmability in these network conditions is based on the following distinction at various levels: Application and Business Service Plan – Identify and implement business processes for specific processes throughout specific value chains. Any service in the context of 5G is part of the software that implements one or more functions and provides one or more APIs to applications or other services of the same or different planes so that these functions can be used and one or more results can be returned. Services can be combined with another service or called in a serialised way to create a new service. An application in the context of 5G is part of the software that runs the services on which it is based to perform a function. The implementation method can be parameterised, for example, by communicating specific arguments during a conversation, but it must be a free piece of software; An application is not implementing any interface to another application or service.
Multi-Service Management Plane: Air is used to set and control functions and interfaces in network instances and node groups. More specifically, the installation includes NFs and interface creation/ setup/arrangement according to physical and virtual resources. It also includes some functions related to network operations such as error management, performance management, and edit management. Slice Service Mapper functionality also includes the functionality of Sources, Domain, and Service Orchestration functions, Service Information Management functions, and Network Capabilities Discovery. It also encompasses lifecycle management as part of individual network roles and mobile network conditions. In surviving mobile networks, this function is often managed by the Operation Support System (OSS). The goal is to design, manage and manage more than one private communications service network running on top of the 5G E2E infrastructure.
Integrated Network Management and Operations Plane: Provides the creation, performance and management of specific management functions that operate on top of the 5G E2E base; and the collection of resources needed to control the overall operation of the individual network devices. It also includes E2E Network segment management, FCAPS functionality, Monitoring operations, Network Information Management, Data and transaction operations on the network, and Multi-area management operations.
Infrastructure Software Development Plan: Preparing and achieving software and service networks. It supports the operation of end-to-end heterogeneous networks and common cloud platforms that include physical and logical resources and devices. It includes the software required to create, deploy, deploy, run and maintain network hardware, network components and network services. The software supports features such as flexibility and speed throughout the life cycle of network equipment/ components/services to redesign network and service architectures, optimise costs and methods, and create situations for self-regulation and development. Also, software and service networks, application-centric network software development, software network S / W Programmability, dynamically establishing new network and command services (e.g. data, control, management, execution of service plane), network capability exposure, software control networks.
Infrastructure Control Plan: Collection of functions for commanding individual or other network devices. The Control Plane reports the network devices, network components, and network tasks associated with the primary data units of the user/ data/routing plane. Functions, Command of network software functions, Controller of orchestration functions, Authority of motion control functions, Cloud control functions, Mobile edge calculation control functions and adapters to various application functions.
The command of the (virtual) network functions is related to 5G and is distributed from the command area and the application area, especially to the network area. This control plane initially communicates with the steering plane and at a lower level with the steering plane.
Orientation Plane: We collect resources in all network tools that guide traffic.
Impact on Mobile Networks
The development of the mobile network architecture has been inspired by the elements needed to provide communication services for some applications. Network slicing is also an essential part of the general 5G architecture that marks the use of multiple logical networks as independent business processes on the overall physical infrastructure. One goal is to provide network segments that flexibly support a wide variety of usage scenarios that the 2020 time frame will demand. For this purpose, the 5G slot can be composed of 5G network functions (NF) and particular radio access technology (RAT) settings combined together for specific use conditions and / or transaction model NGMN was initially developed by 5G core network (CN) and RAN directives (E2E) network slice “to take the concept of general system configuration as it is intended to be used, in which network segments must be matched to various conditions (including radio spectrum, infrastructure and transport network), such as sharing resources and using them efficiently E2E network correction support is seen as one of the basic requirements of 3GPP, although these schemes are not valid at this time, the network must be able to access both the network and the access network as well as user devices ( UE) to address RAN configuration It is assumed that a new 5G mobile network architecture will provide expected service differentiation, flexible deployments and network segmentation support to mark 5G requirements. Mobile access and core networking functions have a general understanding that basic technology choices for flexibility have general information about the adaptation of multifunctional and contextually informed network functions, regulation and management of mobile network functions, software-defined mobile network control and shared optimisation. The 5G mobile network architecture will include both edge and base cloud deployments, as well as both physical and virtual network functionality. What’s more, it is clear that the 5G mobile network needs to combine the LTE-A evolution with the new 5G technologies at the RAN level; here, the integration at the RAN level will move towards interoperability between access technologies; NGMN’s vision of “5G RAT family”. Nowadays, 3GPP will have a logical CN / RAN partition for Next Generation Architecture and has been approved for independent development of both RAN and CN, and has been approved in some distributions where the functions coexist in cross-layer optimisations.
Figure: Possible function splits in the RAN.
As shown, this setup can manage the S1 * CN / RAN interface and the X2 * node-node RAN interface while it is running. There is also a continuing review that points to a high level of architectural tunings, such as adjustable assignment and synthesis of theories, RAN and CN functions. Concentrating on future research, producing all the options and matching them regarding adaptability, complexity and cost to meet the requirements of future usage conditions.
The architecture in the figures illustrates mobile network functionality and control and regulatory functionality. It is also tied to ETSI-NFV principles and entities that have been expanded by adding the E2E Service Management and Editing module as well as the programmable controller to configure and manipulate virtualised and Physical Network Functions flexibly.
The division of the control and user plane introduced via the software-defined network (SDN) will also affect the 5G mobile network, which can split functionality and correspondingly implement the respective interfaces. The mobile network will play an essential role in 5G to meet the flexible and dynamic needs of radio access and core networks as well as incoming mobile networks. Unique packet-based network is required to provide the necessary flexibility. Three basic models of interfaces are presented: packaged CPRI, next-generation FronThaul interface (new functional partition in RAN) and backhaul. The traffic class theories will be introduced to address these interfaces. Furthermore, SDN theories and systems and network functionalization virtualization (NFV) to efficiently maintain the network segmentation with the transport network ends with the abstraction of the packet-based data path by separating the command and data. The combined data and control plane interconnects shared 5G radio access and core network functionality in the intranet cloud infrastructure. The 5G transport network will consist of a combined optical and wireless network infrastructure.
Logical and Functional architecture
At 5G, there is a broad consensus that networking functions will be of a different quality than those of the previous generation of cellular interfaces and that it will serve a variety of design paradigms. The concept of “network functions” in 5G is not only related to the connection, but also to computing and storage in all 5G network segments. More specifically, the network functions will provide standard connection-related services such as filtering and routing, packet inspection, and current processing for signal processing objects. Also, 5G networks will also provide complex functionality to web servers or database functionality. At the edge of the network, it includes stateless and stateful functions. The individual custom class of network in 5G will be “Virtual Network Functions (VNFs)”. These are determined by one or more virtual machines operating with various software and methods on industry standard high-volume computing programs, switches and storage units, or cloud computing infrastructure. These can traditionally perform network functions through special hardware devices and middleboxes. VNFs will play an important role, especially in the form of CN functions. The network functions in 5G will be created to meet a wide range of service requirements, and the service will be specifically matched to the physical architecture. Support for a wide variety of services may be allowed, for example, by having certain network functions dedicated to different services and / or by designing networkable functions that can be parameterized to suit different services. In this sense, it may be advantageous to identify sets of basic / basic “reusable Function Blocks” (RFBs) as building blocks used to create high-level functions. RFB is accepted here as a generalization of the idea of VNF. Some RFBs can be created to promote a wide range of services, while others can be applied to specific services. Commonly, it is assumed that network functions will also be matched depending on the physical structure, usage, service specific requirements and physical characteristics of actual deployments. Moreover, only the instance will be created for each logical network running on the same infrastructure. The coexistence of different use cases and services implies the necessity of using modified VNF allocations in the same network. Network functions in 5G are more robust than physical systems in comparison to older systems. In general, mobile network functions are grouped into network objects through the specification of the intermediate interconnects for which each element is responsible for a predefined set of functions. For this reason, the degree of freedom to assign network functionality to physical network entities is rather limited. For example, 3GPP Evolved Packet Core (EPC) elements may be configured with base stations in the 3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS), but only a portion of a gateway or Mobility Management Unit (MME) functionality within a physical base station may be added in 3GPP interfaces it needs to be changed. Furthermore, the common RANs that the Basic Tape Units (BBUs) and radio units share include several limitations, including:
i) improved CAPEX and OPEX due to the frequently used fewer sources;
ii) limited scalability and flexibility;
iii) lack of modularity and limited density;
iv) improved management costs; and
v) Insufficient energy management due to lack of resource sharing. Recently, Cloud Radio Access Networks (C-RANs) have been proposed to mark these limitations. In the C-RAN, the assigned access points, called remote radio heads (RRH), are associated with the Central Unit (CU) through the BBU pool through high bandwidth transport links known as fronthaul (FH). However, since such distributions now use centralised, non-virtualized baseband processing, this is related to relocating functionality; it does not take advantage of all the features of cloud computing, unification of earnings. Despite these achievements, it is worth remembering that simplicity is a keyword in 4G design when a simple architecture is suggested for the flexibility that the central architect has in 3G.
Hence, stability of flexibility and complexity requires the account to participate. In 5G systems, network functions will be created for maximum flexibility or dynamically assigning functions to physical entities as the following rules of thumb approve:
Avoiding the form of network functions that are to be run with network functions and tight timing relationships between protocol stack layers and radio systems asynchronously with radio in modern systems, or otherwise with convenient scheduling constraints.
• The forms of network functions may be compatible with the physical architecture on which they are being processed (eg, features and physical interfaces that maximize potential condensation and accumulation gains while delivering an elegant performance degradation when a non-structural physical architecture is referred to, if not ideal) they can be replaced with optimized alternative network functions.
Maintenance of optional networking functions and networking capabilities.
• using software programming to provide schematics, implementation, setup, management and maintenance of network functions, flexibility and rapid planning, development and deployment throughout the lifecycle of the network functions of the software; Ultimately, this can be observed as follows: defeat “a network of entities” by a network of “(virtual) functions” as in older systems.
It is clear that some network functions have strong scheduling relationships with the radio or, for example, hardware acceleration, hard to virtualise them. Despite the massive effort by organisations and analyst groups to focus on software acceleration in commodity computing platforms, the gap between the HW-based and SW-based implementation is still essential and will not decline in the future. For this reason, the idea is that physical and virtual network functions are confirmed. In general, the separation of logical functionality from physical implementation always required particular security mechanisms. For example, access control mechanisms and encryption are required to store or transmit sensitive data in physical/shared environments such as radio links or shared disks. Protecting the security necessity and criticality of presenting 5G networks and their functions as logical / virtualised concepts to a higher degree. Criticality will be further expanded to support the need for critical mitigation services and the need for isolation of slices. As I mentioned earlier, in modern networks, most of the necessary security functions can be set so that they can “move together” with the movement of the functionality. However, this does not mean that security does not define the physical implementation of the logical architecture. On the contrary, the result of 4G standardization for the placement of the PDCP / user plane in the eNodeB has led to lengthy work in defining additional and highly complex security measures to make this physical implementation acceptable. For this reason, while it is useful to identify a flexible and extensible security architecture, functional endpoints that can be reallocated due to mobility or traffic optimization cannot be achieved with full independence of the physical architecture. Because the software can never completely protect itself, security itself can never be fully virtualized. The various perspectives of the logical security architecture are based on a set of hardware root-to-trust, Key management, software authentication, secure boot, etc.
Figure Options for user plane aggregation among novel 5G radio technologies
Key Logical Architectural Design Paradigms
After considering both general and specific aspects of network functions in 5G, we will develop critical design paradigms related to the general logical and functional architect recognised by a comprehensive 5G PPP project. In the context of 5G, the standard logical network architecture in which network functions are organized into logical entities that are determined independently of service requirements and that are usually closely related to physical entities will be restored in a more manageable way. Architectural. This will ensure that the network functions are logically grouped in a service or language specific manner and logically the physical architecture is fully compatible with the envisaged ETSI NFV design. A key perspective in these terms would be the ability to configure infrastructure programmability, that is, network real- istics and service requirements, and control functions and data plane functions on a slice basis. Infrastructure programmability is seen as an activator of end-to-end orchestration of resources and services. There is also an agreement on predicting a control and user plane distribution that permits the 5G logical architecture to allow separate scalability and logical center denotation on both planes. This will also be an important strategy for providing a combined control framework for 5G networks. macro cells manipulate the command plane and small cells give the user plane, provide dynamic activation and deactivation of small cells in the RAN, more efficient mobility management, improved mobility and improved command plane capacity, and in particular ultra-dense small-cell networks. This approach seems to be particularly interested in the context of mmWave small cells. The extent to which command signalling is controlled by macro cells is still under investigation. Some of the radio control functions, scheduling is strictly tied to the user plane and, therefore, may need to be physically co-located. Based on these general plan paradigms, we now enter into the special considerations of 5G’s logical entities, interface and protocol stack architecture.
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