Disclaimer: This dissertation has been written by a student and is not an example of our professional work, which you can see examples of here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this dissertation are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKDiss.com.

Blind Spot Warning System for Vehicles Based on Ultrasound Sensor & Display

Info: 17002 words (68 pages) Dissertation
Published: 11th Dec 2019

Reference this

Tags: TechnologyAutomotive




Insects can be a serious problem for some people. Harmful disease transmitting by insects such as houseflies and cockroaches are the most terrifying creatures which scared off most of the people with it smells and disgusting look. To deal with those insects and eliminate this insects effectively, the automated Passive Infrared (PIR) motion active type of pest repellent system is proposed. It have a specific microcontroller which control how the system works such as the on and off of the system, the position and the baits or sensor used. The microcontroller control the repellent system by using information gathered from the PIR motion sensors integrated into the system and manipulate the position of the sensor detection.

This project is focus to redesign and fabricate new automated active type pest repellent system by integrating the PIR motion sensor which is able to distinguish all the insects at the same time. This project has successfully designed an automated PIR motion pest repellent system. The design is focus on the motion sensor that were integrated in the system to enhance the reliability in detecting the pest movement. Thus, the active system also have been integrated to the prototype by using Arduino controller as the medium to control the application and sensor that have been installed.

The result shows that the PIR motion sensor can detect the movement and send the output to turn on the application. This also shows that conservation of energy can be achieved by the active system where only 5V of power supply required to triggered the motion sensor and send the signal to relay to get the 240V of application to functioned.



Serangga boleh menjadi masalah yang serius bagi sesetengah orang. Penyakit berbahaya disebarkan oleh serangga seperti lalat dan lipas adalah makhluk yang paling menakutkan sebahagian besar orang dengan keadaanya yang berbau dan kelihatan menjijikkan. Untuk berurusan dengan serangga dan menghapuskan serangga ini dengan berkesan, (PIR) gerakan automatik pasif inframerah jenis aktif sistem perosak penghalau dicadangkan. Ia mempunyai mikropengawal tertentu yang mengawal bagaimana sistem ini berfungsi seperti di dalam dan di luar sistem, kedudukan dan umpan atau sensor digunakan. Mikropengawal mengawal sistem penghalau dengan menggunakan maklumat yang dikumpul dari PIR sensor gerakan bersepadu ke dalam sistem dan memanipulasi kedudukan pengesanan sensor.

Projek ini adalah fokus untuk merangka semula dan menghasilkan jenis  sistem aktif perosak penghalau baru dengan mengintegrasikan sensor gerakan PIR yang mampu untuk membezakan semua serangga pada masa yang sama. Projek ini telah berjaya menghasilkan gerakan PIR sistem perosak penghalau automatik. Reka bentuk adalah tumpuan kepada sensor gerakan yang bersepadu dalam sistem untuk meningkatkan kebolehpercayaan dalam mengesan pergerakan perosak. Oleh itu, sistem aktif juga telah bersepadu untuk prototaip dengan menggunakan pengawal Arduino sebagai medium untuk mengawal aplikasi dan sensor yang telah dipasang.

Table of content



1.1 Background of study

1.2 Problem Statement

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.4 Scope of the study

1.5 Chapter layout



2.1 Background

2.2 Blind Spot

2-3  Steps of BSDS

2.3.2 Blind spot detection system of Volvo vehicle

2.4 Some components that used in applications of blind spot :-

2.4.1   Microcontroller

2.6 The invention ideas of BSD system

2.7 The idea of ultrasonic sensor

2.8 Preferences of ultrasonic detecting contrast with another framework detecting in BSD framework.

2.9  Summary



3.0 Introduction

3.1 Project workflow

3.2 Circuit design of BSD framework

3.3 Structure design and installation of BSD system

3.4 Fabricate the prototype of blind spot system

3.5 Test the efficiency of the blind spot system

3.6 Software implementation

3.7 System integration: interfacing hardware and software BSD system

3.8 Discussion

3.8 Gantt Chart



Table 2.1 Classification of Sensors 14
Table 2.2 Type of Sensor 14
Table 2.3 Notation for the PIR Sensor Deployment Scenario Calculation 19
Table 3.1 List of components 38
Table 4.1 The product benchmarking for the automated pest repellent system 53
Table 4.2 First Pugh Assessments 57
Table 4.3 Second Pugh Assessments 58
Table 4.4 Experiment result for relay and application test 65
Table 4.5 Experiment result for efficiency test 72


Figure 2.1

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.4

Sticky Trap

Light Trap with Electrocute Function

The Passive Infrared (PIR) Sensor

Calculation Formula for PIR sensor deployment scenario





Figure 2.5 Square Deployment Scenario 20
Figure 2.6 Equilateral triangular deployment scenario 21
Figure 2.7 110° isosceles triangular deployment scenario 21
Figure 2.8 Hexagonal deployment scenario 22
Figure 2.9 IMU Sensor 25
Figure 2.10 Arduino Uno 26
Figure 2.11 Arduino IDE user interface 29
Figure 2.12 Buck Converter Schematic 30
Figure 3.1 Questionnaire 35
Figure 3.2 Gantt Chart 42
Figure 4.1 Percentage analysis for Question 1 from survey 45
Figure 4.2

Figure 4.3

Percentage analysis for Question 2 from survey

Percentage analysis for Question 3 from survey



Figure 4.4 Percentage analysis for Question 4 from survey         47
Figure 4.5 Percentage analysis for Question 5 from survey 48
Figure 4.6 Percentage analysis for Question 6 from survey 49
Figure 4.7 Percentage analysis for Question 7 from survey 49
Figure 4.8 Overall percentage calculated based on survey conducted. 50
Figure 4.9 The cumulative value based on the customer needs. 51
Figure 4.10 House of quality for automated pest repellent system. 55
Figure 4.11 The relationship value house of quality for automated pest repellent system. 55
Figure 4.12 The full circuit design of the automated PIR motion repellent system 60
Figure 4.13 The full circuit prototype 61
Figure 4.14 Verification of the coding commands in Arduino software 66
Figure 4.15 The LED functioned during testing phase 66
Figure 4.16 Verification of the coding commands in Arduino software 73



Flowchart 2.1 The flowchart of the ultra-low standby power PIR-sensor based lighting device. 24
Flowchart 3.1 The process flow of the project 43
Flowchart 4.1 The general function based on the commands inserted in the system 62


PIR – Passive Infrared

LED – Light Emitting Diode

QFD – Quality Function Deployment

IDE – Integrated Development Environment



1.1 Background of study

driving an automobile in cutting-edge movement conditions is fantastically unsafe. The high chance should manifest if the motive force viewing the upcoming road risks and in the period in-between, appearance in reverse in expressways riding. it’s far basic to look both sideway and in opposite earlier than securely change the paths. A difficulty that frequently concerned by using the driving force is the ranges cannot be visible by way of aspect view and returned view mirrors, that’s called as blind spot vicinity of car. In some mischances instances, it’s miles passed off because of a driving force’s failure to display the blind sides district properly. As per a review from 1995, The discoveries show that the greater part of path change moves happen on level ground, straight street, dry street conditions and great climate amid the daytime or in lit evening time conditions (Varghese et al.,2014). These elements ought to support the utilization of mirrors and direct visual perception seeing by the driver. the realization is that mirrors and physically turning the top and frame alone aren’t furnishing the driver with adequate information to keep a strategic distance from a mishap (Lin and Li,2010), Blind spot district is a selection to the side and marginally at the back of driver fields of imaginative and prescient that is not reflected within the vehicle improve replicate and requires the driver to turn their make a beeline for display screen the area earlier than making any interest, as an instance, converting the path. An problem might be takes place whilst a vehicle shifting in the direction of every other automobile blind aspect and the driver now not capable of see the vehicle pick out to exchange the course. for example, allude photograph in figure 1.1 below, place of motors out and approximately and the driver’s view from facet reflect and returned reflect become regarded. At the correct facet, the blue car is in the green car blind side region and drivers can see a tad bit some portion of the blue automobile and anticipate the place of the auto is a long approaches in the back of from his automobile. At that point, when the inexperienced car chooses to alternate the direction, mischance may additionally manifest. what’s greater, several road mishaps are takes place in blind facet district particularly in thruway due to surpassing, being weigh down or converting the course activity. Now and then, a few drivers are excessively centering, making it impossible to screen their blind aspect locale and misfortune listen out and approximately earlier than them. those sports may additionally lead them into mishaps that make a contribution into harm, misfortune or even passing. The outcome of the mischance will bring difficulty to any consisting of birthday celebration. Mindfulness from the issue, several devices had been designed to display screen the locale, as an instance, blind side mirror but it much less viable as mischance nevertheless happens in mild of the fact that the system exactness is relies on upon the driver. on this way, a framework that can perceive cars nearness in blind side and cautioning the motive force had been designed to assure the street client wellbeing.

Figure 1.1 : Example of Blind Spot

1.2 Problem Statement


these days, innovation in automobiles has been speedy increasing to diminish the threat of twist of fate even as driving automobile. there are numerous research proposed in view of the using help framework concentrating at the blind spot district (Ollis et al. , 1999).

Blind spot is ranges around a car that can’t be watched mainly by using the driving force, in this manner numerous avenue accidents occur in mild of the motive force not able to see some other motors method the blind spot particularly even as converting the lane. Then, to conquer this hassle a system that could locate the motors within the blind spot stages need to be fabricated to alert the driving force approximately the case at the blind spot ranges to assure the safety of road customers. In figure 1.2, the vicinity approximately generally called to blind spot is the returned quarter blind spots, area towards the lower back of the automobile on both facets. motors inside the adjacent ways of the street may additionally fall into those blind side, and a driving force can be no longer capable see abutting vehicles the usage of handiest the automobiles mirrors. specific zones which are periodically known as blind spots are those that are too low to look behind and before cars. additionally, in occasions in which side vision is deter zones to one facet or right can emerge as it appears that evidently blind facets too.


Figure 1.2: The blind spots. ( car mirror-2011)


1.3 Objectives of the study

The objectives of this project are:

1. To design & fabricate a new system  of a prototype of the blind spot  system by calculate distance for detect object when vehicle enter the blind spot region and display  Warning audio and Warning written by  using screen and speaker  .

2. To test the efficiency of the blind spot system by using ultrasound sensor and programming applied in Arduino Uno Controller.

The objectives identified is expected to show up and presented by the result obtained upon the project completion.

1.4 Scope of the study

They a few extents of work have been resolved are as per the following:

1-BSD framework that centering quarter blind spot locale vehicle.

2-BSD framework is appropriate apply for car, van and little lorry.

The proposed framework will utilize ultrasound technology, henceforth a few restrictions are normal, for example,

The identity angle is just 15deg, alongside those strains the sensor should be located appropriately to cover the locale of intrigue (BSR). Thusly a unique equipment ought to be intended to settle the position of the sensors at certain aspect.

The affectability of the sensors should be dissected, as it might result in a few deferral inside the region system. as a result, a calculation might be applied to pay off this deferral.

1.5 Chapter layout


chapter 1: introduction of the project. The rationalization for the mission may be given in a fashionable time period. The dreams of the task might be defined. it’s far trailed with the aid of explanation in the volume of assignment.


chapter 2:

Literature review for the improvement of blind spot system detection .This phase portrays the literature evaluate of the project elaborately. clarification will be centered round type of sensor associated tested and in view of speculation and calculated thoughts. a few literature evaluations of current tasks based on blind spot detection and hardware evaluation of prototypes also are being discussed.


chapter 3:

This part examines the full device of the overall task along device and programming advancement.

chapter 4:

This element clarifies the outcomes got with admire to the execution of the device.

chapter five:

discussion and conclusion, on this section examination, costing and commercialization and future may be talked about. in the long run, the finish of this mission is additionally, the epilogue of this assignment is also being discussed.
                                                                        CHAPTER 2


2.1 Background

Literature review was done all through the entire project to pick up learning and enhance aptitudes expected to finish this project. The principle hotspots for this project are past related activities, inquire about postulation, books, diaries and articles which are generally gotten from online databases. This part concentrates on the essential ideas and all central speculations which identified with this project.

2.2 Blind Spot


The blind side of vehicle the street region that is undetectable to the driver View factor while looking through aspect-view or lower back view mirror (Yu et al.,2013) without head rotation (Anon ,2014) which can lead into mishap. The spot will become maximum vital while the driver is converting route. as an example, a driver who will switch to another lane seems inside the facet mirror to affirm that the path is loose, however an automobile suddenly comes from in the back of, exactly when the driving force goes to move to any other lane (Yu et al.,2013), hence accident could be occur if the driver push aside the blind spot reigns. except in Australia, there are massive variant and growing gap between bicycle owner and car occupant protection upward thrust by biking blind spot (Anon,2014) . as a result, blind spot can increase the threat of accident.

2-3  Steps of BSD System

2.3.1 convex  mirrors

Utilize a blind spot mirror. These are little, curved mirrors that append to either your driver’s side view mirror or its lodging. The mirror is bended outward, which offers altogether better perceivability and can help upgrade your security. The mounting area for a blind spot mirror is by and large at the upper external corner of your side view reflect, yet this changes starting with one car then onto the next. You’ll have to explore different avenues regarding distinctive areas to locate the one most appropriate for you  ( Valerie Johnston , 2015) .



figure 2.1 shows the Different installation of the convex mirror on each vehicle

2.3.2 Side Eye: Mobile Assistant for Blind Spot Monitoring

As per the activity safety facts report of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, more than five million police-revealed motor vehicle crashes happened in the United States in 2011(NHTSA,2013) . Diverted driving is an always developing concern and driver wellbeing frameworks are progressively getting embraced. Be that as it may, despite everything they stay as elements in the extravagance vehicles. The high entrance of cell phones has made it conceivable to bring some of those wellbeing highlights inside everybody’s scope. While a portion of the current works have proposed following the street conditions and observing the driver with a cell phone, they have not secured the blind spot. In this paper, we exhibit Side Eye, a cell phone based framework to screen the blind spot on the driver side and caution the driver about the nearness of a vehicle . We investigate two methodologies in view of force variety and shape coordinating to recognize a vehicle in the blind spot . Our assessment demonstrates that, when a vehicle is in the blind spot, our framework can distinguish and caution the driver with a precision of 87% progressively(Singh et al.,2014). Area to Monitor and Alert

Fig. 1 demonstrates a case of how we mount the cell phone in the vehicle. We can without much of a stretch discover a place to mount the cell phone on the windshield or on the dashboard to permit the front camera of the cell phone to screen the blind side range. The red polygon appeared morally justified of Figure 2.2 is the region of interest (ROI) on which our Side-eye framework will screen, which covers the blind side of the driver. The ROI is the region on the following path on the driver side. At the point when there is a vehicle in ROI, it is anything but difficult to bring about crash if the sense of self vehicle endeavors to change path without seeing that vehicle.

C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordfig 2.2.jpg

The cell phone’s screen is confronting the driver. At whatever point Side Eye identifies a vehicle in the ROI, it cautions the driver at the earliest opportunity to enhance security. The framework can function as a daemon string all the while with different applications in cell phone, e.g. route application. Just when the framework distinguishes something basic, i.e. a vehicle is in the ROI, it alarms the driver. The framework could caution the driver in various routes, for instance, demonstrate a notice symbol on the screen or give a sound cautioning. Schemes

We utilize camera to screen the ROI and process the data in the video outline. Actually, we utilize PC vision based methods to carry out this occupation. We investigate two ways to deal with distinguish whether there is a vehicle in the ROI (Reviewed et al.,2006). One checks for the adjustment in the power of picture inside ROI; alternate searches for the vehicle in ROI by the information of vehicle’s shape. Underneath, we show the force and form coordinating based plans for distinguishing vehicles. 1) Intensity based plan: When there is a vehicle in the ROI (as appeared in the upper right of Figure 2.3), the appropriation of the pixel force of the ROI could be essentially not the same as the situation when the street is void (Figure 2.3(top left)).

C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordfig 2.3.jpg

In this research we show Side Eye, a cell phone based application which screens the driver-side blind side and alarms the driver. We assessed our framework on information gathered from a regular roadway driving, and furthermore measured the proficiency on a genuine cell phone. The outcome clarifies that it is conceivable to adequately identify and alarm the driver when there is vehicle in the blind side region. Our framework can accomplish accuracy and review both at around 85% in distinguishing the scene in the blind side region. Albeit Side Eye needs facilitate refinement to make it vigorous, it indicates guarantee in enhancing the driver wellbeing. On the off chance that done well, Side Eye can fill yet another wellbeing highlight ailing in non-extravagance vehicles by conveying it to the universal cell phones.

2.3.3 Blind spot detection system of Volvo vehicle

From Figure 2.4, another case of usage of blind spot checking framework. The Volvo vehicle utilize in light of radar detecting that advises the driver about vehicles in the blind spots on both sides of the car. It is additionally identify and cautions the driver to quickly moving toward vehicles up to 70 meter behind the car (Anon,2014).C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word2.4.jpg

2.3.4 Blind spot detection system of BMW (5 series):

Blind spot discovery framework is system that actually fundamental to display screen blind side district at the same time as riding car in current motion situation. effect among car can often manifest if the driver did no longer legitimately nicely check the blind
aspect locale amid changing the path.


Figure 2.5 Blind spot monitor

The encompassing range of the driver and the condition ebb and flow of circumstance for potential risk should be considered as driver need to change the paths.

Situation awareness (SA) in the observation and acknowledgment stages is critical when a man has time close by, for example, while moving to another lane. SA can be characterized into three levels(Endsley,1995)
level 1: Perception of components in the earth
level 2: Comprehension of current circumstance
level 3: Projection of future status
Thus, around 75% of the mischance amid path changes is because of driver Situation Awareness disappointment (Knipling,1993). Blind side observing framework is basic to enhance perceivability and lessen the visually impaired zone keeping in mind the end goal to actualize wellbeing driving.
These days, blind side observing framework is executed in a few vehicles. Ordinarily, top of the line and cutting edge vehicle utilizing installed arrangement of blind side checking. In the meantime, low-end vehicle requires driving help of blind side observing framework. Either installed framework or driving help the point is just a single to enhance security while driving a vehicle. For instance, BMW (5series) display have the dynamic blind side discovery to ready driver if there any up and coming potential danger in blind side zone.
From figure 2.6, dynamic blind spot discovery arrangement of BMW (5series) show help to take out blind facets and without a doubt allows drivers to stay away from influences even as switching to any other lane, certainly retaining your look directly beforehand. utilizing radar detecting to distinguish substance vehicle and set behind the vehicle. This framework cautions drivers if a vehicle is in their blind side locale car. The light show on their side-see reflect lodgings starts to streak and furthermore controlling wheel vibrate.


2.3.5 Blind-Spot Camera System


side mirror mounted electronic visual assist system for enhanced driver awareness The left side outside mirror gives ~5° view to the driver, and the correct side just ~12° see, while the inside rearview reflect gives ~20° see, leaving almost 37° of the back view region darkened from the drivers see – an expansive blind spot ! Path moving without some extra view can undoubtedly bring about a mishap if a passing vehicle is darkened inside that visually impaired zone to either side. Blind spot cameras essentially increment the obvious range left and right, improving driver familiarity with space adjacent to them by for all intents and purposes taking out the blind spot . Blind spot cameras give a 120° wide edge see. Multi-pivot customizability makes for adjustment to an extensive variety of mirror unit shapes. Associates with ANY trigger wire or video flag initiated video show with RCA input. Turn signals initiate cameras (Anon,2014).





C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word208.jpg Blind Spot Camera Detailed Specifications :

• Reverse Image (for Mirror see)

• 120deg Wide Angle 1.7mm Glass Lens

• MT9V136 1/4″ CMOS Image Sensor

• Hi-Resolution CMOS: 480 TV lines

• Fast Vertical Refresh Rate: 60Hz

• Low Light Sensitivity < 0.2lux and Auto Night-vision

• Auto Gain, White Balance and Back Light Comp.

• Operating Temp: – 22° ~ 158°f

• Operating Humidity: RH 95% Max.

C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word2.9.jpg• Waterproof IP66

• 12v DC Input [inline inverter ~> 3.3V to camera]

• RCA Composite Video yield: 1.0vp-p 75 W stack

• Quad 3.5mm Minijack to RCA+Pwr Adaptor Included

• 3m RCA-M/M Video Cable Included

• 3m Power Lead w/5.5mm stick included

• Multi-Axis Adjustable Mounting Systems

2.4 A Wireless Sensor-Based Driving Assistant for Automobiles in view of ultrasonic detecting.

on this paper, the framework is going about as a driving assistant for cars that acknowledges the difficulty or protest in the observed area and alarm the driver via cloth, sound and visible flag. This using right hand relies upon on ultrasonic detecting technique (Anon , 2014).

The framework includes 5 separate components: four of them are the sensor modules and the fifth one is the controller. The hubs are associated inside the continuation that joined to body of the automobile. inside the suggest time, controller in charge of making plans the operation of the hubs and after that process the data for introducing alarms to the driving force. the two front corners on each facets of the vehicle are secured with the aid of sensor modules. even as the blind spot regions are the probably ones to be dismissed by drivers, the 2 front corners are determined to create the most astounding mischance fees (Anon,2014) (Yu et al. n.d.,2013) . As appeared in determine 2.10, it demonstrates the connection some of the framework elements. each one of the 5 modules are makes round a similar preparing unit comprising of a microcontroller and radio handset. The sensor modules comprise of ultrasonic sensors in a similar time the controller related to 3 styles of markers, as an instance, LEDs board, bell, and the vibrators mounted on the directing wheel (Academy et al. , 2009) .



(adjusted from: http://www.suurland.com/blueprints_archive.php)

Identified with this exploration, there are four essential parts should be considered. There are sensor, marker, remote correspondence and modules. The using colleague distinguish the protest or obstruction through ultrasonic nearness sensor (PING))) TM Ultrasonic Sensor, Parallax Inc). every other option for discovery the protest is by infrared sensor yet infrared sensors do no longer have the exactness in their ultrasonic partners because of the encompassing commotion and infrared radiation (Anon,2014) .

As in line with table 2.1, the pointer can be sensible and cautions the driver if query input the blind spot district region. vehicle is ordered safe and the every one of the hints deactivated if there aren’t any obstructions or question are to be had in region 1 and eleven area 2. within the intervening time, LED suggestions are swung directly to give warning to driving force if the gadgets enter in sector 1 and will be considered as “extremely debilitated”. for this reason, while question enter region 2, the car is ordered “undermined”. driven markers, either the vibrators or the bell are turned on (Anon , 2014) .

C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word	able.jpg

The wireless communication is related between the sensor and the ultrasonic sensor. Favorable function of utilizing remote association is the easy established order. It moreover did now not require greater space for wiring the blind spot discovery framework.

2.5 Ultrasonic sensor based blind spot mishap avoidance framework

In this exploration paper, the framework in light of nearness identification gadget is utilizing radio recurrence waves for recognizing object. It incorporates three parts(Academy et al. , 2009) :

2.5.1 Front sensor, left sensor and right sensor

The front sensor is practical to recognize normal dark spots. This sensor will display nearness of any substance and caution the motive force approximately the up and coming chance in instances of transitory blind spot . In figure 2.11, it demonstrates the placement of sensor append on frame of the automobile. The left and proper sensor will cover the blind spot at again of car.













2.5.2 LED meter

As regarded in figure 2.12, the LED meter practical in mild of the sensor to warning the driver approximately element query or doable hazard. The LED meter changed into partitioned into 3 section actuation. at the off chance that the left sensor distinguish the protest the left hand aspect LED meter will be actuated. while, if proper sensor distinguish the question the proper hand aspect LED meter may be activated. eventually, the front hand side LED meter reveal threat of the front sensor.


2.6 Some components that used in applications of blind spot: –


2.6.1   Microcontroller:

A microcontroller is a bit pc on a solitary coordinated circuit containing a processor middle, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals which can be supposed for inserted programs, in preference to the chip utilized as a part of desktops or different universally useful packages. by means of lessening the size and cost contrasted with a plan that makes use of a specific chip, memory, and enter/output devices, microcontrollers make it sparing to carefully manipulate notably extra devices and techniques.C:UsersuserDesktopPIC16F877A-microcontroller.jpg

Figure 2.13 : The microcontroller 16F877A

2.6.2 PIC

PIC or Peripheral Interface Controller is a group of microcontroller adjusted using Harvard engineering which bodily isolate ability and flag pathways for instructions and data by using Microchip era. snap shots are widely known with both current designers and experts alike because of their minimum attempt, huge accessibility, significant patron base, extensive accumulation of utilization notes, accessibility of ease or unfastened development gadgets, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) ability. The blessings of percent is, little route set to research, RISC

(Lessened training Set Computing) layout, labored in oscillator and in circuit troubleshooting, PICkit is available.C:UsersuserDesktopIR-sensor-circuit-diagram.jpg

Figure 2.14 : Block diagram of typical microcontroller 16F877A

2.6.3 PIC 16F877A

The PIC16F877A segments is 256 bytes of EEPROM records reminiscence, self-programming, an ICD, 2 Comparators, eight channels of 10-bit Analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, 2 catch/look at/PWM capacities, the synchronous serial port can be planned as either 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI™) or the 2-wire Inter-Joined Circuit (I²C™) delivery and a familiar Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART). those elements make it ideal for greater pushed stage A/D applications in car, present day, mechanical assemblies and client packages.نتيجة بحث الصور عن ‪PIC 16F877A‬‏

                                        Figure 2.15 : PIC 16F877A




2.6.4 Sensor’s


on this project, sensor is utilized to recognize an automobile nearness in the blind spot range to manufacture automatic gazing framework, in this manner the sensor has to be chosen shrewdly in light of the truth that each sensor has theirs expert and cons. as an instance, imaginative and prescient based sensor may be applied to watch the blind spot efficaciously but under first rate weather or ecological difficulty, as an instance, murkiness, the sensor cannot be utilized extremely properly. other than that, for radar or Radio Detection and varying has least false warning gadget, which sounds the warning simply when there was a relative development between the automobile and the protest (Indoware 2013) . moreover, this sort of sensor cannot apprehend query of converting size what is greater, role. whilst laser sensor discharge a thin light emission that may be applied to measured separation as much as 100cm accuracy yet may be very high-priced and may be applied as it had been to discover protest inside a solitary plane (Indoware,2013).

On other hand, in view of studies paper accomplished by Tarek Mohammad are speaking about making use of Infrared and Ultrasonic sensor for separation estimation. The paper expresses that Infrared sensor (IR) is much less luxurious in fee and speedier as a result time of than ultrasonic sensor (US) (Measuring and Unit,2006) . apart from that, IR sensor is utilizing pondered mild and depends reflectance of surfaces homes while US sensor is making use of taken into consideration waves which self-sustaining reflectance of surfaces residences to gauges the separation from a question (Measuring and Unit,2006). At that point, the author looked at both sensors using Phong Enlightenment model approach to determine their reflectance properties of the surfaces and figuring of a separation. From the outcome, the sufficiency of us sensor is reliant at the separation and advent of the obstacles loved ones to the sensor and the yield flag is free at the surfaces shading and smoothness. even as, for the sufficiency of IR sensor is concern to the reflectivity of the protest obstruction and marginally reliant on ecological situation, for instance, daylight hours. On another palms, US sensor has particularly higher determination than IR sensor specially for little separation estimation inside theirs usable variety (Measuring and Unit , 2006) . therefore, US sensor is advanced to IR sensor for outdoor application.C:UsersuserDesktop�J5788.470.jpg

IR sensor


C:UsersuserDesktopمنوعالبحثBlind spotصور المشروعuntitled.jpg

Ultrasound sensor

    Figure 2.16: Comparison between IR sensor & Ultrasound sensor

2.6.5  Ultrasound sensor

Ultrasound sensor can be use as item finder effects, for instance the case examine accomplished by means of L.S Guo, system protection Detecting system with Ultrasound Sensor for Agricultural machine is examining approximately how to apply US sensor to identify the placement of the transferring articles round agrarian machines and produce a be aware framework whilst a protest is distinguished at close separation with the system (Indoware,2013). The framework is making use of 2 settled US sensors to pick out any nearness across the transferring article (Indoware,2013) .what is extra, in mild of research done by Johann Borenstein and Yoram Koren, ultrasound sensor is the satisfactory choice to use for obstruction evasion for flexible robot (Indoware,2013).

except, the thing via Alessio Carullo and Marco Parvis, A Ultrasound Sensor for Distance measurement in automobile programs is talking about on how US sensors have been linked in a savvy for the separation estimation within the scope of few centimeter to the few meter . apart from that, in this paper the author depicts an ease US separate meter that performs contactless estimation of the range starting from the earliest stage an automobile body. The separation estimation, D may be gotten using situation beneath(Indoware,2013):

D=k  . Tf  . Vs


k = constant close to 0.5, depends on the sensor geometry

Tf = time of flight of an ultrasound

Vs = velocity of sound in the air

The separation was measure at distinction temperature to demonstrate the capacity of US sensor to self –adapt to the diverse ecological conditions (Indoware,2013) .The sensor contains a commotion estimation framework and auto-change office of the flag that is utilized to drive the transmitter in this way, creating the best exactness under various conditions.

More or less, US sensor is a superior sensor to be utilized for outside separation estimation or protest recognition on account of its wide pillar width properties and high determination for separation estimation. Other than that, from above research, US sensor can identify a moving toward protest which can be connected in the Blind Spot Detection System. Moreover, the normal for US sensor that can self –adapt to distinction condition will guarantee the Blind Spot Detection System can utilize notwithstanding amid in brutal climate.

2.6.6  MB1010 Ultrasonic Sensor


MB1010 LV-MaxSonar®-EZ1™ is an end result of ultrasonic sensor produce by way of Maxbotix Inc is something but difficult to interface with others element or framework as the sensor has 3 diverse yield stick which is simple stick, beat width stick, transmission potential stick, transmit stick and collector stick. aside from that, the sensor has 0 no guy’s lands as the sensor can gauge protest put off from 0 – 6.25m, stable range readings, little length and low strength requests. in this manner, the sensor may be catalyst with the aid of battery alongside the whole circuit and consume just a little area. eventually, the sensor is suitable to be utilized for vehicle driver Assisted For Blind Spot Detection device.

2.7 The innovation thoughts of BSD framework


The fundamental reason for development thoughts of BSD framework is to comprehend strategy utilized as a part of past research of blind side checking framework before applying to this project. There are a few thoughts of innovation that identified with blind spot data framework:

2. 8 The idea of ultrasonic sensor

Ultrasonic signs resemble capable of being heard sound waves, aside from the frequencies are considerably higher. The ultrasonic transducers have piezoelectric precious stones which reverberate to a favored recurrence and change over electric vitality into acoustic vitality and the other way around (Terzic,2013).

The outline in figure 2.17 shows how solid waves, transmitted within the nation of a cone, are meditated from an objective back to the transducer. A yield flag is created to play out some kind of demonstrating or control work. A base separation from the sensor is needed to offer a period postpone in order that the “echoes” may be deciphered. factors which could affect the operation of ultrasonic detecting consist of: goal surface point, sensible floor unpleasantness or changes in temperature or stickiness. The objective will have any type of intelligent shape – even spherical articles.





2.9 Advantages of ultrasonic detecting contrast with another framework detecting in BSD framework.

A few framework detecting can be connected for observing blind spot district. For instance, there are three sorts of sensor frameworks installed vehicle for horizontal object location (Terzic,2013) :

I. Ultrasonic sensor framework

II. Doppler radar framework

III. Vision framework

The ultrasonic strategy has exceptional points of interest over regular sensors, for example, infrared or turn around sensor when utilized for detecting capacities (Larson,1960) :

1. Discrete separations to moving articles can be identified and measured.

2. Less influenced by target materials and surfaces, and not influenced by shading. Strong state units have for all intents and purposes boundless, upkeep free life. Have capacity to recognize little protests over long working separations.

3. Have imperviousness to outside aggravations, for example, vibration, infrared radiation, surrounding clamor, and EMI radiation

As revealed by ultrasonic sensor framework offers the accompanying focal points:

1. It is more affordable and will be appropriate for general vehicle applications.

2. It can undoubtedly get remove data quick questions without

complex calculation discovery.

3. It has extensive surface estimation, not just single point For the Doppler radar systems, the gadget protected excessive collecting price and obliged for exceptional vehicles in a way of speaking (Anon , 2014) . Radar device is customarily has blind spots and a greater diminutive view. The volume of blind sides relies upon on upon the quantity of the presented radars. furthermore, due to the compelled region evacuate for radar shape, it is tough for radars to understand a dissent moving in a huge range (Indoware,2013) .

Moreover, radar sensor is muddled to utilize, because of the need of CPU-concentrated picture preparing techniques. Likewise, the high of project cost require a more mind boggling preparing stage, which would likewise build the cost of their encasing sensor modules (Indoware , 2013) .

In the vision framework, there are a few issues should be considered. The cost included much calculation time to remove helpful data. Real-time performance is a test issue for vision-based frameworks. Around evening time, it is hard to utilize due to lighting condition will likewise impact the picture procurement

(Indoware , 2013) .

In view of those 3 frameworks sensor, the ultrasonic sensor is preferred rather over making use of Doppler radar framework or vision framework to apply in BSD framework. it’s miles a direct end result of the fee to manufacture this framework detecting is notably less high priced and it may absolutely gather the separation of the protest without complex calculation of reputation method.




2.10  Summary

In conclusion, the literature review has provided the overview of the available Blind spot systems in the market. The characteristics of the entire research has benefited and helped the drivers whose drive vehicles on Hi-way to avoid the risks that occur during cornering toward the right or left of the road, which caused according to the latest Statistics that there are nearly 840,000 blind spot accidents every year. In those crashes, nearly 300 people are killed, most of them in vehicles other than the semi-truck involved. And During the study adopted and applied solutions on vehicles for Ahoudna that there is a gap in the latest methods used to kill the blind in the car (Cameras ) Camera is one of the most successful ways to treat cases of the blind spot, But these systems  can be disrupted by snowfall and rainfall, by snow, ice, dirt present on the camera lenses. Shadows, full light from other cars,  light reflected from wet roadways, and sunlight at sunrise and sunset can cause the systems to produce false – positive alerts. So we suggest a new system to measure the distance between the car that wants to turns and other vehicles on the highway and is used as a sensitive ultrasound with special specifications that can measure any moving objects with extreme precision and the results are displayed on the screen to display the unity of the distances cm / ms with voice say distance. Thus in this way we will be able to kill blind spot when cars work with both camera and sensitive measuring the distance. And thus it can certainly eliminate accidents that occur because of the blind spot.



3.0 Introduction


The project inception through well understanding the current organization cost strategy to remain competitive in the volatile world financial situation .the cost strategy is implemented through strengthening the own developed technology such as to develop the blind spot system  . through observing the available professional blind spot  system  , Blind spot concept and the software  aspects , the idea to develop the innovative solution is clarified and project methodology is established . This part clarifies the technique connected on this project to guarantee the accomplishment of the challenge destinations. starting from the overall paintings process of the undertaking and took after by way of hardware and software advancement of BSD framework. The equipment and programming framework reconciliation and trying out will be depicted towards the end of this component.

3.1 Project workflow

the overall workflow of the challenge is illustrated in figure three.1. every degree of the workflow is described under



3.2 Circuit design of BSD system

Designing the circuit is the crucial detail for this project. this is important because of the beneficial typical overall performance of the sensor depends at the nice of the designed. The Fritzing and Arduino software were used to design the circuit of circuitry for ultrasound sensor and circuitry for display distances. As validated in discernthree.3, it’s far the schematic diagram of the circuitry of display distances.



3.3 Structure outline and establishment of BSD framework

This part will mention approximately the setup of BSD device on the automobile. The figure 3.four shows the drawing of installation of BSD device on the car. two elements of the circuitry of ultrasound sensor are installed on the left aspect on the flat surface of the auto. meanwhile, another two components are set up on the right aspect at the flat floor of the car. The detection of motors in the blind spot place is displayed through display of distance that have been put on the dashboard of vehicle.


3.4 Fabricate the prototype of blind spot device
As illustrates in parent three. five it’s far the prototype version of installation BSD machine for the circuitry of ultrasound sensor. It contains of six fundamental additives that are:

1- Arduino type UNO

2- Ultrasound sensor

3- Battery 6 Volt

4- LCD 2 *16

5- Bread board

6- Connecting wires

نتيجة بحث الصور عن ‪ultrasonic distance measurement project‬‏

Figure 3.5: Prototype model of installation BSD system on breadboard.


3.5 Test the efficiency of the blind spot system

After the define were finished, the circuit is then attempted on proto-board. Proto-board is applied to actualize the segments that had been outlined in circuit configuration project before executing it on the PCB or doughnut board for binding the parts. this is crucial to understand whether the sensor will paintings and in addition take after to the coveted yield of BSD framework or now not. on this mission, actualized the hardware of ultrasound sensor and the hardware of show separations first at the proto-board to check the usefulness of each circuits. The hardware of ultrasound sensor will discover the query or deterrents. From that factor onward, show separations will react the flag from the hardware of ultrasound sensor and initiated the LCD to reveal the separation with voice say take away.

3.6 Software implementation

The following stride is programming usage which is planning the appropriate calculation to ascertain remove for spotting object whilst car input blind aspect locale. To application the code of this BSD framework, it should utilizations the Arduino programming form 1.5.four. it is the maximum current shape that discharged through the Arduino business enterprise. The code that is applied as a part of Aduino writing computer programs depends on C++ programming in Java. The programming will be talked about additional on the product execution later.

3.7 System integration: interfacing hardware and software BSD system

Next, the project proceeds by interfacing equipment and programming BSD framework. The testing of hardware and software BSD framework is carried on until the coveted BSD framework is acquired.

3.8 Discussion

The project methodology includes design of the new system to replace the present system . Then the development comprises the hardware and the applications  software for blind spot detection system .

The developed in blind spot detection system is found to achieve the stable and accurate to detect and calculate the distance between the vehicle and the surrounding objects ,then in this way we can kill the blind spot in vehicles and reduce accidents on the highways that cause the death of many people every day .

3.8 Project plan and schedule (Gantt chart)

Figure 3.2 Gantt Chart





Chapter four will show the results of the project according to methodology step and discuss them in relation to literature review and project  objectives .

4.1 Introduction

This part talk about in regards to the trials did to screen blind side district. The tests completed is BSD framework situating. In this BSD framework situating test, there are two area should be taken into consideration which are the articles behind, left and right of the sensor, the items beside the lower back left and right of the sensor. This project as a hardware work as a distance calculator that warn you if there is an object coming closer than 80cm to the Ultrasound sensor .. but how the sensor know the distance that calculated by an ADC built in the Arduino type Uno that we used ?

we divided the voltage that coming from the Ultrasound sensor to 80 part ,

Each part =1 Cm , That done by programing the Arduino type Uno by using Arduino Program .

The output will appear on LCD, Sounds and Buzzer .. Table   4-1 explain the whole process.

4.2 Technical specifications(sensor) :

The technical specifications for the sensor are given below:

• Range: 10-80 cm

• Voltage: 5v

• Current: 30 mA typ. 50 mA Max.

• Frequency of sonic bursts: 40 KH

Object distance from the sensor  The output
80-90 cm Voice say object near you 80 cm

& Display 80 cm on LCD

70-80 cm Voice say object near you 70 cm

& Display 70 cm on LCD

60-70 cm Voice say object near you 60 cm

& Display 60 cm on LCD

50-60 cm Voice say object near you 50 cm

& Display 50 cm on LCD

40-50 cm Voice say object near you 40 cm

& Display 40 cm on LCD

30-40 cm Voice say be careful object near you 30 cm

& Display 30 cm on LCD

20-30 cm Voice say Look out !! object near you 20 cm

& Display 20 cm on LCD

0-20 cm  High Voice

& Display 20 cm on LCD

Table 4.1 Explain the relation between distance – output






4.3 BSD position experiment

In Figure 4.1 suggests the setup of BSD system on the prototype small car. The ultrasonic sensor is installed to the right and left of the rear of the small car. at the same time, The display turned into put on the dashboard of small automobile and The speaker was established beneath the roof of the small car.



  1. Design of the prototype

The structure is designed in software. The components consist of 3 main parts which is the Arduino Nano, ultrasound sensor and liquid-crystal display (LCD). The system is controlled by the programming set in the Arduino Nano which acts as centralization for the sensors installed and function based on the boundary condition set in the system. First design emphasize on the integration of ultrasound motion sensor to the system in detecting the Movement objects approaching. As for the second design, ultrasound sensor  Which is used to monitor objects approaching the vehicle. The third design liquid-crystal display (LCD)  To display the distances of objects approaching the vehicle using the unit centimeter unit and issuing warnings.




4.5 Final design of the prototype


By using Arduino program, the circuit is design with the ultrasound sensor that explain the overall process for the BSD system as shown in Figure 4.12.




4.6 Fabrication of the prototype


The prototype was fabricate and shown as Figure 4. 3 below.

C:UsersuserDesktopالسمستر الثالثالبحثBlind spotصور مشروع العمليWhatsApp Image 2017-03-26 at 5.14.45 PM.jpeg

Ultrasound motion sensor

Power source


LCD to display  the result

Audio amplifier

SD Card Module


Arduino Nano

Figure 4.3   The full circuit prototype

4.7 General function of the BSD  system

In flowchart 4.4 shows a complete set of commands inserted into the controller for the prototype to function. However, the program is set to loop and will repeat in order to achieve the objective of the active type sensor in the application. Hence, boundary condition  also have been considered before the programming is develop in order to meet the requirements of the prototype.





Get left and right sensors distances from near object


On Buzzer Sound

Display Warning message on LCD

Object @left || Object@ right >  20




Play audio for the corresponding distance warning

Display Warning message on LCD

Object @left || Object@ right >  30



Object @left || Object@ right >  40




Object @left || Object@ right > 50



Object @left || Object@ right >  60




Object @left || Object@ right >  70



Object @left || Object@ right >  80





Figure 4.4  The Flowchart of the  general function based on the commands inserted in the system

4.8 Programming in Arduino program for the BSD system


As listed below, the programming have been set by considering multiple ultrasound sensors to mimic the situation of a real vehicle which have many sensors in itself.  The prototype acts as an active system that detects any movement of objects approaching both ultrasonic sensors on both sides of the vehicle, which gives the driver an alert of distances for objects approaching the vehicle

4.9 Relay and application function test analysis


The testing is done to control the relay function by using LCD with continue looping before the commands is inserted to the BSD system. The ultrasound  sensor is not integrated in the system during this testing. The commands inserted as listed with result of the LCD functioned.

Relay program start:

#include <SD.h>                      // need to include the SD library

#include <TMRpcm.h>                  // library for audio play back

#include <SPI.h>

#include <Wire.h>

#include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>

// Set the LCD address to 0x27 for a 16 chars and 2 line display

LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27, 16, 2);

#define trigPinL  2

#define echoPinL  3

#define trigPinR  6

#define echoPinR  7

#define Buzzer    5

#define SD_ChipSelectPin 4           // using digital pin 4 for SPI chip select

TMRpcm tmrpcm;   // create an object for use in this sketch

bool flag = false;

void setup()


// initialize the LCD



pinMode( Buzzer,   OUTPUT );

pinMode( trigPinL, OUTPUT );

pinMode( echoPinL, INPUT  );

pinMode( trigPinR, OUTPUT );

pinMode( echoPinR, INPUT  );

digitalWrite(Buzzer, HIGH);

tmrpcm.speakerPin = 9; //5,6,11 or 46 on Mega, 9 on Uno, Nano, etc




flag = false;




flag = true;



lcd.setCursor(0, 0);

lcd.print(“Object Detection”);


void loop()


if(flag == true)


long  duration, dis_L, dis_R;

digitalWrite(trigPinL, LOW);


digitalWrite(trigPinL, HIGH);


digitalWrite(trigPinL, LOW);

duration = pulseIn(echoPinL, HIGH);

dis_L = microsecondsToCentimeters(duration);

digitalWrite(trigPinR, LOW);


digitalWrite(trigPinR, HIGH);


digitalWrite(trigPinR, LOW);

duration = pulseIn(echoPinR, HIGH);

dis_R = microsecondsToCentimeters(duration);


Serial.print(“ ”);



if( dis_L < 20 || dis_R < 20)


lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“CAUTION !!!    “);

digitalWrite(Buzzer, LOW);


digitalWrite(Buzzer, HIGH);

lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“TOO NEAR”);


else if(dis_L >= 20 && dis_L < 30)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“20cm left      “);



else if(dis_R >= 20 && dis_R < 30)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“20cm right     “);



else if(dis_L >= 30 && dis_L < 40)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“30cm left      “);



else if(dis_R >= 30 && dis_R < 40)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“30cm right     “);



else if(dis_L >= 40 && dis_L < 50)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“40cm left      “);



else if(dis_R >= 40 && dis_R < 50)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“40cm right     “);



else if(dis_L >= 50 && dis_L < 60)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“50cm left      “);



else if(dis_R >= 50 && dis_R < 60)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“50cm right     “);



else if(dis_L >= 60 && dis_L < 70)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“60cm left      “);



else if(dis_R >= 60 && dis_R < 70)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“60cm right     “);



else if(dis_L >= 70 && dis_L < 80)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“70cm left      “);



else if(dis_R >= 70 && dis_R < 80)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“70cm right     “);



else if(dis_L >= 80 && dis_L < 85)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“80cm left      “);



else if(dis_R >= 80 && dis_R < 85)



lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“80cm right     “);





lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“No object near “);





lcd.setCursor(0, 0);

lcd.print(“Unsuccess init  “);

lcd.setCursor(0, 1);

lcd.print(“Please check SD “);



long microseconds To Centimeters(long microseconds)


return microseconds / 29 / 2;


Table 4.2 shows the result of the testing for the verification of the application function. The coding  have been verified as shown in Figure 4.5 before it is uploaded and running in the system.


Program commands set into controller Expected result Actual result
The ultrasonic sensor is programmed in the Ardennes to detect a distance of 80 CM to 10 CM and the sensor it  will  Feels every 10 CM. A sound warning is issued by the speaker & Buzzer and a written warning it will display on  the screen for the purpose of warning the driver during the turns on both sides of the road 80-90 cm Voice say object near you 80 cm & Display 80 cm on LCD 80-90 cm Voice say object near you 80 cm & Display 80 cm on LCD
70-80 cm Voice say object near you 70 cm & Display 70 cm on LCD 70-80 cm Voice say object near you 70 cm & Display 70 cm on LCD
60-70 cm Voice say object near you 60 cm & Display 60 cm on LCD 60-70 cm Voice say object near you 60 cm & Display 60 cm on LCD
50-60 cm Voice say object near you 50 cm & Display 50 cm on LCD 50-60 cm Voice say object near you 50 cm & Display 50 cm on LCD
40-50 cm Voice say object near you 40 cm & Display 40 cm on LCD 40-50 cm Voice say object near you 40 cm & Display 40 cm on LCD
30-40 cm Voice say  be careful object near you 30 cm & Display 30 cm on LCD 30-40 cm Voice say be careful object near you 30 cm & Display 30 cm on LCD
20-30 cm Voice say be careful object near you 20 cm & Display 20 cm on LCD 20-30 cm Voice say  be careful object near you 20 cm & Display 20 cm on LCD
0-20 cm  High voice from Buzzer & Object detection ,caution !!! on LCD 0-20 cm  High voice from Buzzer & Object detection ,caution !!! on LCD


Table 4.2 Experiment result for relay and application test




صورة ذات صلة

Figure 4.5 Verification of the coding commands in Arduino software



4.10 Enactment of BSD system on the left & Right side sensor of small car.


As shown in Figure 4.6, Note that the white car away from the red car more than 90 centimeters for this note that not to issue any warning to the driver in the car red and show on the screen “there is nothing approaching” This means there is no risk if the driver wants red car turn right or left.  In this example is referred to as secure sector on the left & right aspect place.

C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_220741.jpg

C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_214750.jpg

Figure 4.6: The safe zone on the left & Right side area







4.11 Activation of BSD system on the right side sensor of small car

As shown in Figure 4.7, In this case note when approaching the white car heading towards the red car inside the blind spot, the sensor installed on the left of the red car will give an alert approaching the car white distance of 80 centimeters from the car red and will note the sound warning from the speaker  by saying “Hay, An object near you 80 CM on the right” and also shows a warning on the screen The “Object detection 80 CM right” alerted the driver of the red car by taking caution during the turn on the left side area

C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_220814.jpgC:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_215504.jpg

“Hay, An object near you 80 CM on the right”

Figure 4.7: Shows the object approaching 80 CM of BSD system


In Figure 4.8 demonstrates an appropriate side sensor of BSD framework changed into actuated. it’s miles initiated when the protest input the blind spot district of small automobile. As the white car approaches the red car inside the blind spot, the sensor on the right side of the red car will be alerted as the car approaches 70 cm away from the red car and we will notice the sound warning of “Hay, an object near you 70 CM on the right” and a warning will appear on the screen. The “Object detection 80 CM right” alerted the driver of the red car takes caution while turning on the right side of the road

C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_220847.jpgC:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221327.jpg

“Hay, An object near you 70 CM on the right”


Figure 4.8: Shows the object approaching 70 CM of BSD system

When the white car keep moving as shown in the Figure 4.9, the right side sensor of BSD system was activated due to the white car enter the front blind spot region of red car. the sensor on the right side of the red car will be alerted as the car approaches 60 cm away from the red car and we will notice the sound warning of “Hay, an object near you 60 CM on the right” and a warning will appear on the screen. The “Object detection 60 CM right” alerted the driver of the red car takes caution while turning on the right side of the road  , The alarm continues every 10 centimeters until the white car approaches the red car 30 centimeters away. The sound warning will change to the “Hay, an object near you 30 CM on the right” and the written warning “Object detection 30 CM right” As shown in Figure 4.12. After approaching the red car at a distance of 20 centimeters or less, it emits a loud voice from the Buzzer alerting the driver of the red car the danger of turning right Or left with the change of written warning to “Object detection ,caution !!! ” As shown in Figure 4.13 , 4.14 .

C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_220911.jpgC:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221403.jpg

“Hay, An object near you 60 CM on the right”


Figure 4.9: The safe zone on the left & Right side area


C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_220954.jpgC:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221507.jpg

“Hay, An object near you 50 CM on the right”


Figure 4.10: Shows the object approaching 50 CM of BSD system






C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_220954.jpgC:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221413(0).jpg

“Hay, An object near you 40 CM on the right”



Figure 4.11: Shows the object approaching 40 CM of BSD system


C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221116.jpgC:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221438.jpg

“Hay, An object near you 30 CM on the right”


Figure 4.12: Shows the object approaching 30 CM of BSD system




C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221140.jpgC:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221451.jpg

“Hay, An object near you 20 CM on the right”


Figure 4.13: Shows the object approaching 20 CM of BSD system






C:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221140.jpgC:UsersuserDesktopصور الفحص20170405_221448.jpg

“Emits a loud voice from the Buzzer alerting the driver


Figure 4.14: Shows the object approaching less than 20 CM of BSD system


4.12 Compared my project with previous BSD systems


The systems are followed at blind spot And evaluate each system according to the percentage Price


Safety Bad weather Shadows Full light from other cars Sunlight at sunrise , sunset The dirty part of the detector for the BSD
  1. Mirrors Convex
45% 40% 40% 30% 25% 25% 40%
  1. Mobile Assistant for blind spot Monitoring
85% 55% 45% 70% 70% 70% 60%
  1. Blind spot detection system depend on radar sensing with led
60% 70% 80% 100% 100% 100% 90%
  1. Blind spot detection system depend on radar sensing with steering wheel vibrate
60% 75% 80% 100% 100% 100% 90%
  1. Blind spot Camera system
70% 80% 45% 35% 25% 25% 60%
  1. Blind spot detection system depend on Camera with sound alert & written alert by using Ultrasound system (my project)
80% 95% 90% 100% 100% 100% 90%


Table 4.2 Shows weaknesses and strengths in previous systems and new system







Figure 4. 15 Shows the percentage in all systems on each case








5.3 Cost estimation

table 6.3 reveals the price estimation for accumulating the hardware of remote ultrasonic sensor. The most expensive parts on this board is Arduino Promini . because the hardware of faraway ultrasonic sensor is composed in rather little size, so the little microcontroller is really required. To the extent stock accessibility on nearest stockroom and fee difficulty, therefore the Arduino Nano three. Zero became chosen on this task to move about as a thought for the hardware of remote for ultrasonic sensor.








per unit (RM)

 Total Price (RM)


1` Ultrasonic sensor


2 Arduino Nano 3.0


3 LCD 16 * 2 1    
4 SD Card 1    
5 Micro Flash Memory 1    
6 Audio Amplifier 1    
7 Speaker 1    
8 Buzzer 1    
9 Batters 2    
10 Switch on/off 1    
11 Small Car 2    
12 Jumper 1    
13 Cable for programing 1    
14 Cables to connect the components      

Table 6.3: The cost estimation for collecting the hardware of wireless ultrasonic sensor







5.1 Conclusion

The study of the development of BSD system was achieved the project objectives, solve the problem statement and successful to introduce New integrated system capable of detecting objects entering the blind spot area in various weather conditions and others model of the BSD framework has been effectively to accomplish the two goals:

1. To design & fabricate a new system  of a prototype of the blind spot  system by calculate distance for detect object when vehicle enter the blind spot region and display  Warning audio and Warning written by  using screen and speaker  .

2. To test the efficiency of the blind spot system by using ultrasound sensor and programming applied in Arduino Uno Controller.

Writing audit on BSD framework was effectively done by alluding to past ventures led by others. The equipment of BSD framework and programming of BSD framework were made toward the finish of this venture. The framework joining between the equipment and programming of BSD framework were effectively done. Through this venture, a solid and compelling framework is accomplished to recognize and screen blind side area of vehicle. It has been effectively tried, and the BSD framework function admirably for the little size of car

5.2 Recommendation for future works


After completing the project, we realized that the following improvements can be incorporated into any future designs:

  1. When the driver change the lane and signal is turned on, the scanning  system will detect if there any object  on both sides, then  warn the driver by informing  the distance from the vehicle, As shown in Figure 5.16.
  2. Can use the sensors function as a break assistants while driving in highway , As shown in Figure 5.17.
  3. The system can be connected with rear gear so it helps while parking , As shown in Figure 5.18 , 5.19
  4. The system can have the ability to switch off the sound warning by the driver.
  5. For long range observing separation protest, it is recommended to utilize the XL-MaxSonar-EZL1 Sensor rather than HC-SR04 Ultrasound sensor , As shown in Figure 5.20. The XL-MaxSonar-EZL1 Sensor has many points of interest which are:
  • Can identify little objects.
  • Small size sensors.
  • Maximum scope of distinguishing item is1068cm (420 inches).
  • Operating voltage from 3.3v to5.5v.
  • Resolution 1cm
  • Real time noise dismissal algorithm
  • Read from three sensor yields: Analog voltage, Serial and Pulse Width










































Academy, W., Journal, T.I. & Vol, C.E., 2009. No Title. , 4(1), pp.132–138.

Anon, Camera system. , p.120.

Anon, 2014. UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA DECLARATION OF THESIS / UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT REPORT AND COPYRIGHT SPOT DETECTION SYSTEM BASED ON ULTRASONIC “ I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this thesis is sufficient in terms of scope and qu,

Endsley, M.R., 1995. A taxonomy of situational awareness errors. Human factors in aviation operations, pp.287–292.

Indoware, 2013. Ultrasonic Ranging Module HC – SR04. Datasheet, pp.1–4. Available at: http://www.micropik.com/PDF/HCSR04.pdf.

Knipling, R.R., 1993. IVHS technologies applied to collision avoidance: Perspectives on six target crash types and countermeasures. Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting of IVHS America Surface Transportation Mobility Technology and Society, pp.249–259.

Lin, Y.R. & Li, Y.H., 2010. FPGA Implementation of a Vision-Based Blind Spot Warning System. Engineering and Technology, 4(12), pp.896–900.

Measuring, D. & Unit, S., 2006. Gp2Y0a21Yk0F. , pp.1–9.

NHTSA, 2013. 2011 Data. N, 201(April), pp.2–6.

Ollis, M., Herman, H. & Singh, S., 1999. Analysis and design of panoramic stereo vision using equi-angular pixel cameras. , (January). Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

Patricia, L. & Susan, L., 2007. Previously Published Works.

Singh, S. et al., 2014. SideEye: Mobile assistant for blind spot monitoring. 2014 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, ICNC 2014, pp.408–412.

Terzic, J., Ultrasonic Fluid Quantity Measurement in Dynamic Vehicular Applications,

Varghese, B. et al., 2014. Collision Avoidance System in Heavy Traffic and Blind Spot Assist Using Ultrasonic Sensor. , 2(1), pp.93–96.

Yu, F., Kaminska, B. & Gburzynski, P., A Wireless Sensor-Based Driving Assistant for Automobiles.

Maxwell & Gurdjian, “The VORAD vehicle detection and driver alert system,” December 1995, http://www.rvtechstop.com/articles/vorad1_s.pdf

The car mirror ’Blind spot’ from  :-



C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordappemdex 1.jpg

C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordappemdex 2.jpg

C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordappemdex 3.jpg

C:UsersmohanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordappemdex 4.jpg

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: