Chinese Culture and Business Repercussions
Info: 11935 words (48 pages) Dissertation
Published: 2nd Sep 2021
This paper focuses on diverse elements related to Chinese culture and their repercussions on their business activity. Culture is an important vector of the emotion and spirit of a nation. Since its antiquity to the present day, Chinese culture has always kept its uniformity, although sometimes in the history of China, Chinese culture has been threatened by foreign cultures. However, because of its capacity of expansion and to integrate into the world, China became a great nation. A similarities and differences between Chinese and United States cultures is known. Moreover, the relation between culture and business in those two countries, has been made public. As American culture and Chinese culture both have the characteristics of diversity and pluralism, a comparative study of them is significant. This article examines several major cultural elements in China and the United States, compares similarities and differences and tries to reveal national personality for better understanding of business relationship between the two countries.
1. Major Elements and Dimensions of Culture in China
1.1. Brief Historical Overview of China
China is a populous nation in East Asia whose vast landscape encompasses grassland, desert, mountains, lakes, rivers and more than 14,000km of coastline. Capital Beijing mixes modern architecture with historic sites such as the Forbidden City palace complex and Tiananmen Square. Shanghai is a skyscraper-studded global financial center. The iconic Great Wall of China runs east-west across the country’s north. China population was dominated more than a million years ago by Homo erectus. Then modern men reached the region about 75,000 years ago to develop an agricultural economy based on millet, rice, pork, dog and chicken. Agriculture began in China at the time, shortly after its appearance in the Near East (Crescent Fertile Region) due to climate change. This new human activity had the effect of increasing the population and encouraging the creation of artists and administrators. It was in stages that the people of Chinese language and culture settled in the territory of present-day China. In Neolithic times, the rice cultivation and domestication of the buffalo seemed to be gained. In the north, in present-day Henan province, agrarian communities existed between 6500 and 5000 BCE. Five centuries later, new agricultural societies developed in the Yellow River basin in northern China, when the first villages appeared.
Every culture possesses its own mode of communication. In China, we can distinguish different types of communication. Verbal communication, the non-verbal are some examples of communication in China. Indeed, the nonverbal communication compound (made up) of gestures (movements), of the eye contact or the expressions of the face for example says it on the emotional state of the speaker a lot.
1.2.1. Verbal language
Chinese is one of the oldest and most complex languages in the world. Chinese is officially the oldest written language in the world with a history of at least six thousand years. The Chinese alphabet consists of more than 40,000 characters that represent sounds and are used in sequence to compose words. There are many Chinese dialects, but only three are widely spoken throughout the country. The most common is Mandarin Chinese, which is the official dialect of China, and is the language taught in almost all Chinese schools and used on television and in the media. Most Americans who learn Chinese choose to study Mandarin because of its prevalence in Chinese culture.
Cantonese is the second most common dialect, and it is widely used in Hong Kong, Guangdong and southern Guangxi Zhuang. Because of this great regional concentration, many Chinese immigrants and expatriates in the neighboring regions of the Pacific coast of the United States (Washington, Oregon and California) speak Cantonese. Taiwanese, another dialect, emerged from the Guangdong region. This is not as commonly understood as Mandarin or Cantonese, and is not used in the media.
1.2.2. Non- Verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication includes facial expression, voice sounds, gestures and visual contact. It plays an important role in our daily life, sometimes even more powerful than verbal interaction. The different gestures have different meanings. Different nationalities have specific gestures and emotions. However, because of the background and culture, even the same gesture and emotion have different meanings for different people in certain contexts. Thus, it is very useful for us to understand people by understanding their basic non-verbal communication skills.
China is one of the largest countries in the world, the birthplace of ancient culture and civilization. In general, it can be said that by the influence of the philosophical thought of Confucius, the Chinese have become more reserved, or at least the gestures expressing the emotions are relatively less expressive. As a verbal language, the non-verbal register of gestures lasts a long time, but in different historical times there are different gestures. From a historical point of view, we distinguish past and contemporary gestures. These categories of gestures are metaphorical because there may be architectural gestures that are still used somewhere in China, but in general we will try to remove gestures that are no longer used today. Metaphors refer to a common idea of ”dead metaphors,” since gestures are to a large extent symbolic expressions of meaning, often in combination with an iconic mode of representation. In this way, we propose the idea of analyzing gestures as metaphors. The problem with the term “dead gesture” in the reality of “dead metamorphosis” is that dead metaphors are widely used, although they are not conceptualized as such by the speakers, but what we call “dead gestures” are not More used, they are Archaic, as archaic words and expressions in all languages. However, since the metaphorical aspect of gestures is very important, we will keep the analogy.
Non-verbal language includes not only gestures, which are part of body language, but also facial expressions. In a sense, mimics are also expressions of body language because the face is part of the body, but they have a special name because they are particularly important for face-to-face communication (in fact, there is no ‘Expression as a body’ A-body ‘, and if there is any special significance, such as love or struggle.) Whatever the basis of this distinction, here we will not particularly observe facial.
Gestures do not have the same meaning in China as in the rest of the world. For example, a Chinese man will raise his hand and not his finger to show disapproval and shake it from left to right. One must of course avoid showing a Chinese finger, head, which is very bad kind. Likewise, always sit down properly so as not to pass for a tramp! For women, be careful, do not put your hands on the hips, because it reminds the Chinese of the behaviors of girls of the wrong kind, rather cross your hands in front of you. If some Chinese people touch your skin or hair, do not take it as a sign of rudeness, it is only curiosity, although it may surprise sometimes, especially at first. It must be remembered that the Chinese are not always used to seeing or being able to speak to a Westerner. Their gestures, as well as the questions they pose (as we shall see later), are in fact only curiosity mixed with a form of respect.
1.2.3. High context vs low-context
High-context communication systems are extremely different from low-context communication systems. Edward T. Hall described cultural differences in the use of language and context in communication. It calls for communication that occurs primarily through a low context and a communication that takes place in ways other than languages as a high context. According to national cultures of high or low context: preferences for the type of retailer and for human interaction, it indicates: “In high context cultures, communication is often not explicit and is based on situational, Non-verbal behavior and trust. In low context cultures, the interpretation of people, behaviors and products more often depends on what is actually said or written (Hall 1976). National high-definition cultures are considered to be more collectivist. People develop more intimate relationships with each other and engage in more personal communication. National cultures with a low context are more individualistic in nature. People are more alienated from one another and practice more impersonal communication (Donghoon et al., 1998). Since the chains differ in terms of the possibilities of human interaction and physical contact, we argue that national cultures differ in terms of chain preferences in terms of being classified as high or low context “(Florenthal, B., And Osland, GE, 2009).
1.3. Religions and Beliefs
In China, religion is not a function differentiated from cultural, social and political activity. Chinese official figures estimate that there are only 100 million practitioners of the five religions recognized by the People’s Republic of China. The religious practice of most Chinese consists in a mixture of Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and local traditions, often called popular religion.
Like all foreign religions, Buddhism is one of the two religions (with Protestantism) that develop most rapidly. Introduced as early in the first century in China, Buddhism is today the most practiced religion, with over 43,000 registered temples and at least 100 million faithful. Buddhism gradually gained ground, but was long regarded as a foreign religion. Monastic celibacy, unknown until then, was often criticized by the Confucians as a waste of human resources. Buddhism will adapt by presenting religious practice as benefiting not only the individual, but also his / her parents and ancestors, as well as society at large. At the fall of the Han, he profited, like the Taoist schools, from the division of the empire, which lasted until the end of the sixth century. The Confucian monopoly on official ideology was weakened, especially in the northern kingdoms where the ruling class was often ethnically and culturally mixed. Less well established than indigenous Taoism, Buddhism had the advantage of being more structured (monasteries, organized dissemination of ideology), whereas Taoism consisted of a large number of independent schools. This allowed him to become a true institutional and financial power (great monasteries). It was chosen as the official religion by some emperors, the first of whom was Wu of the Liang of the South.
Confucianism was established as a state doctrine, finding its paroxysm in the Song dynasty, based on the teaching of the life of Confucius, especially through his Interviews and the works of his disciples such as Mencius. Naturally devoted to the interpretations of the reigning dynasties, the original doctrine of Confucius is not necessarily synonymous with submission to institutions, as some contemporaries observe. Historically, however, Confucianism has contributed to imposing the ideology of the “five relations” between subjects, destined to consolidate the social order and the cosmic bond between hierarchical position and celestial virtue. It is above all a moral, social and political doctrine, not a religion. It is with Taoism and Buddhism one of the three great schools of thought recognized by the Chinese tradition. This parallelization contributes to the confusion that often makes him present as a confession. Some rites are described as “Confucian” because they reflect the social and political structures strongly influenced by Confucianism: ancestor worship, which is largely preceded by Confucius and is practiced by all Chinese, regardless of religious or religious affiliation. Ideological; The religious ceremonies, often in honor of Heaven and Earth, which the emperor and the officials had to perform to ensure the smooth running of things, “professional” rituals that are part of all religious practices Without constituting a separate confession, just like the temples of Confucius. Starting from the Song dynasty, a metaphysics called neoconfucian developed by integrating Taoist and Buddhist elements. Borrowed also by certain Taoist schools like Qinhuangdao, it exerted an important influence on the new religious movements born from the end of the nineteenth century.
Taoism, or rather the Taoist, appeared from the second century, inspired by the currents of Yin and yang and the Five Elements, as well as by the writings of the philosopher Lao Tzu (or Lao-tzu) (老子) dating from Mid-first millennium BC. J.-C, whose famous Book of the Way and Virtue (Tao Tö King), is, along with the Book of Changes (Yi Jing), the sources of Chinese esotericism. These currents have constantly enriched themselves with new influences and have provided to the whole of Chinese religion many of its concepts and practices as well as a number of divinities. In China, the term is used to designate schools transmitting ascetic techniques, rituals, and religious teachings from master to disciple. Each proposes its “way”, Tao, a word to which it is therefore hazardous to seek a single definition, despite common references, to Lao Tzu, for example. From the Han dynasty alone, we know the sects that have taken on a certain importance. Born in the Chinese religious fund, they nourish themselves and reinject practices, concepts and divinities. Their members are professionals making all sorts of specialized services: talismans, exorcisms, ceremonies … But Taoism will never give rise to a single confession separate from the whole of Chinese religion, in which its position is, mutadis mutandis, similar To that of the Kabbalist schools in Judaism or Sufi in Islam, or even religious congregations in Christianity. This wisdom based on the teaching of the dao (the way) is at the very basis of Chinese spirituality, the root of culture and thought. If there are close to two million “practitioners”, at least 200 million Chinese people say they are inspired by Taoism.
1.3.4. Other religions
Protestantism and Catholicism do not develop at the same speed. In 1947, they represented between 2 and 3% of the population. But Protestants have experienced an unprecedented rise in the last fifteen years and between 40 and 70 million followers. Catholics are said to be between 12 and 14 million with an ever-sharp division between the “officials”, associated with the political system but largely recognized by Rome and the “clandestine”, unrelated to the system, also largely recognized by Rome. Such a division does not exist among Protestants, but the diversity of Protestantism makes them fragile. Islam: The Muslim religion is not expanding and is confined to a national minority. There are altogether nearly 20 million Muslims in China, mainly the Huis in the south-west of the country and the Uighurs in Xinjiang province in the north-west of the country.
Harmony is a fundamental characteristic of traditional Chinese culture. It must be emphasized, however, that the reason why harmony occupies such an important place at the same time in Chinese mentality and culture is because, with the exception of the idea of ” The harmony between Heaven (nature) and man – the Chinese also need such harmony in the relationships between people in order to better maintain their network of collective relations. This is the reason why Confucius advocates the precept of “loving others”. Harmony is the necessity of the community.
Family is an essential value in the life of a Chinese. For most Chinese, the main social relations are first of all family, then friends and colleagues. When referring to the family, reference is made to at least three generations (direct descendants, marriage and cousins). Since the basic social unit is the family, the Chinese are disciplined and educated to sacrifice their personal well-being for the benefit of the group. This goes to the point where all those who bear the same surname offer sacrifices to the same ancestors. The family is also an economic unit: land, patrimony, furniture, everything belongs to the family and not to the individual. The Chinese adopt several names to which they add prefixes to indicate degree in ancestry or descent see collateral links. It is therefore a more precise system in the West which reflects the Chinese philosophy of family and society. There, where the French say “cousin”, the Chinese indicate the exact way in which the person is related. The specific terms vary depending on whether the person is older or younger than the person to whom he / she is related within the same generation. The term for brother varies according to whether the latter is older or younger. The term for paternal uncle also varies according to whether the latter is younger or older than the father, and so on.
In Chinese, the term “family” and the term “nation” or “homeland” are always linked. A “country” is called Guojia, which literally means “homeland and family”. To describe the harmful effect of war, we say guopo jiawang: the fatherland is broken, the family dies. There is also a proverb that says: “Family peace precedes all prosperity”. The young scholars learn to manage the family first, to have the capacity to serve the Emperor, to become a civil servant, and to manage a community.
1.4.3. Other essential elements
The four essential elements on which the Chinese way of life is founded are conformity with heaven, identification with nature, harmonization of all beings, and emphasis on human relationships. Their way of life is characterized by their aspiration to serenity, the search for the charms of nature, harmony, simplicity and sweetness. The Chinese pay particular attention to traditional festivals which, in reality, are periods of relaxation between two periods of work.
In all their activities, the Chinese seek to understand life and live by respecting the laws and rules of nature while accumulating their know-how. When they play Qin (traditional Chinese instrument) or chess, or when they do painting or calligraphy, instead of focusing on mastery of art, Activity to give meaning to their lives, and to make it exemplary. When they take tea, they look for the art of tea; When they draw, they attach themselves to the expression of real feelings; When they play chess, instead of focusing on victory, they strive to escape by cultivating the noble and lively spirit of the game. Moreover, it is essential for the Chinese to stay healthy . One of the most commonly used methods is the practice of Tai Qi Quan or Qi Gong gymnastics, which allows breathing to be balanced with nature and the universe.
White, black, or yellow, all the people of the earth know the just and the unjust, but they do not all have the same idea. There are none that distinguish good from evil, lawful actions from those that are not; But what some admire or excuse incur the reprobation of others, and there are virtues to which they do not all attach the same value. In matters of morals, duties, misdemeanors or quasi-offenses, each has its own opinions and what may be called its scale of values.
Live and let live is the motto of China, and except for some exceptional cases, it is good to remain faithful to it. But if the Chinese morality is indulgent to the people in office, to the prevaricating judges, to the concussionary mandarins, it must not be supposed that his mercies extend to all kinds of misdeeds; It has its severities, its rigors. It authorizes the servants to levy a tithes on all suppliers, on all supplies; It forbids them all infidelities, all fraudulent subtractions, and the master who treats them properly may leave his keys to his wardrobes, he will never fail him. Chinese morality demands that the merchants be exact and probable in business, and that, whatever the cost, they do honor to their engagements, and the Chinese merchants usually have but one word. It condemns dissipations and disorders, despises laziness, rejects debaucheries, and there are few craftsmen as laborious, so sober, as endurable as the Chinese workers. But above all things, it holds the duties of the family sacred, and it covers with opprobrium, it withers for ever, it notes with infamy whoever neglects or betrays them. “In the Chinese family, the father is absolute master,” said an apostolic missionary, author of a beautiful book on Beijing. His sons, even advanced in age, owe him respect, obedience and veneration. Parricide is an almost unknown crime; The city where it was allegedly committed should have an angle of its shaved walls, then rebuilt with cut-off sides, to perpetuate the memory of such a crime . ”
1.5.2. Gestures and physical appearance
As in all countries, what we look at first is dress. China does not escape these prejudices. Someone of well dressed, rather classical, will be immediately judged better, than someone whose dress will be provocative. Similarly for jewelry, the more discreet they are, the better the person is perceived, especially as Chinese women of a certain social level wear only a few discreet jewelry and generally pretty pretty. It is also not a question of dressing always in tailor: jeans with a nice top and a jacket of tailor passes very well for the girls, whereas the men are accustomed to dress in costumes, well That ties or knots of butterflies are rarely worn. Even for invitations such as banquets or theater, the Chinese do not wear the most beautiful clothes. However, if the Chinese are important to dress, little attach importance to perfumes, reserved for women, who adore the French brands and offer a brand perfume to a Chinese is the most appropriate and appreciated gift.
1.5.3. Corporate social responsibility
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept more firmly rooted in Chinese law than is generally believed. In 2005, the law governing company law in China introduced for the first time a provision on CSR. In 2007 and 2008, several regulations continued this development. The development of CSR policies and guidelines is primarily the responsibility of the Ministry of Commerce, which considers CSR a major factor in transforming the economic growth model. International cooperation has also played an important role in the conceptual developments that precede new regulations. A dozen important pieces of legislation structure the legal approach to CSR. Provisions adopted by the Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchanges and timid self-regulatory attempts by certain professional associations complete a far from negligible feature. In addition to a set of technical provisions, it has repeatedly encouraged companies to set themselves ambitious targets for CSR. Moreover, the criticisms addressed to the system often relate less to its content than to the low level of sanctions imposed and the checks carried out
1.5.4. Issue of Corruption
The Popular Republic of China suffers from widespread corruption. In 2008, China ranked 80th out of 176 countries according to the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2012. Corruption behavior is referred to as corruption, trading in influence, embezzlement, nepotism or statistical falsification. According to English journalist Tom Mitchell and famous lawyer He Jiahong, they discuss about the original social system corruption because in the imperial China period, the spread of corruption in traditional China is related to the concept of “renzhi , “Government of the people”, as opposed to legism, the “government of the law.” Profit is a popular preoccupation which was soon despised, the true Confucian being supposed to be guided in his actions by the moral principle of justice. As a result, all relationships were based solely on mutual trust and propriety. On the other hand, people are unaware that if people with bad behavior become their leaders could abuse their professional position in order to have personal benefits.
In general, corruption in China can be classified into three categories: political corruption, rent seeking and prebending. Political corruption is the most common and involves bribery, breach of trust, or embezzlement of public funds. Li Liangsen, a former member of the Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Committee for the Municipality of Lyuliang and secretary of the Political and Legal Affairs Committee of Shanxi Province (north) ), Was arrested for accepting bribes (sum of money, gift paid outside the legal framework of a bargain, to obtain a contract). Corruption is a key issue in China that attracts importance to all Chinese people. Since society depends on economic growth, the key to social mobility, so corruption is not preventable. Even if the people only touch a small part of this wealth, monopolized as it is by a small oligarchy, the dynamic exists. And the middle class is conservative. However, new disruptive factors are emerging, such as inflation, especially on food products, which cost more than 30% of urban spending. It is a factor of dissatisfaction. But as everyone knows, PPC always emphasizes the resolution of this phenomenon as strict punishment, improving the implementation of anti-corruption … which aims to change the system more transparent. Despite the complexity and efforts to change this situation, the Chinese state still maintains an optimistic and serious attitude to fight corruption.
1.6. Business Manners and Customs
The culture of business in China is different from the other countries. Doing business in China involves a very different approach to the habits of the Western world. Some advice may be useful to our business leaders of course, but also to our politicians to raise awareness about this. It is not in our culture and mistakes have been made in the past. Chinese do not like to mix things up. Professional proposals have a formal side that needs to be counterbalanced by a relaxing moment. If you have not had all the answers you were hoping for, leave yourself time to wait for an upcoming meeting. In China, business is like love: whoever you are, whatever your means, take the trouble to go step by step.
At the beginning of every business activities in China, having a good understanding of the Chinese etiquette of business is important to succeed. The Chinese value the following qualities and their business relationship:
- Save the face and give it
- Respect for elders and rank
1.7. Variances in attitude across cultures
Despite the complexity of the culture, experts in intercultural communication have identified different poles that make it possible to divide culture into simple elements: the “cultural axes”. These are gradients on which the different cultures of the world can be positioned and compared. Each of these axes would then represent a “cultural dimension”: individual vs. collectivity, equity vs. hierarchy, etc.
It is useful to know some of these axes to practice good intercultural communication because they provide us with a grid of reference to evaluate the nature of cultural differences between our interlocutor and us. One can then imagine that the cultures are located somewhere on this axis, between the two poles, which makes it possible to recognize the presence of the cultural gap to better go towards the other.
1.7.1 Individual vs community
This axis represents the way in which individuals perceive themselves in relation to a group, to the community. More individualistic societies attach great importance to the development of the individual. Personal ambition, autonomy and sense of individual responsibility are key values and the individual is not perceived as having an extended responsibility towards a higher collective entity. In collectivist societies, people prefer harmony and cohesion to individual struggle. Loyalty and solidarity are in order, in honor as well as in shame. We seek stability, agreement, unison. Individuals have a strong sense of duty to their family, community, society, nation.
1.7.2. Equity vs. hierarchy
This axis represents people’s perception of power or authority and its distribution. It is sometimes referred to as the “distance of power” and is often associated with the degree of formality employed among the different ranks of society. In countries where this distance is strong, the titles, the respect, the respect for the hierarchy and the social order are very important. The superiors protect the base and in exchange the allegiance to him. Power and authority can be acquired according to certain social criteria (sex, age, wealth) and entails the granting of privileges. In countries where this distance is small, we advocate the fairness and validation of each member of the team. One is suspicious of the hierarchy and one always consults the base because it reinforces its confidence in the legitimacy of the action of the superiors. The decision-making structures are decentralized. Leadership is demonstrated by merit, charisma, not by titles. It is then in the culture to narrow the gaps, to eliminate titles and privileges. We talk to each other, we take our ease … For example, Germany and the Scandinavian countries like Denmark tend to advocate equity while Japan and France the organization and social structure takes on more importance. China and Russia are very hierarchical societies.
1.7.3. Perception of time
The relationship that a person keeps with the passing time differs from one culture to another. Some companies have a very short time horizon and time appears to them as a limited, linear, sequential resource. Each time slot is divided for a task or function and it is hard to see any difference. Great importance is attached to punctuality and efficiency. Stability is in a context of constant change and adaptability. It is important to consume so that the economy operates in a short-term perspective. There is no attempt to save appearances or preserve tradition, as this may prevent innovation. After all, “time is money! ”
In societies with a longer-term view, the qualities to be cultivated are perseverance and even persistence and obstinacy. We have time, because time has always been and always comes back. We can do several things at once, we can interrupt the activities and it is difficult to plan. The future is uncertain, so resources are saved. It is important to preserve the image and the tradition because it is inserted in a continuum, a dynasty, an unbroken chain. There have been many people before us and there will be many after .. In general, Western societies have shorter-term visions (here Russia, Canada and France), while Asian cultures tend to be long-term (India, Japan, China).
1.7.4. Attitude to uncertainty
This dimension concerns the sense of adventure, the ability to cope with the unknown. In some cultures, the unexpected generates a lot of anxiety and it is preferred that the rules be clear from the start. What are the acceptable practices? What food can we eat? What is different is perceived as dangerous, subversive. We are trying to standardize, define, separate tasks and responsibilities. Religion often has a strong influence on people’s behavior. In societies more tolerant of uncertainty, unusual situations are not perceived as being so aggressive. Laws and rules can be more flexible, looser. The tasks are not necessarily very defined or centralized and innovation is valued. Although Japan has a highly colored and diverse subculture, each person has a definite place in society, a reassuring label on the type of person encountered. The French also have this individual tendency to categorize and standardize, whereas the Anglo-Saxon countries such as Canada, the United States or the United Kingdom (not shown in the diagram) tolerate the uncertainty better. India, a particularly multicultural country, is also among the countries that are more accepting of uncertainty, despite the caste system. Finally, Denmark and, surprisingly, China are at the end managing better the uncertainty.
1.7.5. Attitude to uncertainty
This dimension concerns the sense of adventure, the ability to cope with the unknown. In some cultures, the unexpected generates a lot of anxiety and it is preferred that the rules be clear from the start. What are the acceptable practices? What food can we eat? What is different is perceived as dangerous, subversive. We are trying to standardize, define, separate tasks and responsibilities. Religion often has a strong influence on people’s behavior.
In societies more tolerant of uncertainty, unusual situations are not perceived as being so aggressive. Laws and rules can be more flexible, looser. The tasks are not necessarily very defined or centralized and innovation is valued. Although Japan has a highly colored and diverse subculture, each person has a definite place in society, a reassuring label on the type of person encountered. The French also have this individual tendency to categorize and standardize, whereas the Anglo-Saxon countries such as Canada, the United States or the United Kingdom (not shown in the diagram) tolerate the uncertainty better. India, a particularly multicultural country, is also among the countries that are more accepting of uncertainty, despite the caste system. Finally, Denmark and, surprisingly, China are at the end managing better the uncertainty.
1.8.1. Pre-school and primary school
Pre-school education, which begins at the age of three and a half years, was reformed around 1985. The government believes that pre-school education should be financed by individual organizations and enterprises.
In a country as vast as the People’s Republic of China, the development of universal primary education is a formidable achievement. Prior to 1949, 20% of 7-year-olds attended primary school; In 1985, this percentage had risen to 96%. However, only 30% of students complete and successfully complete their studies: these students live mainly in the cities. The Republic has approximately 832,000 primary schools. In the villages, there are several itinerant teachers: they teach in the morning in a school and in the afternoon in another. The law on compulsory education of 9 years involves free schools located in places accessible to children. In reality, parents have to pay a small fee for books, transportation and food (about 20 yuan in the late 1980s); The poorest families receive an allowance. Children start school at seven for two semesters of study. The courses taught are Chinese, mathematics, physical education and sports, music, plastic arts, natural sciences and civic, moral and social education. English as a second language is introduced in Level 2. From Level 4, students will work two weeks a semester (discovery and apprenticeship), mainly in companies, in order to familiarize themselves with the world work. All students attend a flag raising ceremony every Monday and are required to wear the uniform of their school that day.
1.8.2. Middle School and High School
Secondary education in the People’s Republic of China is complex. Around 1960, the so-called “walking on two legs” policy created regular schools and technical schools. During the cultural revolution, lack of funding led to the closure of technical schools, which were seen as an opportunity to provide inferior education to poorer families. It was not until the late 1970s that the technical schools were reopened.
The middle schools of the People’s Republic of China are divided into two parts, junior and senior levels. The junior level has 3 levels and begins at the age of 12; The senior level has 2 to 3 levels and begins at the age of 15. In 1985, more than 104,000 middle schools (regular and technical) had about 51 million students.
The program includes courses in Chinese, mathematics, physics, chemistry, English (other languages such as Russian, Korean, Japanese are taught in some areas), history, geography, politics , Science, music, arts, technology, physical education and civic education and society. At the junior level, mathematics and the Chinese language account for 38% of the curriculum and the second language for 16%. At the senior level, 50% of the curriculum is in science and mathematics and 30% in languages. In China, a senior-level graduate is considered educated, although high schools are seen only as a platform to colleges and universities. Few young people from the regions are enrolled in high school, despite government encouragement, mainly due to the attitude of parents. The problem of dropping out, which is present in primary education, is becoming even more acute in secondary education, since the school is compulsory for only 9 years. Secondary education is sanctioned in the spring by the gaokao, which can be translated as “examination of the upper level of secondary education” which is equivalent to the French baccalauréat. It plays the role of entrance examination to the university: the admissions are in fact a function of the order of classification obtained in this examination. In its initial form, the gaokao consists of three basic tests: Chinese, mathematics and English.
1.8.3. Professional Schools
Vocational schools aim to meet the needs of modernization. Regular secondary schools even give classes, such as in industries, services, business and agriculture, to promote professional professions. By 1985, there were nearly 3 million students at the technical level. Although the number of admissions to vocational schools has not really increased in recent years, the proportion of students in technical schools compared with those in general education was 36% in 1985.
In 1987, there were four types of vocational schools:
- Technical schools that offered a four-year program at the junior level and a two-year program, depending on the senior level, in areas such as trade, art or forestry;
- Polytechnics offering a 2-year program as a carpenter or welder;
- Specialized technical schools that offered a one to three year program in cooking, sewing, photography, etc.;
- Schools of agriculture which provided a basis in agricultural techniques.
2. Integration of Culture Elements and Dimensions by Locals Conducting Business in China
2.1. Business Communication
For some Westerners, the use of Putonghua appears more and more as an indicator of success. There is also a pronounced trend on the part of managers of foreign companies to recruit foreigners who speak Chinese for obvious reasons of efficiency and understanding of the professional context in which they work. This remark leads us to reconsider the importance attributed to English. Admittedly, English is the first foreign language taught at the Chinese school because, in the minds of the reformers, it is the international lingua franca. This language is therefore dreaming of a Chinese youth who wants to work in an international context. Let us remind you that Chinese who speak English well are sometimes courted, with a significant risk of losing them for another company (turnover). Therefore, some European companies have become aware of the importance of recruiting Chinese speaking, besides English, their national language, which is a factor of integration. This observation is even more true for the interpreter, a woman or a man, often qualified as an assistant to the CEO and acting as a “courier” between the Chinese world and the company. Some leaders consider that the Putonghua will occupy a central place in the world of the areas of tomorrow. In other words, English is a common language of work, use of another foreign language, an asset for Chinese, and Putonghua is the language for Westerners initiated into the Chinese world.
2.2 Organizational culture
Organizational culture or corporate culture can be defined as “a set of values, norms and rituals that are shared by members of an organization and govern how they interact with their customers, investors, suppliers or competitors” Isabelle Genest, 10, p.4).
Organizational culture plays an important role in understanding the performance of organizations. It is impregnated with reference and the national environment in which the organization evolves. The arrival of new members from different cultures can cause a shock due to new values, thoughts and interpretation. Organizational culture is the set of life experiences that each employee places in his or her workplace, particularly the founder of the organization but also the entire staff. Thus, employees are more motivated and satisfied when their needs and values are consistent with those that manifest themselves in their work environments. The corporate culture then becomes a powerful element that shapes the at work and interpersonal relationships.
We will then analyze the role of culture in the functioning of organizations through its links with organizational culture. Each enterprise is made up of individuals belonging to one or more cultures: national culture, regional culture, culture of belonging
2.3. Cultural diversity
Diversity is an increasingly used concept, both in the academic environment and in the strategic orientations of companies. Often overused, cultural diversity is a polysemic notion covering disparate realities. Diversity within the company refers to the diversity of the staff, that is to say to a certain number of attributes related to the personnel. These attributes can be ethnicity, age, gender, religion, beliefs, experience, skills, etc. This paper focuses on cultural diversity or, more accurately, ethno cultural diversity. It should be noted that we will use the term “cultural diversity” throughout our work with the same meaning as the term “ethno cultural diversity”. According to the simplest definition, it represents the plurality and coexistence of different cultures within the same society.
Cox (1994) defines cultural diversity as a representation in a given system of individuals and groups of different cultural affiliation. Cultural diversity refers to the fact that groups of people do not share the same systems of interpreting reality
2.4. Intercultural management
The origin of intercultural management comes from the recognition that there are synergies 11
Between cultures that can lead to more efficient work teams.
The current situation of diversification of the labor force and the Globalization of the economy favors the development and the increased presence of Cultural diversity within companies, which leads to taking account of this Cultural diversity as a central element of management.
Therefore, the Practice of intercultural management is essential. However, some Companies or more precisely large groups do not take enough The cultural differences of their employees, particularly when merging or Acquisition (this is the case of the merger between Daimler and Chrysler.
Shock has not been taken seriously and could be considered as a Factors of failure of this rapprochement), which led to real organizational problems because members of the latter might have difficulty working together. According to several studies, the difficulties most often
Like usual conversation, Chinese have preference for business communication to be in person face to face. While this option is not doable every time, Chinese try to adapt their business partner for this type of meeting although they have the possibility to use technology and will not require the face to face option.
2.5. The three dimensions of the Chinese face
If you ask a Chinese to tell you exactly what the face means, you may not get an immediate answer. Despite the extraordinary social significance of this concept, it is di cult to give a precise definition. The face seems to be an idea of prestige, which is not entirely accurate; It cannot be bought, but confers a real splendor to individuals; It is abstract, but it is something that men dispute and an ideal for which women die; It is invisible, but it exists and spreads out before the public.
Despite its elusive and mysterious nature, we shall try to explain it with the help of expressions, for, according to our hypothesis, the face, as the fundamental cultural and social norm of a society, must be reverted to Linguistic practices.
In fact, we can distinguish three types of Chinese face. The first, represented by the character. , refers to moral reputation, that is to say, to the quality that an individual must possess in order to be inserted into society and which is an integral part of his personality. This face can be illustrated by the expressions such as. This first face is essential to live in a group and to be recognized by its members.
The second type of face, translated by the characters 面子, mian zi, refers rather to the social prestige recognized by society to a group or an individual. It manifests itself in the form of a social success linked to energy and intelligence, and constitutes the environment of the personality of man. We can find the meaning of this face in the following expressions: 他 的 比 我 大 大, ta de mian zi bi wo da: its face is larger than mine; 头 有 面 面 面 丢面子, dui mian zi: to lose the face;点 面子 面子, gei dian mian zi: give a little face;死要面子, if yao mian zi: ask the face at all costs. We see that if the first de nition of the face evokes a rather abstract entity, this second meaning refers to a concrete reality, as shown by the verbs of concrete meanings that actualize it: it is like an object which, We can have, lose, give, ask. It is like a gold medal that is disputed in the course of social life.
The third type of face, term here translated by 面子, mian zi, 人情, qing qing or 情面, qing mian, refers to the personal feeling resulting from a social relationship. We find the expression of this third face in formulas like: 上 过不去 过不去, mian zi shang guo bu qu: not to be able to go beyond the face;看 僧 面 看 佛 面 面, Bu kan seng mian kan fo mian: if you do not consider the face of the monk, consider at least that of the Buddha;在 我 我 上 上 上 上 上,一把 锯 锯 锯 锯 锯 锯 不去 不去 不去 不去 不去, There can be no return movement;情急 似 债 债 债 债 债 债This third aspect is the sign of the establishment, maintenance or breakdown of an interpersonal relationship. It sanctions or approves the behaviors expressed in this relationship and is at the base of the relational network that plays such an important role in Chinese society.
This shows that the Chinese face is essentially three-dimensional. A moral, social and interactional aspect, corresponding to the three de nitions explained above: human dignity, social prestige and personal feeling. These three dimensions of the face are closely correlated, but they act to varying degrees according to the circumstances of the social interaction: the first face constitutes the foundation and without it a subject will lose until its quality of interlocutor. The second is the content or the objective of the interaction, which leads to the search for approval on the part of the other, if not his admiration. The third is the conductor of the interaction, so that if it is broken, there is a rupture of the exchange as well as a rupture of the relation itself. When one explains what is the face of the Chinese, one often collects two types of reactions. The first comes mainly from the French who sigh: “It is heavy, this Chinese face. The second one comes from Chinese listeners who say, “This is the old tradition. For all, the face seems incompatible with modern developments. we
National Culture and Change
These questions in fact lead to a more general discussion of the relationship between national culture and change. The notion of the face is in a way internalized and in reality conveys the fundamental values of Chinese culture, so that it can be said to be a crystallization. This notion is based on the community sense or more exactly, on the say of others. The feeling of “gaining face” or losing it depends on the presence of the public. Regarding Chinese culture, one speaks of the culture of shame as opposed to the culture of guilt in the West. In fact, the notion of face is closely linked to that of shame, which is itself linked to the saying of others. This is particularly evident in the Chinese character referring to the word shame. In Chinese, there are two ways of writing this word. First, 心 心 which is composed of 耳 (ear) and 心 (heart); That is, the word of others reaches the heart immediately. There is also 耻 which is composed of 耳 (ear) and 止 (stop): when the ear hears the say of others, one ceases to do what one wants. Indeed, if every society is made up of individuals who are both biological beings and members of a whole, it seems that the combination of these two characteristics is not the same in all cultures.
In Chinese society, the individual is first de ned by his status as a member. It is an element of a whole, inseparable from other elements, unlike Western societies where the individual is initially de noe as a biological being independent of other biological beings. In Chinese culture, each individual finds his place in the network he forms with another person or with others. His place has a status: he is ls in relation to his parents, husband in relation to his wife, father in relation to his children, and so on. Each status has its duties. The statutes accumulate and the duties add up. The individual depends on others to realize his social value, because it is de ned by the group and not by itself. His image is controlled by the group’s opinion.
Confucianism thus de fi nes social man by the character 仁, ren, whose composition is revealing here: man + two, that is to say that one can de ny a man only in relation to another man. Besides, it is the others (the group, the society) who decide that a man is “good” or “bad.” In e and, in Chinese, the expression 人品, ren pin, meaning: quality, personality of man. The graphic 品, pin, is composed of three mouths. The quality of a man is therefore determined by the
(Zheng, 1995: 60). Thus, regulation between individuals is based on the control of the group, and the behavior of an individual is sanctioned by the look or the say of the others. But the terms group and others remain to be specified. The first term refers to the collective entity to which the individual belongs, that is to say “his” intra-group (in-group) constituted by those who form a network with him, in other words those who have the Ability to disclose its image. On the margins of this network, the ex-group (out-group), the others. One of the characteristics of the Chinese is particularism, that is, they often behave di erently according to whether they are in the presence of the in-group or the exogroup -group), which sometimes shocks Westerners. The Chinese face therefore has the same foundations as the Chinese culture in which it is inscribed, it constitutes an anchored constraint and, in n, it forms part of the structuring of the Chinese social man.
3. Comparison of China and the United States Culture and Business Practices
3.1. Similarities in Chinese and U.S. Business culture
The United States and China are the two major world powers at the beginning of this century. The observation may seem brutal, it is nonetheless founded. Certainly, other regional authorities are or are in a position to play an important role in the international configuration. Europe has an economic and demographic weight comparable, if not higher, than that of the United States. But it is not and will not be long before this solidarity and coherent whole that would be able to undertake decisive diplomatic and military initiatives. Russia remains a great nation, but its weight is not that of the former Soviet Union. The demographic or economic importance of countries such as India, Indonesia, Japan and Brazil is clear, but again there is no combination of factors that would make these countries the key actors of ” The era of globalization.
In the face of the United States, only China appears as a unified, competing power. Of course, its economic weight is still not up to its demographic mass, but the dynamism it manifests will not be short of breath soon. Still, it is not in a position to align a military force that allows it to envisage a conflict with the United States, but it is already the dominant regional power, and its efforts in terms of technology And military rationalization are impressive. Finally, only the United States, China and, to a certain extent, Europe have an ambition that covers all international issues.
A reciprocal fascination
Both China and the United States have an acute awareness of this state of affairs. The relationship between the two Powers of the Pacific is emotionally charged, full of fascination, fear, admiration, mistrust … on one side as well as on the other. America, in the Chinese language, is word-for-word “the beautiful country”, the land where one dreams of emigrating, the new nation where everything becomes possible again, where one escapes the carcans of Tradition, where modernity is invented. But it is also the country that threatens the best of the national tradition, the imperialist power that wants to impose its way of life, its beliefs and its enterprises to monopolistic claim; It is still the unwavering protector of the small island of Taiwan, for the sole purpose of dividing the Chinese nation; It is, in a word, the model that must be imitated, in order to counteract it better… A fascination that is not new: it emerged at the end of the nineteenth century and was confirmed after 1919 when The collapse of the European order.
The American attraction to China is also a long-standing fact, which often makes Americans (diplomats, military, academics, businessmen …) connoisseurs very knowledgeable of the Chinese world. The old Chinese Empire, whose history and values were at the very opposite of those of the young American nation, represented early and still represents a new frontier, a cultural and political counter-model, a size market The ambition of American companies, a delicate challenge for immigration policy, and finally the main threat to Pax americana on the Asian side. These representations are both strong and confusing, which explain the complexity, the inconsistencies, but also the continuity of American policy towards its opposite.
The relationship between the United States and China is and will remain intense, tense, complex, a mixture of mutual admiration, pragmatic cooperation and merciless competition. What makes this relationship more important and interesting than ever is that it brings together two countries whose weight has been increasing over the last twenty years. The last decade of the twentieth century saw the United States reaffirm its role as world technological and military leader, a position further strengthened by the dismantling of the Soviet empire. Over the past quarter century, China has recorded the highest growth rate in the world and aspires to translate this potential into an undisputed political, cultural and military role. Does this parallel reinforcement not make the interaction between the two actors more complex and more risky?
3.2. Difference in U.S. and Chinese business culture
Six cultural differences between China and the United States
The Chinese do not have the same conception of privacy as the Americans. It is natural for them to talk about several topics such as age, income or marital status, while Americans find it boring and intrusive.
In China, elders are traditionally treated with great respect and dignity while the young are well fed and cherished. In the USA, the goal of the family is to encourage independence, especially that of children. Unlike the Chinese, older Americans rarely live with their children.
The Chinese, unlike Americans, think that those who spend a lot of time together are not necessarily true friends. Friendship is a cherished word, which means a friend for life who gives each other all the necessary help in the sharing of happiness and misfortune.
The Chinese love rather to save, and are always cautious in spending. To the differences of the United States, many more Chinese families save money in the event of an emergency and for the education of children.
The Chinese attach more importance to education and career than Americans, who place more emphasis on good character and loyalty.
3.2.6. Collectivism in the Face of Individualism
Generally, China appreciates the collectivity and Americans individualism. If you win a competition in China, success is more the team, the family, or the company. Glory is a sharing.
4. Implications for US Businesses That Wish to Conduct Business in China
American businesses wishing to involve in business deals with the Chinese companies need to familiarize with the counties culture. Proper comprehension of the Chinese and their relations to foreigners can facilitate the building of effective corporate relationships. It is also advisable to respect the culture of the Chinese, be it on the business field or just general life. The Chinese and American cultures differ so when in China respect their culture, however, difficult.
Joint ventures are the way to go in Chinese businesses due to the risks imposed by the globalization aspect. Engaging in joint ventures, can help an American business company enjoy numerous benefits. After establishment and making of other relationships, going a lone can be an option to the American company.
China is growing rapidly and will soon overtake the U.S as the world’s leading economic superpower. Taking businesses to China from America is risky to the U.S economy. This helps China increase its economic capabilities, hence; can surpass the U.S. However, individual companies want to grow, and this is possible in China due to the cheap labor and low operational costs. From the individual, business point of view, investing in China is beneficial, but to the entire American state, the economy will reduce tremendously (Bhattaharji, 2008).
American investments in China are subject to risks and challenges. This is majorly brought about by the different cultures and customs that may make business operations difficult than imagined. Taking on the challenge and risk of investing in China requires a lot of money, time and resources.
4.1. Cultural Adaptions that US Firms should expect to make when conducting Business in China
Whether it is to attract new customers or find a supplier or distributor, many americans entrepreneurs need to get in touch with Chinese professionals. Taking cultural differences into account is not enough to succeed. Chinese consumers are not only numerous but in addition, their purchasing power continues to grow. What to attract many foreign companies on the spot. But this distant and fragmented market demands a preparation and methods quite different from those which exist in Europe. “China is a complex market and penetrating it takes time,” says Margaux Lenne, the Bpifrance correspondent in China, who accompanies SMEs and ETIs. It identified three key elements for success: intellectual property, in-depth knowledge of the market and securing payments.
Some useful information and practical tips on Chinese customs and customs
In China, we do not greet by the wind on the cheek. The Chinese love to joke and show humor, but we never joke about sexuality which is a taboo subject in conversation. The Chinese are welcoming and indulgent, but also extremely curious to know the Westerners. The stranger must not be surprised to be an object of curiosity.
Naturism is not practiced in China, the Chinese will be shocked by the low necklines and a slovenly attire. Especially by the men who would let appear a torso with abundant hairiness, the Chinese being generally beardless.
It is necessary to be courteous because the Chinese of which very attached to the uses. We must respect the age and dignity of each person, even be very punctual. An unjustified delay will be perceived as particularly disagreeable and there is a risk of losing much credit in their eyes.
If guests are invited, do not arrive after 17:30. The Chinese dine early and go to bed early. It is preferable not to arrive empty handed, they are fond of foreign products. And especially avoid to offer a clock, a watch or an alarm clock because these devices time time by bringing us near the end of our lives.
4. 3. SWOT Analysis
The SWOT (Strengths – Weaknesses – Opportunities – Threats) is a very practical tool during the strategic diagnostic phase. It has the advantage of synthesizing the strengths and weaknesses of a company with regard to the opportunities and threats generated by its environment.
The axes of analysis
It identifies the current characteristics of the organization, seen as strengths or weaknesses depending on the activities being exploited.
They generally concern: human resources, production capacity, financial capacities, know-how held.
Strengths: Owned resources and / or skills held confer a competitive advantage.
Weaknesses: lack of one or several key success factors or competitors.
It lists things that have a potential impact on the business.
Opportunities: The business environment may present some areas of potential to develop. They should be identified.
Threats: Some changes in progress or to come, may have a negative impact on the company’s activities.
With this information, how to rework them to extract the substantive marrow? Here is a possible organization of the data: creation of a matrix crossing the internal and external elements.
Explication of the dials:
Strengths / Opportunities: Maximum priority. You are on a potential domain with real development capabilities. You need to consider the options available to you to take advantage of this opportunity.
Weaknesses / opportunities: the opportunities are there, but you do not have the necessary assets. The question is whether weakness can be lifted or not in order to exploit this potential.
Strengths / Threats: a strategic issue – how to use your assets to defend yourself against the identified threat?
Weakness / Threats: potentially dangerous situation. Evaluate the risk of whether it is necessary to organize your defense and if so, how to proceed.
Keep in mind your goals so you do not go in all directions. List your strengths and weaknesses, as well as the opportunities and threats of your environment. By practicing in such a way, you build yourself a relevant grid of reading. Do not hesitate to write down on paper the questions you ask yourself, and then carry out your research: documentary studies, questioning of clients, etc.
Focus on quantitative rather than qualitative indicators. They are much more operational and will allow you to make decisions more easily.
Prioritize the facts so that you can prioritize your decisions. Again, review them by reading your goals to keep a coherent sequence of the process.
What are the conditions for a successful SWOT diagnosis?
A good SWOT diagnosis is the conclusion of an internal and external prior analysis. Its success stems from the logical relationship between the previously identified facts and the conclusions drawn from them in the SWOT. It is therefore essential to carry out a good internal and external analysis.
However the SWOT is not the summary of this analysis. It should not be a long exhaustive list that does not seem to end. An overly broad SWOT is likely to become a “catch-all”, which will not lead to clear conclusions. Moreover, it must be based on real facts and not intuitions. As such, the SWOT should be synthetic and include only a few major facts for each party as its objective is to highlight key points and draw priorities. Thus, the points are the result of a reflection which, based on the analysis, will extract and define the main problems or levers.
A SWOT analysis prepares recommendations. Indeed, it must not be a simple formal exercise immediately forgotten after being realized and disconnected from the strategic recommendations. A good diagnosis must be both the last step in the analysis and the first step of the recommendations and action plan. The objectives and the strategy advocated hereafter must logically follow from the SWOT.
This means that the company must rely on its strengths and / or seek to fill its weaknesses, seize market opportunities and face threats.
The SWOT should make it possible to clearly see the issues and the strategic problems to be dealt with. It is therefore advisable to formulate in one or two sentences the key issue arising from the SWOT and which will lead to the fundamental strategic options.
Extremely widespread, the SWOT Matrix is a strategic business analysis tool that provides a synthetic view of a situation. The interest of this matrix is that it allows to gather and cross the internal and external analyzes with the micro and macro environments of the company. It separates what belongs to the environment from the particular characteristics of the company. It is used in the preliminary diagnosis phase of a project and is part of these tools that allow a collective to build a common vision of a situation.
The term SWOT comes from the initials of the English words Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It is often done in the form of two summary tables.
The internal diagnosis:
The Forces, which are the internal factors of the company and which give it an advantage over competitors
The weaknesses of the company, which are the negative internal factors that can be detrimental to the organization regarding competition and which can be improved
The Opportunities which are the external situations, specific to the environment in which the company operates and which can provide a competitive advantage to the company and which cannot be supported
Threats that are unfavorable external situations that can
SWOT and Innovation
As mentioned above, the use of the SWOT matrix is done at the beginning of the project. The ideal is to use it in the innovation process, at the beginning of the feasibility study.
In addition, it can also be used to explore new avenues for business development or to identify possible strategies if a strategy change is to be made.
The SWOT analysis is a vision of the company and its environment at a time t, it is essential to carry out the analysis regularly to be sure that the company evolves with its environment in constant evolution during the implementation of the project Of innovation.
With this approach, you will be able to create relevant strategies to exploit new potential or develop an existing pool. You will also be able to anticipate a threat to your business.
Finally, beyond the operational value of this methodology, by adopting this approach, you will sharpen your ability to analyze and evaluate your business. You will learn to ask yourself the right questions and find out how to find relevant answers.
4.4. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Analysis
Chinese culture emphasizes a world centered around man, devoid of metaphysics and endowed with a morality of social relations, that is to say, it is rather a The inner world of humanity. Traditional Chinese culture aims to cultivate oneself in order to adapt to the outside world and finally reach harmony. On the contrary, Western culture considers more a world outside mankind. To obtain the freedom of the individual, we must conquer nature; Consequently, it is logical that this conquest has engendered science, technology, democracy, and so on. I propose to conclude with the quote of Liang Shuming: “One of the cultures, that of the East, rests on nature, the other, that of the West, on the work of man; One seeks peace, the other does not fear war; One is based on passivity, the other on activity; One speaks of dependence, the other of independence; One maintains what exists, the other upsets it by progress “15.
Certainly, I cannot say that traditional Chinese culture is always identical to that of antiquity, since culture is always in change; Nevertheless, the essential principles of Chinese culture.
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