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Factors Affecting Customer Perception and Intention to Visit Casual Dining Restaurants

Info: 7664 words (31 pages) Dissertation
Published: 11th Dec 2019

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Tags: PsychologyFood and NutritionConsumer Decisions

Abstract

Klang Valley, also known as greater Kuala Lumpur is one of the fastest growing city in Malaysia. Its population is 7.2 million people that are about a fifth of the whole Malaysian population (The star, 2013). One of the fastest growing industries in Klang valley is food service industry. In this industry, the leading type of restaurants is casual dining restaurants as it has a higher number of establishments and value (Euromonitor International report, 2010). Food quality and atmosphere of the restaurant is based on the liking of the customers, as long as the unique point of the casual dining restaurant is acceptable for the majority customers, the customers will have the intention to visit or even revisit the restaurant. Factors that cause customers to change their restaurant preference is often due to inexperienced or unprofessional staffs whose performance does not meet the service quality resulting low standards and service (Michel, 2001). For Malaysia Klang Valley casual dining industry is it facing the problem of closing down after a short term. A study using quantitative method was conducted among 155 diners in order to understand the most important factor which affects customer perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant in Klang Valley.  The perception was tested based on food quality, service quality, restaurant atmosphere, and price. The study found that the most important factor that affecting customer perception and intention is food quality.

Keywords: casual dining, Klang Valley, customer perception, customer intention.

1.1.1 General Introduction

Klang Valley, also known as greater Kuala Lumpur is one of the fastest growing city in Malaysia. Its population is 7.2 million people that are about a fifth of the whole Malaysian population (The star, 2013). The city is famous as the main hub or heart for commercial activities. National Key Economic Area (NKEA) of Klang valley forecast to create 300,000 new jobs from commercial and business projects by 2020. One of the fastest growing industries in Klang valley is food service industry. In this industry, the leading type of restaurants is casual dining restaurants as it has a higher number of establishments and value (Euromonitor International report, 2010).

In Malaysia, customer’s intention to visit casual dining restaurant highly depends on push factors like socio-demographic characteristics (Ahmad, Ghazali, & Othman 2015). These factors include gender, ethnicity, educational background, occupation, monthly income and marital status. According to Prof Dr. Jean- Pierre Poulain, it is found that rapid urbanization and modernism plays a role in Malaysian’s intention eating outside and this considered as a pull factor (Tan, 2014). The busy lifestyle tends people to eat outside or in restaurants as it saves time than cooking at home and can be used as a time where they socialize. Statistics shows that 64% of the Malaysians eat at least one meal outside every day (The star, 2014). But this research is done to find out the factors in Malaysia, not specifically in Klang Valley. For this reason, I believe it is important to do this research as it will help the casual dining restaurants find customers’ needs in order to improve from their side.

1.1.2 Problem statement

Recently it was discovered that there is a huge increase in dining out among Malaysians, especially casual dining. As the number of women working is increasing and young women seldom learn how to cook at home (Euromonitor International, 2015). The demand for people to start dining outside is because it is much more convenience, not that time consuming to cook themselves and eat healthier food that is the new trend nowadays cause them consider dine out (Warde & Martens, 1998).

Factors that cause customers to change their restaurant preference is often due to inexperienced or unprofessional staffs whose performance does not meet the service quality resulting low standards and service (Michel, 2001). Having good service quality is a way to reach customers expectation and satisfaction (Ha, Jang, 2010a). Food quality, which is more specified by the taste, will define that whether the customers will have the intention to visit the restaurant or even revisit. This is because every customer had different perception towards the food taste, some may like it but some may not (Grunert, 2005).

Sometimes having a unique atmosphere may cause a customer to avoid or change their perception towards a restaurant. This is because not everyone can accept certain atmospheres or themes (Kivela, 1997). Food quality and atmosphere of the restaurant is based on the liking of the customers, as long as the unique point of the casual dining restaurant is acceptable for the majority customers, the customers will have the intention to visit or even revisit the restaurant.

The previous studies have not much information regarding service quality and having limitation to information. In conclusion to avoid these problems or to overcome these problems, food service providers must think of a way to train their staffs on a regular basis. And they should also give high attention in learning customer’s perception towards the outlet in order to maintain the service quality.

1.1.3 Research objective

Based on the research, full-service restaurants such as casual dining restaurants are included that in value sales for 2015 it has a growth of 4 percent to reach total MYR11.9 billion value sales and 1 percent to reach 10,673 outlets. This shows the growing demand for this sector (Euromonitor International, 2015).

Research shown that the demand for foodservice does not really have a big affect by the Goods and Services Tax (GST) because for the average to high-income consumers still visit restaurants and have their meals outside because they choose to have a relax meal to release stress and enjoy their meals (Euromonitor International, 2015).

RQ1:  What are the factors affecting customers perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurants in Klang Valley?

There is a gap which needs to find customers current needs to visit casual dining restaurants in Klang valley. From this findings, owners can create strategies based on these factors to maximize profit and to survive in the competitive business. The objectives of this study are:

  • To investigate if food quality affecting customer perception and intension to visit casual dining.
  • To determine if the service quality from the casual dining restaurant will affect customer perception.
  • To explore if atmosphere have any impact on customer perception and intention towards visiting casual dining restaurant.
  • To identify if the price from the casual dining restaurant will affect customer perception.

1.1.4 Research question/ hypothesis

The main research objective of my research is to find customer perception towards casual dining restaurant in Klang Valley Malaysia.

  1. Does food quality plays any role in customer’s perception and intension to visit casual dining restaurants in Klang Valley?
  2. Does service quality affect and changes customer intension to visit casual dining?
  3. Will atmosphere give any impact towards customer perception and intension for visiting casual dining?
  4. Does the price from the casual dining restaurant affect customer perception?

H1: There is a significant and positive relationship between food quality and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

H2: There is a significant relationship between service quality and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

H3: There is a significant and positive relationship between atmosphere and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

H4: There is a significant relationship between price and the customer’s perception of comfort and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

1.1.5 Research methodology

To determine the key factors that affect customer’s perception and intension to visit casual dining in Kang Valley area. I have chosen to use a quantitative method, a structured online questionnaire survey method to collect my data. The reason I choose to use quantitative method is that I can get more respondents and accurate information. I’ll conduct my survey in Klang Valley area. For my respondents, I’ll choose casual dining customers who visit at least 2 casual dining outlets every month. This is to identify their motivational factors and to do a comparison between existing casual dining outlets to identify the factors that affect customer’s perception towards casual dining. My data from the questionnaire will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

1.1.6 Research Structure Plan

Topic identification

Research Objective:

  • To investigate if food quality affecting customer perception and intension to visit casual dining.
  • To determine if the service quality from the casual dining restaurant will affect customer perception.
  • To explore if atmosphere have any impact on customer perception and intention towards visiting casual dining restaurant.
  • To identify if the price from the casual dining restaurant will affect customer perception.

 

Research Questions:

  1. Does food quality plays any role in customer’s perception and intension to visit casual dining restaurants in Klang Valley?
  2. Does service quality affect and changes customer intension to visit casual dining?
  3. Will atmosphere give any impact towards customer perception and intension for visiting casual dining?
  4. Does the price from the casual dining restaurant affect customer perception?

Hypothesis:

H1: There is a significant and positive relationship between food quality and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

H2: There is significant relationship between service quality and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

H3: There is a significant and positive relationship between atmosphere and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

H4: There is a significant relationship between price and the customer’s perception of comfort and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

Data collection:

Quantitative methods: online questionnaire survey

Finding and analysis

Recommendations

General conclusion

1.2.1 Casual Dining restaurants

In food service industry, restaurants are classified based on the service provided, menu style, and pricing and food preparation methods. Among which casual dining is one of the most common types of a restaurant which is also sometimes called as a family-style restaurant. This is an informal and middle-class restaurant and serves average prices menu that has a wide variety of choices of food (Morgan, 1993). While other researchers define casual dining restaurants as “a moderate upscale dining which focuses on themes in menu, décor, and service” (DiPietro, Murphy, Rivera & Muller, 2007).  It is sometimes even described as a restaurant with casual atmosphere, moderate prices which have a market segment in between fast food and fine dining restaurants (Sahari, Basir& Jangga, 2012).

All these definitions have the same aspect about the menu price which is moderate and the service to be more casual compared to fine dining.

One of the most famous and growing type of restaurant business in Malaysia in Casual dining restaurants (Sukur, Rasdi & Sukur, 2013). The growth of casual dining restaurants in Malaysia increased due to the urbanization. In Malaysia, casual dining restaurants are divided according to their menu pricing where the higher price range can go from RM40-50, whereas the lower price range casual dining can go from RM10-20 per person (Nashuki, Ghazali & Othman, 2013). Malaysian consumers are attracted to casual dining restaurants because of its moderate price and the service (Sukur et al.., 2013).

1.2.2 Perception and behavioral intentions

Perception is defined as the way an individual interpret his/her situation based on prior experience (Pickens, 2005).  However, every individual has a different interpretation of each situation as it is very personal. It also does not necessarily have to be how it will be in reality, often it is different from reality (Pickens, 2005). Perceptions are created through a process call perception process which goes through four stages. These stages are stimulation, registration, organization, and interpretation. Below shows the perception process created by Pickens.

Another research which supports this process is by researchers Mok, Sparks & Kadampully (2013). According to them perception towards a service level depends and is created based on their cultural background, demography, and previous experience (Mok et al. 2013, Pg:8). As a result defining perception towards a certain type of service or product is hard as it is different for every individual. Nonetheless, an advertisement can influence a consumer’s perception towards products and services (Mok et al. 2013, Pg:36). According to them through advertisement, a desired image is created regardless if they have used or experience the service or the product. And it is often very different from the actual product, and this is only used to sell the products.

Like perception, behavioral intentions are also related to prior experiences. Behavioral intentions are defined as “an affirmed likelihood to engage in a certain behavior” (Ryu, Han & Kim, 2008). Some researchers even describe behavioral intentions as an attitude which is developed based on previous experience (Oliver, 1997). Furthermore, he explains like perception behavioral intentions also can be created without the actual experience but based on the information they get through advertisement or people around them.

According to researcher Ryu & Han, (2010) behavioral intentions are created based on consumer’s satisfaction. This satisfaction is fulfilled by the quality of the food, service and physical environment or atmosphere provided by the casual dining restaurant. Below in figure () shows the conceptual model created by these two researchers to show the relationship between quality dimensions, perceived price, customer satisfaction and behavioral intention.

These factors not only have a relationship with consumer’s behavioral intention, but these factors are considered as the pull factors affecting consumer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurants. Some define pull factors as the factors encouraging customers to visit a restaurant or what a restaurant is offering to their customers in order to attract those (Ha & Jang, 2013).

1.2.3 Food Quality

Food quality one of the most important components towards diner’s satisfaction regardless of the type of restaurant they dine in (Grunert, 2005). Food quality also heavily influence consumers to perceive behavior and intention to visit. (Peri, 2006). Researchers define food quality using six elements. Food quality is measured using presentation, variety, healthy options, taste, freshness and temperature. Consumer’s satisfaction and their intention to revisit or attitude towards the restaurant depends on how well these six elements are presented (Namkung and Jang, 2007).

A presentation is defined as the way food is plated on, and the attractiveness of it. Meaning which it should be well balanced in contrast, color, shape, and textures. This is an important cue of consumer’s perception of quality (Namkung and Jang, 2007). Researchers agreed that food presentation as “key attribute” to satisfy diners and to get positive word of mouth (Kivela, Inbakaran & Reece, 1999).

Variety means the number or different options available from the menu. “Restaurants constantly develop new menus to entice diners, and many proactive restaurateurs have created an assortment of food and beverage offerings” (Namkung and Jang, 2007). This is another crucial attribute of food quality in order to satisfy consumers (Kivela et al. 1999).

Healthy eating is today’s new hype. As a result of healthy eating awareness consumer’s demand restaurants to have healthy menu options. In order to keep up with the new demands from the consumer’s, restaurants now provide healthier options in their menu (Sulek & Hensley, 2004). John and Tyas (1996) found that healthy food has a huge effect on consumer’s perceived evaluation of the restaurant. Some even consider healthy food as a core property of dining satisfaction (Kivela et al. 1999).

“Taste is usually believed to influence restaurant customer satisfaction and future behavior intentions (Kivela et al., 1999). Regardless of how well the rest of the attributes are presented, of the taste of the food is not acceptable for the consumers, it will be considered low-quality food. So without a doubt taste is considered as the key attribute in dining experience (Kivela et al. 1999). Today consumers are more aware of what they eat, how it is made even about the ingredients. As a result, restaurants are focusing more on the taste of the food and it is an increasingly important factor to them today (Cortese, 2003). Today restaurants which are doing really well in the business are considered to have tasty food instead of fancy décor or upscale service. (Namkung and Jang, 2007).

Freshness is defined as the “fresh state of food and appears to be related to crispness, juiciness, and aroma” (Péneau, Hoehn, Roth, Escher, & Nuessli, 2006). Whereas temperature is considered as a sensory element of food quality (Johns & Tyas, 1996). Also, the temperature is considered as one of the determinant factors which enhances the pleasure of the food experience (Kähkönen, Tuorila, & Hyvönen, 1995). Because temperature is the factor which influences the sensory attributes such as taste, smell and sight (Delwiche, 2004).

Another research has shown that food quality and use of fresh ingredients are the most important factor which makes the consumers return to the restaurant and their loyalty lies within this (Brumback, 1998). Another research in Malaysia has shown that dining satisfaction among Malaysian heavily lies on food quality specifically menu variety (Ismail, 2012).

Researcher Grunert (1996) came up with a model to measure consumer’s perceive food quality which is divided into two major dimensions. The horizontal and vertical dimension which explains the quality perception before and after the purchase of food product. The model is shown in the figure ().

Not only food quality plays an important role in customer’s perception, loyalty and intention to revisit but it also plays a role in maximizing the chance of success in the restaurant business (Namkung & Jang, 2007). Namkung and Jang found that even though food quality is vital, it is often overlooked by researchers.  As a result, there is no concrete evidence to show to which extent food quality influence consumers perception and attitude towards a restaurant.

Based on the literature above the first hypothesis is,

H1: There is a significant and positive relationship between food quality and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

1.2.4 Service quality

Service quality is defined as “the customer’s judgment of the overall excellence or superiority of the service” (Zeithaml, 1988). The service provided by the restaurant varies based on the type of restaurant, attitudes of consumers and employees.  Service quality serves as a predictor of customer perception because every place provides different service quality (Fullerton, 2005; Chen and Hu, 2010). Studies proved that good attitude from the employee will create a positive working environment. Conversely, Negative attitude leads towards a negative working environment having bad services. Therefore, the attitude of the employees will define the restaurant provides good or bad service (Katarra, Weheba, & El-Said, 2008).

Studies have proven that service quality will be the main major factors for a customer intention to visit restaurants and fulfill their satisfaction (Katarra et al., 2008).To provide a better quality of services just by a simple step such as smiling and giving friendly service will lead a customer to have a different perception towards the restaurant and have the intention to re-visit (Katarra et al., 2008).

Researchers divide the service into five dimensions which are responsiveness, reliability, assurance, empathy and tangibles (Harr, 2008).

Empathy is defined as the “caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customer (Zeithaml et al., 2006, p. 120). Which means every consumer is treated with special care and attention. For example in a restaurant if the customer is a regular, referring them with their name, or giving a good table will be considered empathy. Thus empathy is not as important for quick service restaurants.

Assurance is defined as “the employees’ knowledge and courtesy and the service provider’s ability to inspire trust and confidence” (Zeithaml et al., 2006, p. 119). Though some researchers believe assurance is not important for industries where there is a higher chance of service is uncertain (Andaleeb & Conway, 2006).

Responsiveness “is the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service” (Zeithaml et al., 2006, p. 117). Responsiveness is also related with how well a restaurant can deal with a special request from the customers. For example in a restaurant, if a customer asks to omit an ingredient or add extra to a dish, and how the staff reacts to it will be responsiveness.

Reliability is defined as “the ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately” or “delivering on its promises” (Zeithaml et al., 2006, p. 117). Reliability is an important dimension to food and beverage industry as it means providing the best service with fresh food at the correct temperature and according to customers order (Andaleeb & Conway, 2006).

Tangibles are defined as “the physical appearance of facilities, equipment, staff, and written materials” (Harr, 2008).  This is related with the atmosphere and the decoration, interior, tableware, and uniform of the staff, the appearance and design of the menu, restaurant signage and advertisements (Zeithamal et al., 2006). Tangibles create a good or bad image of the restaurant and quality. For casual dining often its tangibles attract consumers as these type of restaurants are famous for going under a certain theme.

In a casual dining restaurant setting, service quality is the key to stopping the unfavorable behavior from the consumers such as complaining or bad mouthing about the restaurants (Ha & Jang, 2013). As casual dining restaurants are knowns for providing more cozy and personal service at a lower price, the amount of money spent on an advertisement is less, and consumer’s positive word of mouth is important for them. Some even compare casual dining restaurant service quality to fine dining restaurants service but in a less expensive way (Ha & Jang, 2013). “Thus, casual dining restaurants attempt to attract customers by providing good quality food and services at a reasonable cost, while creating a welcoming atmosphere so that customers can enjoy a meal with family and friends” (Ha & Jang, 2013).

There are many types of research on service quality based on service marketing view. But there are very few researches on service quality and consumer perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurants. Therefore based on the literature above, the second hypothesis for this study is;

H2: There is a significant relationship between service quality and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

1.2.5 Atmosphere

The atmosphere of the restaurant includes decoration, interior design, background music that is played, scent and cleanliness of the restaurant. These facilities will lead to satisfaction of the customers (Keng, Huang, Zheng, & Hsu, 2007). The ambiance is one of the factors that lead customers to have the interest to visit casual dining (Namkung & Jang, 2008). Researchers Mattila’s (2001) supported this with her research as well, where she found that top three reasons why consumers re-visit casual dining restaurants are because of the food quality, service, and the atmosphere. Customers who experience in a specific restaurant will most probably remember the bad image of it more than the positive image that has been given to them by the atmosphere (Chung & Hoffman, 1998; Sulek & Hensley, 2004).

Previous studies had proven that physical feature such as the seating of the restaurant or the waiting areas that are provided from the restaurant must be comfortable (Baker and Cameron, 1996). The restaurant that provides Wifi feature is an extra advantage for the customer’s to visit the place, this is because many people surf the Internet everywhere they go nowadays (Lieshout and Rodriquez, 2007). Research had also found that there are too many competitors in the market as too many different choices of atmosphere restaurants, one of the strategies to compete besides offering good food is to have a comfortable and unique ambiance (Soriano, 2002).

Researchers have found that regardless of how good the food and the service from a restaurant is, its atmosphere such as lighting, décor, and layout can still create a dissatisfaction and negatively perceived behavior if the restaurant fails to provide a pleasant environment (Ryu & Han, 2010). This is because the customers can assume how a restaurant would be looking at its physical appearance, and they don’t necessarily have to be present at the venue to experience it. On the other hand, service is intangible and it requires customers to be present (Ryu & Han, 2010).

Another researcher supported this research by proving, physical environment affects customer’s satisfaction and post behavior (Bitner, 1990).

Bitner created a model call servicescape to show the effect of physical environment creating service quality image. Servicescape can be described as the built environment which means ““man-made, physical surroundings as opposed to the natural or social environment” (Bitner, 1992, p. 58). This shows the effect on customer and employees behavior depending on the physical environment around them.  According to this study, there are three dimensions which are “ambient conditions (elements related to aesthetic appeal); spatial layout and functionality; and signs, symbols, and artifacts” (Bitner, 1992, p. 58).

Below in figure () shows the model created by Bitner.

Researchers Wakefield and Blodgett (1996) examined the effects of physical environment such as facility aesthetics, layout accessibility, seating comfort, electronic equipment, and cleanliness on the servicescape. They found out that physical environment significantly affects customer’s satisfaction in the leisure service setting. In addition, Chang (2000) suggested that “perceived physical environment was a direct indicator of a customer’s satisfaction”, meaning that customers satisfaction is positively associated with customer’s perceived behavior.

Due to the high demand from the customer’s, restaurant operators are now investing more money on physical environment such as restaurant design and décor (Hamaker, 2000). Also everyone is trying to standout so they could win over their customers and avoid the fear of losing their customers to their competitors. Today, in the restaurant industry, new, innovative and exciting designs are attracting more customers than the usual concept and design restaurants (Ryu & Han, 2010).

Based on the literature above, the third hypothesis for this study is;

H3: There is a significant and positive relationship between atmosphere and the customer’s perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

1.2.6 Price

A price which means that the amount of money for a product, service or in exchange for benefits for a specific item (Kotler, Armstrong, Wong & Saunder, 2008). A previous research has reported that in Malaysia, due to high price range from restaurants, the turnover rates are really low (Euromonitor International, 2012). The price of restaurant services, it may rely on the product and services in the restaurant to determine the satisfaction of the customer and even a factors for the customer to make decisions (Han & Ryu, 2009). Customers tend to evaluate the product or services by looking at the price. For example, when the price for a food is really expensive, the customer’s will expect that the food quality will be good and be setting this in mind (Bolton & Lemon, 1999; Varki & Colgate, 2001).

Menu price is an important aspect of restaurant business where handing the menu with the prices. Researcher Kelson described the act as “the ability to place an advertisement in every customer’s hand before they part with their money” (Kelson, 1994).

According to researchers Ryu & Han, (2010), a price is one of the most significant factors when explaining customers’ behavior. Researcher Keaveney (1995) study support this as in his study he found that price is one of the eight factors why customer’s change their behavior towards a restaurant or service and switch to another. Price is an important factor predicting customer’s behavior understanding it (Ryu & Han, 2010).

There are many approaches used by the researchers to determine and examine price and the customer satisfaction. Among which perceive price is one of the approaches. Perceived price is defined as “the customer’s judgment about a service’s average price in comparison to its competitors” (Chen, Gupta, & Rom, 1994, p. 25). They further noted that “perceived price does not eliminate objectivity; rather it adds some subjectivity with the goal of achieving greater organized pricing structure” (p. 25).

Perceived price plays a significant role in post-purchase behaviors of the customers. Not only has this but it also played an important role in perceived value (Ryu & Han, 2010). Perceived price includes both monetary and nonmonetary price such as time and effort put into it (Zeithaml, 1988).

A previous study also has shown that lower price can increase customer satisfaction without influencing consumer’s perception of service quality (Deruyter, Bloemer, & Peeters, 1997). Also if the price is reasonable for the customer’s their satisfaction with the food quality increases (Ryu & Han, 2010). In addition customers’ perception of reasonable price in casual dining restaurant affects the quality of service on customer satisfaction. Further, customers’ perception of reasonable price in the fast-casual restaurant industry would increase the effect of quality of the physical environment (Ryu & Han, 2010).

There are few models available on customer satisfaction and price, one of which was created by researcher Al-Mutawa, Eldabi, & Brinkman, (2006). According to them, satisfaction depends on the on product, price, and service provided by the restaurant.

Below in figure () shows the model.

According to this model, each of these aspects has to be assessed to generate a figure that correlates with overall customer satisfaction value.

There is very few research done based on price and customer satisfaction so there are not much literature available on this matter.

Despite this, another research showed that perceived price awareness is different in different demographic groups, as a result, the satisfaction level is different (Zeithaml, 1988). According to this female, married and older demographic groups are considered to have a higher level of awareness, as a result, it is difficult to satisfy them without a reasonable price, service and food quality (Zeithaml, 1988).

There is one thing all these researchers agree, which is customers belief in reasonable price can affect how they perceive food quality, service quality and atmosphere. Also if the price satisfaction is fulfilled the way they look at the other factors change and become more positive.

There are not much research on customer satisfaction and price. Therefore there is a need for more researchers based on this topic area.

Based on the literature above the fourth hypothesis for this study is;

H4: There is a significant relationship between price and the customer’s perception of comfort and intention to visit casual dining restaurant.

Based on the literature review above, the theoretical framework for this study will be;

Reliability

A reliability test was computed using factors which is food quality, service quality, restaurant atmosphere and price.

The result is shown above the table (), there are 13 factors are used in this survey where the result for Cronbach’s alpha =0.884 which means the data set is acceptable. It shows that there is strong reliability between the variables. Because in reliability if the Cronbach’s alpha is less than 0.5 is usually rejected or unacceptable.

Table () above shows that the mean, variance, standard deviation from the factors.

Food Quality

Table () and Figure () show the 155 respondents indicate their expectations towards their food while eating in casual dining restaurant based on the level of agreement. There are 5 choices to select that is, strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree. The majority of the respondents which is 53.5% or 83 respondents are strongly agreed with this matter, followed by 5.2% or 8 respondents that are neutral with the food serves in a fresh and timely manner. There are no respondents that chose strongly disagree and disagree. Because research found that many consumers care about the food quality used to prepare their food.

Respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement on food presentation. Among the 155 respondents, there are 38.1% or 59 respondents that agree on the food presentation of food has to be visually attractive as shown in the table () and figure (). Respondents that agree on strongly agree for 36.1% or 56 respondents and 24.5% or 38 respondents rate for neutral. The other 1.3% or 2 respondents as the lowest chosen by the respondents that disagree. From this, it can be concluded that respondents think appearance is very important.

Based on the table () and figure (), it is to study on the respondents that are they expecting to have a variety of food components within the set meal. There are 42.6% or 66 respondents which agree on it and 30.3% or 47 respondents indicate strongly agree followed by 36 respondents are neutral, 3.2% or 5 respondents chose to disagree, and 0.6% or 1 respondent strongly disagrees with having varieties of food within a set meal. As recent researchers found that people are more health cautious on eating habits, so they might want to expect for a more balanced meal.

Above table and figure () explain the presentation of the food has to be relatively organized based on the expectation of the respondents and respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement. Among 155 respondents, 49.7% or 77 of the respondents, which is the most chosen by the respondents is agree. For strongly agree 27.7% or 43 respondents and 20.6% or 32 respondents that chose neutral, followed by 1.3% or 2 respondents disagree. The least respondent is strongly disagreed 0.6% or 1 respondent. From this, we can conclude that respondents expect the food is well organized.

Service quality

Based on the results shown in the table () and figure () above, the highest percentage which is 47.1% or 73 respondents answered for agreeing and 42.6% or 66 respondents are strongly agree with the expectation to have when visiting a casual dining restaurant to provide a prompt and efficient service. Respondents that answer for neutral is 10.3% or 16 respondents followed by strongly disagree and disagree there are no data for these two choices. It can be concluded that respondents expect the service quality to be prompt and efficient.

The table () and figure () above shows the result of the staff serves the food accurately what you had ordered and respondents are asked to answer based on the level of agreement. The highest percentage is 58.1% or 90 respondents that answer strongly agrees followed by second highest is 31% or 48 respondents that answer for agree. 10.3% or 16 respondents are neutral towards this matter and 0.6% or 1 respondent Disagree. From above table (), it can be concluded that respondents think service staff supposes to serve the correct item that had been ordered.

The result is shown in the table () and figure (), the highest percentage of 38.1% or 59 respondents agree that the expectation on the staffs in the casual dining restaurant is able to handle any special request that is requested. Respondents that answer for strongly agree 34.8% or 54 responders which are fairly similar to the amount of agree. There are 37 or 23.9% of respondents that are neutral regarding of the staff’s ability to handle a special request. The lowest percentage is 3.2% which is 5 respondents that disagree on this expectation, followed by there are no respondents that strongly disagree.

Restaurant Atmosphere

Based on the table () and figure (), respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement on restaurant atmosphere to be thoroughly clean and tidy. 60.6% or 94 respondents strongly agree on this matter and followed by 36.1% or 56 respondents agree on it. 2.6% or 4 respondents are neutral for the expectation on restaurant atmosphere. The lowest choice is disagreeing with the customers that visit casual dining restaurants expected the atmosphere to be thoroughly clean and tidy, which is a 0.6% or 1 respondent. From the above result, we can indicate that respondents think atmosphere cleanliness is very important.

Among the 155 respondents, they are asked to indicate their level of agreement on pleasant smell or odor in a restaurant. 51.6% or 80 respondents strongly agree on this matter followed by 38.1% or 59 respondents agree. There are 10.3% or 16 respondents are neutral and there is no any respondent that disagrees or either strongly disagree. From the above table () and figure (), it can be concluded that the surrounding smell and odor in the restaurant is really important as it will affect the atmosphere of the restaurant.

Respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement on the comfort level of the environment with good lighting. Among the 155 respondents, there are 40.6% or 63 respondents that strongly agree on the comfort of the environment in a casual dining as shown in the table () and figure (). Respondents that agree is 38.7% or 60 respondents and 20% or 31 respondents rate for neutral. The other 0.6% which is 1 respondents as the lowest chosen by the respondents that disagree. From this, it can be concluded that respondents will choose places that are comfortable and with good lighting.

Price

Above table () and figure () explain the expectation of the respondents when visiting casual dining the food and beverage in restaurants are affordable and respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement. Among 155 respondents, 46.5% or 72 of the respondents, which is the most chosen by the respondents is agree. For strongly agree 39.4% or 61 respondents and 12.9% or 20 respondents that chose neutral, and followed by 1.3% or 2 respondents disagree. There is no respondent that strongly disagreed on this matter. From this, we can conclude that respondents expect the prices are affordable.

Table () and Figure () show the 155 respondents indicate their expectations based on the level of agreement on the other facilities provided by restaurant such as event and catering are affordable compared to fine dining restaurant. There are 5 choices to select that is, strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree. The majority of the respondents which is 44.5% or 69 respondents are agreed with this matter, followed by 29% or 45 respondents that are strongly agree with other facilities provided by casual dining restaurant compared to fine dining restaurants are more affordable. There are 23.2% or 36 respondents that are neutral and 3.2% or 5 respondents disagreed on this. From this, it can be concluded that above 60% respondents agreed more than disagreeing on other facilities provided by casual dining restaurant compared to fine dining restaurants are more affordable.

Based on the results shown in the table () and figure () above, among 155 respondents the highest percentage which is 45.2% or 70 respondents answered for agreeing and 38.1% or 59 respondents are strongly agree with the expectation of the money is valued for food and beverage offered by the restaurant. Respondents that answer for neutral is 16.1% or 25 respondents followed by disagree 0.6% or 1 respondent. For strongly disagree, there are no data for this choice. It can be concluded that respondents expect when visiting casual dining restaurant, the money is valued for food and beverage offered by the restaurant.

Customer Intention

Among the 155 respondents, they are asked to indicate their level of agreement on it is more time to save to dine in casual dining restaurant than preparing food at home. 31.6% or 56 respondents strongly agree and agree with the same percentage of respondents followed by 22.6% or 35 respondents are neutral. There are 3.2% or 5 respondents disagreed and there is 1.9% or 3 respondents that strongly disagree. From the above table () and figure (), it can be concluded that customer intentions are the not everyone has this thinking that dines in casual dining restaurant is more convenient and times saving than preparing food at home.

Based on the table () and figure (), it is to study on the respondents that are they intention to dine in casual dining restaurant if the service quality is friendly and willing to handle any special request. There are 45.2% or 70 respondents which agree and 36.8% or 57 respondents indicate strongly agree followed by 16.1% or 25 respondents are neutral, 1.9% or 3 respondents chose to disagree. There is no respondent in the level of strongly disagrees. From this, it can be concluded that above 80% respondents will dine in casual dining restaurant if the service quality is friendly and willing to handle any special request as service quality can use to determine customers dining experience.

Above table () and figure () explain the intention of the respondents when visiting casual dining restaurant. 155 Respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement on will respondents dine in casual dining if their prices are reasonable and affordable. Among the respondents, 51.6% or 80 of the respondents chose strongly agree followed by agreeing 35.5% or 55 respondents and 11% or 17 respondents that chose neutral. There are 1.9% or 3 respondents that disagree on this intention. There is no respondent that strongly disagree. From this, we can conclude that respondents are price sensitive because they will only spend money if the casual dining restaurant is reasonable and affordable for the price.In this study the main objective is to find the main factors that affect customer perception and intention to visit casual dining restaurant in Klang Valley. A descriptive statistics was computed using 4 variables, which is food quality, service quality, restaurant atmosphere and price. Using the mean and standard deviation that is found from the research questions the result is shown in above table ().  Based on the mean and standard deviation shown in table (), the highest mean of 16.5871 is food quality

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