Reasserting Democratic Solidarity in a Post Digital Context

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16th Dec 2019 Dissertation Reference this

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NON-PHALLOGOCENTRIC CYBORG ACTION FIGURE SEEKS TO CHANGE THE WORLD. GET USED TO IT. : Reasserting democratic solidarity in a post digital context. INTRODUCTION We currently live in an age where elite super-rich individuals have divested themselves of the democratic control of nation states and financed the destruction of international co-operation between states. However an attempt by the vast majority to regain control has been attempted by reasserting democratic solidarity. In spite of the efforts of left-wing activists and academics to remove inequalities; the world is seeing a rise in various forms of discrimination, widening prosperity gaps, environmental problems and military violence. Activists make use of extensive social media networks and hacktivism, as well as engaging physically on location, supporting the democratic resistance to authoritarian control. Some campaigners remain loyal to the left-wing political spirit that drives activism, and strives to bring about a better world[1]. But why does the World never seem to get fairer? Is this direct action and activism effective in a post digital context? The reasons that theories of resistance are outdated and ineffective today is investigated by several commentators, which I will expand on later within this research. In this essay I investigate the political potential of accelerating technologically versus the more traditional horizontal forms of political activism, and how contemporary art has responded to these ideas. Accelerationism is an interesting political theory that has gathered pace in recent years, largely through the publication titled #Accelerate. The term gradually developed from fictional ideas into “a new way of thinking about the contemporary world and its potential”[2]. Introduced by Marxist Benjamin Noys as a political strategy and social thought in the 1970s, Accelerationism includes theories from Deleuze and Guattari´s Anti-Oedipus[3]and Lyotard’s Libidinal Economy[4]in which capitalism spawn forces of desire usually leading to its own destruction. Whereas some Accelerationist theories create awareness of how we are trapped”[5] and point out the process of alienation within the excesses of capitalist culture, others offer solutions for a better future with manifestos. These will be discussed later within this essay. A technological world still speaks a phallogocentric[6] language; therefore I incorporate feminist visions of a technocratic world, and their strategies to overcome capitalism. I feel that this is an area currently under-represented within the male-centric line-up of Accelerationist theories and ideas. I investigate Cyberfeminist[7] views of technology while reflecting on this androcentric[8]world by calling for a collective theoretical and political assessment in which techno-scientific innovation is gender-independent. What interests me in Accelerationism is that it opens up new perspectives in conceptualising the future “outside of traditional critiques, with a renewed prometheanism[9] and rationalism”[10] and the use of the imaginary and fictional within its structure. That Creative Destruction enables capitalism to repeatedly renew itself[11] fascinates me in its implication that creativity holds unconscious power. In conclusion I will offer a solution in which the desires to escape through creative processes have become important tools in the quest for effective social political change. peters note.jpg
Fig.1 In Memory of Peter W.C. Foley
“As things become more complex they become more female, but patriarchy prolongs the ice age of mankind” Sadie Plant GLOBAL INFORMATION REVOLUTION (GIR) In my opinion the GIR contributed to the raising of political consciousness in everyday people. Essentially people attempted to regain control by reasserting democratic solidarity. The development of artificial intelligence[12] since the 1940s, natural language processing;[13] its scientific links between cultural practice and probabilistic cognition[14] as well as the foundation of information theory[15]and computational linguistics[16] has rapidly changed the world. Cybernetics[17], which was derived from information theory, assured efficiency, which was designed to prevent human errors, increase life expectancy, minimize environmental catastrophes and prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases by living in cyberspace[18], [19]. Whereas in the nineties we could follow technological progress, recent developments seem invisible. This anonymous technological world progressed in the nineties through newly designed requirements for workers who were employed in subservient manual labour roles and proved to be efficient in routine tasks, but showed a lack of engagement in innovation[20]. The generation of new knowledge (in GIR) demanded collaborations and participation on all levels, engaging all people as individuals in productive work contributing knowledge to society”[21]. Large corporations downsized, refocused and restructured activities into independent commercial entities, with collaborations as informal-organisation[22] (without the structures of hierarchy) and representing its employees as a community[23]. Management theorist Paul Adler demonstrates how business strategies were explained in social contexts such us Trust becoming a central coordinating-mechanism[24]”. Due to the complexity of collaboration, cooperation, and collective decision making, the world seems to have become less transparent[25]; conventional democratic values have blurred.  The “sharing economy” is, according to Paul Mason, another definition for exploitation[26]. Marx´ visions about the power of knowledge as a tool for taking control over machines that was seen as a social force to which everyone is connected, made labourers conscious of their real conditions of life, which had the potential to blow up capitalism and accelerate a social revolution.[27] Mason follows this opinion presuming: “the rise of collaborative production eventually helps capitalism to kill itself”; now the Network takes up that role.[28]  Likewise Mason, Steven Shaviro terms neoliberal materialisation to extract surplus value[29]real subsumption”[30]: Dalek.png“We have moved from a situation of extrinsic exploitation, in which capital subordinated labor and subjectivity to its purposes, to a situation of intrinsic exploitation, in which capital directly incorporates labor and subjectivity within its own processes”.[31]
Fig 2. Private Eye No.1449  July-August 2017 P.15
ACCELERATIONISM Sadie Plant explains: Catastrophe is the past coming apart. Anastrophe is the future coming together. Seen from within history, divergence is reaching critical proportions[32]. Political, cultural and economic theories derive from dystopian fiction discussing the speed of modern uncontrollable life and the power of capitalism. Accelerationism is a thought that shows this route towards the end of humans, the speed in which they evolve and about how this could be dealt with. Nick Land´s right-accelerationist nihilist philosophy advocates popular far-right pseudoscientific ideas such as; “capitalistic humans”, the natural process of different races ”faring differently” in the modern world, and artificial intelligence “disintegrating the human species”.[33] He imagines the process of Alienation, also called Dark Enlightenment; an apocalyptic future of Dystopian Societies[34]; a self-destructive explosion caused through indefinite intensification of capitalism itself, possibly in order to bring about a technological singularity[35]: “Whatever is left behind becomes a weapon in your enemy’s hand. Best, then, to destroy what cannot be stolen”.[36] A more positive end is sought with #Accelerate Manifesto[37] by Nick Srnicek and Alex Williams proposing a Left-Accelerationism to solve “ever-accelerating catastrophes”[38]. They hold Neoliberalism[39]responsible for reactionary changes in the relationship between state and society since the 1980s[40] and which since 2008[41] is seen to “encourage new and aggressive incursions by the private sector into what remains of social democratic institutions and services”[42]. Srnicek and Williams note in their definition of folk politics, that in spite of desires for a better world, the effects of these movements prove to be minimal. The strategies of leftist movements are now seen by the likes of Srnicek and Williams as incapable of transforming society, due to the lack of a wider political direction, focus on localism, and inability to embrace new technology.[43] Additionally, the economic gain increased from attaching human emotion to mechanic applications, through business strategies as well as through social media, initiates new strategies to attain social-political change. Jodie Dean remarks this as in politics being reduced to issues of consumer choice which disables the presentation of a coherent opposition, democracy becomes a fantasy”[44]. Right and Left agree on democracy and use a democratic rhetoric to justify their positions; for the left to be successful, we have to communicate in a language that differs from the one we are currently using. NEW APPROACH The focus on local politics is criticised by global theorist Sebastian Conrad anticipating that the context of multiple manifestations of economic and cultural globalisation should be investigated.[45] Global history is a response to social challenges and the demand of immigrant societies for a more inclusive, less narrowly national perspective on the past.[46]. This akin to Marxist theorist Antonio Gramsci’s viewpoint[47] expanded by Srnicek and Williams’ manifesto; accelerating the technological advances of capitalist automation is seen as developing new opportunities for the future, for which they envision a homogenized equalitarian future without work. Would their proposed system of unconditional Universal Basic Income (UBI), which they believe will be an inevitable result of accelerating technology, liberate humanity from work, reduce poverty, expand freedom, and trigger growth by people investing in their selves? Several theorists claim that UBI would eliminate extreme poverty, create a classless society, and would require raising taxes at the higher ends of the wealth spectrum - the 1%.[48] No one would be forced into work, relationships will be radically transformed. A basic income would provide income to all persons regardless their market value. ken loach I, daniel blake.jpg
Fig.3 Film Poster: I Daniel Blake Ken Loach 2016.MV%BTQMZMTK4NV5BanBnXKTZTgwNTU5MJE4MDi
A Critique of an egalitarian society is expressed by Harry G. Frankfurt[49] who supports the principle that everyone should have enough, which is the level of individual contentment. Contentment is measured by the interest in actively obtaining more. That others would have secured more than others would not be of importance since everyone had secured enough[50]. But, since 2008 people are progressively unable to secure enough. Ken Loach’s film ‘I, Daniel Blake’ (fig.3) is an example of people in need of support provoking their “exclusion of benefits to which they were entitled and illustrates the abuses that the control system can produce”[51]. According to a Feminist perspective: “advocates of the UBI could reinforce their strong arguments based on social justice if they argued systematically from a more gender equality perspective” by linking human rights including gender and equality to provide dignity for everyone[52]. brad lichtenstein.png
Fig.4 NME 11 August 2017 p.11
FEMINIST VISIONS OF A TECHNOCRATIC WORLD In a collection of essaysfrom the nineties[53] Feminist thoughts critique theories, that dismiss cultural and historical links and theoretical lack of interest in gender. “Without an analysis of transnational scattered hegemonies that reveal themselves in gender relations, feminist movements remain isolated and prone to reproducing the universalising gestures of dominant western cultures”[54] More recent feminist critique is directed at a male-centric objectification associated with theories about Accelerationism: “The author wishes to personally insult anyone attracted by accelerationism by calling it a bout of dead white Ferrari envy, dripping from head to toe with stale testosterone.”  Hito Steyerl[55] This note was written as a commentary on the discussion about Object-Oriented Ontology (OOO) in contemporary art theory and practice”[56]; a symposium on tendencies in capitalism[57] as a critique on the “hyper-masculine-language” used by curator Armen Avanessian[58]: “It’s time to embrace objectification and cold materiality, and to accelerate the “energetic viscera” of capitalism to its finality rather than choose the path of withdrawal. “No time this time for catastrophism[59], the speculative is instead the time of anastrophism[60]” on the concept that “the past is unforeseeable and the future is now”[61]. The artwork that Hito Steyerl initially submitted to the accelerationism exhibition will be discussed later in this essay. First I would like to investigate feminist thoughts on OOO which was defined as: “‘objects’ in a wide sense, including human beings as well as anything that cannot be fully reduced either downward to its components (‘undermining’) or upward to its effects (‘overmining’) counts as an object, whether it be human, immaterial, durable or fleeting.”[62] OOO is discussed as the correlation between reality and the theorisation of objects which was further developed in the idea that objects obtain their own lives outside of human perceptions.[63] Feminists critique OOO as a superficial androcentric[64]theory of timeless cold materiality[65]. This critique contrasts with the ideas of “cyborg politics” of the nineties which hoped to eliminate the central dogma of phallogocentrism”[66] in which: “The microelectronics and the political invisibility of cyborgs that confused the lines of physicality”[67] embraced the materialization of bodies:[68] Donna Haraway was one of the first authors using the cyborg for feminist analysis and aims, and calls with A Cyborg Manifesto[69] for alteration of the concept of gender, for a world without gender, and for a reconstruction of identity, wherein individuals can construct their own groups by choice. DIVERGENCE IN GENDER IDENTIFICATION: CONNECTION TO HISTORY To understand divergence between OOO-and-Cyborg-feminist perceptions, traditional feminist perceptions need to be investigated that focus on re-theorization and the acknowledgement of women deprived of human rights, which cannot be dissociated from its historical context. The objectification of women and the mechanization of humans is a fact that has been extensively explored in art; initially dominated by male erotic fantasies coloured by Freud’s psychoanalyses[70] from the 1890s. Surrealist works express the repressed Libido and Thanatos[71] as unexposed desires that were thought to lead to destruction. The writings of De Sade[72] pictured human bodies as sexual devices and the use of machines to arouse and torment people[73], inspiring surrealist artists to possess female life-size dolls: a fascination for the corruption and destruction of innocence. In (Pop-)art reflecting on mass-media, mass‑production and emotional detachment; women are pictured as lust objects; pin‑up dolls, car-parts, pinball machines and as part of furniture designs.[74] 09GUERRILLASJP2-master675.jpg
Fig.5 Banner Guerilla Girls  09GUERRILLASJP2-master675.jpgLjpeg
By feminist standards, objectification of women in history is linked to contemporary issues and campaigns. For example the Guerrilla Girls, who stay anonymous for gender independence, point out that galleries in the past showed only 10% women artists and now show up to 20%, and protest about the fact that while 5% of the artists (in 1989) shown in museums were women, 85% of the nudes were (banner: “Do women have to be naked to get into the Met Museum?)”[75] (Fig.5) MATERIALIZATION OF BODIES IN A HOMOGENIZED WORLD Duchamp bride.pngHistorically, androgyny in artworks, reflect on the desire for a homogeneous mechanical world, in which the sexual union would resolve the polarities between men and women into a creative whole. This becomes an important concept in feminist theories within a technocratic world. An early representation of this is given by Marcel Duchamp’s´The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass 1915-1923) (Fig.6) although there is no doubt about the objectification of women in his work. This is a direct mechanization of human beings, interpreted by theorists as an example of a mechanical expression of sexual desire[76]. The headless body (of the Bride in esoteric and alchemical tradition) is interpreted as symbol of castration and links to Duchamp’s interests in the androgyne, the faceless hanged man female, and is seen as indication that he was preoccupied with the theme of transvestism[77]. Whereas feminists critique objectification, both Duchamp and Cyborg share interest in the materialization of bodies.
(Fig.6) The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even. The Large Glass 1915-23.  Marcel Duchamp (Tate).
PROMISE OF CYBORG The development of Cyborgs will explain why some feminist are interested in homogenisation. Computer games have changed the perception of science fiction, which was still predominantly male orientated in the eighties, became a reality to which a few women could progressively relate a decade later. A Robot of steel like Robocop[78] developed into a creator with the ability to metamorphose such as in Terminator. Whereas Robots were completely mechanical, androids in the eighties looked gradually more human and advanced into the computer animated cyborg. The development of the cyborgs´ transformability into any shape and intelligence changed the world for both sexes.[79] In Cyberspace sex is seen as the border between humans and technology[80] in which the loss of identity is compared with Eros and Thanatos. The new reality in cyberspace is a homogeneous world without sexes. Cyberpunk magazine[81] reflects on this virtual reality: its main character Topo leaves his mead[82] and spends time in the playing field with Neon Rose (her appearance is a Rose) and explains that living in pure consciousness is the most beautiful part of human existence: a space without limits or time, whilst in this space, it does not matter what or who you are[83]. Although the virtual reality from the nineties needed female perceptions[84] it provided hope for the elimination of sexism. The speed and ability of science fiction ideas as realistic tools for social political change, is a contemporary issue. Technology is a political power that humans have become dependent on. It is a new variation of Michel Foucault’s Panoptic Power[85] in that Anonymous Power is practised as a universal tool by all. This position evolved from Marx´ view of how a working class consciousness is formed by the human body as machine[86] into the pure consciousness of virtual reality-cyborg, and developed in trendy automatons of “real subsumption”[87].Now that desire is a piece of hard disc that can be ripped out and reprogrammed at any time in order to produce capitalism: is there a way back to libidinal authorship? The Matrix.png
(Fig.7) The Matrix directed by Lily and Lana Wachowski 1999. In The Matrix, reality as we know it is a simulation, used to control the human population.
PRODUCTIVE DESIRE Deleuze and Guattari[88] illustratedesire as a real productive force. They argue that Freud's psychoanalytical theory; Sublimation is the process of transforming libido into "socially useful" achievements, including artistic, cultural and intellectual pursuits, in the assumption that sexuality is everywhere; desire is part of the economic, infrastructural "base" of society (classical Marxism). In Anti Oedipus[89] Deleuze and Guattari describe desire as "desiring-machine" that functions through connections with various other machines and which in the process produces its own flow of desire, imagined as a universe of connected machines creating multi-functionality. François Lyotard calls this process dematerialization: material in serialism is not valuable in itself, but in the relationship of one term to the next. The fragmentation and abstraction of signs, in which recurrence and repetition; offer the libido new occasion for intensifications.[90] The desire that Deleuze and Guattari see as flow is a process which is a constant becoming and an opening to infinite possibilities. This process approaches the desire that Nick Land describes as Libidinal materialism[91] which: “Resists a relation of reciprocal transcendence against time, and departs from the rigorous passivity of physical substance without recourse to dualistic, idealistic, or theistic conceptuality. It implies a process of mutation which is simultaneously devoid of agency and irreducible to the causal chain”. This flow could be experienced as a blocked Chi[92] that persistently finds other exits. Events increasingly just happen and seem more out of control. For artists this might be a good state to be in. The flow of desire that Deleuze speaks of[93] could be interpreted as the material that offers itself to artists; which opens freedom and triggers new creativity and productivity. Acceleration serves as a conscious meditative state in an idealist world, which takes up any colour or shape, where social media serve as transmitters of social worlds without prejudice or responsibilities. ACCELERATIONISM IN CONTEMPORARY ART Acceleration has been characterised as reason and remedy for the challenges of the financial crises, ecological collapse, oppression and the mass‑media’s desire for immediate novelty. Artists respond to this by combining theoretical writings, cultural figures and processed sounds. Artificial and glamorous ideals of Network Culture and digital technologies are explored in an over-load of images[94] and artificial anonymous forces shape our world in a cyberpunk-derived dystopian alienated world[95] in which boundaries between nature, society, geology and architecture question what is natural, artificial and which time is reality.[96]  In these projects, the viewer is challenged to link all information; a complex world which purposely gives a confusing sense of time.[97] Since the nineties we experience time as: ‘The feeling of being in the midst of an ever-present flow of information and activity, of never quite having enough time’.[98] Several exhibitions have drawn attention to this, such as “Speed” 1989[99] studying the authenticity of pictures[100], places, moments and every-day routines[101]. Several artists investigated how much time we actually spend with producing an image or looking at an art work and the influence of production and consumption of images in our digitally networked world.[102] The exhibition ‘After Image’ 2017 shows this as an art-installation assembled from the works of several artists which directly shows the effect of artistic production[103]. Another exhibition investigates slowness: in ‘From Slow to Stop’ 2016[104] artists research temporality in which history is linked to the future and vice versa; reflecting on decay, and the disorientation of time[105]. cake goshga.jpg
(Fig.8) Ahmet Öğüt: Information Power to the People, in conversation with Goshka Macuga: The rainbow cake. Witte de with Center for Contemporry Art Rotterdam August-September 2017 Photo: Sandra Collée
AHMET ÖĞÜT: INFORMATION POWER TO THE PEOPLE A related view of the entrapment by time is shown in a recent exhibition in Rotterdam[106] showing works of Ahmet Öğüt: Information Power to the People, in a conversation with Goshka Macuga, both examining each other’s practices in “the representation of critical thinkers in the global imaginary”[107] Entering the exhibition a shelf with a piece of rainbow cake (Fig.8)  on a plate turns out to be the reason for a series of decisions that have affected their lives; there was no money left to buy a collectors-picture on a flea market. Macuga and Öğüt’s story of their experience of that same day turn out to be completely different. The concept of this exhibition developed through conversations and linking all works together as a whole dealing with time and affect. Anime figures explain how they died and about the destruction of exploding gas canisters. One side of the room shows Öğüts´ banner: “If you´d like to see this flag in colours, burn it”, followed by Goshkas´ burned copies of Guernica in the opposite corner of the room. (Fig.10) With Macuga´s porcelain vase of Marx is a new “life” created from history, whereas Öğüts sculpture: Where is Marx?, positioned on a trolley to be transported, waits for the creation of a new direction. (Fig.9) marx head 2x.jpg
(Fig.9) Goshka Macuga Vase of Marx and Where is Marx? Ahmet Öğüt: Information Power to the People Witte de With Center for Contemporary art Rotterdam 2017. Photo: Sandra Collée
Öğüt´s work reflects on the hundreds of unidentified artefacts being stored in rooms beneath museums: “in the near future there will be too many artworks, “creating a kind of ecological crisis of overpopulation”[108]. He has written an online proposal for a new type of museum that rethinks the collection not only as model of display, but as a constant series of non-permanent-interventions, using the already existing art in a museum “as a tool that could create new readings, understandings, misunderstandings, and new life for the collection”. Art needs to “reconnect with today’s public” and be more active about temporary changes[109]. “It’s time for the institutions to get more creative”.[110] In the second part of the exhibition The Show is Over, (starting 8th sept.2017): Macuga questions how destruction can challenge and change the recent political landscape.[111] A previous work of Macuga using an android[112] is a pre-investigation to this. AHMET ÖĞÜT INFORMATION POWER TO THE PEOPLE flag.jpg
(Fig.10) Goshka Macuga: Burned copies of Guernica. Ahmet Öğüt: banner: “If you´d like to see this flag in colours, burn it”. Information Power to the People  Witte de With Center for Contemporary art Rotterdam 2017. Photo: Sandra Collée
GOSHKA MACUGA: TO THE SON OF MAN WHO ATE THE SCROLL This work presents a post-human future of a male android that holds a monologue of constructed speeches from thinkers throughout history. The android was created by Macuga and produced by A Lab in Japan. (Fig.11) The historical texts and speeches are an archive of human kind, which gives it familiarity with Öğüt´s sculptures waiting to be stored for further use. The android passes on historical information to a destination past our time, so it is unknown for who it is kept for[113]. For this work she initially created a costume from the burned Guernica-painting, referring to destruction. (Fig.10) The detail of Macuga’s android possessing male features needs further investigation. In the interpretation that the title refers to Jesus digesting old laws and created new; we may forgive that Android is a man. The assumption that knowledge is transferred via men or that the work is revenge to objectification of women in history would be less satisfactory. The fact that this Android seems to get confused and regularly speaks nonsense alters initial opinions. Assuming that this later opinion is correct this work could be seen as analyses on the phallogocentric language that is used, which connects Macuga´s work to a critique on accelerationism addressed by Hito Steyerl.[114] android goshka.jpg
(Fig.11)  Goshka Macuga To t he Son that ate the Scroll 2016. Android created by Macuga and A Lab. http://artupdate.com Courtesy Schinkel Pavillon.
factory of the sun hoto.jpg
(Fig.12) Hito Steyerl video Installation: Factory of the Sun. Group exhibition on Accelerationism. Kraupa-Tuskany Zeidler Gallery 2013. www.ifa.de
HITO STEYERL: FACTORY OF THE SUN Steyerls´ actual work submitted to the accelerationism-exhibition[115] is a video installation: Factory of the Sun[116] (Fig.12) which is experienced from a deckchair in a black box surrounded by a luminous “matrix”. We are led through digital streams of information, economic, social and cultural distortions. The lines between game and reality are blurred; Germany now is a bank and protesters are regularly killed. Oppression by state-surveillance is characterized by Yulia, the programmer of the game, who forces slave labourers to create light impulses; (sunlight) by moving in a motion-caption studio. To fight against those in powers, the laborers in the game who are supposed to take orders and perform physical movements, do something else instead: they dance. These dances also define the speed of the changing images.[117] Steyerl shows that exploitation has become part of the system in which even natural phenomena are artificially recreated. Trendy refurbishments cover up catastrophes, which will lead to explosions. The Sun is probably not chosen coincidentally; being the largest and strongest power of the solar system believed to stop fusing hydrogen into helium and burn the Earth (in 5.4 Billion years). If we accelerate this process the end will be reached much sooner. From a feminist point of view, Steyerls´ work opposes the nihilist-accelerationist view of Land and Avanessian in their male-centred conception of objectification. This becomes clear in her offering a Marxist-left-accellerationst solution: the dancers divert from what they are told; but revolt with individuality and creativity releasing them from the capitalist system. Guschka Macuga and Hito Steyerl both integrated a world that connects via information examined for its accuracy and reliability, as well as that it inherits the feminist critiques of the nineties about the dismissal of cultural and historical links. Where Cyborg in Cyberfeminism looks for new ways to use technology as an instrument and medium for the termination of sex and gender[118], the contemporary Cyborg can be a transmitter of any information as well as recent Cyberfeminists  seek for an explosion of multiple-gender-types. A CALL FOR MORE ALIENATION: XF The Laboria Cuboniks collective[119] authored a Manifesto called Xenofeminism (XF) in which they call for more Alienation[120]. They propose to eliminate discrimination by disconnecting everything from being permanent or fixed, so that gender cannot be identified as a biological restriction. To some extent these ideas agree with cyborgs´ political materialisation of bodies, but they oppose ideas about homogenisation and elimination of gender. According to XF cyborg-politics informed about gender-related issues, but failed in finding actual political change. As "gender-abolitionists" XF seek to use existing technologies to re-engineer the world and hope to accelerate gender multiplication; an explosion of gender types in which its variety is so large that it becomes impossible to exclude anyone. They attempt to create this through "gender hacking"[121]: an open source platform for DIY hormone treatment.[122] XF acknowledge the inherent risks and tries to reduce them by connecting techno-political interfaces[123], enabling functioning through the strength of communities and acting directly on immediate issues. Additionally they debate with other accelerationists for a technocratic world with more gender-inclusion and hope to reach universal accessibility to technology. Although gender hacking could be experienced as a dangerous experiment; similar to other Accelerationist-Science Fictional proposals, their manifesto offers a different way of thinking and from its initial creation of a utopian world has the potential to become reality in the future. CONCLUSION: CYBER ACTION FIGURE All Accelerationists share a view that the route out of capitalism must be through it, through its end; some believe this will be achieved by radically destroying the world, others by following Marxist-socialist aspirations. How fast can core issues be linked, learned from, discussed, deleted and creatively exchanged when they prove unnecessary? In my opinion we need to invest in a constructive and rapid creation of creativity through solidarity. Solidarity has been defined by David Featherstone as the main factor for political change[124] it needs to generate similarities for mutual commitment beyond class, nationality, and ethnicity. Recent feminist theories prefer alienation, either in the materialisation of bodies or as an explosion of gender-multiplication and which needs to be redefined by connecting techno-political interfaces[125] . The economy is to be seen as an experience of multiple manifestations; it is a combination of cultural globalization, individual philosophies, scientific opinions, religion and most of all common sense[126]. Conventional democratic values are blurred by the incapacity of leaders to focus on this whole. Human emotion is attached to mechanistic applications and in this process the lines between Right and Left have faded as well as creativity diluted through real-creative-subsumption. New strategies and a new language are required to achieve social-political change. During the elections of 2017 Jeremy Corbyn seemed to have grasped a combination of Solidarity in the guise of a new language reaching out to large networks beyond the criticised localism (of folkpolitics).[127] But is this new strategy that opens social and technological horizons, enough to stop poverty and exploitation? Theorists believe that anonymous networks will rise and that accelerating and repurposing technology will contribute to capitalism's suicide. This is linked to desire which is seen as a useful social and political force. In this essay desire has been described as a mechanism that is a force, which structures the economy as an instrument, as well as a force driving people to revolt. I would like to investigate how desire can determine creativity. My suggestion is to connect the new language that is needed for social-political change to a Cyborg Action Figure and have fun playing with it. This figure connected to the Solidarity Cyborg Network for Social Change[128] could be transformed to any desirable individual, but is linked to all other cyborgs in the community, which come into action for social-political gain. The difference from existing networks such as “Anonymous”[129] is that the Cyborg Action Figure has a face, as well as being morphable for immediate change. Humans seem to believe that the space-less, timeless, anonymous cyber-space-earth is incapable of showing a face. But if we want to change the world; normalisation requires creative switching into several realities, rapidly checking the offer, swiftly changing one’s mind and immediately ridding oneself of ballast. If we were to live in a computer game, we would have to conquer the enemy. We need strategies on all levels, remembering which steps brought us into the next level and watching our backs to not trip on the way. Most of all we have a mission. Whatever it is, it promises happiness. The Enjoyment of playing with Cyborg Action Figure will teach us how to come into action by the reflections on our own play. We like to escape into a world that differs from everyday routines; therefore we should embrace time-travel. Although games in dystopian worlds impregnate fear of undesirable societies, humans have the ability to learn from this and return to reality. The choice is what matters. We don´t have to feed the tumorous cells that Nick Land is growing. If we do so it is a choice. Accelerationists avoid articulating meaning. Its mystery is ambiguous and leads to Science Fiction. Several theorists[130] believe that the future relies on pre-existing categories and definitions, and in linking communities. But most (male-) theorists’ neglect the levels that have been previously played that initially brought them to the next new level. If they want acceleration to conquer capitalist exploitation, they have to be creative; more creative than their enemies. Several artists have expressed the speed and time we live in by mapping, collecting and by linking all sorts of material and information. I believe that this process is induced by an initial desire to escape either in or out of imagination of the worlds that they reflect on. This desire has a negative connotation because it is linked to the idea of avoiding responsibility. The desire to escape should be designated a new language reflecting on the power of creation that can conquer capitalist exploitation through ideas as well as “It’s time for institutions to get more creative”.[131] The face that I allocate to issues is only another identification of the links in the flow of desires that other theorists expressed. Identity is what makes Cyborg Action Figure unique. For me, a homogeneous world is the world without faces; a castrated hanged-man-female. We could not grasp the whole of the world with localism, but we can by speeding into all levels of this world by identifying them. This needs a structured system with temporary faces to localize and label, whilst not wasting time on permanent categorisation and values. Phallogocentricm is as outdated and uncreative as being anonymous. If we want to change the world we need to be active and creative, and accept escape as productive desire for creativity in which there is space to slow down and reflect. In the temporary appearance of action figure, the thinking about Sexism is wasteful. Cyborg Action Figure comes into action for social-political justice through solidarity-networks that directly act on immediate issues. Cyborg Action Figure can be who you want it to be, but most of all, it is an extension of your own imagination that can help you construct a better life in reality and thereby create a better world. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham, F.D., 2007. Cyborgs, cyberspace, cybersexuality: The evolution of everyday creativity. Everyday creativity and new views of human nature, pp.241-259. Adler, P.S., 2001. Market, hierarchy, and trust: The knowledge economy and the future of capitalism. Organization science, 12(2), pp.215-234. Boas, T.C. and Gans-Morse, J., 2007. From New Liberal Ideology to Anti-Liberal Creed: The Problematic Evolution of the Term ‘Neoliberalism’. Unpublished paper, March, 9. Bogue, R., 2008. Deleuze and Guattari. Routledge. Brassier, R., 2014. Prometheanism and its Critics. Accelerate: The Accelerationist Reader, pp.486-87. Broadhurst, A.R. and Darnell, D.K., 1965. An introduction to cybernetics and information theory. Bryan-Wilson, J., 2009. Art workers: Radical practice in the Vietnam War era. University of California Press. Cambria, E. and White, B., 2014. Jumping NLP curves: A review of natural language processing research. IEEE Computational intelligence magazine, 9(2), pp.48-57. Conrad, S., 2016. What is global history?. Princeton University Press. Dale, R., Moisl, H. and Somers, H. eds., 2000. Handbook of natural language processing. CRC Press. Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F., 1988. A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Bloomsbury Publishing. Disalvo, J., 2015. Occupy Wall street: Creating a strategy for a spontaneous Movement. Science & Society, 79(2), pp.264-287. Dixon, T., 2017. ART & ACCELERATIONISM. Art Monthly, (403), p.1. Featherstone, D., 2012. Solidarity: Hidden histories and geographies of internationalism. Zed Books Ltd.. Foucault, M., 1977. Discipline and punishment. GAILE-SARKANE, E. and ŠČEULOVS, D., Cyberspace vs. Electronic Environment: The Case of Europe. Hall, G., 2016. The Uberfication of the university. University of Minnesota Press. Haraway, D. and Manifesto, A.C., 2000. Science, technology, and socialist-feminism in the late twentieth century. The Cybercultures Reader, 291. Hauser, M.D., Chomsky, N. and Fitch, W.T., 2002. The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?. science, 298(5598), pp.1569-1579. Hoofd, I.M., 2012. 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Marx & Engels Collected Works Vol 06: Marx and Engels: 1845-1848. Lawrence & Wishart. Marx, K. and Engels, F., 2002. The communist manifesto. Penguin. Marx, K., 1867. Das Kapital–Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (Capital–A Critique of Political Economy). Hamburg, Germany: Otto Meissner. McNally, M. and Schwarzmantel, J. eds., 2009. Gramsci and global politics: Hegemony and resistance. Routledge. Negarestani, R., 2014. The Labour of the Inhuman. Mackay and Avanessian,# Accelerate, pp.425-466. Ng, R. and Subrahmanian, V.S., 1992. Probabilistic logic programming. Information and computation, 101(2), pp.150-201. Noys, B., 2014. Malign velocities: Accelerationism and capitalism. John Hunt Publishing. Noys, B., Tracing the Invisible Time of the Present. O’Sullivan, S., 2015. Accelerationism, hyperstition and myth-science. Accelerationism and the Occult. New York: Punctum Books. Paola Merlo, Editor-in-Chief Computational Linguistics is Open Access MIT Press Journals. Vol 43, No 2 2017 Peck, J., 2010. Constructions of neoliberal reason. Oxford University Press. Peden, K., 2010. Ray Brassier: Nihil unbound: enlightenment and extinction. Continental Philosophy Review, 42(4), pp.583-589. Pilkington, N.W. and D'Augelli, A.R., 1995. Victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community settings. Journal of Community Psychology, 23(1), pp.34-56. Price, M.E., 2002. Media and sovereignty: The global information revolution and its challenge to state power. MIT press. Reed, P., 2014. Reorientate, eccentricate, speculate, fictionalize, geometricize, commonize, abstractify: Seven prescriptions for accelerationism. ACCELERATE: The accelerationist reader, pp.521-536. Rodríguez, R.A., Herrera, A.M., Quirós, Á., Fernández-Rodríguez, M.J., Delgado, J.D., Jiménez-Rodríguez, A., Fernández-Palacios, J.M., Otto, R., Escudero, C.G., Luhrs, T.C. and Miranda, J.V., 2016. Exploring the spontaneous contribution of Claude E. Shannon to eco-evolutionary theory. Ecological Modelling, 327, pp.57-64. Ryan, A., 2012. On politics: A history of political thought: from Herodotus to the present. WW Norton & Company  (de Saint-Simon, H., Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon explained). Schneider, S., 2013. After the Future. By Franco “Bifo” Berardi. Edited by Gary Genosko and Nicholas Thoburn. Democratic Communiqué, 25(2), p.44. Schwarz, A., 1973. The alchemist stripped bare in the bachelor, even. Marcel Duchamp, exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. Shabot, S.C., 2007. The grotesque body: fleshing out the subject. Thamyris/Intersecting: Place, Sex & Race, 15(1), p.57. Shannon, C.E., 1951. Prediction and entropy of printed English. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 30(1), pp.50-64. Shannon, C.E., definitions-claude e. shannon report a problem. Shaviro, S., 2015. No speed limit: three essays on accelerationism. University of Minnesota Press. Shields, L., 2016. On Inequality, by Harry G. Frankfurt. Disputatio, 8, pp.138-145. Smith, J.K. and Smith, L.F., 2001. Spending time on art. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 19(2), pp.229-236. Srnicek, N. and Williams, A., 2015. Inventing the future: Postcapitalism and a world without work. Verso Books. Szczuka, J.M. and Krämer, N.C., 2017. Not Only the Lonely—How Men Explicitly and Implicitly Evaluate the Attractiveness of Sex Robots in Comparison to the Attractiveness of Women, and Personal Characteristics Influencing This Evaluation. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 1(1), p.3. Taylor, V.E. and Lambert, G. eds., 2006. Jean François Lyotard: Politics and history of philosophy (Vol. 2). Taylor & Francis. Treister, S., 2006. From Fictional Videogame Stills to Time Travelling with Rosalind Brodsky, 19912005. Journal of Media Practice, 7(1), pp.53-65. Veblen, T., 2009. The theory of the leisure class. Oxford University Press. Verhagen, M., 2010. Slow time. Art Monthly (UK), accessed October. Wilson, E., 2015. Cyborg anamnesis:# accelerate’s feminist prototypes. Platform: Journal of Media and Communications, 6(2), pp.33-45.
Zenger, T.R. and Hesterly, W.S., 1997. The disaggregation of corporations: Selective intervention, high-powered incentives, and molecular units. Organization Science, 8(3), pp.209-222.
  WEBSITES
 
Is Basic Income Communism? – Gaura Rader http://gaurarader.com/2014/07/14/basic-income-is-a-viable-path-to-realizing-the-goals-of-communism-a-form-of-common-ownership-a-classless-society-and-an-end-to-the-dominance-relationships-and-alienation-produced-by-capitalism/ Radical Objects: Banksy’s ‘Monopoly’ http://www.historyworkshop.org.uk/radical-objects-banksys-monopoly/ The diagrammatic view of the 1950-1 Maze-solving Mouse built by Claude A. Shannon. 1950 - Maze-Solving Mouse - Claude Shannon (American) - cyberneticzoo.com http://cyberneticzoo.com/author/cyberne1/ An introduction to cybernetics and information theory: Quarterly Journal of Speech: Vol 51, No 4  Allan R.   Broadhurst,  Donald  K.  Darnell 2009 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00335636509382744?src=recsys& The end of capitalism has begun. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jul/17/postcapitalism-end-of-capitalism-begun The End of Capitalism Has Begun - Waking Times http://www.wakingtimes.com/2015/07/23/the-end-of-capitalism-has-begun/ Gary Hall - Media gifts - Neoliberal Subjectivation http://www.garyhall.info/journal/2016/2/15/neoliberal-subjectivation.html Critical Legal Thinking Saying ‘We’ Again: A Conversation with Jodi Dean on Democracy, Occupy and Communism: http://criticallegalthinking.com/2012/11/06/saying-we-again-a-conversation-with-jodi-dean-on-democracy-occupy-and-communism/ Accelerate-Introduction.pdf https://www.urbanomic.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Accelerate-Introduction.pdf Speeding and Braking: Navigating Acceleration Conference | Exhibition | Performances, Goldsmiths, University of London: https://www.gold.ac.uk/calendar/?id=9889 White Mountain on Vimeo https://vimeo.com/152102082 we | polakvanbekkum http://www.polakvanbekkum.com/we/ Ana Vaz, Even Magazine http://evenmagazine.com/portfolio-ana-vaz/ Haraway-CyborgManifesto-1.pdf http://faculty.georgetown.edu/irvinem/theory/Haraway-CyborgManifesto-1.pdf Jeremy Corbyn’s speech to the Scottish TUC - Jeremy Corbyn MP: http://jeremycorbyn.org.uk/articles/jeremy-corbyns-speech-to-the-scottish-tuc/ Paul Mason vs Progress: ‘Decide whether you want to be part of this party’ – full report | Red Pepper

http://www.redpepper.org.uk/paul-mason-vs-progress-decide-whether-you-want-to-be-part-of-this-party-full-report/


[1] Occupy Movement who occupied Paternoster Square in front of St Paul’s Cathedral in London –outside the stock exchange. The British artist Banksy contributed a Monopoly installation.
[2] Accelerationism: how a fringe philosophy predicted the future we live in | World news | The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/may/11/accelerationism-how-a-fringe-philosophy-predicted-the-future-we-live-in
[3] Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, (1972) Capitalisme et schizophrénie. L'anti-Œdipe, Les Éditions de Minuit, Paris, France
[4]  Lyotard J-F (1974) Économie Libidinale,Les Éditions de Minuit, Paris, France
[5] Journal #46 - June 2013 Steven Shaviro Accelerationist Aesthetics
[6] by Jacques Derrida to refer to the privileging of the masculine (phallus) in the construction of meaning
[7] http://www.definitions.net/definition/Cyberfeminism
[8] can be understood as a societal fixation on masculinity whereby all things originate
[9] Describes an environmental orientation which perceives the earth as a resource whose use is determined primarily by human needs and interests and whose environmental problems are overcome through human innovation.
[10] #Accelerate
[11]  “Crises do not endanger the capitalist order; rather, they are occasions for the dramas of “creative destruction” by means of which, phoenix-like, capitalism repeatedly renews itself.” E-fflux Journal #46 - June 2013 Steven Shaviro Accelerationist Aesthetics: Necessary Inefficiency in Times of Real Subsumption http://www.e-flux.com/journal/46/60070/accelerationist-aesthetics-necessary-inefficiency-in-times-of-real-subsumption/
[12] A machine that mimics cognitive functions of the human mind. Artificial intelligence derived from Claude Shannon experimenting with an electromechanical mouse in the 1950s http://cyberneticzoo.com/mazesolvers/1951-maze-solving-mouse-claude-shannon-american/
[13] Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages. Article "Prediction and Entropy of Printed English"(1951) http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/myl/Shannon1950.pdf
[14] The aim of a probabilistic logic (also probability logic and probabilistic reasoning) is to combine the capacity of probability theory to handle uncertainty with the capacity of deductive logic to exploit structure of formal argument.
[15] Information theory studies the quantification: the act of counting and measuring that maps human sense observations and experiences into quantities and the storage, and communication of information. Rodríguez, R.A., Herrera, A.M., Quirós, Á., Fernández-Rodríguez, M.J., Delgado, J.D., Jiménez-Rodríguez, A., Fernández-Palacios, J.M., Otto, R., Escudero, C.G., Luhrs, T.C. and Miranda, J.V., 2016. Exploring the spontaneous contribution of Claude E. Shannon to eco-evolutionary theory. Ecological Modelling, 327, pp.57-64
[16] Computational Linguistics is computational and mathematical properties of language and the design and analysis of natural language processing systems.http://www.mitpressjournals.org/toc/coli/43/2 https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/computational-linguistics/
[17]Cybernetics as philosophy that insists that from the point of communication, the human organism is not essentially different from a machine. (Norbert Wiener professor of mathematics 1948) An introduction to cybernetics and information theory Allan R. Broadhurst and Donald K. Darnell. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00335636509382744?src=recsys
[18] Cyberspace vs. Electronic Environment: The Case of Europe Elīna Gaile-Sarkane And Deniss Ščeulovs Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management, Riga Technical University, 1/7 Meza Street, Riga, LV-1048, Latvia
[19] Seal, D.W., Benotsch, E.G., Green, M., Snipes, D.J., Bull, S.S., Cejka, A., Lance, S.P. and Nettles, C.D., (2015). The Use of Internet Chat Rooms to Meet Sexual Partners: A Comparison of Non-Heterosexually Identified Men with Heterosexually Identified Men and Women. Int J Sex Health. 27(1): 1–15. Published online 2014 Jun 3. doi:  10.1080/19317611.2014.918921
[20] The disaggregation of corporations: selective intervention, high powered incentives, and molecular units. Todd R. Zenger  William S. Hesterly  Organization Science/ Vol. 8, No 3, May- June 1997 209
[21] Alan Ryan. On Politics. Book II. 2012. pp. 647–651.
[22] Often sophisticated information systems, innovative incentive arrangements and strong social ties support the complex exchanges. disaggregation of corporations: selective intervention, high powered incentives, and molecular units p. 211
[23] Paul S. Adler (2001) Market, Hierarchy, and Trust  Chapter: The Power of Community and Trust Organization Science/ 12(2) 215–234
[24] “Compared to pure authority and price, Trust makes possible an enlarged scope of knowledge-generation and sharing”. PAUL S. ADLER Market, Hierarchy, and Trust  Chapter: The Power of Community and Trust ORGANIZATION SCIENCE/ Vol. 12, No. 2, March–April 2001
[25] “Lack of hidden agendas or conditions, accompanied by the availability of full information required for collaboration, cooperation, and collective decision making.”
[26] Paul Mason, The end of capitalism has begun 2015 https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jul/17/postcapitalism-end-of-capitalism-begun
[27] The free trade system hastens the social revolution. It is in this revolutionary sense alone, gentlemen, that I vote in favor of free trade.  Marx, Karl, On the question of free trade, Speech to the Democratic Association of Brussels, Jan. 1848 ““The quicker the pace of this development, the sooner and the more fully will be realized its inevitable results”. “Markets being unable to absorb the ever growing mass of the production of industry; productive forces expanding to such a degree that they rebel against the social institutions under which they are put in motion; “The only possible solution: a social revolution, freeing the social productive forces from wage slavery” Preface by Frederick Engels for the 1888 English edition pamphlet.
[28] ”like the workshop 200 years ago  – that they “cannot silence or disperse”: neoliberalism was the first economic model in 200 years the upswing of which was premised on the suppression of wages and smashing the social power and resilience of the working class. PostCapitalism: A Guide to our Future Paul Mason, The end of capitalism has begun 2015 https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jul/17/postcapitalism-end-of-capitalism-begun
[29] Marxian economic concept that professed to explain the instability of the capitalist system. Karl Marx held that human labour was the source of economic value. The capitalist pays his workers less than the value their labour has added to the goods, usually only enough to maintain the worker at a subsistence level. Neoliberal capitalism today lures us with the prospect of living “the most intense lives, lives of maximized (individual and social) investment and maximized return” (James), while at the same time it privatizes, expropriates, and extracts a surplus from everything in sight. (Steven Shaviro Accelerationist Aesthetics)
[30] Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri’s expanded redefinition of “subsumption: In formal subsumption, capital appropriates, and extracts a surplus from, labor processes that precede capitalism, or that at the very least are not organized by capitalism. In real subsumption, there is no longer any such autonomy; labor itself is directly organized in capitalist terms
[31] E-flux Journal #46 - June 2013 Steven Shaviro Accelerationist Aesthetics: Necessary Inefficiency in Times of Real Subsumption
[32] Sadie Plant & Nick Land / Cyberpositive: http://www.sterneck.net/cyber/plant-land-cyber/
[33] Beckett A, 2017 accelerationism: how a fringe philosophy predicted the future we live in, The Guardian, 11/05/2017 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/may/11/accelerationism-how-a-fringe-philosophy-predicted-the-future-we-live-in
[34] Science fiction world. Dystopian societies are often used to draw attention to real-world issues regarding society, environment, politics, economics, religion, psychology, ethics, science, or technology.
[35] Artificial general intelligence would escape from self-improvement cycles, which generates more intelligence generation rapidly, causing an intelligence explosion and resulting in a powerful super intelligence surpassing all human intelligence.
[36] The Dark Enlightenment, Nick Land (part1).
[37] #ACCELERATE MANIFESTO for an Accelerationist Politics: http://criticallegalthinking.com/2013/05/14/accelerate-manifesto-for-an-accelerationist-politics/
[38] The threats which face humanity, termination of water and energy reserves, mass starvation, mass unemployment, and increasing automation #ACCELERATE MANIFESTO for an Accelerationist Politics Alex Williams and Nick Srnicek
[39] Journal articles published from 1990 to 2004, trace the genesis and evolution of the term neoliberalism throughout several decades of political economy debates. These articles show the transformation, from a positive label by the German Freiberg School to denote a moderate renovation of classical liberalism, to a normatively negative term associated with radical economic reforms in Pinochet’s Chile. Initially Neoliberals sought to associate economic liberalism — the freedom of individuals to compete in the marketplace — with the freedom from state intervention. The early neoliberals primarily considered re-organisation of the economy as a means to achieve worldwide political goals such as peace between nations. Current usage of the term neoliberalism no longer signifies a new form of liberalism, but has become a “vague term that can mean anything as long as it refers to normatively negative phenomena associated with free markets”. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12116-009-9040-5#CR33
[40] often related to the Thatcher and Regan years
[41] Financial crisis
[42] This is in spite of the immediately negative economic and social effects of such policies, and the longer term fundamental barriers posed by the new global crises
[43] Inventing the Future, Postcapitalism and a World without work. Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams
[44] Interview with Jodie Dean: Saying ‘We’ Again: A Conversation with Jodi Dean on Democracy, Occupy and Communism http://criticallegalthinking.com/2012/11/06/saying-we-again-a-conversation-with-jodi-dean-on-democracy-occupy-and-communism/
[45] http://toynbeeprize.org/global-history-forum/global-history-as-past-and-future-a-conversation-with-sebastian-conrad-on-what-is-global-history/
[46] Book: What is Global History? Sebastian Conrad P.2
[47] The philosophy of an epoch cannot be any systematic tendency or individual system. It is the ensemble of all individual philosophies, and philosophical tendencies, plus scientific opinion, religion and common sense. Gramsci, Antonio (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks. International Publishers, New York, NY, USA. Geoffrey N. Smith (Translator), Quintin Hoare (Translator) p 455)
[48] Is Basic Income Communism? Gaura Rader. http://gaurarader.com/2014/07/14/basic-income-is-a-viable-path-to-realizing-the-goals-of-communism-a-form-of-common-ownership-a-classless-society-and-an-end-to-the-dominance-relationships-and-alienation-produced-by-capitalism/
[49] “The false belief that economic equality is important for its own sake leads people to separate the problem of estimating their proper monetary ambitions from the problem of what is most fundamentally significant to them”.  On Inequality, by Harry G. Frankfurt. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2015, 120 pages, ISBN: 9780691167145
[50] http://www.disputatio.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Shields_On-Inequality-by-Frankfurt.pdf
[51] basic income in a feminist perspective and gender analysis Pdf
[52] Universal basic income in a feminist perspective and gender analysis Pdf :1468018116686503: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1468018116686503
[53] Grewal, I. and Kaplan, C. eds., 1994. Scattered hegemonies: Postmodernity and transnational feminist practices. U of Minnesota Press.
[54] Grewal, I. and Kaplan, C. eds., 1994. Scattered hegemonies: Postmodernity and transnational feminist practices. U of Minnesota Press.
[55] Group exhibition on Accelerationism. Kraupa-Tuskany Zeidler Gallery 2013
[56] Object-Oriented Ontology https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137430328_40
[57] Touching on ’14.12.13′ at Kraupa-Tuskany Zeidler
[58] And co author of #Accelerate: The Accelerationist Reader
[59] Theory that changes in the earth's crust during geological history have resulted chiefly from sudden violent and unusual events.
[60]  (according to Nick Land and Sadie Plant) Anastrophe is the future coming together.' anastrophic' has been looked up 238 times, is no one's favourite word yet, is on no lists yet, has no comments yet, and is not a valid Scrabble word. In writing: words are written out of order. Poets often use anastrophe in order to help maintain rhythm or a rhyme scheme. Though the use of anastrophe is less common in prose, it is often used in order to create a sense of depth or wisdom to the words being written.
[61] Further hyper-masculine-language :“seize” reality and perform creative “abductions”, to revel in the unpredictability of the present and the future via the radical contingency of the material world Touching on ’14.12.13′ at Kraupa-Tuskany Zeidler | atractivoquenobello: http://www.aqnb.com/2013/12/23/touching-on 14-12-13%E2%80%B2-at-kraupa-tuskany-zeidler/
[62] Touching on ’14.12.13′ at Kraupa-Tuskany Zeidler
[63] tool-being Graham Harman 2002. Things.pdf: http://www.shaviro.com/Othertexts/Things.pdf
[64] can be understood as a societal fixation on masculinity whereby all things originate
[65] Armen Avanessian
[66] by Jacques Derrida to refer to the privileging of the masculine (phallus) in the construction of meaning.
[67] Donna Haraway, "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century," in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York; Routledge, 1991), pp.149-181.
[68]  “ours is a world that is everywhere and nowhere, in which bodies are redistributed through a technological economy” Donna Haraway
[69] Science Technology and socialist feminism in the late twentieth century”. Not Now? Feminism, Technology, Postdigital Caroline Bassett
[70] To release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious.
[71] Signifies the instinctual physiological or psychic energy associated with sexual urges and with all constructive human activity. In the latter sense of eros, or life instinct, libido was opposed by thanatos, the death instinct and source of destructive urges; the interaction of the two produced all the variations of human activity. Freud considered psychiatric symptoms the result of misdirection or inadequate discharge of libido. (Research S.Collée Art and Sexuality 2000).
[72] De Sade, M., 2013. 120 days of Sodom. Simon and Schuster, New York, USA.
[73] Sublime Dreams of Living Machines By Minsoo Kan
[74] Roy Fox Lichtenstein, I know how you must feel Brad; Tom Wesselman and Mel Ramos´ pin-up dolls; Peter Phillip´s car parts; and Pinball boxes in which women are part of the game; Allen Jones presents women as furniture.
[75] The Guerrilla Girls: 30 years of punking art world sexism | Art and design | The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/apr/29/the-guerrilla-girls-interview-art-world-sexism
[76]  “a mechanical and cynical interpretation of the phenomenon of love” Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: The Bride Shared By David Hopkins
[77] https://msu.edu/course/ha/850/schwarz1.pdf
[78] Verhoeven F (1984) Robocop, Orion Pictures, USA
[79] Examples of these developments are: J.C Ballard´s fiction, films like Eve of Destruction, Terminator, Man and Machine, Cyberpunk and computer games characters like Lara Croft in Tomb Raider. In The Matrix, reality as we know it is a simulation, used to control the human population.
[80] Szczuka, J.M. and Krämer, N.C., (2017). Not Only the Lonely—How Men Explicitly and Implicitly Evaluate the Attractiveness of Sex Robots in Comparison to the Attractiveness of Women, and Personal Characteristics Influencing This Evaluation. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 1: p.3.
[81] 1990 released a fully-painted two issue miniseries titled Cyberpunk. The series was written by Innovation art director Scott Rockwell and painted by Darryl Banks.
[82] Rockwell, S. (1989). Cyberpunk. Book one, 1 (1).  Innovative Inc, Wheeling, WV, USA:
[83] Research Art and sexuality 2000 Cultural Studies, Sandra Collée U Tilburg, The Netherlands
[84] Topo turned into a muscular creature of hard steel and why Rose into a faceless plant
[85] Michel Foucault Discipline and Punish
[86] “The science which compels the inanimate limbs of the machinery, by their construction, to act purposefully, as an automaton, does not exist in the worker’s consciousness, but rather acts upon him through the machine as an alien power.” Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, 1867, 1885, 1898 von Otto Meisner Verlag Hamburg
[87] Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri’s expanded redefinition of “subsumption: In formal subsumption, capital appropriates, and extracts a surplus from, labor processes that precede capitalism, or that at the very least are not organized by capitalism. In real subsumption, there is no longer any such autonomy; labor itself is directly organized in capitalist terms
[88]  “Every unconscious libidinal investment is social” Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, (1972) Op. cit.
[89] Deleuze and Guattari Op. cit.
[90] Jean François Lyotard: Politics and history of philosophy edited by Victor E. Taylor, Gregg Lamber
[91] Libidinal Materialism: Nick Land’s Philosophy of Desire  https://socialecologies.wordpress.com/2012/11/04/libidinal-materialism-a-philosophy-of-desire/
[92]  (or QI) the life energy that flows through the body’s energy pathways -- by combining movement, breathing and meditation.
[93] Fitzgerald, J., & Threadgold, T. (2007). Desire and the abject in the city becoming-other. Cultural Studies Rev, 13(1): 105.
[94] R Macleam (2017) Wot U :-) About? Tate Britain London, UK 15/11/16-9/4/17
[95] For example  John Russell in Leech 2016 http://www.johnrussell.org/Web%20pages/Artworks/Exhibitions/Solo/A_Leech.html or. Joey Holder´s work Nematode or. Joey Holder´s work Nematode Craig K, Holder J, Shiomitsu T, Revell I (2015) Nematode Wysing Arts Centre, Cambridge, UK http://www.joeyholder.com/nematode/
[96] For example: “A Idade Da Pedra” 2013 by Ana Vaz in which a landscape is transformed into a new construction of history linked to the future.
[97] Art collaboration Plastique Fantastique (2017) Loud Shadows, Oerol Festival, Terschelling, The Netherlands, 2017 http://plastique-fantastique.de/filter/The-Netherlands/Loud-Shadows
[98] Tim Dixon. Curator and Researcher, Feb 17 | Art Monthly | 403 http://www.artmonthly.co.uk/magazine/site/issue/february-2017 https://www.suzannetreister.net/info/reviews/artmonthly403_TD.pdf
[99] Flavin, Hamilton, Gursky, Hapaska, R.Graham (Sep - Nov 1998) Speed: Visions of an Accelerated Age: Whitechapel Art Gallery, London
[100] Hölzl, I. (2011) The Photographic Now: Intermédialités: Histoire et théorie des arts, des lettres et des techniques/Intermediality: History and Theory of the Arts, Literature and Technologies 17: 131-145.
[101] Shinkle, E. (2004). Boredom, repetition, inertia: contemporary photography and the aesthetics of the banal. Mosaic: An Interdisciplinary Critical Journal, 37(4): 165-184.
[102] Tom Estes work asks how much time we take to look at an artwork, and therefore shows his work “Blitz” (2009) for one minute only.
[103] Exhibition ‘After Image’ at Nottingham Contemporary 2017
[104] Manchester’s Holden Gallery
[105] For example: White Mountain by Emma Charles: 16mm docu-fiction film in which a famous nuclear bunker in Stockholm is redesigned in 2008, into the Pionen Data-Centre.
[106] a two-part exhibition in the Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art, Rotterdam, Ahmet Öğüt (17 June – 20 August), with the second part to follow with Goshka Macuga (8 September – 31 December).
[107] Goshka Macuga & Ahmet Öğüt - Long-Term - Our Program - Witte de With: http://www.wdw.nl/en/our_program/long_term/goshka_macuga_amp_ahmet_t
[108] Blog: http://www.ahmetogut.com/ahmetwebworldpolicy.html
[109] such as including people with a professional background who can no longer gainfully practice their trade due to their status and their exclusion through the political and social system refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants ahmet ogut | World Policy Blog: http://www.ahmetogut.com/ahmetwebworldpolicy.html
[110]Kaelen Wilson-Goldie on the 13th Istanbul Biennial - artforum.com / scene & herd: https://www.artforum.com/diary/id=43205
[111] Goshka Macuga & Ahmet Öğüt  Episode 2 Exhibition opening 8 Sept.2017. On the website a changing list of links and thoughts from Goshka Macuga towards: The Show is Over http://www.wdw.nl/en/our_program/exhibitions/goshka_macuga_amp_ahmet_t_episode_2
[112] at Fondazione Prada, Milan February 4–June 19, 2016
[113] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aviDzEITL6Q
[114]  “dead white Ferrari envy, dripping from head to toe with stale testosterone”.
[115] Group exhibition on Accelerationism. Kraupa-Tuskany Zeidler Gallery 2013
[116] German Pavilion of the 56th Venice Biennale 2015
[117] a 23-minute-long movie projected on a big screen http://kunsthalcharlottenborg.dk/en/exhibitions/hito-steyerl/
[118] http://www.definitions.net/definition/Cyberfeminism
[119] who authored the manifesto "Xenofeminism: A Politics for Alienation"
[120]"After Accelerationism: The Xenofeminist manifesto". &&& Journal 11/6/2015. http://tripleampersand.org/after-accelerationism-the-xenofeminist-manifesto/ Retrieved 25/08/2017
[121] The project Open Source Gendercodes is an example of gender hacking.
[122]Xenofeminism: Let a hundred sexes bloom!: Xenofeminism: Let a hundred sexes bloom!: http://www.cafebabel.co.uk/society/article/xenofeminism-let-a-hundred-sexes-bloom.html
[123] critically examining the interface between space and digital technologies
[124]  “challenge forms of oppression”. Solidarity is not “liking each other”; it needs arguments and disagreements in order to effect change, David Featherstone (2012) Solidarity: Hidden Histories and Geographies of Internationalism, Zed Books, London
[125] critically examining the interface between space and digital technologies
[126] Gramsi op cit
[127] http://jeremycorbyn.org.uk/articles/jeremy-corbyns-speech-to-the-scottish-tuc/      Paul Mason vs Progress: ‘Decide whether you want to be part of this party’ – June 24, 2017      http://www.redpepper.org.uk/paul-mason-vs-progress-decide-whether-you-want-to-be-part-of-this-party-full-report/
[128] Imagination S.Collée
[129] Global Political network party
[130] Reza Negarestani, XF
[131]Kaelen Wilson-Goldie on the 13th Istanbul Biennial - artforum.com / scene & herd: https://www.artforum.com/diary/id=43205

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