The present research was conducted to measure professional commitment of Faculty. The study examined the relationship between age, formal education, degree major and faculty satisfaction. The Herzberg motivation theory is painstaking as the foundation of this study in which the motivational and the hygiene factors were used. The promising, higher education sector, is embattled in the present research study. Faculty of the higher education were the sample of the study. The employees were asked to fill the demographic survey and the Gallup organization model. The statistical tools were used to analyze the data and to determine the relationship of the independent variables and the dependent variable. The statistical analysis of the data revealed the fact that faculty did not show any relationship with age and formal education level. However, the degree major showed a positive relationship with the faculty satisfaction. It means that employee’s age or qualification does not affect the job satisfaction but major area of qualification affects their satisfaction.
Key Terms: Formal Education, Degree Major, Faculty, Professional Commitment
Due to the increasing competition, the educational organizations have to grow with higher pace than earlier. To maintain rapid growth; best resources are needed including the human resource. Academic professionals’ e.g. faculty- in educational institutions; performing vital role to make the best attractive working platform for new learners. Human resource personals develop the culture of fairness, equity among the employees to portray the positive image of the organization (Reid 2006).
In the context of Pakistan, little secondary published data concerning to academic/faculty satisfaction, is available. It is easy to control many factors, so collection of primary data has been carried out using electronic questionnaire and careful designing of questions; focusing specific norm and values and cultural context.
Job satisfaction has been prompted by attempts to address the issues of industrial action, quitting and individual `happiness’ at work. Researchers have also been interested in the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity and pecuniary and non-pecuniary reward. Following the seminal work of Hamermesh (1977) and Freeman (1978) economic studies of job satisfaction can be divided into those considering the workforce as a whole (e.g. Clark, 1996; Clark and Oswald, 1996), those analysing professional groups such as lawyers (Laband and Lentz, 1998), nurses (Shields and Wheatley Price,
1999; Shields and Ward, 2000) and academics. (Sloane and Ward 2001)
Fuller (2006) commented that the Faculty are going through a transformation phase. They are not only the data entry personals but also they are also becoming the internal consultants of the organizations to guide on complex legal employment issues. A survey of multiple business sectors from 4400 Faculty found out that with the passage of time the employee turnover ratio is increasing (ibid).
Rau-Foster argued that the HR professionals are not only responsible for the development of good workplace culture but they are also responsible for other employee related tasks such as labor relations, compensation and training etc. the success of the department is measured by the job satisfaction surveys (Rau-Foster 1999). Need to add some other part….
The human behavior of need fulfillment was better understood after the proposition of the Maslow’s theory (Maslow 1943) of motivation. As Nelson and Quick (1997) suggested that in an organization the Maslow’s theory also includes identification of processes or tools that arouse and sustain the motivational and goal directed behavior of the employees.
As employee performance and job satisfaction; has a strong relationship with the motivational theory. Various researchers in their studies defined and evaluated the correlation. Many organizations from different areas of research have studied in context of job satisfaction; and noted commonalities among compensation, benefit programs, promotional criteria and job security. The Herzberg two factor motivation hygiene theory was the major focus of the previous studies on job satisfaction (Barrette & Myrick, 1998; Koelbel, Fuller, & Misener, 1991; Salvitt, Stamps, Piedmont, & Haase, 1978; Timmreck, 2001) psychological factors such as work, responsibility, recognition and achievement were referred by Herzberg (Hersberg, Mauser et al. 1959).
There are a number of studies on factors affecting job satisfaction but research about degree, age and the formal education of employees is limited. The result of a survey showed that a relationship exist between education and job satisfaction (Clifford 1984).
Therefore, a study on the relationship of age, education, degree major and job satisfaction could provide further understanding of the satisfaction of faculty.
In order to maintain the productivity within an organization along with controlling the increasing costs, employee performance has been the focus area of academic scrutiny. The organizations today are focusing on maximizing employee performance along with the maximization of the job satisfaction (Adeola 2014). There are many studies that focus on the areas which cause the dissatisfaction among the employees at workplace (Bassett 1994).
Reid (2006), suggested that employee satisfaction is critical as they have to contribute to the overall culture of the organization. Fuller stated that as the trend for turnover is increasing for Faculty, the requirement for more specialized skills and abilities has increased.
Due to the increasing demand of skilled Faculty, the organizations must determine the elements of job satisfaction to retain the employees (Simon 2004).
The intention behind this research is to explore the relationship between formal education; degree major, age and job satisfaction of the Faculty. Reid (2006), stated that the Faculty serve as the ambassadors of work place job satisfaction. The Herzberg motivational theory is considered as the theoretical framework of this study. Faculty were selected as sample for the current research study. Respondents were asked to complete a survey related to demographic variables and a Gallup organization model survey. The research design of correlation was used to determine the statistically significant relationship between the variables.
Profitability, customer loyalty, quality and financial strength of an organization are the result of job satisfaction at workplace (Bassett 1994). There are many studies that concluded that education is the key factor in the employee job satisfaction (Clifford 1984).When the employees are satisfied with their work and the socialization at work place, their turnover ratio is decreased (Bassett 1994). Fuller (2006), discusses the conclusion of a survey which states that the turnover ratio of the Faculty has increased many times than earlier. The main cause of this increase in the turnover ratio was described as the job dissatisfaction of the employees. Simon (2004), cites a problem that the organizations focus on the turnover data while they should focus on its cultural causes.
The major benefit that the organizations can get from this research is that it would help them in designing job description and determining the role of education in job satisfaction. The employees now understand the importance of training and skills for job performance (Greengard 2001). Other benefits from this research may include building of formal educational programs for job satisfaction and succession of the employees (Johnson 2005). The survey by Johnson (2005), stated that only few employees know the importance of their formal education and the purpose it serves in their professional life. Another benefit that this research could provide to the organizations is that they can arrange the in-service educational training programs, workshops, seminars and conferences for faculty according to the requirements of that educational organizations; which increases the satisfaction level of the faculty.
2 LITERATURE REVIEW
Due to the fact that all organizational functions depend upon the results of the analysis therefore the results must be accurate for better performance (Morgeson and Campion 1997); but as it involves the human judgment and memory so the biasness of the researcher affects the accuracy of the results (Goldstein, Zedeck, & Schneider, 1993; Morgeson & Campion, 1997). Research studies have explained that the Faculty deal with multiple factors that contribute to the job satisfaction of all the employees of the organization.
Travia (2004) and Gazzara (2003) have provided a broader thinking in the area of job satisfaction and concentrated more on its relationship tasks through the research (Travia 2004) it was concluded that employees view this relationship differently.
Job satisfaction is considered as the dependent variable while its independent variables include age, and major and formal education of the employees. Since 1970s job satisfaction has gained importance in the eyes of the researcher more than other factors and the research showed that there is a positive relationship between formal education and job satisfaction (Weaver 1980). Other independent variables such as age, occupation and income also showed a positive relationship with job satisfaction. In their study (Weaver 1980), considered age and occupation as independent variables in determining job satisfaction level (dependent variable). This previous study results displayed positive relationship between the above mentioned variables (Weaver 1980).
Weaver (1980), concluded there were no significant relationship before 1964, however the relationship started to build after 1964 and the studies after 1970 showed a positive relationship between the variables. Although a positive relationship was determined between the variables but the job satisfaction has been consistently stable during this period. His studies proved the claim of constant stability of job satisfaction thus he suggested that the job satisfaction does not respond to changes that the society goes through.
The studies of Quinn et al (1974) contradicted with the studies that described the job satisfaction as stable. The study suggested that during 1958 to 1964 all the national surveys showed that either there is no relationship between job satisfaction, age, income and occupation or there is a negative relationship between them. They conducted a series of studies that stated that the job satisfaction of employees in United States has decreased significantly.
Gonzalez (2008), suggested that changes took place in all categories researched. A significant trend was present that showed the decline in satisfaction was greater for males as opposed to females. Their research also showed that a significantly larger increase took place for older workers and workers with lower skilled positions. The study concluded in three fundamental reasons that created a downward shift to include demographic changes in the workforce, specific requirements of the jobs were becoming vague, and employees were expecting to get more out of the job they were performing.
Batt and Colvin (2011), studied on the contributing factors associated with employees leaving an HR company that works in traditional versus nontraditional environments. The study included the variables of age, gender, formal educational level and task type. In this study included human resource personals were included with response rate 68.7 by 413 participants (Batt and Colvin 2011). The participants were divided into two distinct groups. One of the groups was titled sales representatives and the second group included technical consultants. The sales representative depicted that this level of employee was tasked with bringing in new business into the organization. The technical consultant was an HR professional that provided human resources information systems, payroll, employee-manager self-service, recruitment and training and development services (Batt and Colvin 2011). The statistical data demonstrated that age, gender, formal educational level and job type did not contribute to employees wanting to leave an HR company; these however contribute to the overall satisfaction. The data analysis showed that the variable of age, gender, formal educational level, and job type had no correlation to overall job satisfaction; the study also demonstrated that job satisfaction was a strong indicator on whether or not employees would leave the organization (Batt and Colvin 2011).
The researcher described that age, gender and job type had a negative relationship with the job satisfaction but had a positive relationship for the employees who work in a non-traditional environment. (Gonzalez 2008), describes that through this positive relationship organizations can focus on job advancement, ability utilization, technical supervision and working conditions. Gonzalez (2008), also described that 38.2% of the variance for the overall intent to remain within an organization was contributed to job advancement, ability utilization, technical supervision and working conditions. The other factors such as Age, gender, type of job and formal educational level had no contribution to the result (Gonzalez 2008).
The data showed that the age group of 64 years or above had a satisfaction rate of 71.3%. The lower group aged between 18 to 29 years had a satisfaction rate of 42.3%. The author of this study suggested that younger workers are in positions that are not creative and tactical in nature. Older workers however are at the positions that allow for creativity and specialization in their specialized field. Smith (2007) concluded that employees who grow older and move up the ladder will show higher levels of job satisfaction and in this way general satisfaction had remained constant for the last 40 years due to this dynamic.
Through their research Shyer and Catsouphes (2007) described that older employees in the workplace are significantly more satisfied with their job than younger employees. They further suggested that age has a direct connection between job satisfaction and retention of the older employees. Boston College surveyed a group of older employees in 2006. The purpose of this survey was to understand the reasons behind the retention of the older employees at workplace. The data collected from this survey was also analyzed by Smyer and Catsouphes (2007) to determine the correlations existed between age group and workplace satisfaction among other variables. They used a correlation methodology to determine any potential relationships(Smyer and Pitt-Catsouphes 2007). The authors suggested that age was a big contributor to job satisfaction, but other variables also contributed to the necessity of older employees remaining in the workplace (ibid). Some more factors other than age that contributed to their job satisfaction were revealed such as financial factors, health and vitality (ibid).
Harris (2005) studied that 59% of older employees had a high level of acceptance that pride in their job was more important. While 37% of younger employees between the ages of 18 to 34stated that pride was important in their job and 48 % of employees ages 35 to 54 years old stated pride was important. The study above suggested that age is an indicator to levels of job satisfaction.
A study was conducted by a staffing agency to determine the level of job satisfaction of older employees reporting to younger managers. The survey had 567 respondents working in an office environment and 84% of employees stated that they would not mind working for younger manager. The study revealed that 89 % of the young office employees surveyed stated they would not be bothered by supervising older employees. A Likert scale was used to collect the data, and after the interpretation it was concluded that Companies recognized the benefits of having diverse workforce arranged in teams, and employees do not get embarrassed to report to a younger supervisor. In these cases, the boss’s management abilities are more of a factor in employee job satisfaction than his age. Only age revealed a negative impact on the relationship with job satisfaction (Ganzach 1998).
Horn and Zahn, (2001) conducted a statistical analysis to determine the relationship between degree majors and job satisfaction. 9274 participants at the bachelor’s degree level participated in the research. These participants were surveyed four years after the completion of their schooling and none of them were enrolled or graduated from a graduate degree program (Horn and Zahn 2001). This population was chosen due to the fact that 70% of the sample was entering the workforce immediately after completing the bachelor’s degree. The research concluded that business was the highest chosen major among other possible fields of study (ibid). The data resulted from the study showed that out of the 13 majors’ researched; the business major was not ranked in the top 50 percentile of having job satisfaction (ibid).Among other majors engineering, architecture, and computer science majors were ranked to be the most satisfied. Another fact that was revealed through this study was that the student that chose business as their major was an average of 30 years old or older, thus supporting previous studies demonstrating the older employee are more satisfied(Smyer and Pitt-Catsouphes 2007).
The data from the analysis demonstrated that the degree major did have a relationship with the satisfaction of the employees(Horn and Zahn 2001). The sample was the employees who were working for 4 years and the result was that the employees from the engineering, architecture, and computer science were the most satisfied. Higher salaries and better benefits were also considered in this research. Students that had chosen other majors, such as business, were offered lower salaries and more costly benefits thus leading to lower satisfaction levels during their employment (Horn & Zahn, 2001; Smyer&Catsouphes, 2007).
Human resources professionals today are required to have competencies in business and law majors (Millar, 2006). Another researcher Fatemi (2001) stated that there is no significant relationship between degree major and job satisfaction. Fatemi (2001) conducted a study to illustrate possible relationship between job satisfaction and the perceptions of the graduate after entering the workforce. The sample size was 1955 which included 1850 graduate level and 105 doctoral level students completing their degree between 1994 to 1998(Fatemi 2001). The four degree majors including Educational Leadership, Counseling/Human Organizational studies, Teacher preparation and Special education were studied during the research (ibid). The relationship of job satisfaction to work effectiveness, faculty role and academic preparation was also considered in this study.
2.4 Formal Education
The research on formal education and job satisfaction has started since 1970’s but the early studies had different outcomes. Quinn et al., (1974) reviewed 15 different surveys conducted by research organizations on job satisfaction in 1974. He found a constant relationship between job satisfaction and formal educational. The researcher stated that the data of the study demonstrated that levels of job satisfaction had not changed during the time period which also includes the surveys between 1972 through 1978. Weaver (1980) negated the statement and described that age and formal education did have a variance worth discussing. There was a major difference between the college graduates and the matriculated students(Weaver 1980). Through the surveys between1958 to 1964, Weaver (1980) demonstrated a negative relationship between job satisfaction and formal education. 4 national surveys of the years 1972 to 1978 were reviewed by the researcher constituting a sample of 4709 American employees. He compared the results with his previous research (1958 to 1964) and found that a positive relationship had developed between the formal education and job satisfaction. The variables for this study included the level of formal education, age, the degree major and the level of job satisfaction. The results were contradictory with the results of the research of Quinn et al., (1974).
Zaring (1990) conducted a research on the relationship between registered nurses and job satisfaction. 1300 nurses were taken as the sample from two state nursing boards and found that no relationship existed between formal education and job satisfaction(Zaraing 1990). The nurses were having different degrees such as 274 had nursing diploma certificates, 207 had an associate’s degree in nursing, 193 had a bachelor’s degree in nursing, and 6 had a master’s degree of nursing. The study concluded that nurses who had degrees higher than the diploma certification showed higher levels of dissatisfaction (ibid).
DeSantis and Durst (1996) conducted a study to compare the job satisfaction between government and private sector employees. The researchers found that a negative relationship existed between job satisfaction and formal education(Desantis and Durst 1996). The researchers demonstrated that the employees are more dissatisfied when they are more educated (ibid).
Different methodologies are utilized to complete the research studies on age, formal education, degree major, and job satisfaction. Different variables were used by the researchers to demonstrate the relationship of age, formal education and degree major with job satisfaction.
In this section, the literature was reviewed for choosing those variables and for the development of the research questions.
Many studies have been conducted on job satisfaction since the early 1930’s using different variables to determine their relationship to satisfaction (Weaver 1980). Different variables have been included for these researches that include age, gender, formal education and major qualification to determine the potential relationship with job satisfaction(Steers 1977). A study was completed to determine the relationship among different demographic variables and job satisfaction(Scott, Swortzel et al. 2005).
Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and Capwell (1957) and Scott et al., (2005) stated that demographic variables play an important role in determining the job satisfaction of the employees.
Grant conducted a research in 2006. The purpose of the research was to determine the level of job satisfaction of the middle level managers of student administration. He found a little variance between satisfaction and dissatisfaction among the middle level employees of the administration(Grant 2006). Grant (2006) categorized his sample into age groups from 21 – 30 years, 31 – 40 years, 41 – 50 years, 51 – 60 years and 60 years and older. The researcher found that the age group from 51 – 60 had the highest level of satisfaction and the age group of 60 and above was secondary in their level of satisfaction (ibid). Formal education was categorized as Bachelors, Masters, Specialist, EdD or PhD and Juries Doctorate degree. The data demonstrated that the PhD/EdD showed the highest level of job satisfaction. The data also revealed a contradictory point that the individuals that obtain a Juries Doctorate degree had the lowest level of job satisfaction among all of the Bachelors, Masters and Specialists degree holders (ibid).
Another study was conducted among the professionals of student affairs and concluded that a relationship exist between gender, age, formal education, major degree and the job satisfaction(Cook 2006). The researcher considered a sample size of 66 employees of student affairs. For this research formal education was defined as having obtained a Bachelor’s degree, Master’s degree, Doctorate degree or other (ibid). The sample responded was 4.5% had a bachelor’s degree, 65.2% had a master degree and 27.3% had a doctorate degree and only 2% were having obtained a different degree major. The analysis demonstrated that the PhD/EdD had the highest level of job satisfaction, the Master’s degree following second and the Bachelor’s degree third (ibid). Cook (2006) also mentioned age as a strong variable that showed a positive relationship with job satisfaction. The age was not categorized into groups rather two variables of Herzberg hygiene satisfaction theory were found connected with this variable. The analysis of the data showed that employees under the age of 30 years did not show any relation with achievement and satisfaction but the employees above 30 years of age showed a significant relationship (ibid).
Horn and Zahn (2001) demonstrated that a positive relationship did exist between the degree major and overall job satisfaction. Their study was focus around the fields of business, humanities, health related majors, and computer science. The most important finding was that of all fields, there was only a little variation between different degree majors. It was suggested that a significant difference did exist regarding financial compensation between degree major(Horn and Zahn 2001).
Fredrick Herzberg is considered as one of the most important contributing researchers of motivational theory in the workplace(Bassette-Jones and Loyds 2005). Herzberg had the idea that motivation in the workplace has two fundamental distinctions that contribute to job satisfaction.
These are termed as intrinsic and extrinsic which were later explained as hygiene and motivational factors (Hersberg, Mauser et al. 1959). Through the continuous research Herzberg developed the Two-Factor Motivational Hygiene Theory(Bassette-Jones and Loyds 2005). This theory describes motivational and hygiene factors and their effect on workplace motivation(Hersberg, Mauser et al. 1959).
Herzberg suggested that by understanding the difference between hygiene factors and motivational factors, a researcher can understand the basic reasons of dissatisfaction in the workplace(Hersberg, Mauser et al. 1959). Herzberg described the hygiene factors as extrinsic factors such as the environment. It may include policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relationships, and workplace environment. While the motivational factors include achievement, type of work, recognition, responsibility, and promotions are the factors that contribute to creating satisfaction (ibid).
An initial study was conducted by Herzberg on accountants and engineers to determine the factors of job satisfaction. The participants were asked to give comments in a situation when they felt positive about their job as well as negative. They were also asked to tell the reasons why they felt positive or negative (ibid). Herzberg et al., (1959) stated that the positive factors that were found in this study were the work itself, the recognition, promotional opportunities and the reasonability. While the negative factors included the existing working conditions, company policy, interpersonal relationships, supervision, job security, salary and personal life. Herzberg found that if motivating factors were present, the likelihood that the employees were satisfied was greater. He also found that both motivating factors and hygiene factors could co-exist at the same time; but it was the absence of either of the factors that contributed to the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the employees. The motivational factors such as achievement may explain the possible relationship of how formal education may be related to the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of Faculty. This theory may help to demonstrate the relationship of formal education and the level of job satisfaction for an HR employee. Many other researchers such as Wignall (2004), Grant (2006), and Cook (2006) used the theory for a lot of industrial tests.
Wingell (2004) conducted a study to determine the relationship of formal education level with job satisfaction. In this study the researcher used the Herzberg Two-Factor Theory. This study was focused on the relationship between education level and job satisfaction of the Florida State Prison industry employees. 450 inmate employees were measured across 10 prisons within the Florida state. A data sheet was submitted by all participants to include the highest level of education obtained. This study demonstrated the achievement factor in the form of educational level to have a significant value in the measurement of job satisfaction.
The population was categorized on the basis of three different job titles: General Work Assignment, Agricultural jobs and Traditional Prison Industries(Wignall 2004). The data showed that the employees with an educational level below eighth grade had the lowest level of job satisfaction and the employees with a college degree or higher had the highest level of job satisfaction (ibid).
Grant (2006) conducted a research to measure the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction for mid-level managers in the student affairs administration field. The study included six variables to measure the job satisfaction. These include formal education level and currently seeking a degree(Grant 2006). Grant described that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors were important; however, formal education and seeking a degree demonstrated moderate significance to the overall level of job satisfaction; thus those who had degrees or were in the process of obtaining one showed moderately higher levels of satisfaction. The research was focused at the middle level management in the fields of enrollment management, co-curricular, leaning assistance, and student development. The primary condition while selecting the sample was a 4 years’ experience in the relevant field.
Grant (2006) stated that the data revealed the level of education was moderately significant, achievement and responsibility showed significant relationship with the job satisfaction.
Cook (2006) also conducted a research study constituting 10 variables to determine their relationship with job satisfaction of the employees working for student affairs. These variables include the educational level of the employees.
The data showed that employees with a doctoral degree were significantly more satisfied than those with a master’s or bachelor’s degree. Employees with a master’s degree had higher levels of job satisfaction than those with a bachelor’s degree but not a doctorate degree. Employees with a bachelor’s degree showed high levels of job satisfaction but not as high as master or doctoral level employees(Cook 2006).
Usually the quantitative research is utilized to discover the potential relationship of 2 or more variables(Davis 1997). According to Charles (1998; 30), “when you use surveys and data to research a problem, it is best to utilize the quantitative methodology to provide yourself with statistical information which one can base a conclusion on.” One of the approaches that can be utilized is a correlation research method(Jefferies 1999). For this type of research, the researcher seeks to develop an understanding of the possible relationship between variables through the use of collected data. A correlation analysis however is different than it does not seek causation, rather only focuses on the potential relationship between variables (ibid). Charles (1998) stated that the use of test and questionnaires are the most important tools when conducting descriptive research. The first study that was researched using this approach was Wignall (2004). In this study, the researcher wanted to understand if a relationship between gender, age, race, education, length of sentence, and tenure contributed to overall job satisfaction for Florida State prisoner industry employees. The researcher utilized a correlation research design to measure the differences between the above mentioned variables and the overall job satisfaction(Wignall 2004). The quantitative approach was utilized due to the researcher having to obtain survey data to be analyzed through a regression analysis methodology (ibid). Charles (1998) stated that the use of different research designs depended solely on the questionnaire. In another study the researcher investigated the interrelationship between job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and multiple variables. The descriptive analysis was used as the research methodology and also a correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship(Cook 2006). The researcher used variables such as age, highest degree earned and gender as (ibid). In the studies cited above, similar variables and research methodology were used. Additional studies that used the quantitative research approach were Scott et al., (2005) to determine the relationship between the variables of age, gender, formal education for extension agents. Horn and Zhan (2001) conducted a study to determine the relationship between the degree major and job satisfaction. This study also utilized a quantitative research approach and included the same variables such as age, gender, formal education in their study.
Correlation research allows the researcher to determine the relationship between one or more variables(Hatfield, Faunce et al. 2006). When using a correlation analysis, the researcher does not create any type of influence on the variables being tested, rather they seek only to understand and determine potential relationships that existed between the variables(Seigle).When conducting correlation research, and the result may be a positive or negative relationship. It is also described that the variables being studied can have a positive, negative or no relationship (ibid). Siegle (n.d.) stated that strength is also a component of the correlation research analysis. Strength is used to describe the level of the existing relationship. The strength can be either negative or positive from 0 to +/- 1.00 in the variable. An example of a correlation research analysis and job satisfaction is Hall (1999). This study was focused on determining the relationship between conflict management styles and job satisfaction of the California community college police chiefs and security directors. Variables used in this study included age, gender, ethnicity, and employment duration as it relates to job satisfaction. The researcher found that the variables did have only marginal relationships with job satisfaction(Hall 1999).
Payson (1988) conducted another study including the variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, educational level and decision making style and used the correlation analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the above mentioned variables and job satisfaction for psychiatric nurses. The data showed that age, gender, ethnicity and educational level had no significant relationship to job satisfaction and the decision making model for psychiatric nurses(Payson 1988).
Job satisfaction is one of the most researched and controversial topics in organizational psychology(Judge and Church 2000). The researchers have found different results based on their data from the sample. Some of them found a positive relationship and others have found that no relationship exists between job satisfaction and other demographic variables(Judge and Church 2000). Job satisfaction has been linked to have both a positive and negative relationship with formal education, degree major, age and other demographic variables (Weaver, 1980; Goetze, 2000; Quinn et al., 1974). Franco (2005) stated that most Americans today are unhappy with their jobs. A sample of 5000 US households were taken and 50% stated they were satisfied with their job and only 14% stated they were very satisfied(Franco 2005). Franco stated that different factors contributed to the negativity of today’s working environment. These factors include technological advancements, increasing demand of workforce and the job expectations. Different groups were studied and two of them a showed a highest decrease in the job satisfaction since ten years. The employees from age group 35 to 44 had the highest job dissatisfaction level. The group ranging from 45 to 54 was the other group that showed dissatisfaction(Franco 2005). The researcher stated that there are many other factors that should be researched to increase the job satisfaction of the employees.
Mercer HR consulting group (2007) conducted a survey of over 3000 HR professionals. Many industries across the world were included in this survey. These include textile goods, manufacturing, food, tobacco, beverage, cosmetic, banking and financial services, general business, chemical and pharmaceutical firms etc (Mercer, 2007). The purpose of this survey was to understand the level of job satisfaction of Faculty (Mercer, 2007).
In this survey 39 % respondents were males and 61 % were females. The respondents were of different ages ranging from 22 years to 43 years. The survey resulted in a fact that the Faculty are having a high turnover ratio. The group stated that the organizations must have a clear knowledge about the factors of job satisfaction of the Faculty.
There were many studies resulting in a positive or negative relationship of job satisfaction with other variables. Through the literature it was found that there is a lack of consistency in the relationship of job satisfaction with other variables. Roth (1986) stated that the research studies on the job satisfaction considered it as the overall job satisfaction rather than any specific area. Therefore it was suggested that it is more accurate to broke the variables and consider them individually to understand and measure the job satisfaction.
Formal education is an important variable that is used to measure the job satisfaction. There found a strong relationship between formal education and job satisfaction in some studies. There are some other studies that measure the level of job satisfaction through the degree but the degree major was not considered as a variable of job satisfaction in those studies.
Fatemi (2001) stated that his research did not show any positive relationship of job satisfaction with the degree major but its contribution can be considered to measure the other variables of job satisfaction. Desantis and Durst (1996) surveyed the public sectors and government employees to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and formal education. The study concluded that dissatisfaction increases with the increase in the education of the employees. The limitation of the study was that it was not an industry specific research.
The strength of this study is that Herzberg Motivational theory was used as the foundation because Herzberg motivational theory is considered as the most appropriate foundation for the research of workplace satisfaction(Bassette-Jones and Loyds 2005). The theory has been used as foundation in many research studies (Bassette-Jones &Loyds, 2005; Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman 1959; Mumford, 1972; Wignall, 2004; Grant, 2006; Cook, 2006).
The use of the Abridged Job Descriptive Index as the measurement tool of job satisfaction was another strength of this study. There are many other tools to measure job satisfaction the JDI is considered as the most reliable and valid tool(Balzer, Kihm et al. 1997).
The Job Descriptive Index was originally introduced in 1969 and has been tested in over 1600 research projects. It is revised many times to enhance the effectiveness of the tool and to generate the more precise and accurate results (ibid). Blazer et al., (1997) stated that in while reviewing a JDI, it was found that it held the same predictive properties and values as the whole Job Descriptive Index.
The methodology and variables used in this research also contributed to the strength of the research. The researcher found that a quantitative research analysis was used to measure the level of job satisfaction. It was also found that the variables of age, formal education and degree major were included in many other studies (Bassette-Jones &Loyds, 2005; Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman 1959; Mumford, 1972; Wignall, 2004; Grant, 2006; Cook, 2006)
In the present study, researcher used correlation analysis and quantitative analysis to determine any possible relationship between formal education, age, degree major and job satisfaction of Faculty. Regression analysis was also used to determine the relationship between variables.
Regression analysis is considered as the important tool used in correlation analysis(Williams, Zimmerman et al. 2003).
Some variables may influence each other therefore the use of multiple variables in a research can affect the data(Davis 1997). Davis (1997) stated that to determine the relationship between variables correlation analysis is the best tool. He also stated that correlation research does not seek causation, but rather it seeks the effect of independent variables on the dependent variables(Davis 1997).
The demographic part of the questionnaire allowed the researcher to collect information about age, gender, formal education, degree major, employment duration etc. The other part of the questionnaire consisted of the Gallup organization model which is composed of 12 questions to determine the job satisfaction. Data collected from the demographic survey and the Gallup organization model was entered and computed though the use of a statistical package titled Statistical Package for the Social Sciences(SPSS 2011).
This study focused on a sample of the most important department of the organization which is HR. The industry focused in this study was the telecom industry of Pakistan which is a large private sector of the economy. The HR professional were required to fill out a demographic survey and complete the Gallup organization model. A correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between formal education, age, degree major and the job satisfaction.
3.3 Selection of Sample
Sample selection for this research study was done by using a purposeful sampling procedure. The focus of this research was on a specific group of Faculty therefore purposeful sampling was useful to collect the data (Trochim 2006). The sample size was determined by conducting a power analysis(Tabachnik and Fidell 2001). The sample size for this study was 46 human resources employees working in the following areas: employee relations, training, learning and performance, benefits, payroll, recruitment, HR information systems, HR communication and HR senior leadership.
This research entailed the use of the following variables:
Criterion Variable – Level of job satisfaction in the workplace as defined by the Gallup organization model. The model consists of 12 questions to measure the job satisfaction survey.
Predictor Variable – Formal Education Level as defined by the following:
Have completed a bachelor’s degree
Have completed a master’s degree
Have completed a professional degree to include a Doctorate
Predictor Variable – Age – Respondents were asked what age they currently are at the time of taking the demographic survey and the Gallup organization model.
Predictor Variable – Degree major – Respondents were asked what major their degree was in if they have one.
The researcher used the Gallup organization model as the scale to measure the job satisfaction. 12-questions job satisfaction survey developed by the Gallup organization is used for the current research. The 12 questions were outlined by the employees of the organization, Buckingham and Coffman in 1999 (Buckingham and Coffman 1999)
The higher education was chosen due to its increasing importance internationally and the whole country. All currently employed human resources employees were considered as part of the sample. The data collected through demographic part of the questionnaire and the Gallup organization model was used to statistically analyze the relationship of the variables.
The following research questions lead the research:
- Does the age of the faculty affect satisfaction?
- Is there any significant relationship between the formal education and faculty satisfaction?
- Is there any significant relationship between major qualification and satisfaction of faculty?
By knowing as to how far formal education level, age and degree major affect the job satisfaction of the employees, the organizations can build better job descriptions that must fit with the faculty positions. It can also help in arranging the educational programs to train, promote and retain the employees (Fuller 2006).
4 Results and Discussion
Multiple regression analysis was used in this research to analyze the data. Howell (2004) described that it is a statistical technique to find the direction and strength of the relationship of the independent variables and the dependent variables. This analysis helped in measuring the relationship of the independent variables such as formal education, age, degree major and the dependent variable, job satisfaction(Howell 2004).
The variables that were considered in the multiple regression analysis were formal education, degree major, age and job satisfaction. The SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was used as facilitating software to analyze the data(SPSS 2011).
The Pearson correlation analysis helped to determine the strength of the relationship. A regression analysis was further conducted to determine if a significant relationship existed between age, degree major and job satisfaction. Upon completion of the statistical analysis, all data was presented to demonstrate the values found and represented by the data set. The ranges of scores determined by the data were discussed in detail; the mean demonstrates a mid-range average represented by the data, standard deviations were discussed and overall analyses of the findings are explained.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between job satisfaction, formal education, age and degree major of Faculty. The target population for this study was the human resources professionals currently working for higher education in Pakistan. Numerous statistical analyses were conducted to include demographic analysis, job satisfaction analysis, multiple regression analysis and ANOVA analysis and correlation coefficient analysis.
There were 150 questionnaires send to different Faculty. Out of which 89 are received back. Turnover was 59%. 13 questionnaires were rejected because they were partially filled. To analyze demographical features of sample descriptive statistics was used. Job title analysis shows that senior HR Officer made 30% of sample. Sample consists of 76% males and 24% females.16 managers having master degree. Human resource managers made 32% of sample. Mostly Faculty have experience of 11-15 years in sample.
The next test on data was to check the reliability of data. The acceptable value of Cronbach’s alpha is 0.7. If the value of Cronbach’s alpha is below 0.7, it means that the questions are not reliable for the test. In this research, Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the reliability of the questions.
Table 1: Cronbach’s Alpha Results
|Cronbach’s Alpha||N of Items|
The above table displays the value for Cronbach’s alpha as .744- it shows that items were reliable. The value lies in the acceptable range therefore it confirms the reliability of the data. Following table shows that reliability would not increase even when item if deleted scale was used.
Table 2: Cronbach’s Item if deleted statistics
|Scale Mean if Item Deleted||Scale Variance if Item Deleted||Corrected Item-Total Correlation||Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted|
|I know what is expected of me at work||45.6447||24.632||.300||.737|
|I have the materials and equipment to do my work right||45.8553||24.685||.369||.729|
|Every day, I have the opportunity to do what I do best at work||45.9342||25.022||.301||.736|
|I have received recognition or praise for doing good work in the last seven days||45.5263||25.613||.235||.743|
|My supervisor or someone seems to care about me as a person||45.6842||25.499||.244||.742|
|Someone at work encourages my development||45.9868||22.146||.578||.700|
|My opinions count at work||45.5263||25.639||.240||.742|
|The mission/purpose of my company makes me feel that my job is important||46.4868||24.253||.307||.737|
|My co-workers are committed to doing quality work||45.9868||22.146||.578||.700|
|I have a best friend at work||46.0789||23.700||.340||.733|
|At work, someone has talked to me about my progress in the last six months||45.9737||22.613||.550||.705|
|I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow in the last year||46.1842||23.432||.479||.715|
The table shows the mean, variance, correlation and Cronbach’s alpha of each question of the Gallup organization model. The value of Cronbach’s alpha of each question is 0.7 or above 0.7. Therefore it confirms the reliability of the items and also the reliability of the results.
4.3 HYPOTHESIS TESTING
H1: There is a statistically significant relationship between formal educational levels and job satisfaction for Faculty.
This hypothesis was tested by performing a Pearson Moment Correlation analysis with a 99% confidence level. This question was designed to determine the level of strength between formal qualification levels and job satisfaction for human resources employees. Table 3 shows that statistical facts of the data.
Table 3: Correlation
|Job Satisfaction||Age||Qualification level||Major|
|Job Satisfaction||Pearson Correlation||1||.011||.216||.476**|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
The table shows that the strength of the relationship between formal education and job satisfaction is only 21.6 %. This percentage is too low and unacceptable therefore it is stated that there is a weak relationship between qualification levels and job satisfaction.
Table 4: Model summary
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
Predictors: (Constant), Qualification level
From Table 4, R square shows the 10 percent of variance in the job satisfaction (dependent variable) is predictable from the independent variable (qualification level). It also shows that up to 10% degree major as independent variable can predict job satisfaction (dependent variable). Adjusted r square value of 0.02 is considered weak, 0.13 moderate and 0.36 large contributions so the hypothesis is rejected.
Table 5: ANOVAb
|Model||Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
The hypothesis is accepted when the value of p is less than 0.05. If the value is more than 0.5, the hypothesis is rejected. The value of p from table 5 verifies the rejection of the hypothesis.
4.3.2. Hypothesis 2
H2: There is a statistically significant relationship between degree major and job satisfaction for Faculty.
Hypothesis 2 was tested by performing a Pearson Moment Correlation analysis with a 99% confidence level. This question was designed to determine the level of strength between degree major and job satisfaction for human resources employees.
|Job Satisfaction||Age||Qualification level||Major|
|Job Satisfaction||Pearson Correlation||1||.011||.216||.476**|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
Results of Pearson Correlation show that there is a relationship between degree Major and job satisfaction. The strength of the relationship is 47.6 %.
Table 7: Model Summary
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
|Predictors: (Constant), Major|
R square in table 7 shows 22.7 percent of variance in the job satisfaction (dependent variable) is predictable from the independent variable (degree major). It also shows that up to 22.7% degree major as independent variable can predict job satisfaction (dependent variable). Adjusted r square value of 0.02 is considered weak, 0.13 moderate and 0.36 large contributions .So the hypothesis is accepted.
Table 8: ANOVAb
|Model||Sum of Squares||Df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), Major|
|b. Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction|
From the above table the value of p lies in the acceptable range of the test. It shows that there is a strong relationship between major area of qualification and job satisfaction. Therefore it verifies the acceptance of the hypothesis.
H3: There is a significant relationship between age and job satisfaction for Faculty. Hypothesis 3 was tested by performing a Pearson Moment Correlation analysis with a 99% confidence level. The question was designed to determine the level of strength between age and job satisfaction for human resources employees.
Table 9: Correlation
|Job Satisfaction||Age||Qualification level||Major|
|Job Satisfaction||Pearson Correlation||1||.011||.216||.476**|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
Results of correlation show a very poor relationship between job satisfaction and age.The result of the test is only 1% which is too weak and unacceptable. Therefore on the basis of these result the hypothesis is rejected.
Table 10: Model Summary
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), Age|
R square shows the 0 percent of variance in the job satisfaction (dependent variable) is predictable from the independent variable (age). It also shows that up to 0% age as independent variable can predict job satisfaction (dependent variable). Table 11 verifies the rejection of the hypothesis on the basis of value of p.
|Model||Sum of Squares||Df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), Age|
|b. Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction
From the above table the value of p lies in the unacceptable range of the test. It shows that there is a weak or no relationship between age and job satisfaction. Therefore it verifies the rejection of the hypothesis.
5 Summary and Conclusion
The purpose of this study was determine the significance; how and to what extent the demographic characteristics including; age, formal qualification, degree major, effects job satisfaction of the faculty. The researcher utilized the Gallup organization model as the reference to measure the job satisfaction of the faculty through correlation and predictive values. The research surveyed 76 faculty currently working in the universities. Previous studies concerning job satisfaction were reviewed- and found that the studies used the same variables. But none of the study was specific to the Faculty. Goetze (2000) only measured the job satisfaction level between the traditional and non-traditional employees. In comparison to the studies conducted on job satisfaction for other research areas; faculty satisfaction of universities in Pakistan are limited. This gap needs to be fulfilled. This study will add the knowledge to the limited existing literature about faculty in the context of the Pakistan. It will also help the universities to understand the implications of these variables in the career path.
The researcher also reviewed the demographic information and the areas of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The purpose of this research was to provide information to both academic as well as employers. The problem in this study was to determine the relationship of age, formal education, degree major and the job satisfaction of the Faculty. The researcher used the regression analysis, correlation analysis and the ANOVA for the statistical data analysis.
The results of this research show that Faculty did not show any relationship with age and formal education level. However, the degree major showed a positive relationship with the job satisfaction of the Faculty.
The first question of the research was “Does the age of the Faculty affect their job satisfaction?” The question was developed to determine the relationship of age and job satisfaction of Faculty. The researcher rejected the hypothesis for this question and found that age has no relationship with job satisfaction. It means that the age of employees does not affect their job satisfaction. It does not matter how young or old employees are, they may be equally satisfied or dissatisfied.
5.1.2 Research question 2
The second research question was “Is there any significant relationship between formal education and job satisfaction of Faculty?” The question was developed to determine the relationship of the education of employees with their job satisfaction. The researcher rejected the hypothesis and found that education of employees does not affect their job satisfaction. It means that employees having bachelor, master or doctorate degree may be equally satisfied or dissatisfied. The qualification level does not affect their job satisfaction.
The third question of this research was “Is there any significant relationship between major qualification and job satisfaction of the Faculty?” Through this question the researcher wished to determine any significant relationship between major area of education of employees and their job satisfaction. The data showed a positive relationship. It means that major area of education affects job satisfaction of Faculty. The data showed that employees with HR major are more satisfied than those who have major other than HR.
The purpose of this research was to understand the relationship between age, formal education, degree major and the job satisfaction of the Faculty. From the statistical data analysis the researcher accepted the null hypothesis for age and education level. While the hypothesis regarding degree major was accepted as it showed a positive relationship with the job satisfaction. The previous researches on job satisfaction include many organizations- thus having a larger population size. The study only focused the Faculty of six universities. The university was chosen due to its increasing importance in the social and economical development of the country. The demand for competent faculty has been increased over the years. The findings of the research can enable the educational institutions and organizations to understand the variables of job satisfaction which may decrease the turnover ratio. The Faculty are responsible to promote such organizational culture therefore they must not be ignored as they are integral part of the educational organization.
The data collected in this research showed a significant relationship between degree major and the job satisfaction while no relationship was found between age, education level and the job satisfaction. It means that the employees having major in HR showed the higher level of satisfaction. Therefore organizations must focus on the major area of the qualification of the potential employees. The organizations must build partnerships with the colleges and the graduate schools to acquire the best workforce at the earliest.
As limited literature exists in the field of job satisfaction related to the Faculty especially with reference to Pakistan therefore it is also recommended that there should be more research conducted in this area. These researches must include more organizations so that the sample size is increased to generate better results.
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