Human resource Development has in recent year become the focus of attention of planner’s policy makers and administration. It is important not only for an enterprise but also for a nation to develop its human resources. Employee’s Job Satisfaction is one of the main areas of HRD.
Organizations are social systems where human resources are the most important factors for effectiveness and efficiency. Organizations need effective managers and employees to achieve their objectives. Organizations cannot succeed without their personnel efforts and commitment. Job satisfaction is critical to retaining and attracting well-qualified personnel. This is especially an issue in medical institutions such as hospitals where specialist training and retention are highly important
Employee job satisfaction is an attitude that people have about their jobs and the organizations in which they perform these jobs. Methodologically, we can define job satisfaction as an employee’s affective reaction to a job, based on a comparison between actual outcomes and desired outcomes. Job satisfaction is generally recognized as a multifaceted construct that includes employee feelings about a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic job elements. It encompasses specific aspects of satisfaction related to pay, benefits, promotion, work conditions, supervision, organizational practices and relationships with co-workers.
Concerns about employee job satisfaction are just as critical in the apparel industry as they are in other business sectors. Similarly, the motivation to investigate job satisfaction among health care employees is similar to the interest of research concerning job satisfaction in industrial settings.
Numerous factors influence employee job satisfaction, including: salaries, fringe benefits, achievement, autonomy, recognition, communication, working conditions, job importance, co workers, degree of professionalism, organizational climate, interpersonal relationships, working for a reputable agency, supervisory support, positive affectivity, job security, workplace flexibility, working within a team environment and genetic factors. Sources of low satisfaction are associated with working with unskilled or inappropriately trained staff, laborious tasks such as documentation, repetition of duties, tensions within role expectations, role ambiguity, role conflict, job/patient care, feeling overloaded, the increasing need to be available for overtime, relations with co-workers, personal factors and organizational factors
Irvine and Evans (1995) have also underlined the importance of work characteristics (routine, autonomy and feedback), characteristics of how the work role is defined (role conflict and role ambiguity) and characteristics of the work environment (leadership, stress, advancement opportunities and participation) in relation to job satisfaction.
Justification for the need to investigate job satisfaction is exemplified in the seemingly observed relationship between the levels of job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, grievance expression, tardiness, low morale and high turnover. Job satisfaction is an immediate antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover. Unsatisfied workers will leave their jobs more than their satisfied colleagues. Retention and turnover of staff, particularly highly skilled personnel, are important issues for managers in the current health care environment. Employees who experience job satisfaction are more likely to be productive and stay on the job. Furthermore, more satisfied employees have more innovative activities in continuous quality improvement and more participation in decision-making in organizations. Job satisfaction is also found to be positively-related to patient satisfaction.
Among determinants of job satisfaction, leadership is viewed as an important predictor and plays a central role. Leadership is a management function, which is mostly directed towards people and social interaction, as well as the process of influencing people so that they will achieve the goals of the organization. Numerous studies carried out in several countries showed that there is a positive correlation between leadership and the job satisfaction of health care providers
Organizational success in obtaining its goals and objectives depends on managers and their leadership style. By using appropriate leadership styles, managers can affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.
Leadership style can be viewed as a series of managerial attitudes, behaviors, characteristics and skills based on individual and organizational values, leadership interests and reliability of employees in different situations. It is the ability of a leader to influence subordinates to performing at their highest capability. This factor captures the extent to which management respects workers, operates with honesty and integrity, promotes efficiency, and has open lines of communication with employees.
The subject of leadership is interesting for many researchers. The continued search for good leaders has resulted in the development of many leadership theories. Studies have been carried out to determine how leadership behaviors can be used to influence employees for improved organizational outcomes. In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and their attitudes toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative and participative approach. Ideas about management and leadership have changed considerably in recent years. People today are better-educated and more articulate. They can no longer be commanded in the same way as before. There needs to be much more involvement and participation at work.
There are several styles of leadership such as: autocratic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire, charismatic, democratic, participative, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership. Not everyone agrees that a particular style of leadership will result in the most effective form of organizational behavior. Different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. No one leadership style is ideal for every situation, since a leader may have knowledge and skills to act effectively in one situation but may not emerge as effectively in a different situation.
INTRODUCTION OF ORIENT CRAFT
Orient Craft Limited started in the year 1972 by Mr. Sudhir Dhingra with four employees and then Orient Craft was set up in the year 1978 to take over the existing business and has now grown to 8000 employees in seventeen factories.
Orient Craft India’s No. 1 Garment Manufacturer and Exporter and is the recipient of the “Gold Trophy” given by Govt. of India for highest global exports out of the country for the year 1997, 1998, 2000 & 2001. Besides many other export and quality awards, Orient Craft won the highest award for being India’s larges knit apparel manufacturer and also the award for being the second largest in global exports for the year 1999. Orient Craft bagged the Bid World Quality commitment International Start Award in the Platinum Category for the year 2001 and Gold award for the year 2000 and won also many other awards and certificates from the Ministry of Textiles and states like on Sep 19, 2004, Won the “Entrepreneur of the year 2003” from the prestigious Ludhiana Management Association.
The company is growing rapidly, year after year and has its manufacturing facilities spread over 6000000 sq. ft. area with seventeen factories in and around Delhi. Another state of the art Manufacturing Complex, covering 3, 40,000 sq. ft. of covered space is completed in December 2001. This manufacturing facility is the single largest manufacturing plant in whole of India producing cut and sew knits, woven sportswear, ladies formal suits and sweaters under one roof.
Company has the most modern manufacturing plants in the country with over 1, 40,000 sq/ ft. of covered area in one location. The company deploys over 73000 imported sewing machines for its manufacturing operations in Woven and Knit units. The company has in-house lab testing for garments, fabrics, and trims. Its labs are well equipped to test for all parameters including Color-Fasteners to light. Orient Craft Limited also has several in-house latest Computerized Unit, In-house garment Dyeing Units, Manual Sand-blasting and laser sand-blasting units.
The company has three 100% export oriented unit thereby having the advantage of importing all raw materials, trims free or duty from any part of the world. The company also has a specialized Home furnishing Division, Wherein all Soft Furnishing products are manufactured and exported to some of the most prominent brands.
COMPANY PROFILE OF 7D ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED
7-D, Maruti Industrial complex, Sec-18 Udyog Vihar, Gurgaon (HR)
Tel : 0124-2342043 to 47, 5090800, Fax : 0124-2341110, 2342042
Year Established 1995
Type of company Privately Held
Owners/Directors Mr. Sudhir Dhingra
Mr. K. K. Kohli
Mr. Anoop Thatai
Mr. Ravi Dhingra
Mr. Sahil Dhingra
Mrs. Manju Dhingra
Annual Turnover F.O.B. US $ ——– Million for 2003-2004
Minimum Order Quantity 200 Dozen per Style
No. of people Employed 8500 in-house
Production Capacities 50000 Dozen Per Month (Woven)
50000 Dozen Per Month (Knits)
Major Export Markets U.S.A. E.E.C., Canada
Major Products Blouses
Pants and shorts
Kids wear Co-ordinates
Major Customers Dillards Stores
Next Retail Ltd.
J. G. Hook
Jones of New York
Abarcrombie and Fitch
COMPANY ENVIRONMENT OF 7D & 7A
Company is situated in approximately 10 acres of land. It is having a beautiful garden in front and is surrounded by various decorative plants. Interior is well facilitated for normal working conditions. Nearly 3500 people are working here. Among them most of them are very co-operative, well behaving with outsiders. Company is giving all type of facilities to its employees like transport, canteen, medical and other incentives. The new HRD and labor welfare department of this company on one side playing a great role by tuning every department, to get maximum benefit to the company and on the other it is taking care of all employees and workers, it is also giving chance to new people to build their career as strong as possible in their reputed company.
The production part of this factory is divided into six units. Here no. of machines are more than 1000. Ground floor is called basement or 2nd unit. Here cutting, finishing, sewing are simultaneously going on. Next to 2nd, unit 1 is present where cutting, sewing as well as finishing takes place. Above 1st unit 3rd unit is there, which is also known as 100% EOU, Where only production is going on i.e. sewing and finishing. Above 3rd unit 4th unit is there, there also only sewing and finishing takes place. The top floor is called as 5th unit where sewing, finishing and embroidery is also going on. The last unit in 7A is called 6th unit where sewing and finishing takes place.
In the present scenario of stiff competition of quality and price in the international market, the Indian garment industry is not in the position of producing an expensive and lower quality product. Looking at the present market demand of producing inexpensive and lower quality product, Orient Craft have to increase the productivity, lower the wastage’s on production floor and make use of attachments, folders, special machines and equipment to have a good quality product, in all these activities industrial engineer plays an important role. Today the industrial engineering has become the back bone of the garment industry.
In Orient Craft Ltd., Industrial Engineering Department consist of an I.E. head, eight I.E. executives reporting to Mr. Brian Long (VP Technical). Each I.E. executive is assigned the particular production floors, thus this department is covering all the floors of 7-D, 6-C, 14-A, Home furnishing and sampling department. Besides working on enhancing the productivity and quality, lowering wastage’s, proper utilization of resources like special machines and equipments, this department is also assigned the project like designing the floor layouts for the new production floors and to develop new production techniques to increase the productivity.
RULES AND RESPONSIBILITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER IN ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED
Sampling Re-Engineering- The work of an industrial starts with sampling re-engineering at the proto-stage so as to get to best possible construction and the use of folders and attachments in the style.
Pre-production planning- Pre-production planning starts with the receiving of a sample from the merchant of the stages of the two pieces, which is to be made on the production floor. After receiving the sample the initial operation bullet layout and new style requirement sheet is made. The purpose of making initial o/b, and layout is to know the quantity and type if manpower, machines, attachments, presses, bucks, profiles, dies etc required in the style and make sure everything is in house at the pilot stage.
Target setting- After having a rough idea of manpower and machines required from the initial o/b the company has to find out exactly how many machines and manpower is needed in the style. For this 5 pieces of cutting is taken and time motion study of that 5 pieces with R&D department using the proper method, motion and rating is done.
Final operation bulletin and layout- After tune and motion study the company make final operation bulletin and layout from this finally the company come to know the number of manpower and machines required to meet the targets. This operation bulletin and layout has to be cross checked by I.E head and then it is signed by R&D head and then it is passed to production manager.
Line setting- Line setting is the implementation of the layout and operation bulletin, which is done in conjunction with line in charge, supervisor, mechanic, Q.A and technician.
Bottle neck identification- After line setting the next job is to know the bottleneck of the line due which targets are not met.
Follow ups- This is one of the important job of industrial engineer, to do the follow up of machines folders attachments, dies, profiles whether they are in house or not before the production starts and to be in correct with concerned persons for that and to make sure everything in house before the production.
Use of modern equipment- To know and develop attachments and folders, which can be used on production floors to enhance productivity and also to make sure the proper utilization of modern machines and equipment on the production floor.
Projects- Besides all the above activities we are also handle projects on plant layouts, settings up of pre-assembly section etc.
Reporting- This includes the reason why the targets are not met and action taken by production manager to eliminate it. This report is given to I.E head on the daily basis.
INTRODUCTION OF THE QUALITY DEPARTMENT
Its gives immense pleasure in introducing Orient Craft as one of the quality department in Hand Embroidery, Adda Embroidery, Computer Embroidery, and Machine Embroidery & Schiff lie Embroidery.
This department has a modern and very sophisticated design which give a good quality to production to ensure consistency in quality of Garments with our embroider and in house sampling works.
Embroidery Department has been in the forefront with other department in creating the good quality and acceptability. Over the year Embroidery Department has stepped up in the quality ladder and is today giving good quality that are increasingly finding acceptability with buyers.
“In the prevailing situation, the company needs all rounder, not specialist. These all are created with the help of the existing team of the company. The team supports each other and with the help of training team gets confidence. Today, orient Craft is more comfortable in handling both quality as well as quantity.
And sure, with an excellent team of people, the department is set to cruise higher altitudes in future.
ROLE OF THE EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT
This Department is now very supporting in Orient Craft Ltd. Representing the company from the last few years Embroidery department provides the resources expertise and dedication support to production, and the company employ has dedicated themselves in making an acceptability quality for Buyer.
Embroidery Department has been helping to production department dramatically grow their business for the company, as a part of their commitment to being a value adding department of Orient Craft Limited.
Embroidery Department has over the year acquired strong and meaningful business relationship with production, Merchant & Cutting department the company always been in vogue with the fashion trends.
Orient Craft is now trying to emphasize on converting the quality to make the process, trouble free for the production department.
The company is assuring the quality and total standard action with its in-house production.
So now it can be said that this department is playing a very important role in Orient Craft Limited.
DOCUMENT USED IN THE COMPANY
Material Transfer Slip (MTS Book) is very important document for the maintaining the records of whichever style run in Embroidery department. All records can be maintained properly with MTS books as it is very important for the company.
ROLE OF THE CANDIDATE
The attitude of the company with the new joiner person is very supportive and cooperative with that person. To achieve the better quality and better embroidery design, the company higher officers should have better understanding of the workers need and priorities. One should be more dedicated towards their commitments of work. And this can be only achieved if the company has the right people and their processes are transparent and continuously optimized to achieve higher quality at lower cost.
ITS FLOW CHART
Stitch Pieces————————–Cutting Dept————————-Unstitch Pieces
Prod Dep Emb Dep
Emb Dep Issue to Embroider
Issue to Embroider Reed after Emb.
Reed after Emb Quality Checking
Quality Checking Cutting
CENTRALIZED CUTTING ROOM AT ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED
SIGNIFICANCE OF AN ORGANIZED CUTTING ROOM:-
On average a garment had approximately 50%-60% of its total allocated to fabric and yet, most manufacturing units have no quality and production system monitor the inspection, spreading and cutting of it. The sewing department on the other hand only makes up to 20%- 30% of the total cost of a garment but accounts for nearly all the monitoring and productivity costs.
Orient Craft Ltd. has centralized cutting facilities. The cutting room is feuding to all the swing floors situated in Udoyg Vihar. The company follows comprehensive production and quality procedures in cutting room.
FORMATES USED IN CUTTING ROOM
- Approval for cutting go ahead
- Call out for cutting
- Cutter efficiency chart
- Daily cut plan
- Monthly cut plan
- Cutting file checklist
- Fabric relaxation
- Approval additional cutting
- Bundle control system
- Color code for different shrinkage
- Cutting R&D
- Hourly report
- Fusing system
CUTTING ROOM PROCEDURES IN ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED:-
Pre -production meeting is organized to discuss all the aspects of a style. All the concerned persons, for example – merchandiser, production manager, IED, cutting manager, pattern master etc is present in this meeting, to discuss the technicalities. In the cutting department there are three cutting teams. Master prepares a cut order plan and after job order is received from the production manager, master gets the fabric from the fabric stores and maker from the CAD department.
Most common considerations during cut order planning
- No of sizes in order
- No of color in the order
- Maximum/minimum no of sizes allowed in marker
- Maximum spread length
- Maximum ply height
- Fabric cost per yard
- Cut table fabric width
- Width variation
- Fabric utilization report
- Fabric inspection report
- Lot card
- Shrinkage report
Fabric having Lycra, spandex, wool blend are relaxed for 10 to 12 hours, prior to spreading.
Quality assurance inspector conducts inspection after spreading and cutting.
He checks the layer for following defects:-
- Marker placing
- Matching the top, middle and bottom ply with pattern
- Notches/drill holes
Fabric layering system:-
Spreader in the cutting room receives layer spreading cutting job card from the master. This document has all the details for the spreading of each lay. From this document the spreading personnel can make sure that the following fabric details are correct before beginning to spread
- Fabric type
- Fabric name
- Fabric width
- Lot no
- Layer length
- No of pieces
- Total pieces
Quality control of the spreading:-
As soon as the spreading of a lay is finished the quality assurance inspector is asked to check it before cutting can commence. The quality control inspector in the cutting room will receive the spreading and cutting report from the cutting room manager. This document has all the relevant details for the inspector, to ensure that the spreading is right.
The quality assurance inspector ensures the following:-
- Number of piles
- Lay length
Quality control of the marker:-
The quality control inspector would check the following:-
- Correct marker
Missing pieces on the marker is quite a common problem in cutting rooms especially if number of components in a garment is more. That is why the total no of the pattern pieces is checked. There must be no overlapping of the pattern pieces on the marker either.
Once the fabric is cut there is no question of taking it back for a change or refund. All possible precautions must be taken in the cutting room to ensure that once the knife cuts into the fabric everything is correct.
Quality control of cutting:-
After the quality assurance inspector approves the spreading, the lay is ready for cutting. The cutter can also make sure that the following marker details are correct before starting to cut the fabric.
- Cut number
- Marker number
- Marker length
- Fabric spreading length
The cutting personnel ensure that the markers have been placed in the correct direction on the fabric. Areas for checking are as follows:
Ensure that all the edges of the marker have fabric underneath them-ends and sides.
Ensures that the marker is laid square to the fabric and not-at an angle to the fabric. If this not controlled then it will create problems in the sewing section.
A properly trained supervisor is appointed to check temperature, pressure and timing cycle each morning, noon, mid afternoon and at critical fabric changes. Check for consistent temperature and across fusing head. The quality control department on daily basis reviews results. Quality assurance department evaluates fusible parts for defects such as color change, surface appearance and hand feel. Fuse line temperatures are established using temperature papers. Fuse line temperature is the temperature between the shell fabric and the fusible product at the time of fusing. Some times due to special finishes on the shell fabric, fusing machine is adjusted accordingly.
This is probably one of the most important control points in the manufacturing process. All the components are numbered including parts of the garments that have embroidery, fusing or washing and other value addition. If numbering is not done, then the problems of shaded garments, incorrect sized garments and garment pieces occur. These entire problem can be avoided using number system.
The company is having separates numbering tables. Once cutting is carried out, the cut parts are put on the trolley and moved to the numbering table. Separate numbering tables are the best as they allow the cutting table to be cleared immediately after the cutting of the fabric has taken place.
Stickers can be located on either the right or wrong side of the fabric depending on whether the garment will have interlining attached to it. It should be noted that if the stickers are attached to the right side of the fabric, then snickering not left on the fabric.
GARMENT PROCESSING UNIT
Aim: – To work towards most moderate washes while striking a right balance of handwork and chemistry. Also to achieve/generate consistency of shades and quick production techniques keeping in view the requirement of our esteem clientele.
Capabilities :- well starting with neat rinse washes, silicon sand wash, peach hand brushing on party wears, whickering coupled with Laser sand Blasting and tinting on Denims.
Garment overdyes : -we have to our experience, Heavy canvas Garment overdyes added with stone enzyme wash to give it a weathered look; vintage Granny’s garment looks are possible. We do garment over dyes on Linen, Denims, canvas, Twills and the list is being added upon every day at our R&D section. Range of colors is available
On demand, shade bands are well taken care of.
For twills, we have facility to do BIOPOLISHING which added with sand wash, silicone wash, gives fabulous hand feel, and a strong crisp as and how desired.
Laser :- The design made over the surface of fabric by laser engraving technology are being strongly pursued by various customer of OCL this fashion is yet to Explored by masses as it is a Rare Technology. Well seeing believes and only few of special clientele of orient craft saw this machine creating designs on various denims, canvas, jersey, and especially overdye’s left speechless, yet smiling.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TRIMS
Receive Indent from Merchandiser
Ensure that work sheet describes the complete specifications of accessories.
Decide the vendor to whom order is to be placed based upon rates.
Prepare the purchase order
Place the P.O. to the vendor and enter the details in purchase register
Receive information of material arrival along with bill/challan
Verify the description and quantity of bill with relevant P.O and P.O register
Verify the quantity with bill
Send one piece of the accessory on the approval card to the concerned merchandiser. However, approval is not required for production equipments and consumables
Enter the details of consignment in store receipt
Update stock register and style sheet in file
Receive requirement of material on requisition slip and verify authorized signatures
Prepare challan for the items to be issued
Issue the material and get acknowledgement on the challan
Update stock register and style sheet in file
Receive the material returned from production along with style number indicated on return challan
Verify that the material is not damaged. If so, indicate on challan
Update stock register
STORAGE & PRESERVATION
Keep the rejected material in the area defined for it
Keep the approved material at defined location
Ensure that adequate preventive measures are taken to safe-guard the material against damage
MEANING AND NATURE OF JOB SATISFACTION
The term ‘Job Satisfaction’ is of great relevance in the field of human resource management. So we can define Job Satisfaction a:
“Job Satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feeling which employees view in their work.
Job Satisfaction is the fulfillment and gratification that comes from work. It is not the money, the benefits or the vacations. It is the good feeling one receive from doing his work itself. Anyone who works in an organization develops a set of attitude about work which is usually referred under the term job satisfaction. Like other attitudes Job Satisfaction is composed of emotional informational and behavioral elements can vary in intensity and consistency can be acquired from a variety of sources. Virtually every job can provide a level of satisfaction.
Job Satisfaction comes when one accept a job for what it is and exploits the sources of satisfaction that comes with it. Many different sources of satisfaction are tied to the same job. Good feeling can come from high performance, quality work, learning new skills, working as a part of a team, assisting coworkers, and receiving compliments.
Job Satisfaction is achieved daily by digging out ‘satisfiers’ wherever they can be found. This is true even if an individual is marking time until he or she gets into a better carrier area. The trick is to enjoy your present job while you prepare for a better one. Many people gain considerable satisfaction from doing ordinary jobs. They make quality time out of their working hours no matter what their assignment may be.
So, from the discussion we can say that job Satisfaction and different aspects of their job. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. As it is generally assessed, job satisfaction is an attitudinal variable. In the part, job Satisfaction was approached by some researcher from the perspective of need fulfillment- that is whether or not the job meets the employee’s physical and psychological needs for the things provided by works such as pay.
LEVELS OF SATISFACTION
Job Satisfaction varies. Researcher suggests, the higher the prestige of the job, the greater the job satisfaction. But, many workers are satisfied in even the least prestigious jobs. They simply like what they do.
-Most workers like their work if they have little supervision.
-The list satisfied workers are those in service occupations and managers that work for others.
-Ethnic and religious orientation is associated to work attitudes and Job Satisfaction is related to education.
EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION ON ATTITUDES OF THE EMPLOYEES
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