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Healthy Eating Companion App

Info: 9536 words (38 pages) Dissertation
Published: 10th Dec 2019

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Tags: Information TechnologyTechnologyFood and Nutrition

  1. INTRODUCTION

Healthy eating is the most important factor in maintaining health. It is considered as most important means of promoting health. Healthy eating is an overall sense of well being and also helps in preventing many chronic diseases. Healthy and unhealthy eating are both influenced by variety of factors.

The application allows users to specify their dietary requirements, based on which the application makes suggestions as to how much exercise the user needs to do that day. It also suggests healthy meals to the user based on their dietary plan.

It is very important that we follow a good nutritious diet for our bodies to function properly and stay healthy Foods are made up of six classes of nutrients. These nutrients are macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, fats), micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and water. If you neglect to have the right combination of these six items, it will be very difficult to live a healthy lifestyle.

2. BACKGROUND:

Rapid developments have encouraged using smartphones in health promotion research . Although many applications which are related  to diet and health are available from major smartphone platforms. The few have been tested in research studies in order to determine the apps effectiveness in promoting health.

Healthy eating helps us to maintain a healthy weight and also avoid certain health problems. Diet can have a effect on sense of wellbeing. Studies have shown that eating Western diet with processed meats, packaged meals, takeout food, and sugary snacks will result in high rate of stress, depression, and anxiety. Eating an unhealthy diet may cause mental health disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and  increased risk of suicide in young people.

Eating vegetables and fruits, cooking meals at home, reducing intake of sugar and refined carbohydrates may help to improve health and lower your risk for mental health problems.

TEAM ROLES

Name: Ruchita Bhagat
Role: Project Manager
Description: Ruchita will be responsible for leading the project and managing contact and feedback from stakeholders.  The project manager will be checking to make sure tasks are completed by time. The manager will also be in charger of making sure the different area of the project are communicating with each other.

 

Name: STACY LLOYD
Role: Graphical User Interface Design
Description: Stacy will be responsible for designing the graphical user interfaces for the application and the graphical assets for the interface for the application for all platforms. They will be expected to update designs from testing feedback and giving the new designs to the application development.  They are also expected to help with testing when there is no graphical work is required.

 

Name: MANASA KOMPELLI
Role: Application Development
Description: Manasa will be responsible for developing the application, implementing the graphical user interface with the graphical assets. They will be expected to implement the logical code and fixing software bugs. If no work for the application is currently needed they are expected to help with the service/ database development or testing the application

 

Name: TYRONE BRAMWELL
Role: Service/ Database Development
Description: Tyrone will be responsible for designing and developing the sever side software and the database required for the proposed system. They will also be expected to look at hosting solutions for storing the database and running the server software.  They will be expected to fix software bugs and help with the application development and testing.

 

Name:  JOHN SMITH
Role:   Testing/ Quality assurance
Description: John will be responsible for designing test suits for the application and service/ database, creating automated testing for both part of the software. They will be expected to find bugs and problems with the software and verifying the solution meets the specification. They will also be expected to investigate bugs and ways to replicate them so they can be tested for on the next build.

 

4.SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE:

4.1.SCOPE

Healthy eating companion app helps the people of different age groups and it helps the people to keep the fat off and stay toned. It is the healthy meal planner combined with quick workout routines. The application allows users to specify their own dietary requirements so that application makes suggestions on healthy meals and also how much exercise the user needs to do that particular day

The users will start using the application by selecting an appropriate plan in the application or by designing their own. The application estimates the intake of carbohydrates, fats and proteins based on users input, and suggest meals based on their daily allowance estimated from their dietary plan.  The app provides the users with optional information about the activity required to burn the calories consumed per meal in various forms (walking, cycling, swimming, cardio, etc.). The goal of application is to lose weight,get fit and gain weight with sustainable happy and healthier lifestyle

4.2.OBJECTIVE

Healthy Eating Companion App is an application which helps people to follow their dietary plan and stay on track towards their goal.Its helps to follow meal plans and workouts created by experts trainers.It helps how to gain or lose weight with healthy diets and workout routines.

It is a personalized step-by-step guide accommodating everyone,from beginners to advanced fitness enthusiasts, providing

  • Workout plans to challenge you and make you progress.
  • Customized healthy meals and diet plans
  • Foods to eat and foods to avoid
  • Healthy recipes

Healthy eating companion app improves your nutrition and provides you with the healthy eating tools you need to reach your health and weight goals by

  • Organizing your week with a healthy meal plan
  • Providing you with over 300 healthy recipes customized to your personal tastes.
  • Keeping track of users daily calorie burn.
  • Accommodating dietary preferences vegetarian,vegan,pescatarian diets

 

5.REQUIREMENTS

5.1.Requirements:

Req Code Details
R01 Build a companion app
R02 Store users diet requirements
R03 Provide an exercise plan to users
R04 Meal plans based on diet requirements
R05 Exercise plans based on food intake
R06 Suggest health meal plans and alternatives
R07 Allow user to input honest intake
R08 Allow users to design own meal plans
R09 Provide optional information on exercises
R10 Show alternative Exercise
R11 Show calories burned by exercise
R12 Estimate Fats, carbohydrates and proteins from user input

 

 

6.SPECIFICATION

6.1.specification

 

Spec Code Req Code Details
S01 R01 Use C# with .Mono to create a cross platform app for windows, Windows Mobile, android, iOS, mac OSX and linux
S02 R02

R07

R08

Use MySQL for the database technology as its one of the recommend database technologies to uses with mono (External Database). SQLite for storing information if using an internal database (Internal Database). Could use CSV and other data files for storing data
S03 R02

R07

R08

Design a database to store information
S04 R02

R07

R08

Create a database to store user information
S05 R02 Design a GUI to input and edit diet requirements
S06 R02 Create a GUI to input and edit diet requirements
S07 R02 Create code to store diet requirements input and allow editing them into database
S08 R03 Store possible exercise plans in database
S09 R03 Design a GUI to view possible exercise plans
S10 R03 Code GUI and code retrieving exercise plans
S11 R04 Store possible meal plans in database
S12 R04 Design a GUI to view possible meal plans
S13 R04 Code GUI and code retrieving meal plans
S14 R05 Code recommending exercise plans from food intake
S15 R05 Design and Code GUI for recommending exercise plan
S16 R06 Code recommending healthier meal plans and alternative meal plans
S17 R07 Create and design a GUI for inputting users honest intake
S18 R07 Store and retrieve user honest intake from database.
S19 R08 Create and Code GUI for allowing user to input own meal plan
S20 R08 Store and retrieve user meal plans from database.
S21 R09 Store optional information on exercises
S22 R09 Design and create a GUI for viewing optional exercises information.
S23 R10 Create and design a GUI showing alternative exercises.
S24 R10 Store alternative exercises in database
S25 R11 Display user information on how many calories an exercise burns
S26 R12 Write code which works out from the user honest inputs and Estimate Fats, carbohydrates and proteins
S27 R12 Store Estimate Fats, carbohydrates and proteins in a database

 

 

 

 7.TIMELINE AND WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

7.1.Timeline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.2 WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
1.1 PLANNING
1.1.1 PROJECT OBJEVTIVE
1.1.2 PROJECT MOTIVATION
1.1.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
1.2 ANALIZING PROJECT
1.2.1 PROJECT SCHEDULE
1.2.2 REQUIRED DOCUMENTS
1.3 TIME MANAGEMENT
1.3.1  TIME SCALE
1.4 PERFORM QUALITY ATTRIBUTES
1.4.1 MEETING SCHEDULE
1.4.2 MEETING AGENDAS
1.4.3 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
1.4.4 STEERING COMMITTEE
2 DESIGN
2.1 PREPARING DESIGN
2.1.1 DESIGN DOCUMENT
2.1.2 DESIGN OVERVIEW
2.2 PREPARING DESIGN SPECIFICATION
2.2.1 DESIGN INTERFACE
2.2.2 DESIGN FOR SCREEN
2.3 REVIEW DESIGN
2.4 TECHNICAL DESIGN
2.4.1 INTERFACES
3 DEVELOPMENT
3.1 DEVELOPING SOFTWARE
3.2 BACKEND SOFTWARE
3.2.1 DATABASE IMPLEMENTATION
3.2.2 MIDDLEWARE DEVELOPMENT
3.2.3 GRAPHICS AND INTERFACE
3.2.4 CONTENT CREATION
3.3 PROCURING SOFTWARE PACKAGES
4 TESTING
4.1 INTEGRATION TESTING
4.2 DEVELOPING TESTS REPORT
4.3 ACCEPTANCE TESTING
5 MAINTENANCE
5.1 HARDWARE MAINTENANCE
5.2 SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE

 

8.LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES

8.1 legal issues

Copy right

The images for developing healthy eating companion app should be copyright free to use in designing. Copyright arises automatically and is owned by the author of a work. Source code is classified as a literary work and attracts copyright protection immediately upon creation, although protection also extends to images and animations    

Trade marks

 Developers look to the future to establish themselves in a highly competitive market and                      setting themselves apart. Trade marks are not necessarily complex and gained a reputation for dealing with matters quickly and efficiently ensuring costs do not escalate unnecessarily. 

Data protection issues

Many apps not only run on mobile devices and also access to other data, such as details of the user’s social media account stored on the device. The users profile data in the application should not be shared with other people. It must also not be kept for any longer than necessary.

Unauthorised access

The data or information is used by another Unauthorized access and disclosure of health information can result in insurance and employment discrimination, as well as embarrassment and other dignitary harms

Legal Uncertainity

The information regarding users profile regarding his diet plans in application deleted ,edited or modified  led to a law making it a criminal offence to do certain things. 

8.2 Ethical issues

Honesty and Integrity

This means we need to work honestly which applies to methods ,data and results. we should always keep to any agreements and act sincerely when working with others.

Objectivity

we should aim to avoid prejudice against one person or group in any aspect of project which include data analysis, design, interpretation, and review. And also you need to disclose any financial or personal interests that may affect project.

Carefulness

Care should be taken in carrying out project to avoid mistakes. The work should be reviewed properly to ensure results are credible. It is also very important to keep full records of project regarding users profile.

Confidentiality

Respect should be given to anything that has been provided in confidence. You should also follow guidelines on protection of sensitive information such as users profiles in the application.

Legality

 Aware of laws and regulations that govern your work, and be sure that you conform to them. 

8.3 Social Issues

Privacy

Personal health records and applications record sensitive personal information of the users across a variety of devices, including mobile devices. Ensuring both robust security and ease of use is a challenge for the designers of personal health applications.

 

Technical choices

Technical feasibility analysis involves a review of all factors that makes the product happen.Sufficient information on our healthy eating application will allow us to made a evaluation on technical feasibility and also to achieve levels of income or production .

We are using C# with .Mono to create a cross platform app for windows, Windows Mobile, android, iOS, mac OSX and linux. MySQL for the database technology as its one of the recommend database technologies to uses with mono (External Database). SQLite for storing information if using an internal database (Internal Database). We Could use CSV and other data files for storing data.

MONO:

Mono is an open source development platform which is based on the .NET Framework and allows developers to build cross-platform application .Furthermore, Mono platform includes both developer tools and the infrastructure needed to run .NET client and also server applications.

Benefits of  MONO framework:

There are many benefits to choosing Mono for application development:

Popularity – On the success of .Net there are many software developers who experience building applications in C#. There are also thousands of  websites, tutorials, books,  and example source code to help with any imaginable problem.

Cross Platform – Mono is built to be cross platform. Mono runs on LinuxMicrosoft WindowsMac OS XBSD, and Nintendo Wii, Sun Solaris, Sony PlayStation 3Apple iPhone and Android. It also runs on the x86x86-64PowerPC, Alpha, SPARC (32)ARMs390, s390x (32 and 64 bits) and many more. Developing your application with Mono allows to run on the nearly any computer which is helpful for customers.

Common Language Runtime (CLR) – This allows you to choose the programming language you like to work with and also it can interoperate with code written in any other CLR language.

Open Source and Free Software Mono’s runtime, compilers, and libraries are distributed using the MIT license.

These assets and technology helps us to achieve the intended production levels. A product production plan lays out the production process for an individual product; the product line production plan is a core asset that applies to the entire product line .

 

Production process

Production planning is one of the planning functions which will helps us to meet the needs of our customers. Aggregate planning or production planning strategy will ensure that there is sufficient capacity to meet the demand  and to determine the best plan to meet this demand.We are choosing Demand Chase Strategy which helps us to achieve our production levels.

Demand Chase Strategy

Specific Methods Costs Remarks
Hire additional workers as the demand increases for our product. Employment costs for travel, training, interviewing, advertising, and others Skilledpeople or workers may not be available when needed to our project
Layoff workers as demand decreases for our project. Cost of  pay of workers. Company must have good capital investment in equipment for the peak work .

 

 

Project Risk

Project risk is minimized in many ways

  • By quicker feedback we can minimize risks.
  • Daily feedback (frequent communications).
  • Level loading for tasking

.

We also improve project quality by introducing constant customer reviews and also interactions from the results of frequent communications.

Also, project costing is improved and also made more accurate with team meetings, focus on objectives.The hours per tasks will be measured and these values can be used later for traditional earned value analysis of the project.

 

 

 

METHODOLOGY:

C:UsersVinay GadheAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.WordCapture.png

 

The chosen methodology is Agile Scrum which is a methodology which works on creating a backlog products and features. This backlog is created from the requirements and specifications of the project this allows to prioritise the features. It also gives flexibility to the requirements which could change during the project. The next phase is the sprint where the scrum master picks the features and objectives for the sprint. During the sprint the code is designed, implemented and tested. The sprint has a fixed deadline where the sprint has to be completed. The sprint is then reviewed by the team. New tasks which emerged are added to the backlog and incremental progress is made to the project. This is repeated until the project is finished. This methodology is flexible with requirements and has strict deadlines which should help as we are working with other groups.

This Agile Scrum Methodology suits our Healthy Eating Companion Application because the requirements may change during the project and this gives flexibility.

All task performed under Scrum methodology requires a set of values for the team’s interactions. And by these five values, the team makes them even more instrumental to its health and success.

Focus:

The Agile Scrum Methodology encourages team members to focus on only a few things at a time so that they can work well and can produce excellent results.

Courage:

Under this environment as we work as a team, team members will feel supported and have more resources . This gives us the courage to undertake greater challenges.

Openness:

As team members work in close interaction and communication, they express how they are doing, what’s in the pipeline and their concerns so they can be addressed. All team members coordinate with each other to find the best way to develop and deliver the software, or other deliverables, to the business. The team, especially the product owner, collaborates with stakeholders to inspect and adapt the product vision so the product will be as valuable as possible.

 

Commitment:

The Scrum methodology provides great strength of commitment among the team members and bias throughout the project life cycle. Scrum teams constantly respond to change so that the best possible outcome can be achieved.

Respect:

As everyone work as a team, sharing successes and failures, all come to respect each other and to help each other become worthy of respect.

As an organization applies Scrum it discovers its benefits. At the same time, it sees how these values inherently contribute to the success of Scrum and understands why they are both needed, and bolstered, by Scrum.

Process for project meetings

Sprint Planning Meeting:

Sprint Planning Meeting is held for  users of our application, customers, the Product Owner and the Scrum Team will determine the next Sprint goals . The Sprint Planning Meeting consists of two meetings. Firstly our team members would meet the owner of the product and users to clearly understand what functionality to build during the next Sprint in our application. At the second meeting, the team works by itself to figure out how it is going to build this functionality during the Sprint.

Daily Scrum Meetings:

Each Scrum Team meets daily for a 15-minute status meeting which is Daily Scrum. The Scrum Master(Tyrone) is responsible for successfully conducting the Daily Scrum, by keeping it short and making sure the team members speak briefy. Other stakeholders can also attend the Daily Scrum, but they are there as guests and are not allowed to interfere in any way.

This meeting gives the attendants a brief report of progress on the application, and team will synchronize their work. If a team member identifies something that is stopping him or her from working effectively, it is the Scrum Master’s priority to remove the problems like Server down or anything else.

Sprint Review Meeting:

The Sprint Review Meeting is an informal meeting, where all the team represents what it has been able to build during the Sprint. Management comes to the Sprint Review to see what the team has been able to do with the resources that it has been given. Customers are also allowed to see if they like what the team has built and the Product Owner comes to the Sprint Review to see how much functionality has been built.

Sprint Retrospective Meeting:

After each Sprint Review, but before the next Sprint Planning Meeting, a Sprint is held at which all  members of the team will react about the past Sprint. The purpose of the this meeting is to make continuous process improvement.

Advantages

Short iterations (Sprints):

By having these short iterations and daily meetings, the team of our project will always know exactly where they are all the time. For example, every day we will know which features remain to be completed, if the team members did what they were suppose to do.

No waste of time:

Because you only work on a few top features of the app at a time, Scrum makes sure that the team is not spending more time and money on things no customer will use. As a result, the development speed is likely to increase.

Cross-functionality:

Scrum will avoid barrier between different goals and make everyone work together towards the same goal. Everyone is responsible for the whole product and by working together the team will join their skills to create better software with high qualityoutcome.

 

 

PROJECT PLAN AND DEPENDENCIES

Action plan:

 

Phase / Task Resource Start Date End Date Status
Planning

1.Analysing project

2.Project Schedule

3.Meeting Schedule

Project Manager 17-02-2017 28-02-2017 Completed
Design

1.Preparing Design

2.Database Design

3.Review Design

4.Technical Design

Design Engineer to prepare the Application. 16-3-2017 18-04-2017 completed
Development

1.Developing software

2.Backend software

3.Database implementation

4.Graphics and Interface

Graphical User Interface Design,

Application Developer,

Database Development

19-04-2017 07-05-2017 In progress
Testing

1.Integration testing

2.Acceptance test

3.Developing test reports

Quality assurance engineer,

Software tester

16-05-2017 30-05-2017 Scheduled after development

The objective of our plan is to identify all  needs and to ensure the project team is able

to carry out a effort to meet the stakeholders needs. The following will include in the list

  • List of stakeholders
  • Benefits of our application
  • How and why customers will attract to our application
  • Requirements for information gathering and reporting
  • Competition
  • Pricing Methods
  • Promotional Methods

The main benefit of our Application is users will start using the application by selecting an appropriate plan in the application or by designing their own. Its helps to choose and follow workouts created by experts trainers. It helps how to gain or lose weight with healthy diets and workout routines.

Customers attracts to the product because it provides the meal options according to users choice and give the workout plans depending on the food choosen. The application estimates the intake of carbohydrates, fats and proteins based on users input, and suggest meals based on their daily allowance estimated from their dietary plan.

The app provides the users with optional information about the activity required to burn the calories consumed per meal in various forms (walking, cycling, swimming, cardio, etc.). The goal of application is to lose weight, get fit and gain weight with sustainable happy and healthier lifestyle.Our product is different from other applications as all the apps suggest the meals for the users and according to our application ,user will choose the meal plans and the app suggests the workout plan depends on the calories intake.

Marginal cost pricing is taken into account because it takes cost and demand before fixing the prize.It aims at maximizing contribution towards fixed cost.It gives flexibility to recover the fixed cost depending on the condition of the market.

Promoting methods:

Interactive method:

The evolution of Internet and all related technologies has given chance to digital and interactive promotional methods. Online advertising have become common components of promotional methods. This method is very often relatively affordable for our project  and offer direct connections who spend significant time online. Social media portals such as  Facebook ,YouTube and Twitter also provide inexpensive ways to interact with customers .

Assessment method:

It involves identifying both external and internal factors that are favourable and unfavourable to gain the objective. Our assessment procedure is conducting a survey to know how much they would pay for the product. Conducting interviews to the team after using the application to know the feedback from the users. These method will help us to improve the product sales .SWOT(Strength, weakness, opportunities, thread) analysis is used in helping our potential of prospective markets.

Strength:

 

  • Developing new, innovative product or service.
  • Quality processes and procedures.

Weakness:

 

  • Lack of marketing expertise

Opportunity :

  • A developing market such as the Internet.
  • Mergers, joint ventures or strategic alliances.

Threads:

  • A new competitor in market.
  • Price wars with competitors.
  • Competitors have superior access to channels of distribution.

Competition Analysis:

Identifying main competitors and reviewing their metrics helps us to know about the market. Everyone is conscious about their health now a days. There are many applications like ‘S health’ about healthy eating and work out plans. These are the major competitors for our application. There are many strengths of this application but works only in Android. As our application is cross platform and work on all the platforms.

The major strength of our application is that it allows users to select their own food dietaries and suggest the workout plan according to the calories(food) selected. And all other applications suggest the food plan irrespective of their choice. significant changes are planned in ranking to correlate with the app promotion activity. Link the ranking dynamics and mentions in certain media releases or media events as we choose interactive promotion method for our application.

Researching the frequency of product updates and key focus will be on development team to make any relevant changes to the application. The changes made depends on users reviews.

Identifying key revenue channels helps to Compare top grossing positions.

RISK ANALYSIS

RISK ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATION

L – Likelihood, S – Severity, D – Detectable  score: 1 – 10

Risk Details L S D Total Score Mitigation
Data Loss Code, Database or other work done could be lost during development stages or afterwards 4 8 3 96 Keep multiple backups of data storing them in different location. Version controlling the data reduces the chances of data being corrupted and overwriting the file in the back ups.
Lack of communication with stakeholders A lack of communication with stakeholders could lead to the project being built which is not what the stakeholders wanted. 3 6 4 72 Making regular meetings with stakeholders and show deliverables and documentation would help get feedback and make sure everyone has the same idea of the project.
Illness Staff could become ill which could delay the project or require new staff brought to the project and trained increasing the costs. 4 7 5 140 Staff becoming ill should not work so they don’t spread the illness. If long term then a temporary replacement will need to be found
Hardware Failure Computer hardware could be broken or break causing repair costs and time. Could cause data failures 3 8 2 48 Hardware like computers and servers might break. Replacement hardware should be kept and funding to buy replacement hardware should be kept.
Legal Issues Parts of the project may come into legal issues over copyright materials and data protection 3 8 5 120 Make sure all material used we have rights to uses or own the copyright. Make sure we follow laws to best of our ability.
Data being stolen Data stored in the database may be personal to people and could cause harm if stolen 4 8 8 256 Make sure we use best practises. Keep software up to date and encrypt all identifiable and private data.
Hosting Services going down The database and the server side software is going to be stored on a hosting server if it goes down then the app wouldn’t work. 3 7 2 42 Use a hosting services with a low down time and keep a copy of all data so it be easy to move to a different hosting services
Staff leaving Staff leaving would cause staff shortages and they may take the knowledge base they have with them. 4 6 1 24 A replacement would need to found and training provided. All staff should document everything they do so new staff and old staff know how software works.

 

TECHNOLOGY RISKS:

NO. Risk Monitoring and Controlling
1. Inappropriate version of the tools and components Select specific versions of tools and components to use and every member will adhere to the choice throughout the entire project
2. Failure to meet deadlines for deliverable Setup milestones in advance of the final due date for each deliverable
3. Unavailability of resources Reassign resources to fill the gap, depending on availability and previous knowledge of what the currently unavailable resource was working on.
4. Requirements change Client will be made aware, in advance, of the amount of change that can be accommodated within the term of the project
5. Accidental loss of valuable information Most of the work will be done using online collaboration tools, including version control software, and the resulting documents stored online to minimize the chances of loss of information.

Copies of work not stored online will be kept by all team members

BUDGETING

Project  Task Labor

Hour

Labor

Cost

Material

Cost

Travel

Cost

Other

Cost

Total per Task
1. Project Design
1.1 Develop Functional Specifications
1.2 Develop System Architecture
1.3 Develop Preliminary Design Specification
1.4 Develop Detailed Design Specifications
1.5 Develop Acceptance Test Plan
2. Project Development
2.1 Develop Components
2.2 Procure Hardware
2.3 Development Acceptance test Package
2.4 Perform Unit/Integration Test
3. Install System
4. Train Customers
5. Perform Acceptance Test
6. Perform Post Project Review
7. Provide Warranty Support
8. Archive Materials
9. Project Management
9.1 Customer Progress Meetings/Reports
9.2 Internal Status Meetings/Reports
9.3 Third-Party Vendor Interface
9.4 Interface to Other Internal Agencies
9.5 Configuration Management
9.6 Quality Assurance
Other:
Sub-Totals:
Risk (Contingency)
TOTAL (scheduled)
Comments: (List assumptions for costs as appropriate.)

Evaluation

Test and Evaluation Phases

Pre-Configuration Management Testing

The two primary test practices conducted prior to configuration management are:

  • Peer Reviews: Peer reviews are performed to find as many errors as possible in the software before the product enters the integration test. Peer reviews are one of the key performance activities at Level 3 of the Software Engineering Institute’s (SEI) Capability Maturity Model. The SEI accepts two kinds of peer reviews:
    • Software inspections (SEI preference)—have a well-defined process understood throughout the industry. Done properly, they can remove as much as 87 percent of the life-cycle errors in software. (They are sometimes called Fagan Inspections after their developer, Mike Fagan.)
    • Code walkthroughs—have no standard process. They can have widely differing levels of rigor and effectiveness and at best will remove about 60 percent of the errors in software.
  • Unit Test: The developer conducts the unit test, typically on the individual modules under development. The unit test often requires the use of drivers and stubs because other modules, which are the source of input data or receive the output of the module being tested, are not ready for test.

Post-Configuration Management Testing

Testing conducted after the product is placed under developer configuration control includes all testing beyond unit test. Once the system is under configuration management, a problem discovered during testing is recorded as a trouble report. This testing phase becomes progressively more expensive because it involves integrating more and more modules and functional units as they become available; the system therefore becomes increasingly more complex. Each test requires a documented test plan and procedure, and each problem encountered is recorded on a trouble report. Each proposed fix must be validated against the test procedure during which it was discovered and must also verify that the code inserted to correct the problem does not cause another problem elsewhere. With each change made to respond to a problem, the associated documentation must be upgraded, the fix must be documented as part of the configuration management process, and the fix must be included in the next system build so that testing is not conducted with patches. The longer it takes to find a problem, the more rework is likely, and the more impact the fix may have on other system modules; therefore, the expense can continue to increase. Thus performing good peer reviews and unit tests is very important.

  • Integration Test: This is a developer test that is successively more complex. It begins by integrating the component parts, which are either the modules that have completed the unit test or COTS products, to form functional elements. The integration test progresses from integration of modules to form entire functional elements, to integration between functional elements, to software-hardware integration testing. Modeling and simulation are often used to provide an operational-like testing environment. An integration test is driven by an integration test plan and a set of integration test procedures. Typically an integration test will have embedded within it a subset of tests identified as regression tests, which are conducted following a system build. Their objective is to verify that the build process did not create a serious problem that would prevent the system from being properly tested. Often regression tests can be automated.
  • Test Data Analysis: When conducting peer reviews, unit tests, integration testing, and system tests, a significant amount of data is collected and metric analysis is conducted to show the condition state of the system. Significant metric data is produced related to defect density, pass-fail data on test procedures, error trend analysis, etc. MITRE SEs should be familiar with test metrics and evaluate the test results to determine the likelihood that the system can meet the requirements of performance delivered on time and within budget.
  • System Test: This is an operational-like test of the entire system being developed. Following a successful system test, a determination is made as to whether the system is ready for acceptance test. After the completed system test and before the acceptance test, a test readiness review (TRR) may be conducted to assess the readiness of the system to enter the acceptance test.
  • Acceptance Test: Witnessed by the government, this is the last test before the government formally accepts the system. Similar to the system test, the acceptance test is often a subset of the procedures run during system test.
  • Operational Test: Performed by an operational unit of the government, this is the final test before the system is declared ready for general distribution to the field.
Phase Activities
Project performance Daily reviews and updates helps to know the progress of the project
Administrative performance Sprint Meetings and performance measures  assess an employee’s effectiveness and productivity.
Organisational structure

Steps:

1. Engage stakeholders.

2.  Describe the program.

3.  Focus the evaluation design.

4.  Gather credible evidence.

5. Justify conclusions.

6.  Ensure use and share lessons learned

Step1: Engage stakeholders.

Defining the Purport in the Plan

Purport of the evaluation identifying  is equipollently as paramount  as identifying the  terminus users or stakeholders who will be component of a consultative group. The  two aspects of the evaluation accomodate  as a substructure for evaluation orchestrating, design, focus, and interpretation and utilization of results. The purport of an evaluation influences the identification of stakeholders for the evaluation, consideration of the particular evaluation questions, and the timing of evaluation activities. It is critical that the program is transparent about intended purposes of the evaluation. If evaluation results will be acclimated  to determine whether a program should be perpetuated or eliminated, stakeholders should know this before. The stated purpose of the evaluation drives the expectations and sets the boundaries for what the evaluation can and cannot deliver. In any one evaluation, and especially in a multi year plan, more than one purpose may be identified; however, the primary purpose can influence resource allocation, use, stakeholders included, and more and the  Purpose priorities in the plan could  establish the link between purposes and intended use of evaluation data. While there are  many  ways of stating the identified purpose of the evaluation, they generally gives these primary categories:

i). Rendering judgments—accountability

ii). Facilitating improvements—program development

iii). Knowledge generation—transferability

Step 2: Describe the program. A shared understanding of the program and what the evaluation can and cannot distribute is essential to the prosperity of implementation of evaluation activities and utilization of evaluation results. The stakeholders and programs must concur upon the logic model, stage of development description and purport of the evaluation.

Step 3: Focus the evaluation. Understanding the purport of the evaluation and the rationale for prioritization of evaluation questions is critical for acceptance and transparency of evaluation findings. It is essential that the evaluation address those questions of top need to the program and priority users of the evaluation.

Step 4: Planning for gathering credible evidence.Stakeholders have to accept that the methods culled are congruous to the questions asked and what the data accumulated are credible or the evaluation results will not be accepted or utilized. Themarket for and acceptance of evaluation results commences in the orchestrating phase. Stakeholders can apprise the cull of felicitous methods.

Step 5: Planning for conclusions. Stakeholders should apprise the analysis and interpretation of findings and facilitate the development of conclusions and recommendations. This in turn will facilitate the acceptance and utilization  of the evaluation results by other stakeholder groups. Stakeholders can avail determine if and when stakeholder interpretation meetings should be conducted.

Step 6: Planning for dissemination and sharing of lessons learned. Stakeholders should apprise the translation of evaluation results into practical applications and actively participate in the consequential dissemination of edifications learned. This will facilitate ascertaining utilization of the evaluation. Stakeholders can facilitate the development of an intentional, strategic communication and dissemination plan within thethe evaluation plan.

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INSERT TABLE FOR ISK PROJECTS

http://4pm.com/bottom-up-estimating/

https://comboapp.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Competitive-analysis-for-mobile-apps.pptx.pdf

https://www.mitre.org/publications/systems-engineering-guide/se-lifecycle-building-blocks/test-and-evaluation/assess-test-and-evaluation-plans-and-procedures

for more evaluation

https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/cntrng-crm/crm-prvntn/tls-rsrcs/prjct-plnnng-en.aspx#app_2

10.References

1. Niva M. ‘All foods which affects health’: understanding of functional foods and healthy eating among health oriented tips. Appetite. 2007;384–93.

2. Shepherd J, Harden A, Rees R, Brunton G, Garcia J, Oliver S. Young people and their healthy eating: a systematic review of research on barriers and facilitators. Health Education Res. 2006;21:239–57.

3. Join WHO/FAO expert consultation. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. p. 149.

4. Polivy J, Herman CP. Mental health and eating behaviours: a bi-directional relation. Can J Public Health. 2005;96(Suppl 3):S43–6. S49-53.

5.Morgan Leslie Segal,Harvard school of Public Health;best food sources.health benefits.1939-2017.

6.  Anthony Alayon – Posted in: Diet and Nutrition;Health-Reporter-Daily. 101 Toxic Food Ingredients They Never Told You About. 2005 p.278

7. Aasim Durrani- Legal-issues-for-mobile-app-developers;2013 p.346

8.Resnick,D,B.What is Ethics in Research and Why is it important:List adapted from ShamooA and Resnik D.2015,3rd ed.

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