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Dissertation on Preventing Hypothermia in Premature Babies

Info: 9188 words (37 pages) Dissertation
Published: 7th Apr 2021

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Tagged: ChildcareHealthcare

ABSTRACT

Around 17 to 20 million of low weight and premature infants are born each year. Low weight birth relates to infants that were born under the normal and ideal conditions, and are vulnerable to various types of dangers and risks. 25% of these neonates were unable to survive, in which most of the cases are related to hypothermia. The use of incubator, an existing solution to the problem, is very costly, and the access to it is not easily obtainable. Also, handling it requires sophisticated medical skills and knowledge, which means it can only be operated by a certified medical officer. This project focuses on producing a low cost, mobile, and safe alternative to an incubator, in the form of a baby suit.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………….………. 1

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………….……… 2

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………………5

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………… 6

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project context, purpose and description………………………………………………..…….7

1.2 Project objectives…………..…………………………………………………………..…….. 8

1.3 Scope and limitations of the project……………………………………………………….…..9

CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND STUDY

2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..………10

2.2 Marketing research…………………………………………………………………………………………….10

2.3 Market segmentation……………………………………………………………………..…. 11

2.4 Customer needs………………………………………………………………………………11

CHAPTER 3 SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

3.1 Concept generation and selection…………………………………………………………….12

3.1.1 First design concept……………………………………………………………..…12

3.1.2 Second design concept……………………………………………..………………13

3.1.3 Final design concept…………………………………………………………….…14

3.2 Detailed engineering design………………………………………………………………….15

3.2.1 CAD of the components…………………………………..…………………..…….15

3.2.2 Assembly drawing and detailed dimensions……………..…………………………. 16

3.3 Materials selection………………………………………………………………………….. 17

3.3.1 Qualitative comparison……………………………………………………….….….17

3.3.2 Quantitative comparison………………………………………………………..….18

3.4 Theoretical review…………………………………………………………………….……..19

3.4.1 Heat transfer………………………………………………………………….……19

3.4.2 Heat capacity.………………………………………………………………….…20

3.4.3 Conductive heat transfer………………………………………………………….20

3.4.4 Latent heat (enthalpy) of fusion………………………………………………..…21

3.4.5 Estimated duration of heat retention………………………………………..…….21

CHAPTER 4 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

4.1 Fabrication and testing process……………………………………………….…………….23

CHAPTER 5 COST AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

5.1 Cost evaluation……………………………………………………………………..……….25

5.2 Cost comparison…………………………………………………………………………….25

5.3 Product profit model…………………………………………………………………………27

5.3.1 Break-even point (BEP) analysis……………………………………………….…27

5.4 Marketability……………………………………………………………………………..…29

5.5 Design for safety and reliability………………………………………………………….…30

5.6 Design for sustainability and environment………………….…………………………….…35

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION

6.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………..38

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….………..39

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Advantages and disadvantages of different types of materials…………………..……17

Table 3.2 Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of few materials………………..…..19

Table 5.1 Materials list and cost (1st choice)……………………………………………………25

Table 5.2 Materials list and cost (2nd choice)……………………………………………………26

Table 5.3 Product profit table………………………………………………………………..…..27

Table 5.4 Information of Break Even Point…………………………………….………………..28

Table 5.5 Failure Modes and Effects & their components description…………………………..31

Table 5.6 Pugh Chart Worksheet…………………………………………………………………34

  

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 3.1 Top & Isometric view of 1st design concept……………………………………………. 12

Fig 3.2 Top & Isometric view of 2nd design concept………………………………..…………..13

Fig 3.3 Top & Isometric view of 3rd design concept……………………………………………14

Fig 3.4 Final product design………………………………………………………..……………15

Fig 3.5 Top & bottom view of final product design…………………………………………….16

Fig 3.6 Top view of assembly with dimensions…………………………………………………16

Fig 4.1 Polyester fabric, heat gel pack & temperature sensor………………………………..….23

Fig 4.2 Velcro and baby doll used for prototype size estimation…………………………..…….23

Figure 4.3 Tailor hired for product fabrication…………………………………………………..24

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Project context, purpose and description

Around 17 – 20 million of low-weight-birth and premature infants are born each year. Low weight birth relates to infants that were born under the normal and ideal conditions, and are vulnerable to various types of dangers and risks; preterm is the case where infants are born before the mature age of pregnancy, which is determined to be 37 to 42 weeks of pregnancy. 25% of these neonates were unable to survive, in which most of the cases are related to hypothermia.

Hypothermia is the medical emergency cases that is caused by higher rate of heat loss compared to the rate of the heat produced by the body, and can be fatal by itself or due to other severe implications that are caused by it. Hypothermia can be classified into three types based on body temperature: mild hypothermia (36 – 36.4 °C), moderate hypothermia (32- 35.9°C), and severe hypothermia (less than 32°C). Thermoregulation is one of the key aspects that ensure human survivals at any environment, where hypothalamus (a component of the human brain) is responsible to regulate body temperature, by directing body systems to produce or releases heat according to the conditions. Neonates that has not fully developed the mechanisms of thermoregulation yet will face the risks of hypothermia, and requires external factors to aid in regulating the body temperature.

The current medical procedure practiced by modern hospitals is by admitting the neonates into incubators, a machine that can mimic an ideal environment’s temperature, humidity, and several more variables. The machine itself is very costly, and access to one is also a challenge to needy parents, where incubators can only be found in hospitals for the general publics, and handling it requires medical skills and knowledge, which means it only can be operated by a certified medical officer. That is the case in developed regions, where only funding is the main constraints.

However, in rural areas, especially the poorer and colder regions where even electricity is a challenge to obtain, baby incubators are not a suitable solution to hypothermia. One of the solution is placing the newborn close to a fire as a heat source to warm up the infant, but this practice is dangerous to the baby due to instability of temperature and the risks of fire hazard. Regulating body temperature requires a stable and steady heat exchange between the body and surrounding to avoid any other complication that may affect the newborn’s survival. This is the main focus of this project, which is to come out with a non-complex, simple, non-expensive, and universal solution to solve the thermoregulation issues.

  1. Project Objectives

The objectives of the project are mainly to design a product that can aid in solving the problems regarding thermoregulations of body of neonates which means the product will act as an external heat source that can keep the infants warm over a period of time.

Since we are focusing on the developing countries, the objective is to develop a product that served as an alternative low-cost solution to incubators. Furthermore, the product that we are designing will be affordable to various ranges of community groups especially the poorer groups.

Last but not least, the product will be user-friendly, simple to use and requires little to no skills to handle.

  1. Scope and Limitation of the Project

Due to our location as students in Malaysia, we have limitations in terms of doing a detailed research on our subject matter. Malaysia is a relatively and naturally warm country, cases of hypothermia in premature babies are very rare. The fact that healthcare services are widely distributed to the publics in Malaysia is also considered as a drawback for us. The medical service in Malaysia is supported by the government, which allow incubators to be easily available to all ranges of the population.

CHAPTER TWO

BACKGROUND STUDY

2.1 Introduction

Market research can be used in identifying customer needs, as well as who they are, to be more specific we should know our market segmentations. This chapter will show what we have done in marketing research regarding to the product that we improved and what is the current product available in the market, as well as what the customers are looking for or expecting from this portable incubator.

2.2 Marketing Research

By searching in the market for solutions for this issue, we found many solutions which are the modern electrical incubators which are found at hospitals, but it needs an experienced operator to work. The minimum cost is also high, starting at $3000 per product. Other than that there are portable solutions, in the form of a suit, which does not require any operation or experiences. That one is already in the market but it is also quiet costly, starting at around $90 per product.

We developed a new idea for portable incubators by adding the sensor to increase the safety measures for the suit. By assuming that our product will be produced at a cost per unit. The target is to sell our product with different models (with and without sensor), with a goal that even by providing a more expensive and multifunctional type of sensor, the total cost will be affordable. The total cost for a full set of our product will be as following:

1. RM 250 per unit with sensor (Xiaomi).

2. RM 120 per unit with sensor (Normal sensor).

With a consideration of production and 30-40% profit.

2.3 Market segmentation

Since one of the objectives that we set is to reach those who are living at developing countries as well as any family which does not have the ability to pay for the electric incubator at hospitals, so we divided the market segmentations to three levels:

  1. Non-government organizations (NGOs) and health ministries: since one of our main objectives is to deliver our product to poor communities and the developing countries so the best way to do is to provide them through NGOs which have influence there.
  2. General public: to cover the need in the world. Based on a study from ‘The Partnership for Maternal, New Born and Child Health’ that 75% of premature who could not survive every year because of the high cost needed for electrical incubators in the hospitals.
  3. Hospitals: since the main demand of this product starts from the hospitals after the baby is born, so providing our product at hospitals is important.

2.4 Customer Needs

There are many methods to do in order to know what is the customers’ need. Some of it are through market research reports, focus groups and market surveys. From some of the market research and other searches, we can identify customer needs, as well as who they are. So by searching on the internet and looking for customers’ complaints, we divided the need to:

  • Low Cost: the main need is to buy the product with cheaper price which was our main target to do since there are a lot of people who does not have the ability to pay for the one at hospitals. Also one of the advantage is the portability which make it easier to use.
  • Clothing Allergy:  clothing allergy or textile contact dermatitis is common for many new born babies.  However, the cause of such skin condition is not actually brought about by the clothes, but rather due to the materials and substances embedded within the textile. So we tried to provide many cover materials to avoid that.
  • Design and colors: the incubator which available in the market is one color only, so what we are willing to do is to provide many designs and colors

CHAPTER THREE

SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

3.1 Concept generation and selection.

In our design development, we follow a few steps and process in order to realize our plans. The first step we took in our design development process is defining our problems. When our problems have been defined, we gather information regarding the problems found, and its solutions to be implemented in our product design. After gaining information, we generate a few design concepts, list their pros and cons, and consider those designs based on few aspects such as market demand, functionality, aesthetic value and costing. After the design has been finalized, we proceed to prototype production, and finally, prototype testing and improvisation.

3.1.1 First design concept

         

Figure 3.1 Top & Isometric view of 1st design concept

For our first design concept, we decided to use a pillow as the base for our product. At the middle of the pillow, we create a slot to put a heat pack. The heat pack is heated beforehand, and then put in the slot, located just at the back of the baby’s body. When the baby is in position, the baby will be sealed by the fabric wing at both ends of the product, and then sealed with Velcro. This design is equipped with a temperature sensor, which is used to monitor the temperature of the baby.

Some of the advantages of this design is comfortability and easiness to use. But there are disadvantages for this design. This design concept is bulky and not so portable, since the pillow is quite big in size, even though it is comfortable. It is also not pleasing to the eyes, and have low aesthetic value.

3.1.2 Second design concept

       

Figure 3.2 Top & Isometric view of 2nd design concept

For our second design concept, we decided to use a slightly thinner sheet of fabric compared to the pillow. We also decided to use an alternative concept to generate heat to the baby, which is to use copper strip as a mean to transfer heat throughout the system. The copper strips will be connected to a power source, whereby the temperature generated could be controlled by a thermostat. This design is also equipped with a temperature sensor, which is used to monitor the temperature of the baby.

In this design concept, we improve the mobility of the product compared to the previous design. Temperature generated could also be controlled electronically using the thermostat. It can be used on the spot, without long setup time. The disadvantages of this product is that firstly, copper strips are expensive, which is against our goal to provide a cheap alternative to an incubator. Secondly, electric supply is hard to obtain in rural areas, therefore, it will not be too useful for our targeted market.

 

3.1.3 Final design concept

   

Figure 3.3 Top & Isometric view of 3rd design concept

In our final product, we decided to use back the concept of using a heat pack to provide heat to the baby. But this time, we improve the mobility of the design by using a thinner fabric. The design consists of a pillow for the baby’s comfort, a heat pack slot, and wings to cover the baby from the cold surrounding. The wings are equipped with Velcro, and the size are adjustable due to the position of the Velcro. This design concept is cheap, mobile, comfortable, and user friendly.

3.2 Detailed engineering design

Based on our few preliminary designs, we have come out with our final design. We have properly designed our product using 3D CAD SolidWorks software, which is suitable for detailed engineering designing process. From our design, the software could come out with assembly drawing including all crucial views {top, bottom, isometric, etc.).

3.2.1 CAD of the components

Figure 3.4 Final product design

 

 

            

Figure 3.5 Top & bottom view of final product design

 

3.2.2 Assembly drawing and detailed dimensions

Figure 3.6 Top view of assembly with dimensions

 

3.3 Materials selection

Materials selection is a very crucial aspect in our designing process. Because our project is closely related to vulnerable human beings (premature babies), it is very important for us to use suitable materials that are free from all possible hazards for the babies. After finishing our geometrical design, we have done a research on fabrics materials, and its advantages and disadvantages by comparing both qualitatively and quantitatively.

 

3.3.1 Qualitative Comparison

Qualitative comparison are subjective selections, and focuses on the non-variable and properties of materials. For this part, we are comparing different types of fabrics by looking at its known advantages and disadvantages in terms of comfort, compatibility and skin health related issues.

Table 3.1 Advantages and disadvantages of different types of materials


 

Based on the table, we decided to use polyester fabric to be made as the main material for our product since it is strong, resistant to shrinking and stretching, and also light weight. These properties make the product easier to take care of, the product will last longer, and it will be user friendly. Furthermore, it is suitable for almost everyone since it has high biocompatibility. Comparing the disadvantages, unattractiveness is not a critical aspect compared to others since some may affect the infant’s health, comfortability, and worse, cause hazard.

3.3.2 Quantitative Comparison

Quantitative comparison is comparing different options by using calculated data and numbers-related properties, which gives more justified insight and reason on why the material was selected. In this case, materials will be compared according to its thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity.

Thermal conductivity is the ability of a material to let heat flow through. It is the almost the same as electrical conductivity, where the more the conductivity is, the easier thermal or heat to flow through. Thermal conductivity usually denoted with ‘k’ and unit (W/m.°C). For this product, the material need to have a low thermal conductivity as we do not want heat to lost quickly.

Specific heat capacity defined as the amount of heat required to raise one unit of temperature per unit mass of a material. It is also can be defined as the ability of a material to store heat, where materials with higher specific heat capacity needs more energy to lose temperature.

Table 3.2 Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of few materials

Material Thermal conductivity (W/m. °C) Specific Heat Capacity (J/kg. °C)
Wool 0.033 960
Polyester 0.15 1151
Cotton 0.055 840

3.4 Theoretical Review

In designing our product, theoretical aspect is a very crucial thing to be considered since figures are important to ensure that our product will work. Calculations make sure that our outcome are backed by figures, not merely relying on logics. This subchapter shows our calculation and theoretical aspects behind our product.

3.4.1 Heat Transfer

The physical concept that is heavily used in the design of this attire is the concept of heat transfer. Heat transfer is the flow of heat from one place to another, mostly from a higher temperature region to lower temperature region, until both regions achieved thermal equilibrium (same temperature). Heat transfer consist of three modes of transfer, namely conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer. In the design process, we focused mainly on conductive heat transfer since convective and radiative mode are much more complex and requires many unknown variables.

3.4.2 Heat Capacity

Heat capacity is defined as how much heat is in a system gained/loss after a temperature change from its initial temperature. The heat capacity only measured if temperature change occurs, it does not measure the absolute heat contained in the system. The formula for heat capacity is:

Q = mc(∆T)       (1)

where Q is the heat capacity; m is the mass of the system; c is the heat capacity of the material; (∆T) is the temperature difference.

3.4.3 Conductive Heat Transfer

Conduction heat transfer occurs when heat is flowing through a solid opaque material with a thickness and an area of conduction. The equation that is used to govern this mode is the Fourier’s Law of Conduction, where it is used to measure the rate of heat transferred through the material.

Q/t = – kA(∆T) / (∆x)      (2)

where Q/t is the rate of heat transfer per second; k is the thermal conductivity of the material; A is the area of heat transfer; (∆T) is the temperature difference between the two point; (∆x) is the thickness of the material

3.4.4 Latent Heat (Enthalpy) of Fusion

Enthalpy is the amount of energy released or gained to change the state of material, in this case, fusion which is solid to liquid or vice versa. In this process, temperature remains the same at the melting point and all of the energy are used to melt the material. The equation used is

Qlf = m*Lf       (3)

Where m is the mass; and Lf is the specific latent heat of material.

3.4.5 Estimated duration of heat retention

  1. Energy required to completely melt paraffin wax:
    • The method is immersing the paraffin wax pouch in a large pot containing constantly boiling water by placing it over heat source
    • Assumptions for this calculation are
      • Boiling water and paraffin wax interaction are in closed system
      • Water boiled and constantly at 100°C
      • Initial temperature of paraffin wax is 20°C with mass 0.7kg
    • Total energy, Q total = Eq. (1) + Eq. (3)
    • Qtotal = (0.7kg)(2512 J/kg.°C)(37°C-20°C) + (0.7kg)(173600 J/kg) = 151412.8 J
    • 151.413 kJ was gained by the paraffin wax pouch after it completely melted
  2. Rate of heat transfer between paraffin wax and blanket
    • Assumptions:
      • Interaction between paraffin wax pouch and blanket are in closed system
      • Initial temperature of the polyester blanket is 25°C, with thickness 10mm
  • Using Eq. (2) :
    • Q/t = – (0.15 J/m.s. °C)(0.13m*0.26m)(25°C-37°C)/0.01m = 4.56 J/s
  • Comparing I and II; 151412.8 J / 4.56 (J/s) = 33204.6 s = 9 hours

This means the pouch can provide heat to the blanket theoretically for 9 hours, but if convective and radiative heat loss to the surrounding were factored into the calculation, the duration will be much lesser.

CHAPTER FOUR

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

4.1 Fabrication and testing process

                    

Figure 4.1 Polyester fabric, heat gel pack & temperature sensor

                          C:UserspcDesktopidp381kjlrzomkL._SL1500_.jpg  

Figure 4.2 Velcro and baby doll used for prototype size estimation

 

    

Figure 4.3 Tailor hired for product fabrication

For our product fabrication, we decided to hire a tailor to fabricate our product. We provided the tailor with the materials and our product’s geometrical specifications, and the tailor made our product using her expertise.

To test our product, first we heat the heat pack inside a water heater, at boiling point. When the heat pack has been heated, we put it inside the heat pack slot on the suit. Then we measured the temperature inside the suit. Since we do not use a real human baby, we could not obtain the desired temperature. But that does not become the issue since we can control the temperature to be at our desired temperature by controlling it before putting it inside the heat pack slot. So it does not matter whatever body or matter we put inside, we could still obtain our desired temperature, which is in this case, around 37 °C.

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

COST AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

5.1 Cost Evaluation

Cost evaluation is the process of reporting different elements in a cost proposal, such as labor, equipment and materials that build up a product or service, as well as its proposed profit. It is used when there are comparable offers in the marketplace or when there is no competition.

The table below gives a clear picture of the total cost of our product as a single prototype (Hypothermia preventive dress for prematurely born babies). The total cost for a mass production will be shown in following tables.

5.2 Cost Comparison

Table 5.1 Materials list and cost (1st choice)

Noo Components Quantity Cost (RM)
1 Xiaomi temperature sensor 1 148
2 Blanket 1 50
3 Sleeping Bag 1 40
4 Hot/Cold Gel Pack 2 16
5 Tailor’s job 60
Total 320

Table 5.2 Materials list and cost (2nd choice)

Noo Components Quantity Cost (RM)
1 Digital LCD Temperature 1 18
2 Blanket 1 50
3 Sleeping Bag 1 40
4 Hot/Cold Gel Pack 2 16
5 Tailor’s job 50
Total 190

The price for traditional incubator is about RM88000 while the price for existing product is range about RM880 – RM1320, and it is quite expensive. So we’ve come out with alternative product which is cheaper and more affordable, with up to 64% – 78% cheaper than existing product and that means our product is a lot cheaper than traditional incubator with up to 99.6% – 99.8% its price.

For our product, we come out with two alternatives. For the first alternative, we use the Xiaomi temperature sensor (RM148) which is a bit expensive from the second alternative but more modern with more functionality. It can be controlled by some distance through android or iOS on smartphone. While the second one is a typical temperature sensor namely Digital LCD Temperature (RM18) which can measure basic temperature of the baby. Eventually, we decided to choose the second one as we don’t have enough money and budget to exceed from RM200 which is too expensive for our targeted market, the poor people to buy.

5.3 Product Profit Model

Table 5.3 Product profit table

Noo Remarks Cost (RM)
1 Cost to make (per unit) 190
2 Selling Price 240
Profit 50

As we discussed previously, the total cost to make the product is around RM190. We decided to make profit of around RM50 when we sell the product at around RM240 (per unit).

5.3.1 Break Even Point Analysis

Now that we have gone ahead and discussed pricing objectives as well as the strategy piece and how we are going to achieve those objectives, it is important that we discuss the actual specifics related to pricing. There are a number of tools that can be used as a way of fine tuning the actual pricing. Businesses have to consider a lot of different things if they are going to price their product not only competitively, but also to the point where they are going to cover a lot of their costs.

One of the easiest ways that we can utilize is Breakeven analysis, which is a process that’s used to determine the number of units that we would have to sell to cover our costs. So, ideally in a business we wouldn’t sell any number is because by covering our costs we’re not necessarily making any profits.

Before we talk about Breakeven point we will define some of the terms that will be used . Fixed costs (FC), do not vary over time within a certain relevant range. And so these often include things like plants, property, equipment, insurance, taxes and even advertising. The reason they are fixed is because they don’t vary based on the number of products that you sell. Therefore, if we sell nothing we still have to pay utilities and certain insurance etc.

Price of the product(P), is basically what consumers have to pay to obtain my product. Variable costs (VC), contrary to fixed costs, variable costs vary based upon the number of units produced. Easy to say, they are costs that change with the quantity of output. Typically variable costs include things like direct materials and direct labor etc.

Breakeven point = FCP-VC

We go deeper into calculation. The information as decided is shown in table X:

Table 5.4 Information of Break Even Point

Information Price (RM)
Price per Unit 240
 
Digital LCD Temperature Sensor 18
Blanket 50
Sleeping Bag 40
Hot/Cold Gel Pack 32
Tailor’s job 50
Variable Cost per Unit 190
 
General Labor 50,440
Rent 100,880
Insurance 6,725
Advertising 16,810
Utilities 15,145
Total Fixed Cost 190,000

Then, the calculation will be as follow:

Breakeven point = 190 000190-50

Break-even point = 1,357 units

We have to sell at least 1,357 units in order to cover the fixed and variable costs. Anything it sells after the 1,357 mark will go straight to the contribution margin since the fixed costs are already covered.

Next, translate the number of units into total sales RM by multiplying the 1,357 units by the total sales price for each unit of RM 240.

= 1,357 x RM 240

= RM 325,680

Now our group must sell at least 1,357 units or the equivalent of RM 325,680 in sales before any profits are realized.

5.4 Marketability

By producing higher quality product and pricing them competitively, we increase the marketability of our products since consumers will be more inclined to choose our product over equally priced item or even less.

Our marketing strategy has three main components:

  1. Cost leader

By competitive the market with a better price with the same quality or even better. That was applied when we provide a product starts from RM 140 compared to the one available now which cost RM 330. As well as we provide a better one with thermal sensor by RM 330.

  1. Differentiation

Means what is the differences between our product and the one available in the market. We could develop many things to make our product stronger.

  • Sensor: First attire with thermal sensor which can be connected to the mobiles Android/IOS and it has an alarm which can be set for the maximum and minimum temperature range.
  • Fabrics: Different kind of fabrics are initiated to prevent allergies for babies, by providing cotton silk and mixed
  • Design: Providing multi various designs comprising both genders (boysgirls) with different colors.
  • Replacement parts: In case of damage of any part, replacement part will be provided. This will allow people to use the product for a longer time
  • Easy to use: Easy to operate and no need for electricity.
  • Portability
  • Washable
  1. Responses

Responses can be known only after we start selling the product in the market.

5.5 Design for safety & reliability

For the fabric properties, we considered some considerations that related directly to the design factor and safety factor. Type of material that we used is 100% polyester. The thickness is about 0.03m in length. Thermal conductivity is k = 0.15 J/(m*s*°C) and surface area is about 0.0338 m2.

For the design of safety, our group performed Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), which is a step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or assembly process, or a product or service.

Table 5.5 Failure Modes and Effects & their components description

Function or Process Step Failure Type Potential Impact SEV Potential Causes OCC Detection Mode DET RPN Recommended Actions Responsibility Target Date Action Taken
                         
                         
                         
  Description Low Number High Number
Severity (SEV) Severity ranking encompasses what is important to the industry, company or customers (e.g., safety standards, environment, legal, production continuity, scrap, loss of business, damaged reputation) Low impact High impact
Occurrence (OCC) Rank the probability of a failure occuring during the expected lifetime of the product or service Not likely to occur Inevitable
Detection

 

(DET)

Rank the probability of the problem being detected and acted upon before it has happened Very likely to be detected Not likely to be detected

After ranking the severity, occurrence and detection levels for each failure mode, the team will be able to calculate a risk priority number (RPN). The formula for the RPN is:

RPN = severity x occurrence x detection

Once all the failure modes have been assessed, the team should adjust the FMEA to list failures in descending RPN order. This highlights the areas where corrective actions can be focused. If resources are limited, practitioners must set priorities on the biggest problems first.

There is no definitive RPN threshold to decide which areas should receive the most attention; this depends on many factors, including industry standards, legal or safety requirements, and quality control. However, a starting point for prioritization is to apply the Pareto rule: typically, 80 percent of issues are caused by 20 percent of the potential problems. As a rule of thumb, teams can focus their attention initially on the failures with the top 20 percent of the highest RPN scores.

When the priorities have been agreed upon, one of the team’s last steps is to generate appropriate corrective actions for reducing the occurrence of failure modes, or at least for improving their detection. The FMEA leader should assign responsibility for these actions and set target completion dates.

Once corrective actions have been completed, the team should meet again to reassess and rescore the severity, probability of occurrence and likelihood of detection for the top failure modes. This will enable them to determine the effectiveness of the corrective actions taken. These assessments may be helpful in case the team decides that it needs to enact new corrective actions.

The FMEA is a valuable tool that can be used to realize a number of benefits, including improved reliability of products and services, prevention of costly late design changes, and increased customer satisfaction.

While for the design reliability, we decided to utilize the Pugh Chart. Typically, a Pugh matrix is used to evaluate various alternatives against a baseline. For example, a company has five alternative processes to the one it’s using, and it wants to know if any of the five is better or not.

It is also used when only one solution is possible, only one product can be brought to market, has only sufficient financing for one solution or where the optimal alternative is required, and you are deciding on the basis of multiple criteria.

It can also be used where there are many alternatives, none of which are quite suitable. The Pugh matrix can be used to choose the best aspects of the various concepts to produce a hybrid, which hopefully will be better than the alternatives used initially. Table 5.5 shows the Pugh Chart worksheet.

Table 5.6 Pugh Chart Worksheet

Design Criteria Weight Xiaomi Temperature Sensor Digital LCD Temperature Sensor Digital LCD Temperature HTC-2 external sensor
Aesthetic 2 ++ – –
Cost 2 – – – +++ ++
Installation 1 – – 0 0
Safety 2 + + +
Ease of Use 2 + + +
Maintenance 1 0 0
Comfort 2 + +
Space 2 + 0 – – –
Sum of positive (+) 12 12 8
Sum of zero (0) 1 3 2
Sum of negative (-) 8 3 12
Overall Total +4 + 9 – 4

From the data on table 5.5, we can conclude that alternative of Digital LCD Temperature Sensor is the best choice among the others. Hence, we decided to use it and proceed to next step.

5.6 Design for sustainability & environment

In our product design, we ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for people at all ages. We all know how important it is to be in good health. Our health affects everything from how much we enjoy life to what work we can perform. That’s why our goal is to make sure everyone has health coverage and access to safe and effective medical equipment

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Between 1990 and 2010, the number of people with access to electricity increased by 1.7 billion.  That’s progress to be proud of. And yet, as the world’s population continues to rise, still more people will need cheap energy to light their homes and streets, use phones and computers and do their everyday business. The way we get that energy is at issue; fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions are making drastic changes in the climate, leading to big problems on every continent. Instead, we can become more energy-efficient by changing and replacing the incubator which need electricity very badly with this dress which is highly sustainable and reliable energy. That way we’ll protect the environment efficiently.

Next, we promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. An important part of economic growth is that people have jobs that pay enough to support themselves and their families. The good news is that the middle class is growing worldwide—almost tripling in size in developing countries in the last 25 years, to more than a third of the population. But in 2015, we also have widening inequalities, and job growth is not keeping pace with the growing labor force, over 200 million people don’t have jobs. This lead us to invent and innovate this dress which can save large amount of cost. Thus, the poor people can use the money to focus on another crucial thing to survive their life and eventually will promote in their economy and work.

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. Every country in the world is seeing the drastic effects of climate change, some more than others. On average, the annual losses just from earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars. We can reduce the loss of life and property by take care the nature in professional way like what we did for replacing the incubator. Some parts of the incubator like electronics package are difficult to recycle. Otherwise, the impact of global warming will get worse. We’re seeing more storms, more droughts and more extremes than ever before. It is still possible, with political will and technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and thus avoid the worst effects of climate change. Our group lay out a way for countries to work together to meet this urgent challenge.

Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. Humans and other animals rely on other forms of life on land for food, clean air, clean water, and as a means of combatting climate change. Plant life makes up 80% of the human diet. Forests, which cover 30% of the Earth’s surface, help keep the air and water clean and the Earth’s climate in balance. That’s not to mention they’re home to millions of animal species. But the land and life on it are in trouble. We can turn these trends around by conserving and restore the use of terrestrial ecosystems chromium which one of the main element to make stainless steel which forming incubator body. Stainless steel is not fully stain-proof in low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor air-circulation environments. Our product is steel-free and eco-friendly, hence the best choice of product so far.

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

6.1 Conclusion

Alhamdulillah, we have finally completed the project. Throughout the semester, our group have worked aggressively to achieve our objectives. We have progressed and learn a lot by doing this project. During this project, we focused more on the theoretical part because unlike other projects which require complicated mechanisms, our product is quite simple to make, but the theoretical part backing the mechanism is a very crucial part to be considered, since a little miscalculation could cost lives.

Our main objective in doing this project is to design a product that could help in thermoregulations of body of premature babies, and at the same time is cost effective, safe and easy to be operated. Alhamdulillah we have come out with a functional product. The product is also far cheaper than other alternatives that is available in the market. Safety measures of the product has been highly focused on and at the same time, users don’t have to have a specific set of knowledge to handle the product.

Due to our location as students in Malaysia, we have limitations in terms of doing a detailed research on our subject matter. Malaysia is a relatively and naturally warm country, so cases of hypothermia in premature babies are very rare. The fact that healthcare services are widely distributed to the publics in Malaysia is also considered as a drawback for us. The medical service in Malaysia is supported by the government, which allow incubators to be easily available to all ranges of the population.

In doing the project, time management is very important. Students are recommended to create a job scope, prepare a timeline and abide to it. Students also have to put a lot of attention and effort in doing the project since not only is the project beneficial and informative, but it also prepares the students mentally for the engineering field. Students also have to be independent since the schedule is pretty tight, and everybody have lots of other responsibilities, so students need to find a way to get things done.

Overall, the project had been very beneficial and informative. It enhances students’ creativity in integrating what they have learnt in the engineering course and make a product that is functional and could help the society. Hopefully the knowledge gained from this project could be remembered and applied in our daily lives, especially in the field of work as an engineer.

REFERENCES

  1. SoloRio, K. (n.d.). How to Use Market Research for Identifying Customer Needs. Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://blog.marketresearch.com/blog-home-page/bid/183748/How-to-Use-Market-Research-for-Identifying-Customer-Needs
  2. Clothing Allergy: 5 Reasons, 7 Symptoms, and 6 Ways to Control. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from https://www.cottonique.com/blogs/blog/draft-clothing-allergy-5-reasons-7-symptoms-and-6-ways-to-control
  3. Lotus, L. (n.d.). Little Lutos. Retrieved April 23, 2017, from https://littlelotusbaby.com/products/swaddle
  4. Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2017,from http://www.who.int/pmnch/media/news/2012/preterm_birth_report/en/index3.html
  5. https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_factors_that_can_affect_safety_selection
  6. http://www.globalhealth.care/2015/03/embrace-infant-warmer-to-disrupt.html
  7. DOE Simplified Practical Tools for Effective Experimentation (Productivity Inc., 2000)
  8. Design and Analysis of Experiments (John Wiley and Sons, 1997)
  9. https://www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/design-of-experiments-doe/design-experiments-%E2%90%93-primer/
  10. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Laboratory-Incubator.html
  11. http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/corporate/brochure/SDGs_Booklet_Web_En.pdf

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