1. Origins, Development, Applications of internet of medical things
2. The definition of IoMT
3. IoMT history
3.1 Life before IoMT
3.2 IoMT development
4. IoMT strengths and weaknesses
4.1.2 Large industry & room for growth
4.1.3 Many applications
4.1.4 Large customer base: patient, student, doctor, etc.
4.1.5 New job for experts in medical industry
4.1.6 Resources imbalances are solved
4.1.7 Make people know more about doctors and hospital
4.1.8 Patient can communicate online
4.2.1 Battery life
4.2.2 Processing power
4.2.3 Monitoring liability
4.2.4 Data security
4.2.5 Medical industry
4.2.6 Uneasy for elderly people
With the accelerated pace of life, people don’t want to spend more time on hospital registration, procedure, and other trivial things. Internet of medical things can help it by applying internet in medical staff, like patient can make an appointment online, the personal information and the very first disease description can be sent to hospital information system and assigned to a doctor, which decrease time on waiting and personal information registration. For people living in somewhere far away from medical resources, remote medical treatment may be a good choice to let the man away from distant puzzles. Even inside the hospital, the internet can be useful by sending physical checking message from doctor to specialist for a traffic injured patient. Internet of medical things can be really helpful in our life, and we do need it.
Information technique is the basement of internet development, and internet application also accelerates development of information industry. Before around half of a century, the internet emerges to send and receive message out of military purposes. After decades, the internet can be used by usual people in their life, especially for information exchange. With the sensors are becoming perfect, the data science theory is completer than before, the hardware is getting humanized and economic, people can apply these things into what they really need, for example, internet of medical things. The Internet is based on information technique, data collecting job can be done by sensors and data analysis job is operated by a program generated from data science theory. People need internet of medical things, therefore, IoMT has rapid development.
With the IT has been improved in an unprecedented speed, all kinds of industries have been changed a lot. The medical industry is one of the most influenced industries.
The internet of medical things can be used in many ways: healthy information query, medical electronic records, electronic prescription, remote treatment, and rehabilitation, etc. Once the internet of medical things is completely done, patients will not spend much more time on waiting for registration, pills picking up, queueing for physical checking, waiting for referring to another specialist, etc. The doctor can monitor patient recovery situation by distant sensors, physical data can be sent back and the doctor can adjust recovery plan according to the result of data analysis. And patient won’t need to go to the hospital to have another physical check before adjustment.
The internet of medical things is to apply internet in the medical industry, also refers to the new applications of the internet in healthcare. including the internet as the carrier and technical ways of health education, electronic medical records, medical information query, disease risk assessment, online disease questions and answers, electronic prescription, remote consultation, remote treatment, and rehabilitation.
Internet of medical things can act as a health butler, people can ask for something from the butler, which is the communication between human and machine; the machine can send something, usually the data, to another machine, and another machine can make reaction about it, which is the communication between machines.
According to the Traditional Medicine Strategy from World Health Organization, traditional medicine is the mainstay of health care delivery or serves as a compliment to it at least to 2023 (World Health Organization, 2003), which means that the traditional medicine has been major part of health care for thousands of years and will be the same till 2023 at least. No matter the medical technology has changed that much, what process people use will still the same. The patient needs to go to the hospital and ask help from a doctor. The doctor needs to use special ways to check what happens to this patient and then, have a therapy to patient, maybe some pills, and maybe recovery training, and may the doctor cannot make a choice at that time, so the doctor turns to other specialists for help, which means this patient needs to wait for a long time before she/he can know what disease she/he have. Message among patients and doctors, doctors and doctors can be hard to send and receive through traditional health care. Most of the time, people are walking on their way to find something instead of a direct and sufficient solution after an efficient search. But people cannot avoid this until the new way for information transformation emerged.
Many countries in the world attach great importance to the research of network medical research. The development of network medical is very rapid, also a hot spot of the computer network technology applied in the medical application. The development of network medical services can be divided into online health counseling, online remote consultation, online inquiry three levels by the type of division. The first level is online health counseling, providing medical and health counseling and medical information services, answering questions such as seeking medical advice and popularizing knowledge about health and disease prevention and treatment. The second level is the online remote consultation, providing remote consultation, remote diagnosis, remote clinical consultation, image consultation, difficult case discussion, ECG consultation and monitoring, preoperative guidance and emergency treatment and other functions. The third level is an online inquiry, dedicated to the traditional part of the outpatient department function to the Internet so that patients can seek medical diagnosis and guidance through the Internet to create a green access channel (Ma, 2013).
Network medical, but also can be called the network era of telemedicine (Anton Vladzymyrskyy, 2016). Its research and application work is generally considered from the 1960s, mainly through the telephone network and cable television network, including text and video images, including all kinds of information for the exchange of information from doctors or expert consultation to the case assist in the diagnosis. In the course of development, telemedicine uses a series of new communication technologies and electronic technologies such as fax, telephone, radio communication to still images and real-time interactive television technology, as well as virtual reality and remote robots, and is combined with healthcare technology to form A lot of new research directions (Anton Vladzymyrskyy, 2016). The United States is one of the countries that have advanced telemedicine, and the earliest developed telemedicine system is used to carry out noninvasive monitoring of astronauts and first aid to the sick and wounded. Since then, medical institutions began to carry out telemedicine, and gradually carried out remote consultation, remote consultation, the medical image of the long-distance transmission, remote control surgery and other projects. Other countries such as Western Europe, Japan and Australia and other countries on the development of telemedicine also attaches great importance to invest huge amounts of money for telemedicine information technology research and development.
With the help of the internet, all kinds of data can be transferred vis seconds. These data can be electronic medical records, physical check result, electronic prescription, diagnose report, medical reference invitation, personal daily health information, etc. Patient can make a registration at home through online healthcare service to make appointment with doctor without waiting for that long; the doctor can send prescription to medicine department without a paper prescription taking by a nurse; computerized tomography will not need a patient or nurse to wait and pick up but will be digitalized and sent to doctor’s computer immediately with a preliminary medical diagnose report; patient can get their medicine after leaving doctor’s office because the doctor may have already sent the prescription to medicine department and nurse have already taken pills back.
Wearable detected devices can be small and portable. Many companies have launched health management applications on a smart cellphone. PICOOK is famous for its body fat scalers which can measure weight and body fat through statistical numbers and report your body fat indicator, how much you exceed, visceral fat index, how many calories are burnt through basically metabolized, bone mass through its own App. OMRON from Japan is a world-famous automation control and electronic equipment manufacturer. Almost every family has a Blood Pressure Monitor from OMRON if there is hypertensive patient in this family.
People can check how many steps they take every day to be a rough health assessment index through applications on the cell phone or smartwatch, or connect them together so that user can read the historical records and make a curve to review their health plan.
The arrival of network health care is bound to promote the development of all walks of life.
Related medical equipment will be improved a lot. A few years ago, mercury sphygmomanometer is what everyone needs to read blood pressure, no matter in a hospital or in a clinic. With the assistance of stethoscope, the doctor can tell people a rough number of diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure. However, the essence of the mercury sphygmomanometer is a pressure gauge. Therefore, what it offers is not the accurate value. What’s more, mercury sphygmomanometer should work with a stethoscope, which means inconvenience. As a result, what people need promotes medical equipment development. Due to demands of portability and accuracy, electronic sphygmomanometer has come. Electronic sphygmomanometer can give a relatively detailed value of diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure, and some products of blood pressure measurement can be connected with a phone or a computer, all information from this sphygmomanometer can be sent to this device. Corresponding applications will help people analyze information and tell you why you can see a changed result of your blood pressure (which is part of health education through the internet). If the user has some questions about the result, it can contact specialist via the App. If the specialist tells that there is something wrong and user needs an advanced physical check, the user will receive a warning and can make an appointment through the App with a specific doctor.
Internet applications are available for people to use. Ali cloud offers service as medical image diagnoses. Once the medical image you have uploaded to the cloud, the cloud will help you process the very first check. Although this process can only guarantee 95% accuracy at least, this first process can help increase medical efficiency by multiple doctors diagnose simultaneously. And, Ali has tried its best to gather data analysis related experts through many ways: high salary to attract talents, holding famous Tianchi Competition (including Repeat Buyers Prediction-Challenge the Baseline, Precise Positioning of User’s shop with advanced algorithms, Microblogging prediction contest, etc.). Not only Ali but internet headers like Google, IBM, Facebook all work hard wishing to lead the world internet development.
Clouding computing should be called the hottest industry in recent years. Everyone knows how to work with the cloud can get a nice job after graduation. Therefore, cloud maintainers, cloud architect, cloud big data experts, cloud data integration experts and anything related to the cloud will be hot positions and more and more people like this will be needed.
The very original purpose of the Internet of Medical Things is for the convenience of people’s lives, to solve meaningless affairs through digitalizing everything on paper, and to apply big data in the medical industry.
Internet of Medical Things can convenient people’s life by achieving part of outpatient functions through the internet. The patient can make an appointment through online service by finishing registration on the hospital website. If the patient needs another doctor, this patient can go to the new doctor without a reference or make an appointment again because these things can be done through email by the electronic medical system. Patient won’t need a paper records anymore; any doctor who has checked patient can use internet to have electronic records of the same patient; therefore, patient and doctor won’t need to worry about losing records, and any doctor can review the whole disease history at any time with the permission of patient, and patient can ask for other doctor’s help with the first doctor’s diagnose result as reference.
Applying big data in the medical industry is one of the greatest achievement of IoMT. Through data mining, we can obtain deeper cognition of the reason why disease happens to someone. The well-known human genome project can use data mining to detect the secrets of the gene. For example, by using association rules, researchers can know the potential relationship among genes of disease. After the study of the patient with Alzheimer’s disease, scientists can realize there is a potential causal relationship among a series of genes. For example, when patients with Alzheimer’s disease all have gene A, gene B, gene C and gene D. Gene A, B, C, D have the following characters: if A exists, B must exist; if B exists, C must exist; if C exits, D must exit. We may the following guess: A is the reason of why B, C, D exist. And if all patients with this disease have A, B, C, D genes existing in their gene, and people that don’t have this disease don’t have any of them, and, people with one of them, two of them, three of them don’t have disease, we may have the guess that the existence of gene A, B, C, D together may lead Alzheimer’s disease.
A→B, B→C, C→D
A→B, C, D
Guess, only when A, B, C, D all exist together, this patient may have this disease.
What we get from data mining cannot tell us something for sure, but some detailed guess and researchers can continue studying genes with such guesses as reference or direction. When people know the relationships among some genes for sure, they may turn to study medicine which can prevent the very first gene to express, like A, so that B, C, D won’t appear and numbers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease would decrease. And scientist can also figure out some medicine to prevent expression of pathogenic genes like A, B, C, D, which means even people have all of the pathogenic genes, but these genes don’t express, therefore, the patient would not have the disease.
Internet of Medical Things can still help patient solve distant health care problems. If a patient has a disease, it should go to the hospital to have a cure. The doctor will check the patient and give him/her some directions and therapy according to the result of diagnosing, and with the patient is recovering, the doctor may need to adjust the therapy. Therefore, in traditional healthcare, the patient needs to go to have a check so that the doctor can adjust therapy. If the patient lives in a faraway place from the hospital, this patient will spend much more time on the road. With the help of the Internet of Medical Things, body check can be done by advanced sensors and other portable medical equipment, and the patient can send information to doctor far away from itself or even not need to do that because doctor can access patient’s health records database which is connected to every medical equipment with data.
With the Internet of Medical Things, people won’t fell hard going to see a doctor. Excluding being really seriously injured, most of the people can make minors injure by themselves according to directions of online search. Minor illness won’t be a time costing issue, pills without prescription can be found online and in the supermarket, special directions can be obtained by remote treatment.
Above conveniences will be welcomed by most of the people. For the patient, they will use the Internet of Medical Things more because they want to know better doctor, more advanced medical resources, easier ways to cure the disease, a lower bill from healthcare and more insured therapy. For doctors, they will use the Internet of Medical Things more because there are a lot of referenced cases to study, more information to use, easier to schedule with patients, faster to exchange information, more data on the report to analyze and obtain therapy, more chances to help more people. For students, they will use the Internet of Medical Things more because there are a lot of learning resources to have healthcare education, more ways to know the medical things around the world, more chances to serve in the medical industry.
Development of Internet Medical Things would create new positions.
With the Internet of Medical Things, the number of outpatient doctors will decrease, whiles the special data analysis experts will be in increasingly needed. These experts may not work in real hospital, not work with a scalpel, not use a stethoscope, no operate nuclear magnetic resonance instruments, but they work with computer, to receive medical data from cloud, to study what the data can tell: the shadow of a certain medical image might indicate that the owner of this image has cancer or tuberculosis. Besides data experts to read medical image, and other experts are needed for another department. For example, department of gynecology and obstetrics， pregnant should go to hospital periodically to make sure that everything is OK for the baby, and among the hospital check time, the mother-to-be can use a smart cell phone with special and specific service for a mother as a health butler to assist until baby born. Doctors and related data experts for the department of gynecology and obstetrics could study pregnant through the smart cellphone and transfer essential information to the mother-to-be.
For example, there are over 60% of China’s leading medical equipment, 70% famous doctors in Beijing, but these medical resources only serve no more than 1% of the total people of the whole China (Ma, 2013). If people live in Beijing, they can enjoy advanced medical care without distant problems, whiles people don’t live in Beijing, but a city closed to Beijing like Tianjin, these people need to take a lot of traffics like high-speed railway to utilize medical resources in Beijing. There are huge regional resources distributed differences. Applying internet in medical industry could really help this. Doctors in Beijing can answer questions from people not in Being, offer basic directions and further suggestions. Only those people who really need inquiry face by face and advanced heal do need to go to Beijing by themselves.
With the internet, the information of doctors and hospital can be updated on time. Everyone can access the website to make a research and choose a better doctor for itself. A doctor can post its successful cases on the website to promote itself and the hospital this doctor registered in.
The constraints of time and space can be broken by the internet, the limitation of communicating, too.
Since the very first phone invented by Bell emerged in the 1850s, communication has been able to cross the distance. Humans would not be limited by space. Via phone, sound can be transferred to miles away to send some information. When the internet first came as a requirement of military purpose, information transformation is under extremely secure conditions. Until after the 1990s, the internet became generally used by people. After the invention of PC, tablet, the smart cell phone, smart bracelet, people can go into a virtual reality and communicate with other people wherever and whenever they want. Therefore, people with a specific purpose can use this way to exchange their ideas. People who like flowers can discuss how to plant the rose in dry areas like St. Louis; people like to travel can share their experience from Japan to Germany; people need healthcare can also post their thoughts on the website or other ways to ask for help or help other people. Patients can offer some suggestions like “you can try to put your feet into hot water for over 30 minutes to help sleep” to answer some people’s insomnia problem. The internet help people to enjoy the healthcare.
Every kind of electronic devices needs the power to run. The portable facility relies on battery as power source. Therefore, the weakness of battery turns to one of the weaknesses of the Internet of Medical Things.
The battery life is what we most concern about the weakness of battery. Battery life is a measure of how well the battery performs and how long it can work with a certain confidence (University, 2017). Batteries are classified into primary and secondary forms; the primary battery cannot be recharged but the second form can. Batteries can also be classified into chemical battery, electrochemical battery, and fuel battery. No matter how to classify battery, the very basic idea of battery working is the directional movement of electrons.
The most common battery in our life is Lithium Ion Battery, including battery on a cell phone, watch, laptop, and other portable devices. Therefore, how well and how long does battery work determine how well and how long the portable devices work. With the development of technology, the battery can work under secure circuit so that the battery can continuously output a stable current until the voltage drops to the minimum even there is some unstable current. Even though, the ambient temperature at work, storage conditions when not working, time to recharge, minimum voltage when recharging still limit usage of Lithium-ion Battery. This kind of battery can basically meet people’s daily requirement except when there is extremely cold (<-20℃) or extremely hot (> 60℃), that is why battery energy drops fast when people using the phone in the north area outside in winter. Lithium-ion Battery can be recharged with specific current intensity; every kind of Lithium-ion Battery needs different input current, like iPhone and iPad, are both recharged under the voltage of 5 V, whiles iPhone needs 1A current intensity, and iPad needs 2.1A. As a result of above, every device requires the corresponding adapter if people want the battery to work as long as it can.
Hardware for the Internet of Medical Things can be fine. Applying could increase the ability of data computing, and cloud storage can be a good way to keep data secure. Using cloud is the hottest tendency of internet technology currently. As far as it can tell, cloud platform can be used inside of enterprise and the related applications of this enterprise, like Baidu Cloud and Baidu searching engine. Data process for a large size of a company like Baidu will need multiple servers to run simultaneously. Medical Big Data is not a new concept. Premier, the U.S. healthcare alliance network has medical data to build a database for clinical, financial, patient treatment from over 2700 members, hospitals and health systems, 90,000 non-acute facilities and 400,000 physicians (Raghupathi, 2014).
What are the current problems for IoMT: one is the absence of valid data, the other is the efficient algorithm.
Related studies of the Internet of Medical Things have been going on for many years, while what we get is not so much. The reason is what people use for the research is not good enough. The platform we use must support key functions of data processing, including availability, continuity, ease of use, scalability, ability to manipulate at different levels of granularity, privacy and security enablement, and quality assurance (D, 2010) (IHTT, 2013) (Raghupathi W, 2013). Although cloud can really help, no good data no good result. Traditional medical records are kept in paper form, and personal data accumulates over time. These data cannot be transferred into digital data to store in the cloud or somewhere we need to use for data processing. What’s more, the current data structure is hard to utilize to dig. Even there are a lot of digital data, what can be used is not so much, most of what we have cannot really help. For example, to predict a disease, physical indicators are required and some of the concurrent symptoms should be recorded; however, not all symptoms will present, and it is hard for people to make a judgment only through some concurrent symptoms and variated indicators.
The algorithm is a great challenge. Although Alpha Go beats human on Go, artificial intelligence still needs to go on for many years until it can really assist people on health care. Ali cloud has published medical help by assisting medical images analysis job and offer remote monitoring by applications on a smart cellphone. This kind of medical help is to apply image classification through the cloud and check whether there is shadow indicating illness. In fact, image classification is not so good, with the highest accuracy of 92%. It has to admit that 92% is a really good number at image classification, but for medical using, 99% is still not a good number, because there is still 1% of uncertainty. For people’s health, it is required 100% certainty, even the doctor make sure one patient has a disease, this doctor cannot guarantee 100% success of the surgery. Therefore, the way we use to analyze data cannot meet people’s real requirements of medical things. There is still a long way to go.
There are a lot of medical disputes when there is no Internet of Medical Things. There can be more disputes with the IoMT if there is no relatively perfect legal system.
In the traditional medical system, once there is a medical malpractice, all doctors, anesthetists, nurses that are related to the case will be required to contact their insurances company and lawyers to book a court with the lawyer of the patient. Everything in the US can be done by lawyers as long as you have bought an insurance. However, above things must be done with complicated research and assessment by the insurance company.
While the Internet of Medical Things is coming, everything is new to the world. For example, if a patient was under monitoring by a specific doctor with certain portable devices, and the data from these devices can be sent to platform A. All data of platform A will be analyzed by study group B, and study group B are from biomedical company C. Suppose this patient was suddenly sick and the physical check told that this patient had seriously leukemia, but the data from monitoring devices, data analysis result, and doctor who is responsible for this patient told nothing about it, which let this patient miss the optimal time to have a cure. If this patient wants to ask for something back, he turns to his lawyer. And his lawyer turns to the insurance company. Well, now this is the question: which part of the Internet of Medical Things should be responsible for this mistake if all of them should be, which one should take the biggest payback.
There is no complicated legal system for internet, not the even Internet of Medical Things. Who should be responsible for the monitor, is a big question until Internet of Medical Things is done.
When talked about data collecting, people will worry about data security. Internet of Medical Things needs massive data, and these data are from people even they are not sick. The data analysis center requires case data and control data as a resource to help classify and predict what kind of features may lead disease. Like the credit card, Personal data like name, gender, real-time location, pulse, blood pressure, and even disease history may be collected from the bio-stamp. These personal data will be sent back to the data center through the wireless network, therefore, cybersecurity can be another reason why people worry. No one can know for sure how their personal information will assist disease prediction, because, in their minds, the data study may be like a dark box, and nothing personal and private can be seen but the related data. However, in the real study, when researchers discover something and obtain general rules of certain disease, they will start on person study like disease history to determine associated rules among disease.
What’s more, the cloud platform is another object to worry. Cloud computing and cloud storage can reduce hardware pressure. More and more enterprises choose cloud as their business data storage place and computing method. However, even there are a lot of ways to secure cloud and more and more people turn to study how to increase safety confidence, there are still some people who want to break into the cloud and do some illegal things. Fight between maintainers and breakers never stop no matter what way people choose to use. Therefore, the cloud is not absolutely safe for people’s personal data.
When people do not need nurses to do registration job, physical check, treatment assistant job anymore, people do not need so many nurses anymore. Therefore, the number of nurses decrease due to this change. And then, nurse education will grow slowly or even stop.
If every disease can be predicted accurately or can be controlled by remote monitoring, the life of patient won’t be influenced by this disease, the number of doctors waiting in hospitals for patients will drop slowly. Because Internet of Medical Things can help monitoring exercise, disease preventing, disease diagnosis, recovering after surgery, which means lots of jobs needed a doctor won’t need a doctor anymore.
When physical checking can be done by some applications, people do not need to go to hospitals to have a body check, therefore, hospitals won’t need so many advances medical facility anymore.
When people can cure themselves at home without going to the hospital by themselves, the patient department won’t need too many beds for patients except people who have a serious disease and they cannot treatment through the Internet of Medical Things.
Emerging technology can be both love and hate things of elderly people. They love its portability and convenience, but complicated operation prevents these people to easily use.
New things are always difficult to elderly people. These things can be fragile and should be used carefully. For example, the smart cellphone can be really useful for collecting data and reading physical report every day. Some applications on the cell phone should be turned on when using, and report may be at another place. For elderly people, they may have difficulty finding the button to turn on the checking function and go to another page to read the report. Some devices need to be operated with a lot of buttons, like ECG monitor, the elderly cannot do it without other people’s help.
Portability means small. Elderly people don’t have very good sights because aging leads presbyopia. Therefore, the elderly need larger ones. Being larger and being portable cannot exist together. Once the devices get bigger, they lost portability.
|1949||barcode||The beginning of the “internet of things (IoT) starts when Norman Joseph Wood invented the barcode||Barcode (barcode) is the width of a number of black bars and blank, according to certain coding rules to express a set of information on the graphical identifier|
|1950||head mounted display||the first head mounted display was created by Morton Heilig, this device gave users experience like riding a motorcycle (Rhodes, 2013)||Doctors can see the patient’s main organs, nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray scans during surgery|
|1952195 1952||Linear barcode||Also invented by Norman Joseph Wood|
|1955||Idea of “wearables”||Thorp developed the first wearable computer inside a shoe, used for predicting roulette (Thorp, 1998)|
|1961||Successful invention of “wearables”||A computing system with 4-push-button in cigarette box size, using buttons to indicate the speed of the wheel was invented (Rhodes, 2013)|
|1966||Paper on “wearables” published||The computing system was first mentioned in book “E. Thorp, Beat the Dealer, revised ed. in 1966 ”||After this book, people started to care more about the math, probability on predicting.|
|1966||first computer-based head-mounted display||Sutherland uses the two CRTs installed next to the wearer’s ear to make a tethered HMD, where the half-silver mirror mirrors the image to the user’s eyes (Randall Packer, 2003)|
|1967||HMDs with input from servo-controlled cameras||Early camera-based augmented-reality systems were put into real use: the head-mounted display coupled with an infrared camera can help military helicopter pilot have visual enhancement during night and land in rough terrain, through a camera at the bottom of the helicopter (Rhodes, 2013).|
|1967||eyeglass-mounted display to aid lip-reading||Hubert Upton invents the analog wearable computer with the eyeglass-mounted display to aid lip reading. This invention using a high-pass filter and low-pass filter to determine whether there is friction, stop, voiced, a phonetic, or simple voice in a spoken phoneme (Upton, 1968).|
|1968||oN Line System||Computer collaboration system, designed by Douglas Engelbart. As the first personal computer, this system can work interactively and help with groupware. included a one-handed keyboard, word processing, outline processing, split windows, hypermedia, mouse, shared documents, e-mail filtering, desktop conferencing, annotation of shared documents, interactive sharing, quarter-sized video sharing, turn taking, and network information (Rhodes, 2013).||The system|
|1972||digital camera-case computer||Alan Lewis used a radio link between data-taker. First, the data-taker will use computer to do prediction work, then sent prediction via radio link to the bettor’s hearing-aid radio-receiver (Baumann, 2016)|
|1972||interleaved 2 of 5 code||Which consists of numbers only and can be as long as needed in order to store the encoded information, by Dr. David Allais (Rhodes, 2013)|
|1973||passive, read-write RFID tag||Mario Cardullo receives the first patent for a passive, read-write RFID tag|
|1973||Committee on Uniform Grocery Product Code recommends that the barcode should be used to products all over the US|
|1977||wearable camera-to-tactile vest||C.C.Collins developed a wearable camera-to-tactile vest, as a prosthetic for a blind people (C.C. Collins, 1977).|
|1977||Algebraic calculator watch||HP releases the HP 01 algebraic calculator watch (Andre F. Marion, 1977)||Calculator, computer,
|1977-1979||Network protocol||Network architecture and protocol specification. TCP/IP plays the most important role in it.|
|1980||LED raster display||“vibratory scan optical display”||One technology as basement of sensors|
|1981||control photographic equipment||As a senior high student, Steve Mann wired a computer into a backpack to control flash bulbs, camera, and other photographic equipment. This system was supported by lead-acid battery and operated through 7 switches (Rhodes, 2013).||Steve Mann became a famous researcher and inventor by his study on computational photography, especially wearable computing and high dynamic range imaging (Rhodes, 2013)|
|1981||OSI||Open system interconnection, as the very important part of the internet, helps the further development of applications of the internet.|
|1984||the genre of Cyberpunk||William Gibson writes Neuromancer
This book founded the genre of Cyberpunk, the dystopian future in which humans are augmented with computer implants (Rhodes, 2013)
|Cyberpunk majors in computer and information, excessive explain on technology. People who love such kind of fictions will be strongly against over-technology in their life.|
|1987||“Terminator”||The scene from robots is a combination of text, sound, and image from the real world.|
|1988||EISA||The EISA partition is the bus extension standard designed by the EISA Group for 32-bit CPUs, which absorbs the essence of the IBM microchannel bus and is compatible with the ISA bus (Daily, 1998)|
|1989||HTML||Tim Berners-Lee creates Hypertext Markup Language(HTML), after one year, The World Wide Web came|
|1990||The IBM/Columbia Student Electronic Notebook Project used Toshiba diskless AIX notebook computers (prototypes) using direct sequence spread spectrum radio links to provide, the providing all the usual TCP/IP based services, NFS mounted file systems, X windows, and a stylus-based input systems + virtual keyboard, and running the Andrew environment. The work was first shown at the DARPA Workshop on Personal Computer Systems, Washington, D.C (Rhodes, 2013) (J. Peter Bade, The IBM/Columbia Student Electronic Notebook Project, 1990).|
|1990s||Thad Starner from MIT starts using a customized computer and heads-up display as a wearable|
|1993||Mosaic||In 1993, the University of Illinois, Illinois NCSA organization, published the first browser can be displayed, named “MOSAIC”. The emergence of Mosaic ignited the Internet boom (Stewart, 1993)|
|1994||“Forget-Me-Not”||“Forget-Me-Not” emerges, a wearable device for people to communicate with devices using wireless transmitters by storing information in a database.|
|1995||M2M||Siemens creates the first machine to machine communication application through the wireless connection to achieve remote monitoring and tracking (Rhodes, 2013).|
|Late 1990s||RFID||Sanjay Sarma, David Brock, and Kevin Ashton applied RFID technology to connect objects|
|1999||802.11a/b||802.11 was originally developed as a wireless LAN standard designed to promote and ensure based on those standards-based products. Its presence marks the prevalence of wireless networking technology.||Wireless network, as the essential part of sensors for network health, brought portable applications of internet to be real|
|2001||David Brock published a paper “The Electronic Product Code(EPC): A Naming Scheme for Physical Objects” to propose a unified directory of identification numbers of products to track them through their life-cycle|
|2002||tablet||Microsoft released the first tablet of the world||Smartphone, tablet, laptop become the most important carrier of network and are generally applied into the real lifecycle of network medical things.|
|2003||Bernard Traversat suggested an open source set of protocols for peer computing, a theory that would allow multiple objects to communicate with each other (Bernard Traversat, 2002).|
|2004||home healthcare is to be a potential part of the Internet of Things, and articles about remote monitoring appears|
|2005||Arduino||“Arduino” was designed by the faculty members to be an inexpensive and user-friendly to assist in the interaction of two objects|
|2008||Laptop beats PC||Sales of laptop beyond it of desktop PC||Which means portable equipment can satisfy people’s basic requirements of the computer, portability came closer.|
|2010||The first iPad||Apple released the first iPad, which has less connect with PC but changed people’s daily life completely.|
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