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Airline E-ticketing in Malaysia: An Exploratory Study of Trust in Electronic Commerce and Individual Variances

19161 words (77 pages) Dissertation

16th Dec 2019 Dissertation Reference this

Tags: Information SystemsElectronics

Table of Contents

1.1 Background of Study

1.2 Problem Identification

1.3 Research Objective

1.3.2 Research Question

1.4 Hypothesis of Study

1.5 Significance of study

1.5.1 Theoretical perspective

1.5.2 Management perspective

1.5.3 Academic perspective

1.6 Limitations of the Study

1.7 Terminology Definition

1.8 Research Framework

1.9 Deliverables (Scope of Study)

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Electronic ticketing

2.2 Drivers of Trust  and Individual Variances in Airline Electronic Ticketing

2.2.1 Perceived Security and Perceived Privacy

2.2.2 Familiarity with Online Purchase

2.2.3 Personal Trust Disposition

2.2.4 Airline E-ticketing Experience

2.3 Models and Theories

2.3.1 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

2.3.2 Triandis Model

2.3.3 Technology Acceptance Model

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Sampling Population

3.3 Questionnaire Development and Design

3.3 Data Analysis

3.4 Ethical Considerations

3.5 Summary of Research Methodology

4.0 References

Appendix 1: Survey Questionnaire

Appendix 2: PSF Form

List of Figures

Figure 1: The Determinants of adopting airline e-ticketing among Malaysian Internet Users.

Figure 2: The Theroy of Reasoned Action (TRA)

Figure 3: Triandis Model

Figure 4: Technology Acceptance Model

Figure 5: Seven Point Likert Scale

List of Tables

Table 1: Internet Usage in correlation with population growth in Malaysia

Table 2: Hypothesis

Table 3: Key term definitions

Table 4: Definitions of Factors in the Theory of Reasoned Actions

Table 5: Definitions of Variables in Triandis Model

List of Appendices

Appendix 1: Survey Questionnaire

Appendix 2: PSF Form

Appendix 3: Ethics Form

Appendix 4: Log Sheets

  

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

E-tickets are increasingly becoming popular given that airline companies are anticipating enhancing their revenue, expansion of market, enhancement in customer service as well as communication, including the reduction of a company’s expenses over the execution of e-commerce (Benjamin.F, Yoke.C, Dammon.Y, 2013). On the contrary, travel agents also acquire their share of benefits by saving on the overhead expense with regards to delivering tickets to their customers (Ronnie.C, Pamela.L, 2009). An airline ticket enables the passenger to engage in online/telephone/self-service kiosk check-in, printing boarding passes at home or at airport kiosks.

Commercial airline companies have endeavored to enhance business values as well as diminishing losses by executing all forms of business strategies such as reducing jobs, eradicating routes, minimizing infrastructure, streamlining production costs, strengthening customer services, and developing a profitable market (Brain.M, June.W, 2005). With that said, essentially the most effective solution for enhancing business values, attracting more customers, and enhancing customer satisfaction is to render the use of internet-based low-fare E-tickets (Brain.M, June.W, 2005). Numerous airline carriers are applying their own web sites to market and sell their products to existing and potential customer. Certain airline carriers also offer discounts to customers who acquire their ticket(s) online (Tsai.h, Leu.D, Chou.C, 2009).

Due to the diversified use of online-based ticketing, airlines are competent to minimize labor costs and in some cases eradicate or commission entirely in an effort to improve profit margins (Mustafa Oz, 2012).Airline E-ticketing is utilized to signify the purchase of a seat on a commercial airline, typically through a website or by telephone. An airline e-ticketing incorporates the issues and delivery of the ticket into a single operation (Tee P.K, Benjamin C.Y.F, Behrooz G. and Lim M. K, 2014) which is a more practical and faster alternative to conventional airline ticketing, effecting substantial cost reductions for both airlines and travel agents This method of airline ticketing is exponentially replacing the conventional paper-based tickets as airline companies commonly impose surplus charges for issuing them (Anyasi.I, Obiazi.O, Evbogbai.E, Akpaida.A, Onianwa.U, Ebegba.D, 2012).

Dating from the year of 2013, “The Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission” (MCMC) documented the number of internet users in Malaysia, providing an estimate of 17,723,000 people. This statistical figure represents about 60.7 percent of the total Malaysian population (Internet World Stats, 2014). Malaysia has experienced a significant increase of internet users over a twelve year gap from 3,700,000 users in the year 2000 to 17,723,000 users in the year 2012 (please refer to table 1). The accelerated expansion of internet users has provided countless online-based applications as an alternative method for organizations in Malaysia to sustain customers together with providing them with new services and/or products.

Table 1: Internet Usage in correlation with population growth in Malaysia

YEAR Users Population % Pen. Usage Source
2000 3,700,000 24,645,600 15.0 % ITU
2005 10,040,000 26,500,699 37.9 % C.I.Almanac
2006 11,016,000 28,294,120 38.9 % ITU
2007 13,528,200 28,294,120 47.8 % MCMC
2008 15,868,000 25,274,133 62.8 % MCMC
2012 17,723,000 29,179,952 60.7 % ITU

Source: (Internet World Stats, 2014)

1.2 Problem Identification

E-ticketing by definition is a combination of issue and delivering the ticket from a single operation (Tee P.K, Benjamin C.Y.F, Behrooz G. and Lim M. K, 2014). Nevertheless, there are certainly numerous parameters that persuade the intention, tendencies and attitudes to make purchases online or adopting to airline e-ticketing. These parameters incorporate attitude, perceived risk, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, perceived privacy, perceived security, perceived security and privacy, personal trust disposition, internet usage, and experience (Syed Shah A. and Morjaya.Y, 2010).

Despite the increasing numbers of online users, products offered, and e-trailers trading, it has been extensively reported that there is considerable resistance amongst many internet users to engage in online business to consumer transaction primarily due to concerns about privacy, security and the trustworthiness of the internet (George N. Lodorfos, Tom A. Trosterud, Chris Whitworth, 2006). Thus perceived security as well as perceived privacy is positioned as a prominent barrier to consumer acceptance of electronic ticketing (E-ticketing). Therefore, in order to understand why numerous internet users are still hesitant to adopt E-ticketing, it is imperative to understand their perception or individual differences towards e-ticketing.

In Malaysia, airline e-ticketing is considered the most active online purchasing activity among travelers. The two primary airline companies that utilize this system are AirAsia Berhad and Malaysia Airline System Berhad (MAS). E-ticketing is adopted by AirAsia in which, approximately 60 percent of users used e-ticketing services to buy airline tickets (Ainin S, Josephine. N and Suhana M., 2008). On the other hand, desired travel agents, AirAsia airport stations, together with sales offices process the outstanding forty percent of bookings (Suhaiza, Lee, Yudi, 2008).

Consequently, MAS commenced to propose e-tickets in May 2007, thereafter, the Malaysian air carrier became e-ticketing capable in September 2007. This successfully moved MAS to 100 percent (with assistance from Sita Air Transport Industry Solutions) E-ticketing within the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) deadline which formulated into 19 ringgit reduction per ticket sold. With the assistance from SITA, the finalized transformation for paper ticket to e-ticket took merely 11 months (Sabry Tahir, 2007).

1.3 Research Objective

To study the perception of Malaysian towards the adoption of airline E-ticketing

  1. To examine the relationship between perceived security as a salient factor of trust in e-commerce toward the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet user in Malaysia.
  2. To identify the relationship between perceived privacy as a salient factor of trust in e-commerce towards the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet users in Malaysia.
  3. To analyze the relationship between familiarity with online purchases as a salient factor of individual differences toward the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet users in Malaysia.
  4. To explore the relationship between personal trust disposition as a salient factor of individual variances towards the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet users in Malaysia.
  5. To investigate the relationship between airline e-ticketing experience as a salient factor of individual differences towards the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet users in Malaysia.

1.3.2 Research Question

This study will focus exclusively on electronic commerce trust environment, individual variances and the intention to purchase airline electronic ticketing in Malaysia. The 3 main research questions for this study are as follows:

What is the level of awareness and acceptance among Malaysia Internet users toward airline electronic ticketing?

What are the significant factors that influence the trustworthiness of individuals towards the adoption of airline electronic ticketing?

Which airline electronic ticketing company website is most popular among internet users in Malaysia?

1.4 Hypothesis of Study

The Hypothesis of this study is demonstrated in Table 2.

Table 2: Hypothesis

No Statement
Internet Trust
H01 Perceived security has a significant positive impact on the intention to adopt airline electronic ticketing among internet users.
H02 Perceived privacy has a significant positive impact on the intention to adopt airline E-ticketing among internet users.
Individual Variances
H03 Familiarity with online purchase has significant positive impact on the intention to adopt airline electronic ticketing among internet users
H04 Personal trust disposition has direct positive impacts on the intention to adopt airline E-ticketing among internet users.
H05 Airline E-ticketing experiences have a significant positive impact on the intention to adopt airline E-ticketing among internet users.

1.5 Significance of study

The fundamental dilemma of this study is to analyze the public usage among Malaysia internet users in relation towards airline electronic ticketing. In addition to that, this study is designed to cultivate an understanding of trust in Electronic commerce (e-commerce) transactions towards adoption of airline electronic ticketing among internet users in Malaysia Aside from this, this investigation also hopes to develop an understanding of level of trust among Malaysian’s towards airline electronic ticketing. With understanding the adoption purpose of airline electronic ticketing among internet users in Malaysia, the airline companies ought to be able to cultivate as well as implement adequate marketing strategies which can further enhance the trust among internet users in Malaysia, as a result, an increase of online air ticketing sales.

To be able to realize the aims as previously stated, this study will evaluate the internet user’s online trust by capitalizing on the five primary categories of determinants, which are: perceived security, perceived privacy, familiarity with online transaction, personal trust disposition, and airline electronic ticketing experience. The importance of why this research needs to be conducted is as follows. The researcher hopes that this study will contribute to numerous benefits in terms of theoretical, management as well as academic perspectives.

1.5.1 Theoretical perspective

This research will assist in providing a clearer framework for airlines/organizations as well as customers on what kind of factors influence the intention to buy product online and therefore, organizations such as airlines are able to create a more secure online purchasing environment as well as a more customer centric approach to serve their customers well online.

1.5.2 Management perspective

This research will assist airlines/organizations to know the factors that influence the intention of customers to purchase online, and thus, could help the management to increase the number of airline e-tickets sold, as well as increasing the number of customers to adopt airline e-ticketing.

1.5.3 Academic perspective

This research will benefit other students to understand the benefits of online-based e-ticketing and could be referenced or served as a guideline for other researchers who are interested to study Malaysian perception towards e-ticketing in another organization.

1.6 Limitations of the Study

Due to resource constraints, this survey will be conducted in Kuala Lumpur, and will be targeted at APU (Asian Pacific University) students. The reliability of this study depends on the honest and memory of the respondents in giving the information needed. The findings from this study should not be generalized as whole as it is only restricted to a small number of students in Malaysia and the results obtained from this study could be unique to this particular sample. Time constraints are also regarded as a limitation of this study.

1.7 Terminology Definition

The conceptual and operation definition of key terms in this study are as follows in Table 3.

Table 3: Key term definitions

Terms Conceptual Operational
Perceived Security and privacy The subjective probability with which consumers assume that their personal information (private and/or monetary) will not be observed, stored, and exploited throughout transit and storage by inappropriate parties in the manner conforming to their confident expectations (Chellappa, Pavlou, 2002) Security in this context refers to a customer’s concerns with regard to companies possession of personal information, payment term and privacy of process that can be abused for fraudulent purposes (Benjamin.F, 2013)
Familiarity relates to an understanding of the current actions of other people or of objects, whilst trust focuses on beliefs concerning the upcoming action of other people (David Gefen, 2000) Familiarity refers to the preceding interactions, encounters/experiences of other people (Gefen, 2000)
Dispositional Trust McKinght.D, Chervany.N, 2002 defined personal disposition to trust a general predisposition or inclination by which people demonstrate faith or belief in humanity and embrace a trustful distance towards others. Trust disposition  refers to the changing in consumers trust readiness in others when located in unfamiliar situation’s or when having a problem in finding information (Koufaris.M and Hampton-Sosa, 2004)
Experience experience refers to the ease and speed of use that users experience when interacting with a website (Benjamin.F, 2013) Airline electronic ticketing experiences is known as the past airline electronic ticketing experience that have been encountered by existing airline electronic ticketing users (Ling.K, Chai.L, Piew.T, 2010).
Trust

 

 

the willingness of an individual to behave in a manner that assumes another party will behave in accordance with expectations in a risky situation (Corritore.C, Kracher.B, Wiedenbeck.S, 2003) the trust that occurs for an individual person towards a specific transactional or informational website ((Corritore.C, Kracher.B, Wiedenbeck.S, 2003)

1.8 Research Framework

Figure 1: The Determinants of adopting airline e-ticketing among Malaysian Internet Users.

1.9 Deliverables (Scope of Study)

This Research proposal starts with a description of the various contents in which the background of the study, problem statement, the purpose and significance of the research, Hypothesis testing, the objectives of the study, Limitations of the study, Terminology of the definitions and the research frame work are investigated. The second chapter is discusses the literature pertaining to perceived security, perceived privacy, familiarity with online purchase, personal trust disposition and Airline E-ticketing Experiences. Lastly, the methodology of the research related with research design and the selection of the study area will be presented and mentioned in Chapter Three.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Electronic ticketing

Airline E-ticketing is assigned to one form of electronic business that perform through the internet as a medium in which no physical face-to-face contact is required between the vendors (in this situation, referring to airline companies) and customers (which relates to airline e-ticketing purchasers). Today, all airline carriers utilize and implement the use of internet technology and offer their online services to customers. As a result, consumers are able to book their flights, customize their bookings (changing or cancellation of bookings), shop around for the best prices and provide payment, electronically through the airline’s website anytime and anywhere. That being said, there are numerous benefits of using online methods provided by airlines, for both the airline and the customer. E-ticketing appears to offer a number of advantages for organizations, including lower costs and increased operational efficiency (Qteishat.K, Alshibly.H, Al-ma’aitah.A, 2014).

Electronic ticketing can be defined as a revolutionary distribution process utilized in conjunction with marketing-mix strategies to promote, price as well as to render accessible common elements (e.g. ticketless travel) of air travel products such as first class, business class, or economy class to the most desirable number of consumers in the most cost efficient manner (Jusdson.S, Beatrice G., 2000).

E-ticketing was initiated by United Airlines (American) back in 1994. A decade later, the industry was incapable to acquire profit from saving costs 3 billion USD a year as only 20 percent of all airline issued e-tickets (Francesco.S, Esmeralda.U, 2010). In June 2004, IATA (International Air Transportation Association) established an industry target of 100 percent e-ticketing in four years. This proclamation had been criticized that it was an unrealistic goal and the return on investment was uncertain. Nevertheless, on 1 June 2008, the industry has successfully transformed into 100 percent e-ticketing (IATA, 2015).

As being one of the e-commerce categories, e-ticketing systems, as of late are becoming actively and widely employed by, not merely airline companies but also other companies in different fields, for example, cinemas for entertainment industry, buses and trains for transportation industry, banking industry and sports industry (Yuvaraj.S, Essayes,T, 2013). To fully understand what an airline E-ticket is, one should understand its concept and how it operates and functions in securing the passenger’s seat. In the perspective of the airline industry, a customer can reserve a flight ticket through its web0based ticketing site. The customer is required to fill in his/her personal information, for instance, I/C number or passport number, credit card number and address. After this, the information and reservations are transmitted and stored in the company’s database. The hardcopy affirmation is published by the company to the customer by means of email, whereas the itinerary such as the flight number, data, departure location, destination location, and the rules and regulations are mentioned. At this point in time, the transactions of e-ticketing are then successfully complete. The passengers can then check-in for the flight by displaying the identification card or passport. After luggage is checked, boarding pass will be granted to the passenger who can then process to the security gate (SearchSOA-Midmarket, 2001).

The growth and development of e-ticketing is furthermore hampered by deficient infrastructure. Air carrier companies in Africa, and an illustration, find it hard to catch up with technological advancement in the airline industry resulting from the less developed infrastructure. On the other hand, in North America and Europe, in which technologies are widely available, reported that as a consequence of financial difficulty, a number of airline companies in the region(s) failed to keep up with the e-ticketing model (Ainin.s, Josephine.N, Suhana.M, 2008).

2.2 Drivers of Trust  and Individual Variances in Airline Electronic Ticketing

2.2.1 Perceived Security and Perceived Privacy

Perceived security can be considered as the subjective probability with which consumers assume that their personal information (private and/or monetary) will not be observed, stored, and exploited throughout transit and storage by inappropriate parties in the manner conforming to their confident expectations (Chellappa, Pavlou, 2002). Security will incorporate threats that formulate circumstance(s), condition(s) or event(s) with the prospective to result in economic difficulties to data or network resource in the form of destruction, disclosures, and modification of data, denial of services, and/or fraud, waste and abuse to the internet user (Hsiang.F, Ting.C, 2011).

Security challenges in online service which includes e-ticketing have been noted to be a substantial dilemma for many consumers (Zhang, Prybutok, Huang, 2006). Researchers have disputed that if customers perceive issues with security in e-service, they will be far less likely to make purchases through the internet Perceptions of security impact the level of trust for the consumer (Qteishat, Alshibly, Al-ma’aitah, 2014). Researchers further dispute that security issues have an effect on customer satisfaction with e-service, rendering it necessary for organization to make certain that customer information is protected (Qteishat, Alshibly, Al-ma’aitah, 2014).

Perceived privacy, on the contrary, is considered as the consumer’s perception as well as opinion with regards to the respect of personal information, confidentiality together with the maintaining of his/her intimacy by the various agents, fundamentally companies, with which he or she interacts in internet applications (Martinez.L, Montoro.R, 2004). Violation of consumers trust in online shopping, when considering privacy invasion or misuse of personal information, negatively influences attitude toward online shopping and leads to hesitant behavior among consumers to shop on the internet in future occasions (Monsuwe, Ruyter, 2004).

Past research emphasizes that immature web sites, incompetent principles of security as well as privacy and reports concerning hackers in the medial are all of the main reason why consumers hesitate to execute/conduct online transactions as they fear financial loss and identification theft. It is highly recommended and verified by the survey that both of the perceived security and perceived privacy control of a website has positive influences on consumer’s online trust and are the key determinants that are affecting consumer’s online trust (Shah, Yasin.M, 2010).

2.2.2 Familiarity with Online Purchase

An alternative way individuals subjectively minimize uncertainty and facilitate their relationships with other is familiarity. Familiarity is a comprehension, generally determined by preceding interactions, encounters/experiences, and comprehending of what, why, where and when others do what they do (David Gefen, 2000). For this reason, familiarity and trust are prominently different. Familiarity relates to an understanding of the current actions of other people or of objects, whilst trust focuses on beliefs concerning the upcoming action of other people (David Gefen, 2000). For instance, familiarity with Emirates; one of the world’s best known air carrier- would be the knowledge of how to search or book flights and how to purchase a flight through their website interface. Familiarity in this particular context is a specified activity-based cognizance based on previous experience or learning of how to use the particular interface. Trust in Emirates.com, on the other hand, requires providing credit card information based on the guaranty-less favorable belief (i.e. trust) that the information will not be inappropriately sued in some, even unknown , way in the future (Gefen, 2000).

Correspondingly, familiarity and trust accentuate each other as complexity-reduction methods. Familiarity diminished uncertainty by establishing a structure; trust diminishes uncertainty by permitting people hold ‘relatively reliable expectations’ about other people’s favorable future actions (David Gefen, 2000). Looking at the case of Emirates, familiarity would diminish complexity through an understanding of how to inquire of purchasing airline e-tickets or booking a flight through the site (structure of the interaction). Controversially, Trust, would diminish other aspects of complexity by a priori ruling out unethical behavior, for example, misuse of credit card information.  Trust and familiarity, nevertheless are not of equal significance, for the reason that trust is concerned with the unknown future actions of other, and these are inherently more dynamic, general, complex, risky and less specific (Luhmann, N.,1979: Corritore.C, Kracher.B, Weidenbeck.S, 2003).

Past research declares that familiarity with online purchase is most important as well as a positive factor in influencing a consumer’s purchase intentions, regardless of whether they obtain limited knowledge about a website (David Gefen, 2000). It is Strongly suggested that a considerably higher degree of online initial trust can result in a higher level of purchase intention (Lorraine, Alexander.B, Godwin.B, 2006). In accordance with research, the familiarity of the customer with the computer and the internet as well as the frequency and length of his or her usages, were found to be positively associated with adoption behavior in general (Suki.N, Norbayah.S, 2013).

2.2.3 Personal Trust Disposition

Personal disposition to trust is referred to as a general predisposition or inclination by which people demonstrate faith or belief in humanity and embrace a trustful distance towards others (McKinght.D, Chervany.N, 2002). Trust disposition bears an essential participation in the initial configurations of trust due to the fact that consumers may vary in their willingness to trust others when they obtain inadequate information, particularly in an unfamiliar situation (Koufaris.M, Hampton.W, 2004).

Trusting beliefs, aspirations together with trust-related behaviors originate from a delicate, situational interplay of different factors. Several of these factors: person specific (e.g. dispositional trust that influences trusting beliefs, intentions and behaviors) and contextual factors (such as technology and legal norms related to e-commerce that affect system trust). These factors cannot be controlled by the online retailer, in this case, airline carriers (Krauter.S, Kaluscha.E, 2003)

Dispositional trust is suggested to be a stable within-party factor, designed to have an effect on the probabilities an individual will trust other individuals or groups of individuals (Mayer.R, Davis.J, Schoorman.F, 1995). As a consequence, internet vendors cannot have an effect on dispositional trust by applying particular trust building strategies or measures. In spite of this, indicators for dispositional trust ought to be incorporate into empirical studies either as a moderating variable or as antecedent of trusting beliefs, intentions and behaviors (Krauter.S, Kaluscha.E, 2003). A selection of evidence exists that this dispositional approach is worth pursuing. As an illustration, Mayer (1995) discovered the commitment to trust with others was substantially associated with the behavior and performance of persons working in an agency simulation, on the contrary, other researchers also have discovered this dispositional trust factor to be associated with behaviors of interest in organizational research (Mayer.R, 1995).

Previous research has established that personal trust disposition possesses a positive influence on the relationships between online initial trust and other variable in e-commerce (Mayer, 1995). It is highly recommended that online consumers with substantial trust propensity have a slightly higher degree of online initial trust compares to those with a low trust propensity.

2.2.4 Airline E-ticketing Experience

An individual’s response to a judgmental task is dictated by three aspects that happen to be the sum of the individual’s past experiences, context of background, and stimulus. Web shopping is a comparatively new activity for a wide range of consumers, online purchases are still perceived as riskier then terrestrial ones. Therefore, web-shopping consumers will depend heavily on experience quality in which the experience quality can be obtained only through prior purchase experience.

Airline electronic ticketing experiences is known as the past airline electronic ticketing experience that have been encountered by existing airline electronic ticketing users (Ling.K, Chai.L, Piew.T, 2010). Shim (2001), proposed that preceding experiences of online purchase exhibit a significant and direct influence on online purchase intention seeing that preceding transaction experience assist consumers in forecasting future information searches, shopping format choices, satisfying online purchase experiences, developing a trusting attitude towards the website and decreasing consumers levels of perceived risks (Ling.K, Chai.L, Piew.T, 2010). An alternative investigation discovered that the degree of satisfaction with former/prior purchase will ascertain the consumer’s reliance on an internal search for the product or the brans as people have a tendency to explore their memory to recollect a preceding product or brand purchase, and the greater the satisfaction they associate with that purchase, the greater their reliance on an internal search (Jakpar.S, Angelyn.N, Johari.A, Myint.K, 2012). An additional research was carried out and discovered that prior online purchase experience bears more influential impact on purchase intention seeing that consumers are more prone and willing to undertake online purchase as well as have an optimistic attitude regarding the website (Kwek.C, Tan.H, Lau.T, 2010).

2.3 Models and Theories

2.3.1 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

This study also uses the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) with the purpose of identifying the influences on Internet shopping behavior. The TRA model was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975, 1980) for the purpose of measuring user behavior as well as the relationship between attitude and behavior (Alan, P. and Neelima, B. 2009). Four (4) factors are utilized within this model, namely; Attitude, Subjective Norm, Intention and behavior (Figure 2). The Theory of Reasoned Action model has experienced successful application to general consumer information technologies and organizational knowledge sharing (Alan, P. and Neelima, B. 2009). Additionally, there have been a number of studies that have successfully applied the TRA to predict behavioral intention in technology acceptance, for instance, Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw (1989) and Bobbitt and Dabholkar (2001) (Yann, T. 2009). The Definitions of the factors found in TRA are observable in Table.

Figure 2:The Theroy of Reasoned Action (TRA)

Source: (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)

Table 4: Definitions of Factors in the Theory of Reasoned Actions

Definition
Attitude Attitude refers to how an individual feels about the behavior and is generally measured as a favorable or unfavorable mind-set (Alan, P. and Neelima, B. 2009).
Subjective Norm Subjective norm is defined as how the behavior is viewed by the social circle (Alan, P. and Neelima, B. 2009).
Intention Intention is defined as the propensity of intention to engage in the behavior (Alan, P. and Neelima, B. 2009).
Behavior Behavior refers to the actual activity itself (Alan, P. and Neelima, B. 2009).

2.3.2 Triandis Model

The Triandis model (Triandis 1979) pays attention on the relationships of values, attitude, and other acquired behavioral dispositions to action or behavior (Emmanuel, M. 2005). Triandis model are similar to TRA and TAM, nevertheless, the model includes a number of relevant variables (figure 3). The model suggests that behavior is affected by facilitating conditions, social factors and habits (Dehbashi, S. and Nahavandi, N. 2009). Triandis Model postulates that the probability of performing an act is a function of habits, intention to perform the act and facilitating conditions. The framework continues to postulate that the intention of performing a particular behavior is a function of; perceived consequences, social factors and affect. Table 5 defines the variables in Triandis model.

Recent studies have utilized Triandis model in an application to technology adoption researches. For instance, The Model and its extensions have been used to understand determinates of users intentions for using the internet in working environment and for shopping (Chang, K., Cheung, .W and Lai, .V 2004).

Figure 3: Triandis Model

Source: (Triandis, 1979)

Table 5: Definitions of Variables in Triandis Model

Definition
Habits Situation behavior sequences that are or have become automatic such that they occur without self-instruction (Emmanuel, M. 2005).
Facilitating Conditions Objective factors which are out there in the environment such that several judges or observers can agree make an act easy to do (Emmanuel, M. 2005).
Social Factors Personality internalizes the cultural way of perceiving the social environment consisting of; norms, value, roles and social situation ((Emmanuel, M. 2005).

2.3.3 Technology Acceptance Model

The Technology Acceptance Model was developed by Davis (1989) and is one of the most widely used and referenced theories in the context of technology adoption (Hussein, Z. 2014). The Technology Acceptance Model posits that two specific variables, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Determines ones behavioral; intention to use technology, attitudes toward adopting IT, and actual usage (Hussein, Z. 2014). TAM has been utilized in many fields of research as many researchers have supported the usage of this model in measuring the consumer adoption of e-commerce (Tong, X. 2010).

­Figure 4: Technology Acceptance Model

Source: (Davis 1989)

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the research design, instrumentation (including questionnaire items for construct measurement), data analysis and ethical considerations will be subjected in this chapter (CHAPTER 3). Section 3.1 explains the type of research design that will be employed in the study as well as the sampling methodology. Section 3.3 of this chapter outlines the data analysis methods used in the study.

3.1 Research Design

A descriptive and quantitative methodology is utilized as principle design method within this study in order to ascertain the characteristics as well as to determine the instigation and effect relationship among the independent variable (which include perceived security, perceived privacy, familiarity with online purchase, personal trust disposition and airline e-ticketing experiences) and dependent variable (in this instance, it is referred to intention to adopt airline e-ticketing). The descriptive design will assist to render a more visible comprehension of the internet user’s characteristics and intention toward adoption of airline electronic ticketing in Malaysia.

3.2 Sampling Population

In this study, the targeted respondents are residents from Kuala Lumpur and Penang. Kuala Lumpur was chosen as it has the highest internet user population in Malaysia. In addition, students from Asian Pacific University (Kuala Lumpur) and KDU College (Penang) as well as private sector employees which are from ages of 21 and above is segmented into this survey target respondents as adults (age between 20 to 49 years) are the largest age band of internet users in Malaysia (as reported by MCMC), they are aware and have knowledge in airline electronic ticketing and they have the purchasing power to adopt airline electronic ticketing.

The population size for this study is 400(n=4000) students, based on a 50:50 ratio of male and female (a total of 45 females and 45 males). From this population size, this study looks at evaluating individuals who are between the ages of 18 -55 years.

A convenience sampling method is conducted among 90 internet users in Malaysia. This sampling method was chosen due to the unavailability of the list of all computer literate individuals in Malaysia, and thus, it is impossible to obtain the absolute number of patrons. Nevertheless, researchers can meet different Intern users from different gender, race, status and, location. This is to avoid bias for surveying all the respondents from particular demographics.

3.3 Questionnaire Development and Design

The survey questionnaire is divided into three (3) parts, which are Part A, Part B and Part C. There will be a combination of nominal scale, attitude rating scale, and ordinal scale data within the questionnaire design.

Part A of the questionnaire is intended to find out the level of trust among respondent toward airline electronic website by investigating the airline electronic ticketing users past experience. Rating of the level of trust is measured using a seven-point Likert-Scale (figure 5).

Part B is intended to find out the level of respondents trust perceptions toward airline electronic ticketing website, individual trust propensity and intention to purchase airline electronic ticket via series of question which measured using a seven-point Likert-scale.

Part C uses determinant choice questions to gather the respondent’s demographic details including gender, age, ethnic group, marital status, level of education, occupation, income level, number of years using the internet, airline electronic ticket purchasing experience and the airline company name.

The scoring procedures for the related questions are as follows: higher scores are given of the respondent agreed with a positive statement or disagreed with a negative statement. Lower scores were given if the individual agreed to a negative statement or disagreed with positive statements. As an illustration:

Figure 5: Seven Point Likert Scale

Question 18:                “Given the chance, I intend to use airline e-ticketing websites”

PART C:    Strongly disagree  : One point

Disagree: Two points

Slightly Disagreed: Three points

Neutral: Four points

Slightly Agree:  Five points

Agree: Six points

Strongly Agree: Seven points

Please refer to the Appendix for sample questionnaire

3.3 Data Analysis

The total numbers of ninty (90) respondent details are keyed into SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) one by one, and then the individual data will be analysed on a group basis. Nebertheless, raw data collected from respondentes needs to be cheked to eliminate data entry errors and missing values before dad can be anlayzed.Graphical presentation such as histogram, bar charts and pie charts are used to make the interpretation work easier. Analysing frequencies of these variables help to better construe the relevancy and validity of the sample group within this research. In this research paper, the statistic will include both of the descriptive and inferential statistics. This study employed the Likert scales  to examine the relationship between the variables

3.4 Ethical Considerations

To conduct research in an ethical manner, below is some of the ethical consideration before, during and after the research. Researchers are obliged to treat all the information collected from respondents as strictly private and confidential. Researchers are obliged to obtained consent from respondents prior to survey; no respondents should be forced to participate in the survey. Researchers should not deliberately misrepresent or distort the data collected.  Respondents should give full cooperation to complete the research once they agree to participate. Respondents are obliged to provide truthful and honest responses.

3.5 Summary of Research Methodology

This study was design as well as investigates the perception of internet users in Malaysia towards the adoption of airline electronic ticketing. The study looked into the perceived Security, Perceived Privacy, and familiarity with online purchase, Personal Trust Disposition and Airline E-ticketing experience. The variables were measured using the seven-point Likert scale. This chapter described the sample that was studies. It also provided a discussion of the instrument development, the data collection, and the data coding.

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Appendix 1: Survey Questionnaire

 Part A: Airline Electronic Ticketing

1. Have you purchased      Yes (Please proceed to Part B, C & D D)
Airline E-Ticketing Before?         No  (Please proceed to Part C & D)

Part B: Airline Electronic Ticketing Experience

Please read each of the statements listed below and tick at the appropriate column

Item Description

Strongly Disagree

 

Disagree

 

Slightly Disagree

 

Neither

 

Slightly Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1. Airline E-ticketing website is trustworthy and honest
2. Airline E-ticketing website is keeping its promises and obligations
3. The information on Airline E-ticketing website is plentiful and useful
4. The infrastructure of Airline E-ticketing website is dependable
5. It is thought that Airline E-ticketing website always takes care of my best interests
6. Compared to other websites, Airline E-ticketing website is secure and reliable
7. Airline E-ticketing website would not generate benefit over me (e.g. gaining money illegally)
8. The performance of Airline E-ticketing web site meets my expectations
9. The Airline E-ticketing website offers personal privacy assurance

Part C: Airline Electronic Ticketing Trust

Please read each of the statements listed below and tick at the appropriate column

Item Description­

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Slightly Disagree

Neither

Slightly Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

1. Airline E-ticketing website will provide adequate online security
2. Purchasing on Airline E-ticketing website will not induce finical risks
3. It is believed that online transactions on Airline E-ticketing website are protected by the latest security system
4. Online payment on Airline E-ticketing website is safe
5. Airline E-ticketing website is able to solve frauds created by hackers
6. The personal information that I provide on Airline  E-ticketing website will be secured
7. The monetary information that I provide on Airline E-ticketing website will be protected
8. Airline E-ticketing website will not use unsuitable methods to collect my personal data
9. Airline E-ticketing website will not ask for irrelevant personal information
10. Airline E-ticketing website will not apply my personal information for other purposes
11. Prior online purchases experiences from other web sites make me feel comfortable in using Airline E-ticketing website

 

Part C: Airline Electronic Ticketing Trust (Continued)

Please read each of the statements listed below and tick at the appropriate column

Item Description

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Slightly Disagree

Neither

Slightly Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

12. Prior online purchase experiences from other websites make me believe in future response of Airline E-ticketing website
13. Prior online purchase experiences from other websites facilitate my purchase decision making processes
14. It is easy for me to trust a person/thing
15. I tend to trust a person/thing, even though I have little knowledge of it
16. Trusting someone or something is not difficult
17. It is likely that I will transact with Airline E-ticketing website very soon
18. Given the chance, I intend to use E-ticketing website
19. Given the chance, I predict that I should use Airline E-ticketing web site in future

 

Part D: Demographics

The following information is necessary for purpose of cross tabulation and analysis of data from these questionnaires. It will NOT be used in any other way.

  1. Gender:  Male           Female

  1. Age:  18-22 years         33-37 years

23-27 years         38-42 years

   28-32 years         41 years or above

  1. Ethnic group:  Malay           Indian

  Chinese          Others (please specify):_____

  1. Marital Status:  Single           Married
  1. Highest level of  Secondary school         Post Graduate Degree

Education:  Certificate/Diploma            others (please specify):______

Bachelor Degree

  1. Occupation:  Professional    Teacher/Lecturer/Professor

  Manager    Student

  Executive    Others (please specify):_____

  1. Total monthly   Below RM 2,000   RM5,000-RM5,999

Income:  RM2, 000-RM2, 999   above RM6, 0000

  RM3, 000-RM3, 999   not applicable

RM4, 000-RM, 4999

  1. No. of years using   Less than 1 year `6-10 years

the internet:  1-3 years   More than 10 years

  4-5years

  1. Have you purchase   Yes   No

Airline E-ticketing

before?

  1. If yes, please  AirAsia  Others (please specify):_____________

Specify Where or  Malaysian Airlines

which Company:

Appendix 2: PSF Form

A). Title:

“Airline E-ticketing in Malaysia: An exploratory study of Trust in Electronic Commerce and Individual Variances”.

B). Brief description on project background:

E-tickets are increasingly becoming popular given that airline companies are anticipating enhancing their revenue, expansion of market, enhancement in customer service as well as communication, including the reduction of a company’s expenses over the execution of e-commerce (Benjamin.F, Yoke.C, Dammon.Y, 2013). On the contrary, travel agents also acquire their share of benefits by saving on the overhead expense with regards to delivering tickets to their customers (Ronnie.C, Pamela.L, 2009). An airline ticket enables the passenger to engage in online/telephone/self-service kiosk check-in, printing boarding passes at home or at airport kiosks.

Due to the diversified use of online-based ticketing, airlines are competent to minimize labor costs and in some cases eradicate or commission entirely in an effort to improve profit margins (Mustafa Oz, 2012).Airline E-ticketing is utilized to signify the purchase of a seat on a commercial airline, typically through a website or by telephone. An airline e-ticketing incorporates the issues and delivery of the ticket into a single operation (Tee P.K, Benjamin C.Y.F, Behrooz G. and Lim M. K, 2014) which is a more practical and faster alternative to conventional airline ticketing, effecting substantial cost reductions for both airlines and travel agents This method of airline ticketing is exponentially replacing the conventional paper-based tickets as airline companies commonly impose surplus charges for issuing them (Anyasi.I, Obiazi.O, Evbogbai.E, Akpaida.A, Onianwa.U, Ebegba.D, 2012).

Dating from the year of 2013, “The Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission” (MCMC) documented the number of internet users in Malaysia, providing an estimate of 17,723,000 people. This statistical figure represents about 60.7 percent of the total Malaysian population (Internet World Stats, 2014). Malaysia has experienced a significant increase of internet users over a twelve year gap from 3,700,000 users in the year 2000 to 17,723,000 users in the year 2012. The accelerated expansion of internet users has provided countless online-based applications as an alternative method for organizations in Malaysia to sustain customers together with providing them with new services and/or products.

Problem Statement

E-ticketing by definition is a combination of issue and delivering the ticket from a single operation (Tee P.K, Benjamin C.Y.F, Behrooz G. and Lim M. K, 2014). Nevertheless, there are certainly numerous parameters that persuade the intention, tendencies and attitudes to make purchases online or adopting to airline e-ticketing. These parameters incorporate attitude, perceived risk, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, perceived privacy, perceived security, perceived security and privacy, personal trust disposition, internet usage, and experience (Syed Shah A. and Morjaya.Y, 2010).

Despite the increasing numbers of online users, products offered, and e-trailers trading, it has been extensively reported that there is considerable resistance amongst many internet users to engage in online business to consumer transaction primarily due to concerns about privacy, security and the trustworthiness of the internet (George N. Lodorfos, Tom A. Trosterud, Chris Whitworth, 2006). Thus perceived security as well as perceived privacy is positioned as a prominent barrier to consumer acceptance of electronic ticketing (E-ticketing). Therefore, in order to understand why numerous internet users are still hesitant to adopt E-ticketing, it is imperative to understand their perception or individual differences towards e-ticketing. 

C). Brief description of project objectives.

Objectives

  1. To examine the relationship between perceived security as a salient factor of trust in e-commerce toward the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet user in Malaysia.
  2. To identify the relationship between perceived privacy as a salient factor of trust in e-commerce towards the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet users in Malaysia.
  3. To analyze the relationship between familiarity with online purchases as a salient factor of individual differences toward the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet users in Malaysia.
  4. To explore the relationship between personal trust disposition as a salient factor of individual variances towards the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet users in Malaysia.
  5. To investigate the relationship between airline e-ticketing experience as a salient factor of individual differences towards the intention to adopt airline e-ticketing among internet users in Malaysia.

Significance of Study

The fundamental dilemma of this study is to analyze the public usage among Malaysia internet users in relation towards airline electronic ticketing. In addition to that, this study is designed to cultivate an understanding of trust in Electronic commerce (e-commerce) transactions towards adoption of airline electronic ticketing among internet users in Malaysia Aside from this, this investigation also hopes to develop an understanding of level of trust among Malaysian’s towards airline electronic ticketing. With understanding the adoption purpose of airline electronic ticketing among internet users in Malaysia, the airline companies ought to be able to cultivate as well as implement adequate marketing strategies which can further enhance the trust among internet users in Malaysia, as a result, an increase of online air ticketing sales.

To be able to realize the aims as previously stated, this study will evaluate the internet user’s online trust by capitalizing on the five primary categories of determinants, which are: perceived security, perceived privacy, familiarity with online transaction, personal trust disposition, and airline electronic ticketing experience. The importance of why this research needs to be conducted is as follows. The researcher hopes that this study will contribute to numerous benefits in terms of theoretical, management as well as academic perspectives.

Theoretical perspective

This research will assist in providing a clearer framework for airlines/organizations as well as customers on what kind of factors influence the intention to buy product online and therefore, organizations such as airlines are able to create a more secure online purchasing environment as well as a more customer centric approach to serve their customers well online.

Management perspective

This research will assist airlines/organizations to know the factors that influence the intention of customers to purchase online, and thus, could help the management to increase the number of airline e-tickets sold, as well as increasing the number of customers to adopt airline e-ticketing.

Academic perspective

This research will benefit other students to understand the benefits of online-based e-ticketing and could be referenced or served as a guideline for other researchers who are interested to study Malaysian perception towards e-ticketing in another organization.

Limitations

Due to resource constraints, this survey will be conducted in Kuala Lumpur and Penang, and will be targeted at APU (Asian Pacific University) students. The reliability of this study depends on the honest and memory of the respondents in giving the information needed. The findings from this study should not be generalized as whole as it is only restricted to a small number of students in Malaysia and the results obtained from this study could be unique to this particular sample. Time constraints are also regarded as a limitation of this study.

 

D) Brief description of the models/theories/concepts that will be used in this proposal.

Models and theory Concepts

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

The Technology Acceptance Model was developed by Davis (1989) and is one of the most widely used and referenced theories in the context of technology adoption (Hussein, Z. 2014). The Technology Acceptance Model posits that two specific variables, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Determines ones behavioral; intention to use technology, attitudes toward adopting IT, and actual usage (Hussein, Z. 2014). TAM has been utilized in many fields of research as many researchers have supported the usage of this model in measuring the consumer adoption of e-commerce (Tong, X. 2010)

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

This study also uses the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) with the purpose of identifying the influences on Internet shopping behavior. The TRA model was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975, 1980) for the purpose of measuring user behavior as well as the relationship between attitude and behavior (Alan, P. and Neelima, B. 2009). Four (4) factors are utilized within this model, namely; Attitude, Subjective Norm, Intention and behavior. The Theory of Reasoned Action model has experienced successful application to general consumer information technologies and organizational knowledge sharing (Alan, P. and Neelima, B. 2009). Additionally, there have been a number of studies that have successfully applied the TRA to predict behavioral intention in technology acceptance, for instance, Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw (1989) and Bobbitt and Dabholkar (2001) (Yann, T. 2009).

Triandis Model

The Triandis model (Triandis 1979) pays attention on the relationships of values, attitude, and other acquired behavioral dispositions to action or behavior (Emmanuel, M. 2005). Triandis model are similar to TRA and TAM, nevertheless, the model includes a number of relevant variables. The model suggests that behavior is affected by facilitating conditions, social factors and habits (Dehbashi, S. and Nahavandi, N. 2009). Triandis Model postulates that the probability of performing an act is a function of habits, intention to perform the act and facilitating conditions. The framework continues to postulate that the intention of performing a particular behavior is a function of; perceived consequences, social factors and affect.

Recent studies have utilized Triandis model in an application to technology adoption researches. For instance, The Model and its extensions have been used to understand determinates of users intentions for using the internet in working environment and for shopping (Chang, K., Cheung, .W and Lai, .V 2004)

Hypothesis of Study

No Statement
Internet Trust
H01 Perceived security has a significant positive impact on the intention to adopt airline electronic ticketing among internet users.
H02 Perceived privacy has a significant positive impact on the intention to adopt airline E-ticketing among internet users.
Individual Variances
H03 Familiarity with online purchase has significant positive impact on the intention to adopt airline electronic ticketing among internet users
H04 Personal trust disposition has direct positive impacts on the intention to adopt airline E-ticketing among internet users.
H05 Airline E-ticketing experiences have a significant positive impact on the intention to adopt airline E-ticketing among internet users.

 

E) Academic research:

Airline E-ticketing is assigned to one form of electronic business that perform through the internet as a medium in which no physical face-to-face contact is required between the vendors (in this situation, referring to airline companies) and customers (which relates to airline e-ticketing purchasers). Today, all airline carriers utilize and implement the use of internet technology and offer their online services to customers. As a result, consumers are able to book their flights, customize their bookings (changing or cancellation of bookings), shop around for the best prices and provide payment, electronically through the airline’s website anytime and anywhere. That being said, there are numerous benefits of using online methods provided by airlines, for both the airline and the customer. E-ticketing appears to offer a number of advantages for organizations, including lower costs and increased operational efficiency (Qteishat.K, Alshibly.H, Al-ma’aitah.A, 2014).

Perceived Security and Perceived Privacy

Perceived security can be considered as the subjective probability with which consumers assume that their personal information (private and/or monetary) will not be observed, stored, and exploited throughout transit and storage by inappropriate parties in the manner conforming to their confident expectations (Chellappa, Pavlou, 2002). Security will incorporate threats that formulate circumstance(s), condition(s) or event(s) with the prospective to result in economic difficulties to data or network resource in the form of destruction, disclosures, and modification of data, denial of services, and/or fraud, waste and abuse to the internet user (Hsiang.F, Ting.C, 2011).

Security challenges in online service which includes e-ticketing have been noted to be a substantial dilemma for many consumers (Zhang, Prybutok, Huang, 2006). Researchers have disputed that if customers perceive issues with security in e-service, they will be far less likely to make purchases through the internet Perceptions of security impact the level of trust for the consumer (Qteishat, Alshibly, Al-ma’aitah, 2014). Researchers further dispute that security issues have an effect on customer satisfaction with e-service, rendering it necessary for organization to make certain that customer information is protected (Qteishat, Alshibly, Al-ma’aitah, 2014).

Perceived privacy, on the contrary, is considered as the consumer’s perception as well as opinion with regards to the respect of personal information, confidentiality together with the maintaining of his/her intimacy by the various agents, fundamentally companies, with which he or she interacts in internet applications (Martinez.L, Montoro.R, 2004). Violation of consumers trust in online shopping, when considering privacy invasion or misuse of personal information, negatively influences attitude toward online shopping and leads to hesitant behavior among consumers to shop on the internet in future occasions (Monsuwe, Ruyter, 2004).

 

Familiarity with Online Purchase

An alternative way individuals subjectively minimize uncertainty and facilitate their relationships with other is familiarity. Familiarity is a comprehension, generally determined by preceding interactions, encounters/experiences, and comprehending of what, why, where and when others do what they do (David Gefen, 2000). For this reason, familiarity and trust are prominently different. Familiarity relates to an understanding of the current actions of other people or of objects, whilst trust focuses on beliefs concerning the upcoming action of other people (David Gefen, 2000). For instance, familiarity with Emirates; one of the world’s best known air carrier- would be the knowledge of how to search or book flights and how to purchase a flight through their website interface. Familiarity in this particular context is a specified activity-based cognizance based on previous experience or learning of how to use the particular interface. Trust in Emirates.com, on the other hand, requires providing credit card information based on the guaranty-less favorable belief (i.e. trust) that the information will not be inappropriately sued in some, even unknown , way in the future (Gefen, 2000).

Correspondingly, familiarity and trust accentuate each other as complexity-reduction methods. Familiarity diminished uncertainty by establishing a structure; trust diminishes uncertainty by permitting people hold ‘relatively reliable expectations’ about other people’s favorable future actions (David Gefen, 2000). Looking at the case of Emirates, familiarity would diminish complexity through an understanding of how to inquire of purchasing airline e-tickets or booking a flight through the site (structure of the interaction). Controversially, Trust, would diminish other aspects of complexity by a priori ruling out unethical behavior, for example, misuse of credit card information.  Trust and familiarity, nevertheless are not of equal significance, for the reason that trust is concerned with the unknown future actions of other, and these are inherently more dynamic, general, complex, risky and less specific (Luhmann, N.,1979: Corritore.C, Kracher.B, Weidenbeck.S, 2003).

Personal Trust Disposition

Personal disposition to trust is referred to as a general predisposition or inclination by which people demonstrate faith or belief in humanity and embrace a trustful distance towards others (McKinght.D, Chervany.N, 2002). Trust disposition bears an essential participation in the initial configurations of trust due to the fact that consumers may vary in their willingness to trust others when they obtain inadequate information, particularly in an unfamiliar situation (Koufaris.M, Hampton.W, 2004).

Trusting beliefs, aspirations together with trust-related behaviors originate from a delicate, situational interplay of different factors. Several of these factors: person specific (e.g. dispositional trust that influences trusting beliefs, intentions and behaviors) and contextual factors (such as technology and legal norms related to e-commerce that affect system trust). These factors cannot be controlled by the online retailer, in this case, airline carriers (Krauter.S, Kaluscha.E, 2003)

Dispositional trust is suggested to be a stable within-party factor, designed to have an effect on the probabilities an individual will trust other individuals or groups of individuals (Mayer.R, Davis.J, Schoorman.F, 1995). As a consequence, internet vendors cannot have an effect on dispositional trust by applying particular trust building strategies or measures. In spite of this, indicators for dispositional trust ought to be incorporate into empirical studies either as a moderating variable or as antecedent of trusting beliefs, intentions and behaviors (Krauter.S, Kaluscha.E, 2003). A selection of evidence exists that this dispositional approach is worth pursuing. As an illustration, Mayer (1995) discovered the commitment to trust with others was substantially associated with the behavior and performance of persons working in an agency simulation, on the contrary, other researchers also have discovered this dispositional trust factor to be associated with behaviors of interest in organizational research (Mayer.R, 1995).

Airline E-ticketing Experience

Airline electronic ticketing experiences is known as the past airline electronic ticketing experience that have been encountered by existing airline electronic ticketing users (Ling.K, Chai.L, Piew.T, 2010). Shim (2001), proposed that preceding experiences of online purchase exhibit a significant and direct influence on online purchase intention seeing that preceding transaction experience assist consumers in forecasting future information searches, shopping format choices, satisfying online purchase experiences, developing a trusting attitude towards the website and decreasing consumers levels of perceived risks (Ling.K, Chai.L, Piew.T, 2010). An alternative investigation discovered that the degree of satisfaction with former/prior purchase will ascertain the consumer’s reliance on an internal search for the product or the brans as people have a tendency to explore their memory to recollect a preceding product or brand purchase, and the greater the satisfaction they associate with that purchase, the greater their reliance on an internal search (Jakpar.S, Angelyn.N, Johari.A, Myint.K, 2012). An additional research was carried out and discovered that prior online purchase experience bears more influential impact on purchase intention seeing that consumers are more prone and willing to undertake online purchase as well as have an optimistic attitude regarding the website (Kwek.C, Tan.H, Lau.T, 2010).

F) Brief description of the materials/ methodologies needed by the proposal.

A descriptive and quantitative methodology is utilized as principle design method within this study in order to ascertain the characteristics as well as to determine the instigation and effect relationship among the independent variable (which include perceived security, perceived privacy, familiarity with online purchase, personal trust disposition and airline e-ticketing experiences) and dependent variable (in this instance, it is referred to intention to adopt airline e-ticketing).

In this study, the targeted respondents are residents from Kuala Lumpur and Penang. Kuala Lumpur was chosen as it has the highest internet user population in Malaysia. In addition, students from Asian Pacific University (Kuala Lumpur) and KDU College (Penang) as well as private sector employees which are from ages of 21 and above is segmented into this survey target respondents as adults (age between 20 to 49 years) are the largest age band of internet users in Malaysia (as reported by MCMC), they are aware and have knowledge in airline electronic ticketing and they have the purchasing power to adopt airline electronic ticketing.

The population size for this study is 90(n=90) students, based on a 50:50 ratio of male and female (a total of 45 females and 45 males). From this population size, this study looks at evaluating individuals who are between the ages of 18 -55 years.

G) Brief description of evaluation and analysis proposed for this project.

The total numbers of ninty (90) respondent details are keyed into SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) one by one, and then the individual data will be analysed on a group basis. Nebertheless, raw data collected from respondentes needs to be cheked to eliminate data entry errors and missing values before dad can be anlayzed.Graphical presentation such as histogram, bar charts and pie charts are used to make the interpretation work easier. Analysing frequencies of these variables help to better construe the relevancy and validity of the sample group within this research. In this research paper, the statistic will include both of the descriptive and inferential statistics. This study employed the Likert scales  to examine the relationship between the variables

H) Illustration of how this project will benefit the future employability

This research will contribute to the companies by revealing the factors leads to online purchasing decisions that perceived by customers. Therefore, managers of different companies can know about the factors influencing the consumers in their decision to purchase. The results of this research would demonstrate new gaps that allow managers to determine the perception of customers towards the online aspect of purchasing air tickets to adjust marketing strategies and attracting more potential customers through e-commerce opportunities.

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