Management education is unusual combination of academic learning and practical expertise and in order to produce an executive, the two have to be interwoven. The practical training in any organization in domain of a management course has pivotal importance in not only expose the management student to the actual work situations thus giving them a rich in sight in to what practically goes on behind in the industrial climate and government institution and boards of India but it also help the students, who are eager to learn, to imbibe the latest in diverse areas and capitalize on it. Thus practical training in any industry or organization inculcates in the students, the skill and aptitude, which will position them to take full advantage of opportunities.
I had privilege of receiving my practical knowledge about the training in BIG BAZAAR keeping in line with the objective of the3 customer oriented approach to be followed by a public utility organization. During my training, I was allotted a project to study the job satisfaction in BIG BAZAAR. I have tried my level best to make this project a success, obviously with in the parameters of constraints. I hope that the project report will be evaluated in this light and appreciate
INTRODUCTION TO HRM
Management is defined as that field of the human behavioour in which managers plan, organizes ,staff , direct and control human, physical and financial resources in an organization effort, in order to achieve desired individual and group objectives with optimum efficiency and effectiveness. It is clear from definition that management is concerned with the accomplishment of objectives by utilizing physical and financial resources through the efforts of human resources. Thus human resources are a crucial sub-system in the process of management. The term human resources is quit popular in India with the institution of ministry of Human Resources Development in the Cabinet.
The modern organization setting is characterized by constant changing relating to environment factors and human resources. As regards environment factors we find changes in the operating organization structure, the network of working procedures, customs or norms and economic, political and social patterns in which organization exist. There is a constant change in human resources, new ideas and expectations. The existing work force is constantly with new ideas, attributes and values.
To look after the various function set for the organization adequate resources in men and material have to be arranged by individual who serve as managers or supervisors within the organization. Such people have to make thing to achieve objective of organization. To achieve their objectives four important M's should be utilized. Example:
The success, failure of organization depends on the above factors
Human Resource Management is the method of developing potentialities of employees so that they get maximum satisfaction out of their work and give their efforts to the organization.
Human Resource Management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement development , compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and societal objectives of accomplished.
Human Resource Management in an extension general management, that of prompting and stimulating every employee to make his fullest contribution to the purpose of a business.
The well known Aristotelian saying is worth quoting while analyzing the scope of HRD. Aristotle said, it is as natural for human being to development and achieve his full potential as it for an acorn to grow in to a majestic oak tree. The focus of HRD essentially is on enabling people to self - actualize through a systematic process of developing their existing capabilities of people both in the present and future.
HRD has a wide - ranging scope as it's objectives included:
- Developing a climate for the employees to discover, to develop and use their full capacities for the organization.
- Increases the capacity of an organization to attract, retain and motive talented employees.
- Facilitating systematic generation of information on human resources for man power planning, development placements, carrier planning and succession planning.
IMPORTANCE OF THE HRM
Human resources play a crucial role in the development process of modern economics.
Arthur Levis observed, "there are grate differences in development between countries which seems to have roughly equal resources, so it is necessary to enquiry in to the differences in human behavior". It is often felt that, through the exploitation of natural resources and international aid play prominent roles in the growth of modern economies, none of these factors more significant then efficient and committed man power. It is infant, said that all development comes from the human mind.
AIMS OF HRM
- Improve performance of individual on the present job.
- Improve competence of individual to perform future jobs.
- Improve group dynamics and effectiveness.
- Integrate individual goals with organizational goals.
- Encourage creativity
Job satisfaction is a great concern to any organization. As a new employee, he had limited time but ample exposure to varying degrees of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has been the subject of research and pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences. An individual's attitude about his or her job should have meaningful implications about how he or she does it. Many human relations era researchers sought to establish job satisfaction. However, cited conflicting research results and questioned this view. Performance leads to job satisfaction. This has become the generally accepted view. Even so, the strength of the relationship appears to be very weak. The importance of job satisfaction lies not in it's relationship with performance but with it's stabling effects ( reducing tardiness, absenteeism, and turnover ) and through it's effects on cohesion ( increasing organizational citizenship behaviors and ornizational commitment ). Job satisfaction appears to mediate the effects of in - role performance, role conflict, and job - induced tension on intent to leave and extra- role performance.
Job satisfaction is one of the criteria of establishing a healthy organizational structure in an organization. Job satisfaction as general attitude of the workers constituted by their approach towards the wages, working, conditions, control, promotion related with the job, social relations in the work, reorganization of talent and some similar variables, personal characteristics, and group relations apart from life. Job satisfaction is the sentiments related with the job conducted.
According to Happock Job satisfaction is "Any combination of psychological and environmental circumstances that causes and person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job".
Job satisfaction is defined as the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one's job values.
THE IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION
The most importance evidence which indicates that the conditions of an organization got worsened is the low rate of job satisfaction. The job satisfaction is the condition of establishing an healthy organizational environment in an organization.
Individuals want to maintain statute, high ranks and authority by giving their capabilities such as knowledge, ability, education, health etc. to their jobs for which they spend most of their time. The individuals who cannot meet their expectations with regard to their jobs become dissatisfied. Thus, this dissatisfaction affects the organization for which she/he works. Job satisfaction is very important for every person's motivation and contribution to production. Job satisfaction may diminish irregular attendance at work, replacement of workers within a cycle or even the rate of accidents.
GUIDELINES FOR THE JOB SATISFACTION:
- Commitment to Quality
Organizations are required to provide objective evidence showing Proactive involvement of the management in quality acuities through: Prioritization of equity as a critical success factor for the organization Ensuring that quality performance goals, objectives and targets are set, realized and regularly reviewed ( This may include compliance the required resources (financial, human, metirial time, information and others)
- Quality Policy & the level of it's awareness in the organization
Ensres all members of the organization are involved in the quality activities shows that the management seek and receive feedback from staff, customers and others. Requires management to regulary review the quality activities throughout the organization including quality objectivities and policy is appropriate, relavant and suitable for the achievement of the organization's vision demonstrates effectiveness of the quality system through reviews and audits is played in locations readily accessible to all.
- Implementation of strategy
Availability of documented action plans and their communication to concerned people. Steps taken by the organization to ensure successfully implementation of quality activities ( by such techniques as determining it's strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats- SWOT or ensuring that planned activites are SMART- specific , Measurable, Achivable, Realistic and Timed) How the organization monitors or keeps track of progress in the implementation of its activates. Whether the organization carries out planned reviews and updating of the activates /plans during implementation.
- Customer and market focus
The criteria seeks to find out how organizations reach out to existing and potential customers and how they address the markets place and customer quality requirements, expectations, needs and wants. Also organization are required to show how they care for their customers and ensure their satisfaction.
- Customer needs identification
The organization has a documentated procedure for the collection of information on customer needs and markets - place quality demands. The organization find out the short and long term stated and implied needs , wishes and wants of the existing and potential customers. Organization decides which customer requirements to focus on and which market segments to serve.
- Organizations establishments care education.
Organization establishes, sustain and improve its relations with customers and others. The organization educate its customers on how to make best use of the products or serves and what records are kept for customer care and education activities conducted.
- Customer satisfaction measurements and monitoring
The organization carries out measurement s and monitoring to establish levels of customer satisfaction. The organization handle complains and review and improve current customer satisfaction levels.
FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION
To better understand employees attitudes and motivation, Fedric Hezberg performed studies to determine which factor in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction
Hezberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from those causing job satisfaction . He developed the motivation - hygine from those causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation - hygiene theory to explain these results. He developed the satisfaction .He called the satisfiers as motivators and dissatisfies as hygiene factors that factors , using the term hygine in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction
Hezberg reasoned that because the factor causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction, the two feelings can not simply be treated as opposites of one another. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but rather no satisfaction . Similarly the opposite of dissatisfaction is always dissatisfaction.
Employee satisfaction and retention have always been important issues for physicians. After all, high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect yours bottom line, as temps recruit mint and retraining take toll. But few practices (in fact, few organizations ) have made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the significant opportunity that lies in front of them . Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers, and recent studies have shown a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Family physicians who can create work environment that attract, motivate and retain hard working individuals will be better positioned to succeed in a competitive health care environment that demands quality and cost- efficiency. What is more, physicians may even discover that by creating a positive work place for their employees, they have increased their own job satisfaction as well.
In the late 1950s, Fredric Herzberg, considered by many to be a pioneer in motivation theory, interviewed a group of employees to find out what made them satisfied and dissatisfied on the job. He asked the employees essentially two sets of questions:
- Think of a time felt especially good about your job. Why did you fell that way ?
- Think of a time when you felt especially bad about your job. Why did you feel that way ?
From these interviews Herzberg went on to develop his theory that there are to dimensions to job satisfactions : motivation and 'hygine'(see Two dimensions of employee satisfaction' ) Hygine issues, according to Hezberg, can not motivate employees but can minimize dissatisfaction, if handled properly. In order words, they can only dissatisfy if they are absent or mishandled. Hygine topics include company policies, super vision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. They are issues related to the employee's environment. Motivators, on the other hand, create satisfaction by fulfilling individual's needs for meaning personal growth. They are issues such as achievement, reorganization ,the work itself ,responsibility and advancement, Once the hygine areas are addressed said Herberg, the motivators will promote job satisfaction and encourage production.
APPLYING THE THEORY
To apply Herzberg's theory to real- world practice, let's begin with the hygiene issues. Although hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction, these issues must be dealt with first to create an environment in which employee satisfaction and motivation are even possible.
COMPANY AND ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES
An organizations policies cabin be aggregate source of frustration for employees if the policies are unclear or unnecessary or if not every one is require to fallow them. Although employees will never feel a great since of motivation or satisfaction due to your policies, you can decrees dissatisfaction in this area by making your policies are fair and apply equally to all. Also, make printed copies of your policies and procedures manual easily accessible to all members of your staff if you don't have a written manual, create one ,soliciting staff in put along the way if already have manual, consider updating it ( again, with staff in put ). You might also impair your policies to those of similar practices and ask yourself whether particular policies are unreasonably strict are whether some penalties are too harsh.
To decrease dissatisfaction in this area , you must begin by making wise decisions when you appoint some to the role of supervisor. Be aware that good employees do not always make good supervisors. The role of supervisor is extremely difficult. It require leadership skills and the ability to treat all employees fairly. You should teach your supervisors to use positive feedback whenever possible and should establish a set means of employee evaluation and feedback so that no one feels singled out.
The old adage " you get what you for" tents to be true when it comes to staff members. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they are not compensated well, They will be unhappy working for you. Consult salary surveys or even your local heap-wanted ads to see whether the salaries and benefits you're offering are comparable to those of other offices in your area. In addition, make sure you have clear policies related to salaries, raises and bonuses.
Remember that part of the satisfaction of being employed is the social contact it brings, so allow employees a reasonable amount of time for socialization (e.g. Over lunch, during breaks, between patients ). This will help them develop a sense of camaraderie and teamwork. At the same time, you should crack down on rudeness, inappropriate behavior and offensive, comments. If an individual continues to be disruptive, take chare of the situation, perhaps by dismissing him or her from the practice.
The environment in which people work has a tremendous effect on their level of pride for themselves and for the wok they are doing. Do everything you can to keep your equipment and facilities up to date. Even a nice can make a world of difference to an individual's psyche. Also, if possible, avoid over crowing and allow each employee his or her own personal space, whether it be a desk, a clerk, locker or even just a drawer. If you've placed your employees in close quarters with little or no personal space, do not be surprised that there is tension among them.
Before you move on to the motivators, remember that you cannot neglect the hygiene factors discussed above. To do so would be asking for trouble in more than one way. First, your employees would be generally happy, and this would be apprent to your patients. Second, your hand working employees, who can find jobs elsewhere, would leave, while your mediocre employees would stay and compromise your practice's success. So deal with hygiene issues first then move on to the motivators:
WORK IT SELF
Perhaps most important to employees motivation is healing individuals believe that the work they are doing is important and that their tasks are meaningful. Emphasize that contributions to the practice result in positive outcomes and good health care for your patients . Share stories of success about how an employee's actions made area difference in the life of a patient, or in making a process better. Make a big deal out of meaningful tasks that have become ordinary, such as new- baby visits.
One premise inherent in Herzberg's theory is that most individuals sincerely want to do a good job. To help them, make sure you've placed them in positions that use their talents and are not set up for failure. Set clear, achievable goals and slandered for each position ,and make sure employees know what those goals and standards are. Individuals should also receive regular, timely feedback on how they are doing and should feel they are being adequately challenged in their job. Be careful, how ever, not to overload individuals with challenges that are too difficult are impossible, as that can be paralyzing.
Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their achievements on the job. Their successes don't have to be monumental before they deserve recognition, but your praise should be sincere. If you notice employees doing something well, take the time it acknowledge their good work immediately publicly thank them for handling a situation particularly well. Write them a kind to establish a formal recognition program, such as "employee of the month'.
Employees will be more motivate to do their jobs well if they have owner ship of their work. This requires giving employees enough freedom and power to carry out their tasks so that they feel they "own' the result. As individuals mature in their jobs, provide opportunities for added responsibility.
Reward loyalty and performance with advancement. If you do not have an open position to which to promote a valuable employee, consider giving him or her a new title that reflects the level of work he or she has achieved. When feasible, support employees by allowing them to pursuer further education, when feasible, support employees by allowing them to pursuer further education, which will make them more valuable to your practice.
HOW TO IMPROVE JOB SATISFACTION:
- Provide workers with responsibility- and let them use it
- Show respect
- Recognize The Whole Person
- Mark out a clear path to growth
- Work flexibility in organizations.
HOW ORGANIZATION PLANS FOR FUTURE JOB SATISFACTION
It identifies sources of job satisfaction and disaffection and among administrative and support staff and describes their impact. It examines staff plans for the future, and the likelihood of them remaining within the higher education sector.
GENERAL SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION
Most of the distractive staff who took part in the focus groups gained satisfaction from the role they played in higher education. They were less satisfied with developments in higher education which had eroded the rewards gained from working in the sector.
Staff expressed a strong commitment to higher education and the contribution they were making to the 'greater good'. Most staff derived great job satisfaction from this than they would from a job offering only monetary rewards.
Staff also felt that working in higher education was socially rewarding. Several identified the friendly and supportive relationships they had developed with students and colleagues as being something which which gave them great satisfaction. One said 'I work students all the time...they are very enthusiastic and that rubs off on you'. This was particularly the case for staff based in department with opportunities to build relationships with students. They had gained considerable satisfaction from watching students move through the higher education courses. These tangible outcomes were highly valued by some staff.
Many staff appreciated the fact that the structure of higher education enabled them to work in small enough units to develop close working relationships with their colleagues. One commented "because there's only a limited number of people, you get to know people from all across the library.... You actually really like your own staff... that's a nice feeling. They also valued the opportunities which working in higher education offered to meet other people working in different departments.
Specific sources of job satisfaction
In addition to these strong general themes of satisfaction, more specific sources of job satisfaction were linked to how staff entered higher education.
This group of staff gained job satisfaction from the factors which had initially attracted them to higher education. They liked the variety offered by their work in higher education. They found their jobs interesting and stimulating. More important, they expressed the belief that, despite the increasing pressure of their jobs, higher education remained a less stressful working environment than the private sector and still compared favourably to the private sector. Yet many felt that the gap between the two sectors was closing.
The job is interesting, but unfortunately that interest is becoming a pressure now. I mean I still enjoy my job (but there's no time to) sit back and enjoy it.
The subject specialists
Staff in this group also derived most of their job satisfaction fro the factors which had originally attracted them to higher education. They still appreciated the opportunity to work in a stimulating and interesting environment. Most also felt that they had developed intellectually from contact with academics and students.
The subject specialists often displayed higher levels of job satisfaction then the niche-finders because of their commitment to their subject and the satisfaction they derived from pursuing their interest or specialism. One explained..... my passion in life is careers education... that's all I think about. (1) absolutely love it.
An administrator elaborated further:
It is the subject, not the job, I enjoy, I am actually earning money out of doing something that I enjoy... it's purely because I am actually earning money doing something that I enjoy doing. It is the subject, not the system.
This group of staff gained particular satisfaction from their involvement with academic staff and students who were working in their subject area.
The new professionals:
This was clearly the group of staff who were getting the most satisfaction from working in higher education, at the time of the group discussions. Rather than being threatened or undermined by recent developments in higher education, they were products of the change. They benefited from the direction and pace of change and valued the dynamism of a rapidly changing environment. One explained.
I like my work. I was interested in (the subject) and I saw a job advertised, but it is .....improved. You know ... I've grown into the job.
These staff, more than any other group of administrative and support staff, believed that they received recognition for the role they played within higher education. They were also the only group who said that they felt valued and appreciated by the new management culture. Some of the younger members of this group also perceived themselves to be relatively well paid for the work that they did.
General sources of job dissatisfaction
Unlike job satisfaction sources of job dissatisfaction were not strongly related to individual's original motivations for working in higher education. This was because:
- General levels of dissatisfaction were high among all staff; and
- The factors causing dissatisfaction related more to the context within which staff worked, rather than their specific individual circumstances.
Several important, recurring themes were raised in all of the group discussions.
Lack of opportunities for progression
The biggest single source of job dissatisfaction identified by staff was the nature of the career structure for administrative and support staff. The experiences of the high proportion of staff who where stuck at the top of their grade with no possibility of progression as have the general feelings about the lack of career prospects. Dissatisfaction was intensified by the perception that regarding decisions were motivated by financial concerns rather than judgments about individuals performance or the demands of their job.
Lack of recognition
Dissatisfaction of staff around lack of recognition was not simply related to an inability to make progress in their careers. Most of the anger and frustration staff expressed focused on their perception that their lack of opportunities result from a general low regard for administrative and support functions within higher education. This lack of recognition ahs probably always existed in higher education. Yet significant changes in the roles and responsibilities of administrative and support functions within higher education and the increasingly important central role these staff now play. Despite these changes, staff believed that their contribution was still neither recognized nor valued.
Administrative and support staff who worked closely with academics were particularly likely to feel undervalued. They found that academics either dismissed their views or did not consult them at all. Many felt that the academics they worked with did not recognize the importance of the service they provided. A central administrator said: I don't like dealing with (academics)... they don't think (my job's) important and they think it's a waste of time. I don't like dealing with (them). A departmental administrator agreed. I do think they sometimes think they are above the admin.' As a result, administrative and support staff often felt their work was undermined by academic staff.
Staff attributed the undervaluing of administrative and support staff at least in part, to the fact that their work went largely unnoticed. For many of them, the most important indicator of success was that systems ran smoothly and efficiently without giving other people cause for complaint. In this sense, they were only visible when systems broke down or went wrong. One said:
.... If you're doing wrong it's clearly shown "This is wrong". But if you do something right it's never told 'You've done right'. So you always are in the repeat state of (thinking) "This might be wrong".
A computer officer explained:
...with the advent of the new technologies and advances of IT... more has been able to go wrong. And when they go wrong, they go wrong in a slightly more spectacular manner. And academics always pick up on this... even when no member of the university is at fault, we are the first people into the nest, because.. we should know about these things.
This lack of recognition and reward for good performance was common to all staff and contributed considerably to negative feelings about their job. One said:
'It would be nice if it's recognized elsewhere, from the management and staff... saying "Yes, you have done a good job. You are achieving. You are somebody who we are lucky to have".
Another expressed a similar sentiment, saying: 'You do need those pats on the back. You do need those'.
The issue of financial rewards was a further source of job dissatisfaction for most administrative and support staff and was strongly related to concerns about progression and recognition. The basis for staff dissatisfaction, however, was not simply low pay. Most of them had knowingly entered a relatively low-paid sector. Their dissatisfaction stemmed from their belief that their pay levels did not recognize the increasingly central role played by administrative and support staff within higher education. Nor had their pay scales kept up with the growing level of responsibility that administrative and support staff were taking on. An administrator explained.
'I'm ... on a secretarial grade and secretarial pay but I'm.... actual
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