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Patient Healthcare Using SMS Technology Application

Info: 5404 words (22 pages) Dissertation
Published: 12th Dec 2019

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Tagged: Medical Technology

Chapter 1
Introduction to Patient Care Using SMS Application

Patients travel longer distances for the opinion of consultant which is not possible either due to patient situation or due to distances. Enhancement of health care in different locations and other remote areas can be achieved using mobile phone applications [1].

1.1 Problem Statement

Development of mobile communication networks playing an important part in the enhancement of a mobile medicine. Patient Care Using SMS Application represents a feasible solution of patient care such as text messaging and booking appointments using mobile phones, which are best aspects of mobile medicine. The main idea is improve patient access to healthcare; encouraging patient’s to use mobile health application and supporting people with long term conditions [5].

1.2 Objectives

Incredible growth of mobile communication and recognition of new generation Wireless protocols has initiated the advance SMS based medical applications. Following that facts Patient care using SMS based application for mobile application for patient is good solution [5 6].

* To design and develop a WAP enabled wireless applications that will enhance the feature of mobile device by incorporating the features of a digital diary. The application should be able to get integrated with the existing application vis-à-vis Exchange Server etc

* Main aim of this application is to achieve “greater quality communication between GPs and consultants using mobile medicine, which will results in enhancement of patient’s care “[5 6].

1.3 Scope

The goal of Patient Care Using SMS Application is based on two major conditions. First, is to achieve proficient means to exchange message between General Practitioners and consultants’ care have to be provided. The second is sufficient exchange of patient’s information have to be provided.

Additionally, privacy of communication and stored information has to be guaranteed. Both ethical and technical aspects are equally important [7].

1.4 Existing Systems

The existing system of treatment consists of two different systems. They are as follows:

* Traditional or manual system

* Online application

1.4.1 Traditional or Manual system

The present system of treatment consists of manually consulting a doctor by taking prior appointment or else registering at that instant of time, waiting to get register themselves and then consulting the doctor which is a time consuming process. Drawbacks

* Time consuming

* Patient need to stand in long queues to make appointments

* Patients not follow prescription directions once they leave the surgery or hospital. Research has showed that more than 50 percent of patients not follow the management advised by their doctors may be due to lack of time and interest.

1.4.2 Online System

Online application is also available where the user is provided a login and password through which he can access the website, make appointments, clarify their queries etc. The problem with online application is we cannot access from remote areas, compulsory web connection should be there and we cannot get alerts [4, 5]. The online systems are discussed below are:


* VISION System EMIS System

EMIS® stands for Egton Medical Information Systems Limited. EMIS provides a service that enables you access to your healthcare online [9].

After registering with the surgery, patients are able to book or cancel their appointments with the doctor. Patient can also request repeat prescription, send messages to their practice and update personal information – if practice has set up these features online [10]. This example has been explained in detailed in chapter 2.

1.5.2 Example 2: Vision System

Vision [14] is the most famous system in use UK, within the GPs sector today, due to its market leading features, functionalities and first class support from INPS. There are currently more than 1,800 GP practices which are using Vision system across the UK each day.

“Vision system version 3 is fully RFA 99 acquiescent, includes, support for the encryptedEDIFACT pathology v1.1 message, MIQUEST and DTS. The Vision application is stable, proven and reliable. The strong product-base has allowed other features such as advanced-scanning, PDA’s support and incorporated voice dictations as well as extension to core functionality such as XML based clinical-messaging, allowing integrations with third party systems” [14]. In this project we are more concentrating on EMIS rather than Vision system.

Key Features

Incorporated External system
Consultation Manager
Problem Orientated Views
Community Caseload Search and Reporting

7. Clinical Audit Vision and the National Applications [14]

Few of the above features are explain below [14]:

1. Messaging

This system offers unparallel flexibility with the wider health community via its highly supple and adaptable in-built messaging and web-services. These allow patient’s data from number of external sources including the NHS Spine or local CPR’s to be easily accessed and used within Vision, supporting the requirements of the NHS IT-strategy.

Vision also manages a range of clinical messages from third party systems to support the patient care as follows:

* Choose and Book Referral’s (electronic booking)

* E- Discharge Summaries

* Radiology reports and Encrypted pathology reports

* OOH Summaries

With a powerful XML event and messaging engine, Vision is designed to ensure the performance of new messages require no changes to the core Vision product. In a single, clear and simple interface, all message types are managed.

2. Incorporated External System

In the Vision tabbed views, external web enabled application can now be well-established, allow access patient information from number of sources to be seamlessly from the Vision desktop.

The patient is automatically recognised in the target system, when the required data is passed to the third-party application. For integration into the patient record when required, important data may also be written back to Vision

3. Patients Appointments

This Vision system allows user full access to the appointment screen. “Using session templates developed by the practice” the appointment books are defined in advance.

The view of appointment book can be defined by user: all significant doctors and other Healthcare professionals can be added or deleted as requirements. To denote, each slots can be assigned in different colours. As the patients arrives at reception, enters the doctor’s room or leave the surgery, their status is recorded.

Our evaluations are based on EMIS system, its features and limitation which have been explained in later chapters.

1.5 Thesis Organisation

In chapter 1 we have explained Patient care using SMS application and its aim, objectives and scope. The existing systems such as manual and online systems are briefly explained in this chapter along with it features and disadvantages.

The chapter 2 explains EMIS system and its features. Features of EMIS explained in this chapter with examples, their functionality and requirements.

This chapter 3 gives brief overview of problems associated with online medical systems with examples. Problems of online medical system such as internet connection, email, prescription, Electronic Patient records and read codes are explained.

In the chapter 4 we have focussed on Patient Records and how they are managed at General Practices and hospitals. The traditional paper based practices and its limitations have been explained with examples. The paper less practices and its pros have been explained and the reasons why practice should follow this have explained with examples. The advantages and disadvantages of Electronic patient records with s and examples are discussed in this chapter.

The chapter 5 focuses on Read codes and its structures. In this chapter 3 versions of read codes are explain with examples. Maintenance of read codes i.e. internal process and external interaction and hierarchy has been explained with s. The example case study represents the limitations associated with 3 versions, its results and solutions.

The chapter 6 is about EMIS database, i.e. patient database and focuses on its usability and security. It explains structure of database and its solutions. Secure Patient data transfer within the PCT has been explained. Storage Area Network is used by EMIS to store patient records. How the GPs and other Healthcare Professional access patient records has been explained.

Advance system and its features are discussed in this chapter 7. Waterfall Model’s activities have been explained. The structure of advance system with s is discussed in this chapter. The conceptual and technical design of this project has been briefly explained. UML language is used in this project to represent user and admin operations.

The chapter 8 explains the SMS system requirements such as Specification requirements, Functional requirements, Performance requirements, and hardware and software requirements. About operating system and languages used in this projects are discussed in this chapter. Wireless application protocol architecture and WAP server are explained using diagrams. Database requirements and its uses are explained using diagrams. Open wave SDK and its functions are discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 2
Egton Medical Information Systems

EMIS® and ‘EMIS intellectual technology’ are trading names of “Egton Medical Information Systems Limited”. EMIS had begun 18 years ago in a rural area dispensing practice in Egton near Whitby in North Yorkshire [11].

EMIS® head-offices are based in Leeds, including Development and Support departments. Training for general practices is localised and headed by Provincial Operations Directors [11].

2.1 Practice Care System Enterprise

Due to the growing number of EPRs held in both GP and Secondary Care, the requirement for a whole EHR has never been greater. The EMIS’s Primary Care System Enterprise edition for PCTs has been designed to meet all the challenges. EMIS PCS will maintain the patient information at many levels and ease safe access 24/7 by the wider health care-community [11].

PCS Enterprise for PCTs has been designed with capability of future technological and keeping development in mind, such as sharing data between General Practices. This includes GP to GP records transfer and inter-operability between in- and OOH PCSs. Using a HL7 Version 3 the patient data is transferred between dedicated health care systems directly [11].

2.2 An overview of PCS Enterprise

This edition has been designed to develop EMIS’ provision of an absolute system solution for primary care. The system is scalable, multi-practice, and multi disciplinary with shared EPRs and seamless data exchange. This system is based on three-tier architecture, while utilising MS Dot Net technologies, this system has the flexibility to increase numerous clients with its ability to scale to thousands of instantaneous user connections [11].

EMIS Primary Care System Enterprise edition is designed to meet GP needs as closely as possible, while supporting specialties related to medicine. See in 2.1 below gives the overview of PCS Enterprise system:

2.3 EMIS Primary Care System Practice edition

Health information system plays an important role in how practice operates. The good and right clinical system can help to save practice valuable time, assist in practice management and ultimately lead to improved patient care. The EMIS PCS Practice edition has been designed to meet GP needs, combining functionality with simplicity of use [11].

Key features of EMIS PCS

* Complete patient record management

* Quick and good prescribing

* Formulary managements

* Incorporated consultation mode

* Incorporated appointments

* Mentor Library

* Integrated with MS Word support

* User defined templates

* Drug Explorer

2.4 EMIS LV Version 5.2

In the PCS market, EMIS Live Version [11] is the main text based medical system. Approximately 5000 GP’s currently using EMIS LV system (which is shown below) in the UK. The system offers GP’s consultation mode option, medical record, search and reports option, prescription and booking appointments.

2.5 Population Manager

This system enables General Practices to effortlessly meet the requirement of the new GMS Contract. Population Manager [11] has a set of more than 160 searches that extract the data require for the new Contracts and present it in an understandable format. It also contains a set of specially designed templates to help speedy and standardised information entry. Population manager is an incorporated part of EMIS LV system.

2.6 Version 5.2 features

This is the most recent release of EMIS LV. This LV offers users the following key features [11]:

2.6.1 MS Word incorporation

Patient data is easily transferred between EMIS system and MS Word enabling the clinician or staff to create patient related letters in MS Word easily. To create consultation references for simple retrieval, documents are created in MS Word which is saved back into EMIS.

2.6.2 Referral template for Cancer patient’s

If cancer is suspected GPs requires produce and fax or e-mail suspected cancer referrals within 24 hours of seeing the patient (this is according to the NHS Plan). These patients have to be seen by the Hospital Trust within 2 weeks; hence these referrals are named as “two week rule referrals”. EMIS has included a suite of MS Word templates for each cancer type into EMIS LV5.2.

2.6.3 Electronic Insurance reports

One of the most common and time taking medical information requests for GP’s is the PMA form for the claim companies. A familiar format for General Practitioner Report has been decided and computer-based reports (eGPR) are accepted by insurers. The electronic GPR can be generating within the EMIS system, integrating all related patient information. The eGPR template is installed by default in this system.

2.6.4 Scanning and attachments

This module enables to scan corresponding or images and attaches them directly to a patient’s record in consultation mode. These documents are instantly available during consultation.

2.7 EMIS Clinical Communication Modules

The following Clinical Communication Modules are available with EMIS LV5.2, providing links with Secondary Care [11].

1 Online Referrals with Booked Admissions

2 Electronic Referrals

3 Incoming Reports including Electronic Discharges

4 Online Results Ordering

With an approved list of suppliers this Clinical Communication Modules work. Using the common set of messaging standards currently being developed by the National Design Authority, links to other suppliers will become available, an arm of the National Programme for IT in the NHS. For this reason that EMIS are not progressing, with the further testing of links with other suppliers using proprietary messaging standards. The Clinical Communication Modules are explained below [11]:

2.7.1 Online Referrals and booked admissions

Traditionally referring patients from doctors at general practices to hospital or Secondary Care consultants has been a paper based with its problems of delays (slowness) and occasional loss. The EMIS Online Referrals with Booked Admissions module enable us to create a referral on a Secondary Care website using protocols created by Secondary Care consultants, adding patient demographics and clinical information and in some cases booking an appointment.

Requirements: Each EMIS practice must have:

* EMIS LV 5.2

* NHS Net connectivity

* Router access for EMIS

* Version 2 clinical terms (5 byte Read Codes)

The Secondary Care Provider will need:

* An EMIS approved website

2.7.2 Electronic Referrals

This module enables us to create a referral letter within EMIS LV and transmit it electronically to a secondary care consultant [11].

The way electronic referrals work

You can use MS-Word Integration in EMIS LV to create a referral letter. When you save the referral letter, you are prompted to link with EDI for an electronic transmission: answer ‘Yes’ and the referral letter is placed in the Communications outbox (CO, OD). From here, you can check the letter before authorising the transmission. When you have authorised the transmission, you can either send the referral letter immediately or wait until the next scheduled transmission. Upon receiving the referral letter, the secondary care software system will transmit an acknowledgement that you can view within the EMIS Communications screen.


Each EMIS practice must have:

* EMIS LV 5.2

* NHSnet connectivity

* Router access for EMIS Support

* SMTP or DTS mailbox

* MS-Word Integration

The secondary care provider will need:

* SMTP or DTS mailbox

* Suitable software capable of sending and receiving XML messages and acknowledgements

* SMTP/DTS and EDI code addresses of the practices involved – the trust should obtain these from the health authority or national tracking database

2.7.3 Incoming Reports including electronic discharges

Use this information sheet to give you an overview of the Incoming Reports module and the requirements to get you started. The communication of patient information from out of hour’s services and secondary care used to be paper system, which has been unmanageable and untrustworthy with discharge notes being illegible, incomplete and often late in delivery. The paper-based system replaced by Incoming Reports module which receives electronic discharge notes or other patient related reports from an OOH service or a secondary care provider [11].

How does the Incoming Reports module work?

Incoming Reports is a one-way process whereby the out of hours service or secondary care provider sends a message containing the incoming report to EMIS LV. However, EMIS LV will send an acknowledgement of receipt back to the provider.

When EMIS LV receives a report, it is matched to the correct patient and placed on a list ready for viewing, and then filing. If EMIS LV cannot match a report to a patient automatically, you can match a patient manually. When viewing a report, you can match the clinical information in the report to clinical terms before you file it. You can link a report to a past consultation (for example, the consultation during which the original referral was made) or create a new consultation specifically for the report. You can view filed incoming reports using the *RL function in Consultation Mode.


To use Incoming Reports, an EMIS practice must have:

* EMIS LV 5.2

* NHSnet connectivity

* Router access for EMIS

* A DTS address

To use Incoming Reports, a secondary care provider must have:

* A DTS address.

* The DTS addresses and EDI€  codes for all required practices – this information is available from the health authority or from the national tracking database.

* Software to create and send XML messages and receive acknowledgements

2.7.4 Online Test Ordering

Requesting and processing pathology samples were traditionally paper-based systems, with their inherent problems of slowness and occasional loss of information. Pathology labs can now provide web-enabled IT systems to produce a far more efficient and streamlined service.

The EMIS Online Test Ordering module, available for EMIS PCS and EMIS LV systems, enables GPs, via a secure NHSnet connection, to access the pathology lab and exchange information regarding requests, samples and results [11].

Online Test Ordering can be access from Consultation Mode or Medical Record, and then access the website of a compatible laboratory. The current patient’s demographic and GP details are transferred to the laboratory system when you request the required tests.

After you have ordered the tests, the test information is transferred to your EMIS system and filed in the patient’s record. At this point, you can continue with other work or take the test sample(s). When you take a sample, you can print a bar-coded label to attach to the sample, ready to send to the lab. Use the Online Test Ordering menu options to monitor the progress of the sample and view the results as soon as they are available, although you will still receive the results through the Clinical EDI or Pathology Links modules, as before [11].


Each EMIS practice must have:


* NHSnet connectivity

* Router access for EMIS

* Version 2 clinical terms (5-byte Read codes)

Support issues

The overall Online Test Ordering process relies on different services and software all working in conjunction with each other: the EMIS software, the laboratory website and the NHSnet network. Unless a problem occurs with the EMIS software, EMIS is improbable to be able to resolve issues with the two areas; therefore, the secondary care trust and/or the practice should ensure that support facilities are in place for these eventualities.

2.8 Storage area network (SAN)

Using the highest industry standard storage area network (SAN) configuration EMIS data centres are run [11], on which EMIS stores data [Detail explanation in later chapter].

Chapter Summary

The chapter 2 explains EMIS system and its features. Features of EMIS explained in this chapter with examples, their functionality and requirements.

Chapter 3
Drawbacks of Online systems

Although online application provides many services the challenges associated with are given below. All the drawbacks are explained taking EMIS as an example.

3.1 Patient Record

¨ Time required to put all relevant information onto system

¨ Possible security issues

¨ Doctor can focus too much on patient information onscreen which could intimidate the patient

¨ Scanning and entry of data is more time consuming. Important information lost can when overlooking the record.

¨ Medical record print-outs are frequently of poor quality and difficult to understand necessary information

¨ In spite of using EPR, Paper records need to be kept back or scanned material become unmanageable.

¨ Often using computer and paper records together will make patient data look very difficult.

¨ Currently between GPs there is no electronic transfer as it is due to having a risk of data lost and duplication of data[16]

3.2 Appointments

¨ Patients have to be checked into appointment system by receptionist

¨ Problematic if patient’s can’t read, or unable to view sign (e.g. blind people)

3.3 Prescriptions

¨ Relies on drug information being up to date

¨ Aptitude of doctor in using computer effectively

¨ Some times doctors issue hand written prescription; they may not be available on computer. The acute and repeat prescribing registers can make it more confused. Printouts of Pharmacy still required [16].

3.4 Email

¨ Relies on doctor checking their mail daily

¨ Troublesome patients abusing the system

¨ Hospital letters not emailed (would be preferred)

3.5 Security issues

¨ Doctors have to go to bother of signing on and off EMIS

¨ Forgetting passwords

¨ Passwords can be troublesome, staff or anyone can abused or swapped it, if they are lost the system can be absolutely in-operable

¨ Leaving computer on

¨ Locum doctors

¨ Experts are need to show computer frauds and misuse [16]

3.6 Internet connection

¨ Continuous internet connection required

¨ The problem with online application is we cannot access from remote areas, compulsory web connection should be there and we cannot get alerts [4, 5].

3.7 Backup

¨ System backed up every night onto tape

¨ Two copies:-

– Fireproof safe

– Remote location

3.8 Read codes

Maintenance of enormous clinical expressions or codes is very complex, and the Read Codes present many challenges. In addition, structure of controlled terminologies has been learned about the principle because of the structure of the earlier versions. Version 3, the existing read code systems have been design keeping in mind the previous, simple versions, and to achieve forward compatibility [17].

The problems associated in steps in read coding the medical problems are explain below in s step 1 and step2

The Read Codes are used for many purposes such as clinical audit, searches, source allocation, and for the making of central government statistical returns. Problems arise from different uses and from the different views of Healthcare professional. [17].

Statistical classifications like ICD and OPCS4 may cause inconvenience so they are cross map. Version 2 with its diagonal section closely mirrors ICD9, even though this doesn’t always reflect a clinician’s view, and correct hierarchy placement of a concept according to ICD9 rules may appear anomalous to a clinician. Besides this Version 2 initial aim is for a code, with its preferred term and it offers a single cross-map to these classifications, and its and all its synonyms, to map correctly to ICD9 [17].

Version 3 came with its directed acyclic graph structure, greater synonym purity, and much easy cross-mapping design, incorporating default maps and alternative maps, avoids the previous version limitations. However this came with other possible problems. Therefore, the two processes, authoring and mapping are closely incorporated [17].

Read/SNOMED Codes

Read/SNOMED codes are used by the doctors at hospitals because medical records in future can be transferred through GP2GP links. “Unlike the principal of Linnaean classification of species in the 19th Century, James Read brings in an international categorization of medical activity to contain disease names, operations and procedures. The main aim of this classification was to allow easy transfer of data between GPs, hospital and PCTs and easy to use by clinical staff, administrators and planners” [24].

Read codes has been explained more clearly in chapter 4.

3.9 GP2GP Record transfer

The experience of the GP2GP record transfer and the clinical involvement are explained this section.

3.9.1 The underlying principle for electronic GP-GP record transfer

The vast majority of UK GPs (greater than 96 percent) are computerised in some way or other. A sizeable proportion of these practices use their computer systems for recording patient record information in whole or in part [33].

This results from a variety of causes whose main headings are:

* Patient records that are an unpredictable mix between paper and electronic.

* The net effect of the above is to place difficulties on new practices in identifying salient information in transferred records and in incorporating that information within the new record. This is to known to have significant (but un-quantified) resource implications for practices. There is also widespread anecdotal evidence of resulting adverse effects on patient care. The rationale for the electronic transfer of records is therefore:

* As a support for electronic records in general practice and their general benefits in terms of decision support and audit/governance abilities.

* To obviate the need, as far as possible, for re-keying of paper-based information for new patients and thus reduce resource implications

* To reduce the risks to patients arising from the transfer of confusing records.

3.9.2 The nature of electronic GP-GP record transfer

Electronic patient record systems in general practice in England are provided by the commercial sector. At the time of writing this annex to the Good Practice Guidelines, eleven different commercial suppliers are known to be involved in this provision. In simple terms is that it is a common convention for the representation of [33]:

* Record encounters; what constitutes a single transaction with the record like a doctor’s consultation, a letter received from hospital or outside, an examination result etc

* Names for these encounters; e.g. home visit,

* Headings within these encounters

* Complex clinical constructs

* Read code mappings; such medication codes sets

* Codes and associated text

* Major modifiers of clinical meaning

3.9.3 The Problems of electronic GP-GP record transfer

There are four particular aspects of current GP-GP records where the transfer process of that record information needs to be supported by additional rules or processes if fully safe and usable records are to be reconstituted on receiving systems and are explain below [33].

Medication information

There are currently three different coding schemes for the representation of medication information on GP systems. The principal reasons for failure to reach 100% reliability are:

* The multiple coding schemes used and

* Failure of previous code mapping exercises (see chapter 5 on data transfer).

3.10 The Problem Oriented Medical Record (PMOR)

Electronic health records (EHR) are more used in UK General Practice despite continuing improbability about its legality and admissibility. The transfer of electronic record is currently in demand by the practices when the patient moves i.e. GP2GP transfer. The EHR implementations differ from a simple sequential list of medical concepts in an out of date coding system to sophisticated Problem Oriented Medical Records (POMR) [31].

3.10.1 Limitations of the PO Medical Record

The limitations of POMR are explain below [31]

* It is very easy to pick up but very difficult to maintain.

* In the strict way of the word not all headings are ‘problems’. For example, the heading of ‘Immunisation’ is used usually to indicate where all the entries related to a immunization history may be found.

* Many different problems may be discussed within a single consultation

* To check scanned documents is very difficult especially when patient record is too big

* Problems are frequently linked in a fundamental way.

* The PO Medical Record only gives a basic measure of the state of a problem.

* Different clinicians, view the clinical record, required different information from the medical record as well as with different views.

* Some of problems are complex and they are difficult to read. Those records which have few entries are conversely are easy to read, hence POMR is meant to avoid comes to the fore again.

Though POMR have above limitation but it is a popular medium for data entry and viewing, there is indeed room for enhancement and progress [31].

3.11 Other Disadvantages

* Typing skills required for doctors and other clinicians. They are using ever more abbreviations and acronyms.

* Many screen need to be changes to find results and mouse activity

* Information can be hidden as only the informati

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