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Preparing Students for Economic and Social Contexts with Digital Technology

Info: 8790 words (35 pages) Dissertation
Published: 8th Jan 2021

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Tagged: EducationTechnology

Introduction:

The purpose of this assignment is to illustrate how the use of digital technology as an educational tool is one of the key ways to prepare students for the economic and social context of the 21st century. The use of digital technology in the classrooms has widely spread worldwide over the recent decades. The understanding and familiarity with the use of digital technology for education purpose is important for students, since they are ‘digital-native’ as mentioned in the guardian (Lawless, 2014). They were born or grew up with high exposure to digital technology; they have no problem with naturally using it for various purposes. To add also, students are facing a future of technology evolution where technology is going to impact all jobs so it is important for all employees to be ready for their workplace (Talagan, 2017). This is in preparation for the social and economic context of the 21st century. The potential use of digital technology in education is to prepare students for economic: business and workforce, as for social effects will be for social media, access to information, public debate.

On a personal level, technology has changed many things in our lives such as way of communication, easier and faster access to information, as for the professionally due to digital technology, approaches and methods have changed in the classrooms, data collection and inputting data has become faster and easier.

In the reminder of this assignment, a brief history of digital technology will be highlighted with details of the important of digital technology for higher education students, then some problems related to digital technology will be illustrated.

An issue in education:

Why is digital technology important to be used in education to prepare students for the social and economic contexts?

Obviously the use of digital technology from the 20th century has equipped teachers with limitless options of ways to teach in the classroom and ways on how to stimulate students for a better education; hence, for this assignment a brief history of digital technology will be provided. Before digital technology, in 1600s non-digital technology was introduced; such as modern library and pencils. Later on in the 20th century digital technology was invented in various forms to meet different purposes, such as: Xerox photocopier in 1950s, the microfilm viewer in 1960s, apple II in 1977, computers in 1970s, internet access to public in late 1990s, iclicker, youtube and promethean whiteboard in the 21 century (Parson, 2017), all these devices were used in the classroom as a tool to prepare students for the economic and social life in the 21st century.

Clearly, each country introduced digital technology into their education system at different periods based on their policy, cultural background and economic situation. For example, in 1980s twenty percent of schools in UK and US managed to use computer created by IBM(Parson, 2017), but Iraq only started introducing digital technology into the classrooms from 2005 when UNESCO lunched a program called ‘ICT Education For Iraq’ (UNESCO Iraq, n.d.). This was to train teachers to use digital technology as a tool in the classroom.

Policy makers believe that there was immediate need for digital technology in the educational centres and higher education use to keep up with the rest of the world (Selwyn, 2011). Technology development is a competition, the faster a country advances in technology the more developed they will be. Especially, organisations have called for all students to learn 21st century skills, which digital technology is one of the skills(Dede, 2010), this is to compete for new jobs, as employees insist on this skill due to the market change, challenges and demands. It is cost effective to hire an employee with digital technology skills rather than train them from scratch or provide any sort of training. The rapid pace of technology requires this development as machines are expanding their capabilities to accomplish human tasks. The 21st century is quite different from the 20th in regard to the skills people now need for work and citizenship.

In reference to the above information and emphasising the importance of digital technology for education, it is necessary for students to understand the policy behind this enhancement and how their awareness, knowledge and use of digital technology will shape their future lives.

Furthermore, educators believe that the use of digital technology in education can play a crucial role in providing new and innovative forms of support to teachers, students, and the learning process more broadly. Through digital technology, educators, across sectors can reach out globally to facilitate: transition for students, career paths and even underpin an infrastructure of networked institutions and education providers. Nations are increasingly prioritizing education; hence, digital technology can serve an increasingly diverse student body and educators globally (Office of Educational Technology, 2017).

First of all, quality teaching in higher education plays a big role in student learning outcomes; institutions need to ensure that the education they offer meets the expectation of students and the requirement of employers (Henard & Roseveare, 2012), especially, at a time of continuous change, many countries are looking for policies that will create new jobs (Kvochko, 2013), so new jobs require creativity, professionalism and talent, which this obviously needs some sort of training and education. This is as a preparation for the economic and social demands in the 21st century. Especially now in this century, employers prefer the highly qualified candidates, and based on this, all employers demand candidates to be familiar with digital technology to avoid any further requirement of training or learning period. In an article on U.S. geospatial industry and its workforce it is mentioned that ‘higher education prepares students to make a living in a way that improves the quality of life’ (DiBiase et al., 2010), hence, in other words, workforces expect employees to be well equipped and prepared for their work experience to enhance the quality of their life style. Furthermore, for many educators and the Department of Labour, geospatial, means a rapidly growing industry that generates so many exciting and challenging opportunities in so many different fields (DiBiase et al., 2010), hence if an individual is not well equipped then how can they attend these challenging opportunities, therefore, the quality of education is essential to create an outstanding individual of society. Also, many argue that education is ‘an on-going societal obligation’ (Selwyn, 2011), this is to keep up with the economic and societal changes that are associated with technology.

to maintain or enhance their economy at this time of competitiveness of economies. Hence, higher education students as the final stage of their education, before entering the workforce and real life competitions, it is necessary for them to acquire many skills to help them in the competition.

Owing to the application of technology, our standard of living has increased. Our needs are met with greater ease.

The 21st-century skills, is one of the most common words used in today’s education debates. Proponents point to a new workforce reality that demands a next generation of college students and workers who are independent thinkers, problem solvers, and decision makers (Silva, 2009).

Staffing is broadly defined as the process of attracting, selecting, and retaining competent individuals to achieve organizational goals. Every organization uses some form of a staffing procedure, and staffing is the primary way an organization influences its diversity and human capital. The nature of work in the 21st century presents many challenges for staffing. For example, knowledge-based work places greater demands on employee competencies; there are widespread demographic, labor, societal, and cultural changes creating growing global shortfalls of qualified and competent applicants; and the workforce is increasingly diverse.

The Melbourne Declaration on the Educational Goals for Young Australians (MCEETYA 2008) recognised that in a digital age, and with rapid and continuing changes in the ways that people share, use, develop and communicate with technology, young people need to be highly skilled in its use. To participate in a knowledge-based economy and to be empowered within a technologically sophisticated society now and into the future, students need the knowledge, skills and confidence to make technology work for them at school, at home, at work and in their communities. Educators need to provide a teaching and learning culture that provides students with essential 21st century skill sets that include creativity, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, problem solving, technological proficiency and global awareness. (Chalich, 2015)

Most definitions of recruitment emphasize the organization’s collective efforts to identify, attract, and influence the job choices of competent applicants (Plyhart, 2006).

The rapid pace of digital technology is changing the way we do business everyday, and that includes the way we isolate, recruit and hire the best people. In the past, it was all about paper resumes and traditional sit-down interviews. Now job seekers are applying for jobs from their phones, connecting with employers over Twitter, and developing campaigns in order to snag their dream jobs.

If you’re ignoring the importance of technology when it comes to finding and hiring the best people, your competition is likely to be scooping up the talent your company needs to succeed.

So let’s take a moment and look at some of the ways technology is impacting the search for your next superstar employee:

The Twesume

According to a story in USA Today, a few companies are taking to the Twitter-sphere to find their next great superstar employee. Instead of looking at resumes, these companies are focusing their attention on the 140 characters applicants are choosing.

So what’s a Twesume? Well, it’s a condensed, 140-character resume transmitted over Twitter. Applicants using Twesumes understand Twitter can be a great outlet for connecting with employers and recruiters.

In fact, tons of companies are using Twitter to publicize their job postings with links to their career site and relevant hashtags. Why shouldn’t job seekers do the same with their credentials?

These short resume bursts usually include links to a job seeker’s relevant professional social media profile, resume, or website. If you use Twitter to search for #twesumes or search your industry-related hashtags, you just might find a great candidate to interview before your competition.

The Video Interview

Instead of looking your candidate in the eye face-to-face, maybe you should consider meeting with your candidate webcam-to-webcam? The popularity of the video interview has certainly been rising in the last few years. In fact, a recent survey showed six out of 10 companies are using video interviewing in their hiring efforts.

The reason more companies are embracing the power of online video is because the video interview is effective in cutting down time-to-hire. It’s much easier to schedule a video interview around the packed schedules of passive candidates because there’s no commute needed.

The Mobile Interview

Speaking of the video interview, job seekers can now perform these interviews from wherever life takes them. In a one-way video interview, employers pose questions job seekers then answer on video.

Thanks to new technology, job seekers can now record these answers directly from their mobile device, meaning the video interview is now more portable than ever before. This helps employers cut down on time-consuming phone screens and initial screening interviews, allowing for more focus on only the most qualified candidates.

The Job Search Campaign

Presidential candidates might not be the only ones campaigning for the job anymore. In fact, more and more job seekers are using new technology in order to start their own campaigns for their dream jobs. Whether it’s a job seeker with a very targeted campaign aimed at tech giant Google or a job seeker making himself a commodity on Amazon, clever applications are becoming a new trend.

Employers are scooping these people up because they display the value they can bring right from the application process. These job seekers are obviously able to think outside the box and are truly creative.

If you’d like to see what a candidate can do before sitting down for an interview, create a skills test for candidates. Ask a candidate to create a webpage, write a blog post or outline a marketing campaign. The point is to make sure your candidate can think creatively and innovatively before making an offer.

In today’s war for talent, you can’t afford to let great people who grasp how to leverage technology end up in your competition’s cubicles. So look out for these new technological tools and embrace new ways of connecting with candidates (Tolan, 2013).

So if you are not uptodate as mentioned earlier by……then how can you commete in this demanding digital technological period which is changing.

Josh Tolan is the CEO of Spark Hire, a video powered hiring network that connects job seekers and employers through video resumes and online interviews. Connect with him and Spark Hire on Facebook and Twitter

The increase in digital technology corresponds with the increase in the use of technology in both virtual and real-life classrooms. Although many advantages come with digitalized learning, there are also disadvantages that you should be aware of, including and not limited to minimal to zero face-to-face interaction in the classroom, and the lack of ability to work in person with your study partners and your teacher. Despite these disadvantages, overall digital technology has enhanced the future of learning and has enabled students and educators alike from all over the world to work together, spread knowledge, and increase learning opportunities for everyone (Lynch, 2017) .

The use of digital technologies in education started about half a century ago. It created the need to develop conceptual frameworks for effective pedagogy and strategies to enhance active, engaged and meaningful student learning that will lead to

better learning outcomes. The integration of digital technologies into the curriculum is intended to support innovative pedagogy as well as prepare students for future work and citizenship. However, despite the fast pace of change in the digital technology landscape for education, studies continue to show that the level of technology integration and its impact in the classroom remain low. (Ng, 2015) though social learning tools (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) and expect these to be replicated in the classroom. Academic staff are subse- quently faced by potentially new learning environments, which adds to the complexity and pressures faced when teaching increasingly diverse students (Alvarez, Guasch, & Espasa, 2009; Rienties, B., Beausaert, S.,Grohnert, T., Niemantsverdriet, S., & Kommers, P., 2012; Hanson, 2009; Volman, 2005). The digital technology landscape in education has changed rapidly on the one hand, and stayed relatively constant on the other. At the technological level, there has been a fast pace of change in the evolution of digital technologies that are potentially useful for education (Ng, 2015)

Quality teaching has become an issue of importance as the landscape of higher education has been facing continuous changes: increased international competition, increasing social and geographical diversity of the student body, increasing demands of value for money, introduction of information technologies, The literature stresses that “good teachers” have empathy for students, they are generally experienced teachers and most of all they are organized and expressive. “Excellent teachers” are those who have passions: passions for learning, for their field, for teaching and for their students. But research also demonstrates that “good teaching” depends on what is being taught and on other situational factors. Research points out that quality teaching is necessarily student-centred; its aim is most and for all student learning. Thus, attention should be given not simply to the teacher’s pedagogical skills, but also to the learning environment that must address the students’ personal needs: students should know why they are working, should be able to relate to other students and to receive help if needed. Adequate support to staff and students (financial support, social and academic support, support to minority students, counseling services, etc) also improves learning outcomes. Learning communities – groups of students and/or teachers who learn collaboratively and build knowledge through intellectual interaction – are judged to enhance student learning by increasing students’ and teachers’ satisfaction. (Henard & Leprince-Ringuet, 2008)

Problems, challenges and issues related to digital technology

  1. Lack of access to all higher education students( based on policy)
  2. Lack of teacher training.( economy)
  3. Undeveloped countries ( politics)
  4. Lack of knowledge and desire ( individual and professional development)
  5. Rapid change.

Technology makes our lives easier. Today’s students have tremendous opportunities to learn and to connect by using it. But with each advantage comes a potential cost. When we understand those costs and can minimize them, we can keep the use of technology positive.

Obviously, this digital technology revolution has inspired, motivated and stimulated many students towards a better education system in many ways, but nevertheless, like every other invention and creative idea it holds many downsides. Especially as policy makers claim this digital technology is a tool to be utilised in education in preparation of students for the, ‘The 21st-century skills’ (Silva, 2009), which digital technology is one of those skills.

Many people find this rapid change demanding and intimidating, it is difficult to move so fast and catch up with the challenges that they face on their daily routine, especially this change requires high skills (Chalich, 2015).  If we just take a step back and look at the tools that were integrated into the classrooms over the past 20 years: early 1990s internet, late 1990s interactive whiteboard, 2004 YouTube, iPad 2007, virtual reality in 2017 and so many more (Parson, 2017). So, definitely, teachers and students would find all of this overwhelming, especially, because policy makers and work forces are encouraging this change to meet the industrial and market demands for economic purposes. Workforces tend to hire employees with the 21st century skills (Silva, 2009), digital technology awareness, being one of them, rather than being digital literate. Each development in technology requires teachers to acquire digital technical knowledge. Teachers find it intimidating and stressful, and at some times do not understand if this tool is actually meeting the purpose of teaching and if it interacts with their pedagogy. These dual demands highlights the complex relationship between technology (as machines) and teachers’ belief about teaching and learning (Younie & Leask, 2013), especially teachers are adapted to the old paper pencil system.

Next, all of these outstanding devices sound posh and attractive, but what about the disadvantaged students or institutions that may not have the luxury of providing these devices, what about those countries which do not have the policy of integrating digital technology into their classrooms? As Humme quotes access to education is a right and not a privilege (Humme, 2012), but what about education inequality? How will this inequality in education impact the students’ lives?Many students are not that privileged to receive that advance digital technology education, or do not have the luxury of obtaining those facilities in their own household, as they can not financially afford it. Definitely, this inequality in education will lead to inequality and unfairness in attending competency for their workforce after graduation, especially when we are facing a future where technology evolution is increasingly going to impact nearly every single job role in the next decade, hence it is important for the future workforce to be ready and accept this requirement. Figures indicate that more than 70 percent of future jobs are likely to require an understanding or involvement of technology(Tagalan, 2017). Furthermore, Unicef for every child, claims that education is a fundamental human right(Unicef for every child, 2015), which sounds appealing and satisfactory, if all are receiving the same input and opportunity. Though, this does not implicate, if all students receive the same input the outcome will be the same.This definitely depends on personal achievement and dedication to education, but policy wise it is essential to give a fair opportunity as this inequality analysis is to look at the gap in outcomes between young people of different backgrounds which leads to inequality in future opportunities(Clegg et al., 2017). Today, there is a vast inequality in educational outcome, and this is a problem because many people consider education to be a means to improve their social and economic status and to enhance the quality of their lives. Depending on their race, students may experience a relative advantage or disadvantage later in their lives. For this reason, I place significant emphasis on the historical disadvantages minority racial groups have experienced in America. The result of inequality in the quality of education that certain racial groups have received suggests that the inequality in outcome is due to the inequality in opportunities that are available to them (Dminguez, 2016). Students are provided with laptops, ipads and classrooms have the white promethean board and projector in addition to the instructors ipad and laptop, where as in UK the luxury of technology is less provided by the institute and then in Iraq it is way less.

Further into this issue, Chalich argues that the effective use of digital technology in the curriculum should be not viewed as an add-on or something that is taught in isolation, but should be integrated into the classroom (Chalick, 2015). Teachers with lack of digital awareness and knowledge may tend to either use it or not where other teachers with the background may integrate this tool into their teaching system, since they feel comfortable and confident with using it. Again this leads to raising a group of advantaged and disadvantaged students, with an unequal opportunity of obtaining jobs, as workforces’ emphasis on this 21st century skill strongly.

Further into discussion, as mentioned digital technology is one of the 21st century skills which students need to acquire before entering the workforce, but adequate training is not provided for teachers by policy makers and decision makers. Teachers many not be able to fairly attend adequate training due the economic situation in their institute or even the policy of their institute, many teachers lack the skill and are digital illiterate to use this tool in delivering their lesson. This gap needs to be filled by the policy makers. Teachers should be trained on how to integrate digital technology in the classroom, how to stimulate students and motivate them. Training is to ensure the quality of the teaching and the use of digital technology in the classroom to raise an advantaged group of employees and members of society. Unfortunately, due to economic crisis little budget is provided for teacher training and not all universities have the privilege or luxury to either support themselves or provide these tools in the classrooms. Until now, only the education is considered a right, not the quality of education as it is very challenging to provide even the disadvantaged university students with the same style of input. For example, based on personal experience, in Zayed University/UAE all university teachers have to attend intensive professional development courses in technology provided by the university, but in Iraq the teacher has to use some sort of digital technology with no formal training to be given.

Furthermore, though digital technology can be a viable path for future generations and it adds diversity to the lessons, but maintaining a balance in using this tool in class is necessary  (Delateur, 2017), the excessive use of this tool in the classroom by teachers can cause long-term negative impact on students take away valuable learning time. Teachers may not teach the lesson and provide inadequate input for students, as there are recorded sessions or just merely provide some assignments online or have students watch youtube to pass time. Also, some teachers tend to just read from their slides without creating any motivation in the classroom. On the other hand, boring lessons of teachers may have students ending up on facebook or googling any page and even distracting other students. If the student did not have the device in the classroom with them then they would have no choice besides listening to the teacher and making an effort. Further into this discussion, some students may misuse this tool for inappropriate reasons in the classroom. If provided the facility, the easy access of this tool can facilitate cheating among students and pass on results. For example, with the development of digital technology in some countries, year 12 and university students tend to use small micro headphones, which come in various ways to help in cheating. They have the headphone on and someone from outside of the exam hall is assisting them. Hence, this digital technology tool is misused and ends up building an untrustworthy individual of society that should be disqualified for any certificate they obtain.

Failing of technology and unprepared teachers in the classroom can be another point to talk about. Many teachers when dependent on digital technology in the classroom have no other back up plan in the case if technology fails to work, especially, when the lesson is not prepared by that teacher, but by the course leader or a colleague. Then teachers end up wasting time and having students complete a task that may not even be relevant or beneficial for them. Also, students may lack that creativity and critical thinking skill. For example when a student uses a calculator or software to solve something then they have met the requirement of understanding digital technology, but what happens when they come across a critical situation at work or in society?

In The guide to digital technology-Newzaland, it is mentioned that teacher have the legal right to confiscate any devise for a certain time from students that they feel is misused (Education.govt.nz, 2017).

Current policies developed to make digital technology available in schools, to train teacher; to change the curriculum/approaches to teaching and learning

As quoted by Sir Anthony Seldon, supports the idea that extraordinary inspirational machines will replace teachers within 10 years, (Tes Reporter, 2017) ,but Daphne Koller co-found of Coursear(an online teaching website) argues this and claims that instructors should not be replaced as they are invaluable and needed in the classroom (Johnson, 2016).

Obviously with the vast digital technology move and rapid change national decision makers have to treat this contemporary tool very carefully to utilize it among educational organisations effectively. Especially this tool is part of the modern world and industry

What should be the priorities In terms of practice, policy, and research.

Some of the work that has been done. Look at those works. This is what I would argue should be our approaches

Clearly, everyone is entitled to education but what is the aim of this education? Obviously this education is to prepare the new generation for the social and economic context in this current time. Education, being shaped on economic and social demands. Why is it important in the broader?

Students being ‘digital native’, and based on the vast change in the digital technology world, globally and locally, then current policies need to address and understand this major change to facilitate this tool.  Digital technology is more or less part of everyone’s’ life, even the disadvantaged students have a good amount of awareness on digital technology, it is part of the blood hence the system needs to deal with the digital immigrant teachers to assist and build up a society of competent employees and individuals. Both economic and

So seen in the previous discussion, use of technology in the classroom by teachers for educational purpose is not separated from the society requirements and

Rapid digital change in our society and economy means more demand for digital skills and competences (Education and Training, n.d.).This means policy makers and decision makers need to enhance this tool for education. For example in Europe there is an urgent need to boost digital skills and competences in Europe, as only 37% of the EU workforce has low digital skills, or none at all and less than half of children are in schools which are highly equipped digitally-and only 20-25% of them are taught by teachers who are confident using technology in the classroom. For this purpose, as a solution, policy makers have used DigCompOrg(Digitally Competent Educational Organisations) which is a strategic planning tool to promote comprehensive policies for the effective uptake of digital learning technologies by educational organisation at regional, national and European level. It can facilitate transparency and comparability between related initiatives throughout Europe,and it can also play a role in addressing fragmentation and uneven development across the Member States.Then this is a good way to ensure providng the facility in schools and educational organisations. The Europe 2020 strategy acknowledges that Education and Training (E&T) have a strategic role to play for Europe to remain competitive, overcome the current economic crisis and grasp new opportunities (Digitally Competent Educational Organisations, 2016). Obviously, this technology competency is running in all countries, and students need to be up to date to compete with other university students for employment.

As with any skill, teachers will have varying ability levels when it comes to using classroom technology. Some will be as savvy as their students, while others will need a helping hand. To tackle this, there should be an ongoing training plan that evolves per the individual requirements of the teaching staff.Knowledge sharing is critical between teachers, head teachers and school boards to enable the fastest route to best practice and the successful implementation of education technology across all age groups.

An effort has to be make to meet this demand.The European Commission has launched the trial version of a new tool to support schools in using digital technologies. 600 schools from 14 countries have the opportunity to try the new ‘SELFIE’ tool in this pilot phase, before it is finalised and made available to interested schools in Europe early 2018. The new SELFIE tool will support European schools who want to see how well they are using digital technologies for better learning outcomes. Digital knowledge is indispensable in today’s world. Digital technologies offer new opportunities to improve learning and teaching. Integrating these technologies in a meaningful way, however, remains a challenge for schools, and the mere presence of digital equipment does not translate into better learning outcomes. The new SELFIE tool, which stands for “self-reflection on effective learning by fostering innovation through educational technology”, helps schools assess their strengths and weaknesses in order to make the most of digital technologies in their teaching activities (EU Science Hub, 2017).

(Digitally Competent Educational Organisations, 2017).

Another effort that educators have made is through EdTech(education technology). Just as technology, and particularly the digital era, has disrupted and improved most major segments of our economy, education and training will in the same way undergo a tech revolution. It is about applying digital technology to deliver a new form of learning architecture. In changing the traditional architecture of education, EdTech has the power to create efficiencies, cut costs and enable new levels of standardization and democratized access. The link between rising education expenditure and educational performance is therefore weak, and reducing the price tag associated with traditional education delivery is a clear opportunity for EdTech.

This is particularly true for e-learning methods, credited for the ability to deliver one-to-many on a completely new cost base.

(Vedrenne-Cloquet, 2017). For examples the use EdTech(education technology) has helped education in Africa, as foreign providers do not understand the African culture and their solutions do not work in the undeveloped countries as it does in the developed countries. Hence, this shows that digital technology and education are somehow combined and each can work for the favour of the other (West, 2017).

The challenges we face today from global competition and emerging economies demand action. If we are going to meet the skills needs of tomorrow, we need to be giving people the right skills today. This is not just an economic necessity, but vital to ensure all citizens can fulfil their potential.

At NYU’s top-ranked tax law programme, for instance, classroom courses are lmed with three cameras and a sound mixer. “The course goes online within 30 minutes,” says Mr Delaney. “Within 24 hours, students interested in reviewing a certain case or topic can click an online index that charts the content of the entire class and [can] view the portion that interests them(Glen, 2008).

One way to get everyone’s buy-in on the acceptable use of digital technology is to ask them to sign an “acceptable use” form (Education.govt.nz, 2017). to prompt a digital safe environment.

Educators and policy makers encourage parents and families to routinely use technology for both social and formal communication engage with their children. Within schools digital technologies are used to support children’s learning by providing access to rich digital media resources. Making these resources transparent and accessible outside school may provide further opportunities to connect learning within the school to learning at home. The Home Access initiative aims to remove the barriers to using computer and internet technologies to support children’s learning at home, by providing financial support for those who need it and campaigning to promote the benefits of technologies for learning to families who choose not to buy or use technologies to support learning. (Grant, 2010).

As part of the digital technology change, universities introduced online education to university students. This was a response to the role that new technologies were perceived to play at a difficult crossroads in the university history. In the context of shrinking budgets and state support, questions of accountability calls for greater integration into an emerged knowledge economy (Hamilton, 2016).

Unlike teachers, however, technologies have no preferences for the schools in which they work. The resources available on the internet, for example, are equally available to all schools with the same internet access and internet access costs the same for all schools in the same area, regardless of the student population served.

The future is about access, anywhere learning and collaboration, both locally and globally. Teaching and learning is going to be social. For me the future of technology in education is the cloud.With all the online sources, the role of the teacher will change.Shared applications and documents on the cloud, such as Google Apps will allow for more social lessons. What we must remember is that when schools adopt new technology and services, they must be evaluated. This way, as a school, you know if they are successful and what improvements are needed. Staff will also need training, you can’t expect staff to use new technology if it they are not confident users or creators (Britland, 2013).

Digital technologies have changed the nature of how people learn and how they interact with each other, the environment and technologies themselves, bringing new ways of thinking about the teaching and learning processes. In education, one of the purposes for using digital technologies is to increase Motivation In education, one of the purposes for using digital technologies is to increase motivation.

With the bring-your-own-device (BYOD) phenomenon gaining in popularity in schools and higher education, the possibility of learning anytime, anywhere with the students’ own personal devices should further motivate them to learn with technology. However, as indicated above, students would need to be able to see the value and purpose of learning with these devices. They will be motivated to learn if they envisage better learning outcomes that will help them progress towards academic achievements. In order to design instruction with digital technologies, the educator will need to be aware of the types of technology that are available for education and their enabling capabilities. Educational technology in this context is the considered implementation of relevant tools and processes that enhance teaching practices and facilitate improved learning. Today’s contemporary society are easily recognisable in the integration of technological development in all sectors of life.

Educationists define education as the entire process of developing human abilities, potentialities and behaviour (Sifuna & Otiende, 2006). To transmit knowledge, variety of skills and understanding African countries like many of the developing countries, placed considerable importance in the role of education in promoting econominc and social development after achievement of independence. (Sifuna & Otiende, 2006) Access to education is a right and not a privilege as quoted by Humme (Humme, 2012)

(Unicef for every child, 2015) claims that Education is a fundamental human right. J. UNICEF is dedicated to making sure that all children can enjoy their right to a quality education. To reach the most vulnerable children in the most challenging situations around the world, we foster innovative solutions tailored to local contexts, and support countries in building robust and resilient education systems. Educating children is an investment in their futures, and in peaceful and prosperous societies.

It is widely accepted that educational opportunities for children ought to be equal. Despite doing as well as their privately educated peers at university, for students from state schools comparable academic performance does not mean equal access to the professions – they trail by a gap of up to 15%. And if they do reach the professions, they earn up to £3,000 less. So in terms of social mobility, we cannot afford to assume that a university education is the great leveller. (Leslie, 2012)

In university admissions, no applicant should ever be disadvantaged because of his or her parents’ choice of school, and consideration to those from poorer backgrounds or less well-performing schools should not be at the expense of applicants with the same level of attainment from ‘better’ schools. (Ramsey, 2017)

We examine the global expansion of higher educational enrollments over the 20th century. Rates of growth accelerated in virtually all countries after 1960. Drawing upon institutional arguments, we discuss the nature of this transformation and the historical trends that brought it about. A changed model of society came into place globally – one in which schooled knowledge and personnel came to be seen as appropriate for a wide variety of social positions, and where many more young people could be viewed as appropriate candidates for higher education. (Schofer & Meyer, 2005)

Of course, many of these elements need tackling deep at school level, but if we are to enable less privileged university students to seize the opportunities they deserve, we need to do something about levelling this playing field now. (Leslie, 2012)

Education Policy Support (EPS) is responsible for coordinating institutional arrangements for developing and monitoring academic quality and standards across the collegiate University. The section offers advice and guidance to departments, faculties and colleges within Oxford on a wide range of issues including development and review of programmes, education policy, examinations and assessment, external examiners, and formulation of examination regulations, in addition to student dispensations, and appeals. (University of Oxford, 2016) The education of our people is a national investment. It yields tangible returns in economic growth, an improved citizenry and higher standards of living (Kennedy, 1962)

When Robots Replace Teachers by Terry Heick (Teach thought:We grow teachers) We’ve known for decades now that eventually, robots will replace all of us. Robots in factories. Robots that will clean your house. Robots that will diagnose your illness. Robots that will write poetry and compose symphonies and paint church ceilings–and then robots that create the robots that write poetry and compose symphonies and paint church ceilings. So what will happen when robots replace teachers?

Parental engagement in children’s learning has seen particular attention from policy-makers and practitioners, as part of a wider drive to improve children’s achievement and narrow the gap between children from disadvantaged backgrounds and their peers. Schools are also being encouraged and expected to make information and access to learning resources available online for children and their parents. The availability of a home computer and internet access is seen as important enough for learning that the Home Access initiative announced plans to support low income families to acquire these technologies.

Education should equip people to participate in the world in which they live, to make informed choices and to have some agency over their own lives and the lives of the local and global communities of which they are part. Children’s learning is not restricted to the time they spend in school. Through homework, through following their own interests and hobbies, and through participation in activities with their family and peers they are often engaging in personally meaningful learning.

To draw on all the resources available to them to enable them to become resilient and resourceful learners. Ultimately, the reason why education policy makers should be interested in the size, market and innovation intensity of the education industry is because innovation policies should partly build on the business sector to generate and disseminate innovation – as is the case in any other sector of society.

The data reported in this study indicate that the education market (or of some of its submarkets) is growing in some countries. This could potentially encourage new entrants and innovation. Where the market is shrinking in value, it may be worth exploring the reasons for this reduction and checking to see whether the decline has resulted in a reduction in innovation.

Digital skills and competences framework for educational organisations

The purpose of this framework (published in December 2015) is to allow organisations to assess their progress in integrating digital learning and pedagogies and to help policy makers to design, implement and evaluate policy interventions for the integration and effective use of digital learning technologies. Work is underway to create a practical self-assessment questionnaire for schools based on the framework.

Promoting Effective Digital-Age Learning: A European Framework for Digitally-Competent Educational Organisations

Policy makers typically view education industries as providers of goods and services, often technology-based, to schools. They tend to dismiss the fact that innovation in education is also changing the environment in which schools are operating. Technology- based innovations tend to open up schools and learning environments in general to the outside world, both the digital world and the physical and social environment. At the same time they bring new actors and stakeholders into the educational system, not at least the education industries with their own ideas, views and dreams about what a brighter future for education could hold.

Convincing schools and education systems to treat industry as a valuable partner is still in many cases a very sensitive issue.

Digital technologies have a profound impact on economies and societies and are changing the way we work, communicate, engage in social activities and enjoy ourselves. They also drive innovation in many different spheres of life. The innovative capacity of technology is very much conditioned by the level of digital skills of the population. No wonder there is a very strong correlation between education and skills and the uptake and use of digital technologies in various spheres of life. The role of education and skills in promoting innovation is critical.

Innovation doesn’t happen in a vacuum, but requires openness and interactions between systems and their environments. This is also very much the case for education. Schools cannot be left alone to make the dif cult process of transformation, but need support not only through policies, but also from other actors and stakeholders. In recent years the emergent education industry has taken on a very important role. This role is not simply de ned by commercial corporate interests selling products and services to schools, but is increasingly framed into a much wider concern for genuine innovation.

Discussion:

Education being a right and not a privilege as mentioned by many educators, politicians and educational organisations, all sounds appealing and fair but this claim can be interpreted in many ways, hence the quality is important as to prepare individuals for the social and economic contexts of the 21st century. Individuals are to meet the 21st century skills as mentioned earlier to be effective members of society.

Therefore, digital technology being one of these 21st century skills, it is essential to understand how this tool can be utilized by teachers and integrated into the classroom especially in higher education level. Teaching with digital technology at higher education level to prepare student for the social and economic context can be challenging but also can be achieved to a certain extent. Based on the literature and modern news, digital technology is the most modern tool used in the classrooms and it has the potential to improve the educational skills of an individual to be more effective individuals of society economically and socially. However, this potential will not be realized, unless, barriers of providing this tool into the classroom and making sure of the teacher or instructors skill to use digital technology in the classroom is enhanced. Such as every other tool, providing digital technology for educational purposes in all universities is not an easy deed to accomplish, this is for many reasons. The reasons were mentioned in detail in part two such as: cost, teacher literacy, lack of training for teachers, misuse of these tools and so many more, but on the other hand providing this tool, based on this current day may be necessary as digital technology has changed our lives and still many more changes will take place in the future. As mentioned earlier in part 3, employers will only hire individuals with a good amount of knowledge about digital technology, hence this confirms the importance of this tool for students to be familiar with it and learn how to use it to be effective members of society.

The use of digital technology can be a way to reduce cost at many educational institutions and organization, which this is away for students and institutions to reach out to each other and communicate also.

However, for many schools, implementing the latest technology is a difficult strategy to navigate.

At this point with all the market demand on digital technology, policy and decision makers should enforce the digital technology education system. This is to provide all students at higher education level with the opportunity to learn the tool and use it for their future employment and among society. If the authority and educational institutes provide this tool for students, then less disadvantaged members of society will be raised, this is due to the fact that students may not be able to have these facilities at home to help them, but if provided by their place of study then it will give them a better opportunity among society and workplace.

Furthermore, the comparisons drawn among the strategies these three teachers employed when teaching with technology versus teaching without technology proved most interesting. Evidence presented in this study suggested that these variations in technology use were closely linked to the teachers’ respective levels of general teaching expertise.

The Effects of Pedagogical Expertise

Many colleges and universities and providers of non-institutional learning experiences are using technology to increase flexibility, reduce costs, and validate student learning. Technology is allowing them to provide personalized learning experiences accessible to a broader (Office of Educational Technology, 2017)

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Technology can be described as the use of scientific and advanced knowledge to meet the requirements of humans. Technology is continuously developing, and is used in almost all aspects of life.

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