How to achieve service success through the Service Encounter
Increasing or preserving customer constancy in the modern world is depicted as one of the vital marketing strategies for determining a competitive differentiation in ever challenging and fast growing business world Raab (2011). For constructing or preserving customer loyalty, a company needs to concentrate on heightening the customer relationship by guaranteeing a quality service nature which would be in line with the requirements and anticipation of customers. Many service organizations supply quality services in order to sustain good customer relationships yet they still find it hard to apprehend ways to keep consumer loyalty. Yet, an analytical investigation of services marketing journal reveal that quality of service encounter reflects the true picture of level of customer loyalty for a service provider Hennig (2004).
Customer happiness is a fundamental tool for attainment, particularly in a service positioned company. Diagnostically studying a service distribution system by where companies seek the weaker areas has many benefits as it enables companies to see where the service delivery needs to be improved. After clearly identifying the weaker areas, advancements can be done for ensuring that these practices are not repeated which would lead to higher profits and increased customer loyalty (Fletcher, 2010).
Research Aims and Objectives
The key purpose of this study is to create a basis for understanding customer satisfaction, service quality, retention of customer relationships and theories but likewise taking into reason the worth scheme for quality in a business. How is quality outlined? And how this quality meaning influences customer service strategies in its entirety. The goal here is to present not only current literature as a foundation for endorsing a theory but also determining that these relationships exist within the managerial setting.
The main objectives of this report are as follows:
- Describe the idea of quality within the environment
- Determine the value system in various companies and if this is imitated in their quality service strategies
- Explain customer satisfaction and retention with respect to customer relationship management models and investigate the correlations between these strategies and success of companies
- Inspect possible correlations amongst customer happiness and employee optimism
- Evaluate quality in the terms of customer service functioning and brand individuality
- Make recommendations for the development of customer relationship running in different companies
As the airline production resumes to quickly develop and progress, today’s airlines front-runners are met with the trial of pairing long term tactics with short term answers. Customer satisfaction has developed considerably in importance for airline operations and as an outcome service excellence has also gotten paramount significance in this sector. Lean’s customer-focused premise for successful service quality has added an energy in services, though, Lean positioning within the airline service area is commonly long overdue in developing and health services. These aspects have driven research into exploring Lean phenomena within primary UK airline companies. For quantitative and qualitative data analysis, 9 cases were collected from 3 internal departments of the airline company, 35 semi-structured interviews were held, and 220 survey questionnaires were circulated of which 180 were returned. Within-case and cross-case analysis techniques were applied and, to develop a framework and 5 key relationships were identified. This study’s contribution is in the area of Quality Management as it: (a) highlights the role of ‘customer value’ and ‘engagement value’ in the domain of technical and functional service quality attributes; (b) maps cost-quality-delivery relationships through linking Lean improvements to its results; and (c) constructs an ‘outcome-driven’ framework from the findings Radwan (2009). Finally, this research offers data and knowledge of how an airline corporation installs Lean as business tactic to develop their service quality. The uniqueness of the research in its deliverables is twofold: first, it creates structure connecting Lean enhancement plans to its outcomes, which ranges to the future profitability, market share characteristics of improvement results, sustainability and commitment; and secondly, it delivers a means, which could contribution key conclusion makers in assessing the results of the Lean inventiveness to deliver better consideration for Lean positioning.
Oliver (1980) states that customer satisfaction is the meeting of one’s expectations and it is the feeling a customer is left with after using the product or service (Evans et al., 2006). It deals with five measurements of service quality including responsiveness, reliability, tangibility, empathy and assurance; using a five-point scale. This standard helps researchers find the measurements of service quality by paralleling the dissimilarity amid consumers expected against truly experienced service. Nevertheless, this admired service quality tool has been criticized on both methodological and theoretical grounds (Babakus and Boller 1992). In addition, researchers have debated in support of investigating service quality through numerous levels with both primary and sub-dimensions, as consumer’s form supposed service quality through various evaluations (Lu et al, 2009).
Likeminded to Parasuraman et al. (1988) retailers selling only have very little to offer apart from their service, hence organisations should ensure and provide good quality services. In the tourism and hospitably industry Sutherland (2007) shapes that there is asymmetry of information between the service provider and customer which makes it difficult for customers to have sufficient understanding of the qualities and charges offered to them by the service provider and customers usually discover the reality only after the purchase.
With quick progression in tourism customers have a wide range of service providers to choose from than in the past. Therefore, guideline of quality service becomes very significant. According to Sutherland (2007) the rapid increase in mobile phone service providers, will lead to unevenness in the quality provided.
Kim et al. (2004) states that customer care service is part of service quality and quality in turn effects satisfaction and loyalty. Study perceived that factors like problem solving, the courtesy of customer service agents, the aid delivered by customer service and the delivery of reliable advice play a vital role in safeguarding great service quality. Henceforth, it is imperative that managers by all means ensure that consumer care facility is of the highest quality.
Conclusions of Blery et als. (2009) study displayed a connection between service quality and repurchase purpose. Their analysis also found three key characteristics that affects customers repurchase intentions in an industry: provide discrete attention, companies should have client’s best importance at heart, and reply instantly to requests. It should also be renowned that people participation in the service delivery procedure allows less control of the fabrication process and retain a distinctive challenge for service suppliers as the opening for failures are greater.
Service failure and complaints
As firms normally try to attain a faultless service delivery, it is predisposed by factors like customers’ changing anticipations, the multifaceted and lively nature of the setting, large human participation in manufacture and delivery of service, all these influences make it problematic for service providers to regulate the service delivery process. All these aspects unavoidably lead to service catastrophe circumstances.
Concurring to Smith and Bolton (2002), service failures arise when services are not available, delivered late or/and inadequately, or below the acceptable level. Similarly, in it states that customer consummation is the consequence of an assessment process whereby consumers liken his or her anticipations with the real service experience. This experience either implants a positive, negative or neutral feeling in the customers’ brain, which in turn indicates as to if the person is satisfied or discontent.
The success or failure of the service process has become an important aspect, as customers’ consciousness has greatly increased (Lin, 2009). Yet, Gruber, et al. (2009) states that the issue of service failure and the seriousness of customer dissatisfaction are not adequately addressed by companies.
Organisations can begin long term relationship with consumers by lessening adverse consequences of disappointment. A dissatisfied customer is met with three options: (1) exit: a voluntary termination of an exchange relationship, (2) voice: an attempt to change the current state of affairs rather than escaping it, and (3) loyalty: consumers’ willingness to continue the relationship with the service provider (Hirschman, 1970).
When a company answers to a service failure, it offers the customer with a new service encounter known as service recovery (Andreassen, 2000). The recovery strategies embraced by companies after a service failure, permits them to correct the errors made and offer their customers with an involvement that may have positive consequences for their fulfilment which in turn helps in preserve lasting relationships. Johnston (2001) states that the manner in which complaints are handled can either build or destroy a firm’s reputation.
Glitches occasionally cannot be avoided hence establishments should be speedy to learn from and remedy them. Research states that annoyed and unfulfilled users can be twisted into reliable customers by executing an applicable service recovery, it is also said to create more goodwill than if things were done right the first time (Hart et al. 2000). According to Jones and Farquhar (2007) the type and ruthlessness of the failure results in consumers opportunities with the service recovery strategies adopted by the firm. It is also said that throughout a service recovery assessment procedure, customer contentment is controlled by the supposed fairness with which the issue is treated. Supposed reasonableness plays a serious role in understanding a person’s response to complaint incidents.
Practical justice beliefs acts as a “heuristic or mental shortcut” for trust judgements (Lind, 2001). It permits partakers to feel appreciated and they are keen to accept the rightfulness of expert of applying the process. Additionally, a study found that practical fairness impacts customer gratification and confidence. Thus, the process used to decide the service failure, the handling established from the employees who deal with the complaint, and the perceptible reimbursement proposed after the service failure are all crucial in attaining happiness with service recovery.
Rapidity, the haste and effectiveness with which a complaint is handled is found to be a vital part achieving service quality and service success through the service encounter. According to Sutton and Rafaeli (1988); Lovelock (1983) stated that consumers are often willing to trade of promptness factor with personalisation. All these factors are greatly respected by the consumers when weighing out a service failure and the recovery of that service.
Companies must understand that supplying a modified service that allows them to profit viable advantage is no longer the accountability of one individual employee of that company, yet in its place it is made by a cross-functional panel that needs to be accumulated and accomplished by the employees to meet customer desires, wants and needs. According to Mulki et al (2007) the main responsibility of employees is to draw on the influences made by the varied set of organisational employees in order to create value propositions for customers. As noted by Ustuner and Godes (2006) to be fruitful, employees need “access to the right information, the ability to disseminate it to the right people, and the power to coordinate efforts of groups of people to deliver value to the customer.”
Hence to have satisfied customers, the company must also have content employees working together for them. According to Berry and Parasuraman, (1991, p. 151) “Internal marketing is attracting, developing, motivating and retaining qualified employees through job products that satisfy their needs. It is the philosophy of treating employees as customers . . . and it is the strategy of shaping job-products to fit human needs.” Grönroos, (1998) states that internal marketing helps management to bring about a change in the attitudes and behaviour of the employees toward the customers and toward their jobs, and also to achieve a more customer-oriented performance in the service process.
|Al-Refaie A., Bata N., Eteiwi D., Jalham I. 2014. “Examining Factors That Affect Passenger’s Overall Satisfaction and Loyalty: Evidence from Jordan Airport.” Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering 8 (2): 94–101. Google Scholar|
|Amazon Mechanical Turk. 2014. “Service Summary.” https://requester.mturk.com/tour (accessed May 15, 2016). Google Scholar|
|Bamford D., Xystouri T. 2005. “A Case Study of Service Failure and Recovery within an International Airline.” Managing Service Quality: An International Journal 15 (3): 306–22. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Bell C., Zemke R. 1987. “Service Breakdown: The Road to Recovery.” Management Review 76:32–35. Google Scholar|
|Berger J., Schwartz E. M. 2011. “What Drives Immediate and Ongoing Word of Mouth?” Journal of Marketing Research 48 (5): 869–80. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Berry L., Seiders K. 2008. “Serving Unfair Customers.” Business Horizons 51 (1): 29–37. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Bitner M. J., Booms B. H., Mohr L. A. 1994. “Critical Service Encounters: The Employee’s Viewpoint.” Journal of Marketing 58 (4): 95–106. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Bitner M. J., Booms B. H., Tetreault M. S. 1990. “The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents.” Journal of Marketing 54 (1): 71–84. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Blodgett J. G., Granbois D. H., Walters R. G. 1993. “The Effects of Perceived Justice on Complainants’ Negative Word-of-Mouth Behavior and Repatronage Intentions.” Journal of Retailing 69:399–428. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Blodgett J. G., Hill D. J., Tax S. S. 1997. “The Effects of Distributive, Procedural, and Interactional Justice on Postcomplaint Behavior.” Journal of Retailing 73 (2): 185–210. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Byun J., Jang S. S. 2015. “Effective Destination Advertising: Matching Effect between Advertising Language and Destination Type.” Tourism Management 50:31–40. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Chang L., Hung S. 2013. “Adoption and Loyalty toward Low Cost Carriers: The Case of Taipei-Singapore Passengers.” Transportation Research: Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 50:29–36. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Chang Y., Chang Y. 2010. “Does Service Recovery Affect Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty? An Empirical Study of Airline Services.” Journal of Air Transport Management 16:340–42. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Chen P., Hu H. 2013. “The Mediating Role of Relational Benefit between Service Quality and Customer Loyalty in Airline Industry.” Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 24 (9-10): 1084–95. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Chuang S., Cheng Y., Chang C., Yang S. 2012. “The Effect of Service Failure Types and Service Recovery on Customer Satisfaction: A Mental Accounting Perspective.” Service Industries Journal 32 (2): 257–71. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Chung J., Petrick J. 2013. “Measuring Attribute-Specific and Overall Satisfaction with Destination Experience.” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 18 (5): 409–20. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Clemmer E. 1993. “An Investigation into the Relationship of Fairness and Customer Satisfaction with Services.” In Justice in the Workplace: Approaching Fairness in Human Resource Management, edited by Baron R., 193–207. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Google Scholar|
|Cranage D. A., Mattila A. S. 2006. “Service Recovery and Pre-emptive Strategies for Service Failure: Both Lead to Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty, but for Different Reasons.” Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing 13 (3/4): 161–81. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Ding M., Ho C., Lii Y. 2015. “Is Corporate Reputation a Double-Edged Sword? Relative Effects of Perceived Justice in Airline Service Recovery.” International Journal of Economics and Business Research 10 (1): 1–17.Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Etzel M. J., Silverman B. I. 1981. “A Managerial Perspective on Directions of Retail Customer Dissatisfaction Research.” Journal of Retailing 57 (3): 124–36. Google Scholar|
|Festinger L. 1962. “Cognitive Dissonance.” Scientific American 207 (4): 93–102. Google Scholar CrossRef, Medline|
|Garrow L. A., Jones S. P., Parker R. A. 2007. “How Much Airline Customers Are Willing to Pay: An Analysis of Price Sensitivity in Online Distribution Channels.” Journal of Revenue & Pricing Management 5 (4): 271–90. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Gelbrich K., Roschk H. 2011. “A Meta-analysis of Organizational Complaint Handling and Customer Responses.” Journal of Service Research 14 (1): 24–43. Google Scholar Link|
|Ghalandari K., Babaeinia L., Jogh G. G. 2012. “Investigation of the Effect of Perceived Justice on Post-Recovery Overall Satisfaction, Post-Recovery Revisit Intention and Post-Recovery Word-of-Mouth Intention from Airline Industry in Iran: The Role of Corporate Image.” World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (7): 957–70. Google Scholar|
|Goyette I., Ricard L., Bergeron J., Marticotte F. 2010. “e-WOM Scale: Word-of-Mouth Measurement Scale for E-services Context.” Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences 27 (1): 5–23. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Graham B. L., Sparks B. A. 2009. “Dealing with Service Failures: The Use of Explanations.” Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 26 (2): 129–43. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Grönroos C. 2009. “Marketing as Promise Management: Regaining Customer Management for Marketing.” Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 24 (5/6): 351–59. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Gummesson E. 2004. “Return on Relationships (ROR): The Value of Relationship Marketing and CRM in Business-to-Business Contexts.” Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 19 (2): 136–48. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Ha J., Jang S. S. 2009. “Perceived Justice in Service Recovery and Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Relationship Quality.” International Journal of Hospitality Management 28 (3): 319–27. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Hoffman K. D., Chung B. G. 1999. “Hospitality Recovery Strategies: Customer Preference versus Firm Use.” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research 23 (1): 71–84. Google Scholar Link|
|Karatepe O. M. 2006. “Customer Complaints and Organizational Responses: The Effects of Complainants’ Perceptions of Justice on Satisfaction and Loyalty.” International Journal of Hospitality Management 25 (1): 69–90. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Karatepe O. M., Vatankhah S. 2014. “The Effects of High-Performance Work Practices on Perceived Organizational Support and Turnover Intentions: Evidence from the Airline Industry.” Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism 13 (2): 103–19. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kim H., Chua B., Lee S., Boo H., Haan H. 2016. “Understanding Airline Travelers’ Perceptions of Well-Being: The Role of Cognition, Emotion, and Sensory Experiences in Airline Lounges.” Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 33 (9): 1213–34. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kim H. J. 2011. “Service Orientation, Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Loyalty: Testing a Structural Model.” Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 20 (6): 619–37. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kim M. G., Lee C. H., Mattila A. S. 2014. “Determinants of Customer Complaint Behavior in a Restaurant Context: The Role of Culture, Price Level, and Customer Loyalty.” Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 23 (8): 885–906. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kim T., Kim W. G., Kim H. 2009. “The Effects of Perceived Justice on Recovery Satisfaction, Trust, Word-of-Mouth, and Revisit Intention in Upscale Hotels.” Tourism Management 30 (1): 51–62. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kim T., Yoo J. J., Lee G. 2012. “Post-recovery Customer Relationships and Customer Partnerships in a Restaurant Setting.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 24 (3): 381–401. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kim W., Ok C., Canter D. D. 2012. “Moderating Role of a Priori Customer-Firm Relationship in Service Recovery Situations.” Service Industries Journal 32 (1): 59–82. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kumar V., Shah D. 2004. “Building and Sustaining Profitable Customer Loyalty for the 21st Century.” Journal of Retailing 80 (4): 317–330. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kuo N., Chang K., Cheng Y., Lai C. 2013a. “How Service Quality Affects Customers Loyalty in the Travel Agency: The Effects of Customer Satisfaction, Service Recovery, and Perceived Value.” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 18 (7): 803–22. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kuo N., Chang K., Cheng Y., Lai C. 2013b. “Investigating the Effect of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty in Hotel Industry: The Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction and the Moderating Roles of Service Recovery and Perceived Value.” Journal of China Tourism Research 9 (3): 257–76. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Kuo Y., Wu C. 2012. “Satisfaction and Post-purchase Intentions with Service Recovery of Online Shopping Websites: Perspectives on Perceived Justice and Emotions.” International Journal of Information Management 32 (2): 127–38. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|La S., Choi B. 2012. “The Role of Customer Affection and Trust in Loyalty Rebuilding After Service Failure and Recovery.” Service Industries Journal 32 (1): 105–25. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Lee J., Lee J., Feick L. 2006. “Incorporating Word-of-Mouth Effects in Estimating Customer Lifetime Value.” Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management 14 (1): 29–39. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Lee S., Park S. 2010. “Financial Impacts of Socially Responsible Activities on Airline Companies.” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 24 (2): 185–203. Google Scholar Link|
|Li X., Petrick J. F. 2008. “Reexamining the Dimensionality of Brand Loyalty: A Case of the Cruise Industry.” Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 25 (1): 68–85. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Li J., Zhan L. 2011. “Online Persuasion: How the Written Word Drives WOM—Evidence from Consumer-Generated Product Reviews.” Journal of Advertising Research 51 (1): 239–57. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Li X., Petrick J. F. 2010. “Towards an Integrative Model of Loyalty Formation: The Role of Quality and Value.” Leisure Sciences 32:201–21. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Li X., Petrick J. F., Zhou Y. 2008. “Towards a Conceptual Framework of Tourists’ Destination Knowledge and Loyalty.” Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism 8 (3): 79–96. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Lin H., Wang Y., Chang L. 2011. “Consumer Responses to Online Retailer’s Service Recovery after a Service Failure: A Perspective of Justice Theory.” Managing Service Quality: An International Journal 21 (5): 511–34.Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Mantin B., Wang J. E. 2012. “Determinants of Profitability and Recovery from System-wide Shocks: The Case of the Airline Industry.” Journal of Airline and Airport Management 2 (1): 1–33. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Mason W., Suri S. 2012. “Conducting Behavioral Research on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk.” Behavior Research Methods 44 (1): 1–23. Google Scholar CrossRef, Medline|
|Mattila A. S., Patterson P. G. 2004. “The impact of culture on consumers’ perception of service recovery efforts.” Journal of Retailing 80 (3): 196– 206. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Maxham J. G.III, Netemeyer R. G. 2002. “A Longitudinal Study of Complaining Customers’ Evaluations of Multiple Service Failures and Recovery Efforts.” Journal of Marketing 66 (4): 57–71. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|McCollough M. A. 2009. “The Recovery Paradox: The Effect of Recovery Performance and Service Failure Severity on Post-recovery Customer Satisfaction.” Academy of Marketing Studies Journal 13 (1): 89–104. Google Scholar|
|McCollough M. A., Berry L. L., Yadav M. S. 2000. “An Empirical Investigation of Customer Satisfaction after Service Failure and Recovery.” Journal of Service Research 3 (2): 121–37. Google Scholar Link|
|Miller J. L., Craighead C. W., Karwan K. R. 2000. “Service Recovery: A Framework and Empirical Investigation.” Journal of Operations Management 18 (4): 387–400. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Nikbin D., Hyun S. S. 2015. “An Empirical Study of the role of Failure Severity in Service Recovery Evaluation in the Context of the Airline Industry.” Review of Managerial Science 9 (4): 731–49. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Nikbin D., Ismail I., Marimuthu M., Armesh H. 2012. “Perceived Justice in Service Recovery and Switching Intention: Evidence from Malaysian Mobile Telecommunication Industry.” Management Research Review 35 (3/4): 309–25. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Nikbin D., Marimuthu M., Hyun S. S., Ismail I. 2015. “Relationships of Perceived Justice to Service Recovery, Service Failure Attributions, Recovery Satisfaction, and Loyalty in the Context of Airline Travelers.” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 20 (3): 239–62. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Nguyen D. T., McColl-Kennedy J. R., Dagger T. S. 2012. “Matching Service Recovery Solutions to Customer Recovery Preferences.” European Journal of Marketing 46 (9): 1171–94. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|US DOT (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, United States Department of Transportation). 2015. “Summary 2014 U.S. Based Airline Traffic Data” http://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/press_releases/bts015_15 (accessed May 15, 2016). Google Scholar|
|Ok C., Back K., Shanklin C. W. 2005. “Modeling Roles of Service Recovery Strategy: A Relationship-Focused View.” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 29 (4): 484–507. Google Scholar Link|
|Parasuraman A., Berry L. L. 1991. Marketing Services: Competing through Quality. Canada: Maxwell Macmillan International. Google Scholar|
|Parasuraman A., Zeithaml V. A., Berry L. L. 1994. “Reassessment of Expectations as a Comparison Standard in Measuring Service Quality: Implications for Further Research.” Journal of Marketing 58 (1): 111–24. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Park J., Park J. 2016. “Investigating the Effects of Service Recovery Quality Elements on Passengers’ Behavioral Intention.” Journal of Air Transport Management 53:235–41. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Petrick J. F. 2004. “Are Loyal Visitors Desired Visitors?” Tourism Management 25 (4): 463–70. Google ScholarCrossRef|
|Rawls J. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar|
|Reisinger Y., Mavondo F. 2005. “Travel Anxiety and Intentions to Travel Internationally: Implications of Travel Risk Perception.” Journal of Travel Research 43 (3): 212–25. Google Scholar Link|
|Richins M. L. 1987. “A Multivariate Analysis of Responses to Dissatisfaction.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 15 (3): 68–78. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|San Martin H., Collado J., Rodriguez del Bosque I. 2013. “An Exploration of the Effects of Past Experience and Tourist Involvement on Destination Loyalty Formation.” Current Issues in Tourism 16 (4): 327–42. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Siu N., Zhang T., Yau C. 2013. “The Roles of Justice and Customer Satisfaction in Customer Retention: A Lesson from Service Recovery.” Journal of Business Ethics 114 (4): 675–86. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Smith A. K., Bolton R. N. 1998. “An Experimental Investigation of Customer Reactions to Service Failure and Recovery Encounters Paradox or Peril?” Journal of Service Research 1 (1): 65–81. Google Scholar Link|
|Smith A. K., Bolton R. N. 2002. “The Effect of Customers’ Emotional Responses to Service Failures on Their Recovery Effort Evaluations and Satisfaction Judgments.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 30 (1): 5–23. Google Scholar Link|
|Smith A. K., Bolton R. N., Wagner J. 1999. “A Model of Customer Satisfaction with Service Encounters Involving Failure and Recovery.” Journal of Marketing Research 36 (3): 356–72. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Souca M. L. 2014. “Customer Dissatisfaction and Delight: Completely Different Concepts, or Part of a Satisfaction Continuum?” Management & Marketing 9 (1): 75–90. Google Scholar|
|Swanson S. R., Hsu M. K. 2011. “The Effect of Recovery Locus Attributions and Service Failure Severity on Word-of-Mouth and Repurchase Behaviors in the Hospitality Industry.” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 35 (4): 511–29. Google Scholar Link|
|Tadajewski M. 2009. “The Foundations of Relationship Marketing: Reciprocity and Trade Relations.” Marketing Theory 9 (1): 9–38. Google Scholar Link|
|Tax S. S., Brown S. W. 1998. “Recovering and Learning from Service Failure.” MIT Sloan Management Review 40 (1): 75–88. Google Scholar|
|Tax S. S., Brown S. W., Chandrashekaran M. 1998. “The Role of Perceived Justice in Compliant Resolutions: Implications for Services and Relationship Marketing.” Journal of Marketing 62 (2): 60–76. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Tretheway M. W., Markhvida K. 2014. “The Aviation Chain: Economic Returns and Policy Issues.” Journal of Air Transport Management 41:3–16. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Wen B., Chi C. 2013. “Examine the Cognitive and Affective Antecedents to Service Recovery Satisfaction: A Field Study of Delayed Airline Passengers.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 25 (3): 306–27. Google Scholar CrossRef|
|Zehrer A., Raich F. 2016. “The Impact of Perceived Crowding on Customer Satisfaction.” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 29:88–98. Google Scholar CrossRef|
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
Related ContentAll Tags
Content relating to: "Hospitality"
Hospitality refers to the hosting and entertainment of guests or visitors. The Hospitality sector includes businesses such as hotels, B&Bs;, restaurants, cafes, bars, and other businesses relating to travel, tourism, and entertainment.
Network Hospitality as an Alternative to Traditional Lodging
An assessment of the value of the network hospitality experience for guests and a better understanding of network hospitality as a unique alternative to traditional lodging....
Cultural Identity and Entrepreneur Role of Chefs in Managing a Commercial Restaurant
Dissertation Title: The cultural identity and entrepreneur role of chef’s in managing a commercial restaurant. A comparative study on different hierarchal chefs in India. ABSTRACT The followin...
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: