IMPLEMENTING PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT IN INDIAN PRODUCT MANUFACTURE ORGANIZATIONS
Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from market demand, product design, manufacturing, services and disposal. By integrating people, data, process, business systems to provide product information which can foster a company’s product innovation ability and their extended enterprise.
In short all-encompassing vision for managing all data relating to the design, production, support and ultimate disposal of manufactured goods.
The aerospace, medical devices, military, nuclear and automobile industries need to maintain safety and control extremely important. This safety and control measure brought about the concept of PLM in to the market. The configuration management further evolved into electronic data management systems. This further evolved into data management systems.
By using the PLM features, many manufacturers of industrial machinery, capital goods, consumer electronics and packaged goods have benefited largely in the past ten years, since the advent of the PLM.
1.1 PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT:
Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the procedure of managing the complete lifecycle of a product. It symbolizes the encompassing vision for supervising all the data relating to the design, manufacturing, support and the dumping of the produced goods.
The concept of PLM was first introduced in the areas where safety and control were extremely important like aerospace, nuclear industries, military and medical device.
These industries invented the discipline of configuration management (CM), which later got evolved in to the electronic data management system (EDMS), and this was further developed to the product data management (PDM).
The usage of PLM solution has benefited the manufacturers of the industrial machinery, packaged goods, consumer electronics and complicated engineered products, and also there is a rapid increase in the adoption of PLM software by the industries. Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the procedure of managing the complete lifecycle of a product from its beginning, through design and manufacture, to service and disposal.
PLM integrates people, data, processes and business systems and provides a product information backbone for companies and their extended enterprise. Product lifecycle management is one of the four cornerstones of a corporation’s information technology system structure. Every company needs to communicate and share information with their customer relation management (CRM) and also shared with the supply chain management and their resources with enterprises management (ERP-Enterprise Resource Planning) and their planning (SDLC-System Development Life-cycle). The manufacturing and engineering companies should compulsorily develop, describe, manage, and communicate information about their products.
1.2 PLM SOLUTIONS:
1.3 Some requirements of PLM:
* Data File Control & Management (The right data…)
* Product Data Access Control (To the right person…)
* Workflow & Process Management (At the right time…)
* Geometry Management
* CAD File Control & Management
* Digital Mockup
* Integration Point For Single Source of Product Data
* Information System Interfaces
* Authoring Application Integration
* Product Data Distribution
* Product Data Viewing
* Change Control
* Configuration Identification
* Configuration Status Accounting, Verification and Audit
* Program / Project Management Coordination
* Requirements & Design Traceability
Benefits of product lifecycle management include:-
* Reduced time to market
* Improve product quality
* Reduced prototyping costs
* Saving through the re-use of original data
* A frame work for product optimization
* Reduce waste
* Saving through the complete integration of engineering workflows
Inspiration for the burgeoning business process now known as PLM came when America Motor Corporation (AMC) was looking for a way to speed up its product development process to compete better against its larger competitors in 1985, according to Francois casting Vice President for Product Engineering and Development. After the introduction of its compact jeep Cherokee (XJ), the vehicle that launched the modern sport utility vehicle (SUV) market, AMC began to develop a new model, which later came out as Jeep Grand Cherokee. The first part in its quest for faster product development was Computer Aided Design (CAD) software system that makes engineers more productive.
The conflicts are very easily solved by using new communication system .By this system costly engineering also changes because of availability of drawings and documents in a central database. AMC was purchased by Chrysler because of the effectiveness of the product data management .This made the designing and building product to connect with enterprise. While an early adopter of PLM technology, Chrysler was able to become the auto industry’s lowest-cost producer, recording development costs that were half of the industry average for the Burge owning business process now known as PLM came when America average by the mid-1990s. C:Documents and SettingskranthiDesktoprakesh_prj_imgRKSH_IMG4.bmp Fig 1. Layout of Product life cycle management
1.6 Timeline -Increasing Productivity with Technology:
§ Introduction of Commercial Computer Aided Design (CAD) radically improved
§ Productivity in Product Design
§ Adoption of ERP Systems
§ ERP Systems included Engineering and Change Management Modules
§ Design & Build remained separated in silos
§ Adoption of Workflow & Web technologies accelerated PLM concepts
§ Workflow enabled collaboration between different company silos
§ PLM drastically improved NPI cycle cutting time & cost
§ PLM extended visibility and collaboration to CMs & Suppliers using the we
§ PLM extended Product Design to 3rd party Design Outsourcing
§ Collaboration extended across the global chain to Customers & Suppliers
§ Introduction of Industry & Government Standards Compliance
§ Adoption of Collaborative Quality Improvement across the supply chain
§ Adoption of Program/Project based PLM Portfolio Management
§ Adoption of PLM Analytics and Intelligence for Cost/Process Analysis & Improve.
1.7 Phases of Product lifecycle:
There are many software solutions now developed which are use to organize and integrate the various phases of the product ‘s life cycle.
PLM is the single software with a suite of tools with several working methods, all these integrates to define single or different stage of product life cycle. PLM range is covered by some software providers but other only single application. Some of the applications can span various fields of PLM with different modules, with in the similar data model.
All fields in PLM are covered here. It should also not be forgotten that one of the main goals of PLM is to collect knowledge that can be reused for other projects and to coordinate simultaneous concurrent development of many products. PLM is mainly related with engineering tasks and also involves the activities of marketing like Product Portfolio Management (PPM), and mainly with regards to the new product introduction (NPI).
1.7.1. Phase 1: Conceive:
Imagine, specify, plan, and innovate
The initial phase in idea is the definition of its requirements based on customer, company, market and regulatory bodies’ viewpoints. Major technical parameter can be defined by this product specification. Many functional aspect and requirement specification are carried out parallel with the initial concept design work carried out by defining the visual aesthetics of the product. For the Industrial Design Styling, work many different media are used from pencil and paper, clay models to 3D Computer Aided Design software
1.7.2. Phase 2: Design:
Describe, Define, Develop, Test, Analyze and validate
This is where the detailed design and development of the products form starts, progressing to prototype testing, through pilot release to full product launch. It may also include the redesign and ramp for improvement to present products as well as Planned obsolescence. CAD tool is used for design and development. This can be a simple or plain 2D Drawing / Drafting or 3D Parametric Feature Based Solid/Surface Modeling. Such software includes technology such as Hybrid Modeling, Reverse Engineering, KBE (Knowledge Based Engineering), NDT (Non Destructive Testing), Assembly construction
This step covers many engineering disciplines including: Mechanical, Electrical, Electronic, Software (embedded), and domain-specific, such as Architectural, Aerospace, Automotive, Along with the actual creation of geometry there is the analysis of the components and product assemblies. By standing alone the CAE (Computer-aided engineering) software can perform simulation validation and optimization task or it may carry out by integrating with CAD package. These are used to perform tasks such as: – Dimensional tolerance (Engineering) analysis task is performed by using CAQ (computer aided quality) such as Dimensional Tolerance (engineering) Analysis. Another task which is carried out at this phase is the sourcing of bought out components, possibly with the aid of Procurement systems.
1.7.3. Phase 3: Realize Manufacture, Make, Build, Procure, Produce, Sell and Deliver:
The method of manufacturing is defined when the design of the product’s componnent is completed. It performs task such as design creation of CNC machining instructions for the products part as also it can perform tolls to manufacture those product which can be done using integrated or separate CAM. Process simulation for operations such as casting molding and die press forming will also be involve in the analysis tools. CPM comes in to play only when the manufacture method gets identified. The original CAD data with the use of Computer Aided Inspection equipment and software is used for checking the geometrical form and size of the components after they get manufactured.
Sales product configuration and marketing documentation work will be taking place parallel to the engineering task. This could include transferring engineering data (geometry and part list data) to a web based sales configuration and other Desktop Publishing systems
1.7.4. Phase 4: Service:
Use, Operate, Maintain, Support, sustain, phase-out, Retire, Recycle and Disposal
In final stage of the lifecycle the managing of in service information is involved. The repair and maintence, waste management/recycling information is provided to the customers and to service engineers. Maintenance repair and operation management software tools are involved.
1.7.5. All phases: Product lifecycle:
Communicate, Manage and Collaborate
In many cases or in real practical a project does not run sequentially or maintain isolation of other project development project. The co-ordination of and management of product definition data is the main part of PLM, it includes release status of the components, managing of engineering changes, management of documents, project resources planning, configuration product variations, timescale and risk assessment. The text and metadata such as the product bills of materials needs to be managed. At the engineering departments’ stage this is the area of PDM – (Product Data Management) software, at the commercial level EDM (Enterprise Data Management) software; it is typical to see two or more data management systems within an organization. These systems are also linked to other systems such as SCM, CRM, and ERP. Associated with these systems are Project Management Systems for Project/Program Planning. Numerous collaborative product development tools cover this central role which runs throughout the whole life cycle and across organizations. This needs various technology tools in the area of Conferencing, Data Sharing and Data Translation.
Research study conducted on (Cell phone)
During past decade of time the, cell phone has become a part of our daily life .Like any product, making a cell phone and its parts requires natural resources and energy. Understanding the life cycle of a product can help you make environmental choices about the products you use, and how you dispose of them. Let us consider the example of a Nokia cell phone product life cycle management.
2.1 Concept Design:
The design of the product influences each stage of its lifecycle and also influences the environment. Design will affect the materials which are used in manufacturing of a product. If cheaper materials are used they are less durable, the product will have a short useful life. Waste can be prevented by proper design of the product. The design of the product with modular components can be easily replaced and entire product need not be thrown away if only one part of the product gets broken. The items having long life, trendy design should be avoided because they are not thrown away when they go out of style.
2.2 Materials Extraction:
All products are manufactured from the materials which are found in or on the earth. Raw materials, such as trees or ore, are directly mined or harvested from the earth and this process can create a lot of pollution and also involves usage of large amounts of energy and depletes the limited natural resources. The manufacturing of new products from recycled materials will reduce the amounts of the raw materials, being taken from the earth. The hand set consists of 40 percent metals, 40 percent plastics, and 20 percent ceramics and trace materials.
The circuit board which is also termed as a printed wiring board, present in the hand set is the main component and is the brain of the cell phone controlling all of its functions. The circuit boards are up of mined and raw materials like silicon, copper, lead, nickel, tantalum, beryllium and other metals. Circuit board manufacturing requires crude oil for plastics and limestone and sand for the fiberglass, these materials are also known as “persistent toxins” and can stay in the environment for long periods of time even after their disposal.
The cell phone consists of a liquid crystal display (LCD), a low power, flat- panel display on the front of the phone that shows information and images. The passage of electric current through it makes it opaque. The contrast between the opaque and transparent areas forms visible characters. Various liquid crystalline substances, either naturally occurring (such as mercury, a potentially dangerous substance) or human-made, are used to make LCDs, require the usage of plastic or glass. The rechargeable batteries used to power the phones can use several types of batteries: nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium-ion (Li-Ion), nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cad), or lead acid. These batteries contain nickel, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, and copper.
2.3 Materials Processing:
Once materials are extracted, they must be converted into a form that can be used to make products. For example, in cell phones: Crude oil is combined with natural gas and chemicals in a processing plant to make plastic; Copper is mined, ground, heated, and treated with chemicals and electricity to isolate the pure metal used to make circuit boards and batteries. The resulting copper pieces are transported to the manufacturer where they are formed into sheets and wires.
The basic shape of the circuit board is made by using plastics and fiberglass, and is then coated with gold plating. The board has several electronic components which are connected with wires made of copper and are soldered to the board, are secured with coatings and protective glues.
LCDs are manufactured by sandwiching the liquid crystal in between layers of plastic or glass. Batteries have two separate parts known as electrodes, which are made from two different metals. Electrolyte is a liquid substance which touches each electrode.
2.5 Packaging &Transportation:
The use of packaging can protect products from damage and provide product information. Finished products are transported in trucks, planes, and trains to different locations where they are sold. All of these modes of transportation burn fossil fuels, which can contribute to global climate change. The finished products and the parts of the cell phone require packaging and transportation in order to get from one place to another.
The transportation done by plane, rail or truck requires the usage of the fossils fuels for energy, which contribute to the global climate change. While the packaging of the product protects it from getting damaged, identifies contents and provides information, decorative or excessive packaging can be wasteful. Packaging makes use of the valuable natural resources which include paper (from trees), plastics (from crude oil from the earth), and aluminum (from ore) and other materials, all of which makes use of energy to produce and can result in waste.
The way products are used can impact the environment. For example, products that are only used once create more waste than products that are used again and again. Using a product over and over again prevents the need to create the product from scratch, which saves resources and energy while also preventing pollution. Recycling or re-manufacturing products also reduces the amount of new materials that have to be extracted from the earth.
Always comparison – shop to be sure that you get the proper service and the phone that is right for you. By using the rechargeable batteries in cell phones reduces the amount of the waste and toxicity that disposable batteries will create. Be sure to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for charging your batteries so you can extend their life as long as possible
Recycling or donating the cell phones when they are no longer needed by you or want them extends their useful lives, and preventing them from going into the trash where they can cause problems relating to the environment.
Many organizations including recyclers, Charities, and electronics manufacturers accept working cell phones and offer them to schools, community organizations, and individuals in need. Reuse provides people, who cannot afford them, free or reduced cost access to new phones and their accessories. And thereby it extends the useful lifetime of a phone.
Springing up of electronics recyclers is every-where. Today, various stores, recycling centers and manufacturers accept cell phones for recycling. While few electronics recyclers only allow large shipments, the communities, schools, or groups can work together to collect used cell phones for shipment to electronics recyclers. Some of the rechargeable batteries can also be recycled, as many retail stores and some communities have started collecting them. The material recovered from the rechargeable batteries when they are recycled can be used for making new stainless steel products and batteries. You can use the phone book or Internet to find the local contacts that refurbish and recycle cell phones.
By 2009, the rate at which cell phones are discarded is predicted to exceed 125 million phones each year, resulting in more than 65,000 tons of waste. The cell phones which are thrown into the trash end up in a landfill or are burned. As the cell phone contains plastics, chemical, metals and other hazardous substances, you should always recycle, donate or trade in your old cell phone.
Many people use a cell phone headset when they are driving or when they are walking around to keep their hands free. Most models of headsets can be reused when you buy a new phone.
2.12 Belt clip:
Some people buy belt clips to carry cell phones while not in use. Reusing or donating your belt clip when you are finished using it prevents waste.
2.13 Face plate:
Decorative face plates can be trendy and fun, but you don’t need them to use a cell phone. The best way to prevent waste is to simply not buy products you don’t need. If you do buy face plates, donate unwanted ones to a charity or swap them with your friends instead of throwing them away. Portable gaming cell phones have a lot of the same parts as hand-held video game and CD players, consoles and portable CD players, including speakers, circuit boards, and LCDs. Old or broken consoles and players can also be reused or recycled when no longer wanted. Advances in cell phone technology have given phones many uses today.
3.1 Case study: Siemens
Siemens Home and Office Communication Devices (SHC) is a leading company for home and office communication infrastructure. The company sells its products in more than 50 countries.
3.1.1 Business Challenge:
SHC has several engineering and manufacturing disciplines which are unique and located at one single site, in Germany. Mold tooling development, mechanical design development, manufacturing and assembling are all done in Bocholt, Germany.
For Siemens the market pressure is very high in electronics and electric and consumer goods, and there is stress from this competition to reduce development cycles and it’s time to market new goods, as there is a wide range of products introduced into the market year after year with new designs and more complexity. Therefore Siemens recognized that it has to make improvements in its quality and thus needed to enhance the supply chain integration and collaboration to meet its marketing challenges.
Siemens soon recognized that to overcome the external and internal pressures it has to improve its development and product life cycle for the future success of Siemens SHC. Siemens had been working with a 3-D CAD system “ Euclid 3” for about 10 years on which it had made all possible improvements and it cannot upgrade it any further, so it has to get help from outside partner to help and implement a new product life cycle (PLM) system.
Siemens in partnership with IBM services implemented CATIA V5 and SMART TEAM as a new PLM platform for improvement in product development. CATIA V5 has a set of predefined product and process templates, helps to quickly complete even sophisticated design tasks with a high level of accuracy.
With CATIA V5 and SMARTEAM, SHC has improved design innovation, taking advantage of the existing know-how and design to manufacturing process to the development and reduction of costs. In addition to that, this tool has helped make the mold tool development and NC manufacturing very competitive with low-cost suppliers from places like China.
3.2 Case study 2: Airbus UK
3.2.1 Business Challenge:
To meet tight deadlines for delivery and reduce design and manufacturing costs by constantly improving working processes throughout the aircraft lifecycle.
IBM has provided with a team of flexible and scalable experts which included strategic business consultants, aircraft industry specialists and project managers to define and implement transformation programs in business, financial and organizational disciplines.
3.2.3 Business Benefits:
Improved collaboration with suppliers eliminated data re-entry, saving €18 million on collaboration with suppliers.
* Improved concurrent engineering reduced lead time on wing by 41 weeks (36% reduction).
* The world’s first flight of largest passenger aircraft completed on time.
* Keeping Scheduled programming.
* Innovative practices introduced from concurrent engineering and collaborative working.
3.2.4 Why it matters?
IBM team created new business, financial and organizational processes to meet the deadlines while cost cutting the design and manufacturing for the new Airbus A380. These changes has transformed the airplane manufacturing methodology while enabling Airbus UK to cut cost and time out of design and manufacture, improve collaboration with suppliers and deliver key components on schedule to ensure the A380 aircraft’s on-time first flight.
3.2.5 Key Components: IBM Global Business Services
In developing the new technologies and pushing the boundaries of knowledge in the aerospace industry Airbus is leading the world. Airbus is an extremely complex business, which employs advanced technologies and procedures, some of which have mainly been developed for this project. In such a large-scale, modern design and manufacturing process, a lot of attention is paid at keeping costs under control. Wing assembly is one of the most complex parts of the aircraft, an element for which Airbus UK has the design and manufacturing responsibility.
The company realized early in the A380 program that new processes would be needed to achieve the aggressive timeline for the airplane. “We needed to radically transform our approach to the A380, and saw value in bringing in an objective external consultancy to help define and implement new ways of working,” says Iain Gray, Managing Director of Airbus UK. Nowhere is this more evident than in its design and development of the A380, the world’s largest passenger jet. Airbus is a highly complex business, employing advanced technologies and processes, some of which have specifically been developed for this project. In such a large-scale, innovative design and manufacturing operation, much attention is paid to keeping costs under control. Airbus UK commissioned IBM Global Business Services to bring together a team of experts to analyze designs, design processes and manufacturing operations. “IBM is exclusively placed to give advice and help us transform Airbus UK,” says Gray. “It has enormous breadth and depth of knowledge, with expertise in business, financial and organizational disciplines as well as the aircraft industry and computer technology.” The core IBM Global Business Services program team includes strategic business consultants, aircraft industry specialists and project managers. This team is expanded when ever required by drafting in specialists and consultants who bring a complete cross-section of business and technical skills relevant to the specific problem being addressed.
3.2.6 Designing out cost:
“Initiatives from IBM Global Business Services help us drive cost out of design and manufacture, improve collaborative working, and transform the way we work with our many subcontractors,” explains Gray. Improved collaboration with suppliers eliminated data re-entry, saving €18 million. The IBM team has helped the Airbus UK improve the concurrent engineering, reducing lead time of the wing by 41 weeks (36 percent reduction).
Sometimes, initiatives originated directly from the IBM team. Airbus built complete 3D models of A380 components to analyze clash conditions in airframe systems and structure before committing to cut metal—for example, to ensure that there were adequate clearances for slat and flap mechanisms on the wing and the landing gear. Such large-scale 3D modeling involves an enormous volume of number-crunching, which would normally trigger the purchase of large processors. Seeing this situation, IBM consultants introduced Airbus to the concept of GRID computing, which pools unutilized processing capacity in hundreds of distributed workstations for use with processor-intensive applications. A prototype was developed, and IBM then completed the implementation of GRID technology, there by saving Airbus a considerable investment.
In the area of business transformation, IBM Global Business Services is organizing an experienced team of human resource and organizational specialists to help Airbus UK transform from a development organization to one undertaking large-scale serial production.
The key aspect in the success of the A380 program is educating several hundred people across Airbus UK and its many of the subcontractors in the new tools, processes and collaborative working. With an infinite pool of resources, IBM responded very rapidly to Airbus’ training needs, building and delivering of tailored courses that reflect the processes and technologies defined at the strategic level.
3.3 Case Study 3: Maruti Udyog Ltd
Maruti Udyog Ltd., a subsidiary of Suzuki Moto Corporation of Japan, has been the leading Indian passenger car maker for about two decades. The company has a diverse portfolio that includes: the Maruti 800;the Omni; a premium small car, Zen; the international brands, Alto and WagonR; an off-roader, Gypsy; the mid-size Esteem; a luxury car, Baleno; an MPV, Versa; a premium subcompact car, Swift; and a luxury SUV, Grand Vitara XL7. The company’s 11 base platforms encompass300 variants for 100 export destinations. According to Maruti’s vision statement, its goals include maintaining leadership in the Indian automobile industry, creating customer delight, increasing shareholder wealth and being “a pride of India.” Customers have shown their approval, ranking Maruti high in customer satisfaction for six years in a row according to the J.D. Power Asia Pacific 2005 India Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) Study. The company has also ranked highest in the India Sales Satisfaction Study.
3.3.1The need for PLM:
Among the company’s product development challenges, the need for shorter cycle times is always at the top. Management wants to be able to launch new models faster and reduce the time required for minor changes and development of product variants. Another challenge is co-development. Maruti’s goal is to collaborate closely with its global teams and suppliers on the development of new platforms and product freshening. Other challenges include streamlining the process of vehicle localization and enhancing quality and reliability. These challenges pointed directly to a product lifecycle management (PLM) solution with capabilities for information management, process management, knowledge capture and support for global collaboration; a PLM solution directly addressing Maruti’s business challenges. For example, PLM’s information management capabilities address the issue of the many plat forms, local variants and export destinations. Process management permits concurrent development and faster change management and provides a platform for other process improvements – for faster vehicle development. Knowledge capture increases innovation and also reduces costs by increasing part re-use. PLM’s collaboration capabilities permit global development by ensuring fast and accurate dissemination of product information.
3.3.2. Implementation profile:
Maruti selected the UGS PLM software solution because “UGS leverages the business value by offering complete PLM solution,” according to C.V. Raman, general manager, Engineering Division, Maruti Udyog Ltd. Maruti’s PLM implementation includes Team centre, NX and Techno matrix software. Team centre provides a wide range of functionality for release management including bills of material management and change management. Team centre also handles the vehicle localization process, coordinates the part approval process and integrates design and engineering information with the company’s ERP system. Team centre also provides
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