This study is designed to examine the use and impact of social media as a tool in e-learning at Bisha University. As a lecturer at Bisha University, I selected this topic due to the current importance of social media in different aspects of students’ lives, especially in the educational field. It also aims to understand factors toward using social media to support learning. This chapter reviewed some of the numerous works done by scholars and researchers which are directly related to this research work. Therefore, this chapter examined and reviewed the following areas;
- Social Media Definition
- Social Media Categories
- The Use of Social Media
- Importance of Social Media Usage in Education
- The applications of Social Media in education in Bisha University
- Challenges of Using Social Media for educational purposes in Bisha University
- Summary of Literature Review
Technology plays a central role in education today with the incorporation of computers into the classroom and the integration of the Internet into the education system. This means that the educational landscape has changed for good. E-learning enables students to learn in a self-directed way and select their own venue, time, and content, as well as the stages of their study. Social media offers new and appealing possibilities to students to express themselves in a variety of ways and freely participate in various dialogues to obtain diverse knowledges and cultures. Moreover, social media platforms allow users to interact and collaborate with each other as creators of user-generated content, exploiting different tools, interfaces, software, and storage facilities to add value. Social media technologies are simple to use and accessible to people with minimal technical skills; anyone with access to a simple device can operate such means (Adamson, 2012). As educational technology evolves, social media has become more heavily integrated into educational approaches. For instance, it has been adopted by higher education institutions as a tool for supporting professional development education to get the newest knowledge at any time or place. At the same time, also in higher education, social media has been implemented as a tool of continuous and seamless communication between instructor and students as well as between students (Boyatt, 2014).
Learning online has become a part of student life and practices in this era because of the influx of emerging technologies. Electronic learning has become a widespread method for providing education and exchanging knowledge via multimedia, video conferences, the World Wide Web, and wireless networks. It is used to deliver information to postgraduate or undergraduate students and provide richness and complexity to learning and teaching experiences. Meanwhile, social networking sites have become widespread and culturally diverse, regardless of geographical boundaries. Social Media opens up numerous paths for learners to acquire knowledge and share information throughout the world, allowing them to become more active and participatory. The effective implementation of e-learning plays an important role in the educational process today and fosters a positive attitude toward the learning process while helping students to develop the skills they need for the 21st century (Pumper, Yaeger, and Moreno, 2013)
Developments in information technology have imposed new realities on our world in the last two decades. This technological development has welcomed people into a virtual world, leading to social, political, and humanitarian changes throughout the world. Gollins (2007) points out that the educational system has been subject to considerable changes at all levels. These changes relate to perceptions, targets and means. This period of history has also witnessed a great revolution in how governments plan their social and economic development. This, in turn, has led to countries developing different approaches towards education and assisting the learner. It has also led to an increased need for people not only to further their education but also to develop different skills in order to integrate into society. At the same time, we are seeing the emergence of new tools for accessing social media. These have led to the emergence of new ideas in the field of education, learning, and communication. These tools have also led to the creation of a new student society (Tony, 2008).
However, despite social media becoming increasingly more adopted by colleges and schools, there is a big gap between the current generation’s needs and practices, instructors’ attitudes, and the traditional equipment of schools. Kitsantas and Dabbagh (2010) stated that some universities prefer to rely primarily on traditional methods such as the whiteboard and deliver information face-to-face, and, hence, do not capitalize on the pedagogical affordances of social media. Moreover, they argue that technology will only aid a great teacher and not replace them. Social media by itself will not change education. Therefore, responsibility lies with the people who use it, whether instructors or students, but change starts with desire, and social media can provide information which may lead to a desire to change. Thus, learners should be allowed to manage and maintain a learning space that facilitates their learning activities, communicate with their peers and use social media at any time and place (Mcloughlin and Lee, 2010, Selwyn, 2007, Valjataga et al., 2011, and van Harmelen, 2006).
Social Media Definition
There are many definitions of social media. Some of these definitions focus on the cooperation and communication that takes place within certain websites. Others focus on the tools used within these sites. These sites allow users to collaborate, exchange knowledge, communicate with peers, upload and send pictures, write comments, create an expression, and learn the benefits of using social media tools. Social media plays an important role of change in different fields in our life today. People have a different way to interact, communicate, and even the way they think (Weisgerber & Butler, 2010). Social media is a 21st-century term used to broadly define a variety of networked tools or technologies that emphasize the social aspects of the Internet as a way for communication and collaboration among users (Dabbagh, Reo, 2011).
Also, Tammets (2014) defines social media as Internet sites in which a group of individuals share the same concerns and activities, and build consensus and friendships with other people with the same orientation. Furthermore, Nomar (2012) defined social media as “a collection of websites that enables people or individuals to communicate on a number of topics in a virtual community that lets them present themselves and share interests as well as publish images and videos. These tools also allow members of the community to enter other forms of communication such as receiving comments from other users, creating personal files or web pages, establishing friends and relations lists, forming groups, and conducting real time chats.
Besides offering a series of tools for communication, Bartiee (2006) defines social media as a set of applications that strengthen relations within a group. These networks increase the level of social cooperation, the exchange of information, and the integration of information in a web environment. Similarly, Boyd (2008) defines them as networks that provide a full social life approximating real life in a limited system. These networks contain a single list of user names and allow many beneficiaries to participate in communication.
Ellison (2007) indicates that the web of social networks is a collection of websites that emerged alongside the second generation of the Web (2.0). These networks allow individuals to communicate within a community in groups; whether in universities, schools, or companies. Communication within these groups takes place through the Internet by the sending of messages or sharing of access to personal files to allow individuals to learn each other’s news. Individuals may decide whether to allow the further publication of this news.
Parks (2010) points out that the term “social networks” relates to an old concept. People knew of this concept before the advent of the Internet, or indeed any other means of electronic communication. By nature, man is a social creature. People loves cooperating with others and sharing common interests. Internet groups contain a common factor that unites all the members of the group. This joint thing may include scientific concerns, research, business, financial exchanges, friendship, intimate relations, or identity (Armstrong and Franki, 2008).
Valenzuela et al (2009) describes social media communication as a learning environment based on the second generation of the web. In this environment, for effective communication, the author often incorporates one or more other sites. Moreover, Kaplan & Haenlein (2011) and Kietzmannn (2012) define social media as a set of internet-based applications built on the technological foundations of Web 2.0 that involves several online platforms where learners can create, participant, exchange their perspectives and experiences, and modify user-generated content.
It is clear from reading the previous definitions that they all agree upon a certain group of characteristics which make it suitable for educational purposes. This group of characteristics could be summarized in the researcher’s definition: “social media can be an electronic educational environment which allows students to create and be exposed to educational content in total freedom. The activities of students on the network are non-specific to time or place. Social media communication can help users in self-learning through writing and interaction with others”.
EXAMPLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND NETWORKING SITES
Social media or social networking sites can be defined as one of the online platforms which are used to build the social relations with the people sharing similar personal or career activities. Now a day’s social media has become very familiar and a topic of interest among the youngsters. Social media or social networking sites has made the world smaller as it has made a very easy platform to stay connected with the family, friends, relative living near or far. We can find that mostly youth are engaged in the social networking sites, but this doesn’t mean that the elder people don’t use it. Social media and networking site have their own importance. For some, it might just be the platform to stay connected with the family, friends, relatives, and so on., for some, it might be the platform to learn new things, for some, it might be the platform to entertain themselves while for some it might be the platform for the promotion of business.
Social media and networking sites have become very popular among the youth. According to the argue of Boyd (2003) internet messaging, blogs, search engines, social libraries, social guides, wikis, social bookmarking, are included in the example of social media and social web2.0 version. These are used to interact and use in daily life to make work little easier and faster.
According to McLaughlin and lee (2007), some of the popular emerging media websites and software includes very popular social networking sites such as Facebook, Myspace, and Friendster which has been helping to create an online identity with a range of multimedia element by customizing their profiles. These social networking sites help to interact with their existing contacts and create a good social relationship with others. There are many other social networking sites which are made for the entertainment purpose like YouTube, flicker, which help users to watch and share videos and photos.
Dabbagh and Reo (2011b) and Dabbagh and kinstates (2012) explains that the social media also includes other various resource sharing tools which help the user to carry out their work in easy and efficient manner. The resource sharing tools include blogging, WordPress, twitter, social bookmarking, etc. YouTube and flicker are media sharing tool which enables users to involve in social tagging. There are some web-based office tools such as Google apps which help in sharing, editing the documents and these tools are very useful for official use.
The social media technologies fully facilitate social factor, and they are truly deepened on the user’s participation and production. Content communities (YouTube), virtual game worlds (World of Warcraft), social networking sites (Facebook) collaborate produced project (Wikipedia), virtual social worlds (second life), blogs and microblogs(twitter) are the six classifications of social media propounded by Kaplan and Haenlin in their business horizon article (2010). (See Examples of social media Table 1)
Examples of Social Media Technologies
|Myspace, Facebook, Faceparty||Social networking sites|
|Creativity works sharing sites|
|The unofficial Apple Weblog, Cnet.com)||User-sponsored blogs|
|Apple. Com, P&G’s Vocalpoint||Company-sponsored websites/blogs|
|Dove’s Campaign for Real Beauty,
|Company-sponsored cause/help sites|
|ASmallWorld.net||Invitation-only social networks|
|Business networking sites|
|Second Life||Virtual Worlds|
|eBay, Amazon.com, Craig’s List,
|For Immediate Release: The Hobson and
|Current TV||News delivery sites|
|MIT OpenCourseWare, MERLOT||Educational Materials sharing|
|Mozilla’s spreadfirefox.com, Linux.org||Open Source Software communities|
|Digg, del.icio.us, Newsvine, Mixx it, reddit||Social bookmarking sites allowing
users to recommend online news
stories, music videos, etc
Source: Glynn Mangold & David (2009).
However, for this study, the researcher uses the most popular social media tools and social networking websites according to the previous literature review, and according to Bisha University students’ and instructors’ responses regarding what social media tools they are using into their educational environments. The popular social media tools and websites like Facebook, YouTube, twitter, Wikipedia, WhatsApp, Skype, and so on, which are used as tools for teaching learning process are gaining popularity in the universities and colleges.
Facebook is an online social media which was founded on the 4th February 2004. Its headquarter is located at the Menlo Park, California, United States. Mark Zuckerberg, Andrew mc collum, Chris Hughes, Eduardo Saverin are the founder of Facebook. In the beginning, the membership of the website was only limited to the founders to Harvard students but later on, it was expanded to universities in Boston, Canada, and the United States and by the year 2006, every one of 13 years old and older with valid email can use Facebook. Facebook is regarded to be the global social networking site. It is used for image and video hosting, getting news and information, maintaining a personal portfolio, promoting business, networking, finding dates, and so on. Facebook have been offering a facility to send and receive private and public messages.
According to Martinez Aleman and wart man (2009), approximately 85% of the students are found to be using Facebook and this number is rapidly increasing. It is said to be popular at colleges and universities as it has become a medium to interconnect students. Students are found to be using Facebook at least 30 minutes per day. According to the internet world stats (2012), it indicates that there are a large number of face book users and there are over 835 million of registered Facebook users.
Facebook and Education
Facebook is a social networking site of the new generation. Nowadays almost everyone is connected to Facebook or has a Facebook profile (Browning et al., 2011). Some people may take Facebook as a time killing site, but it is also an important site to gain new knowledge about almost anything. People can learn a lot about new people, places and topics through the use of Facebook. Facebook can be used to create a comfortable learning environment in different educational institutions as well. Facebook has become so popular that it has the power to spread knowledge all across the world as it can easily be accessed by anyone in the world. Facebook promotes interactive learning with a focus on sharing knowledge to the public (Browning et al., 2011). All kinds of knowledge from academic to extracurricular can be found on Facebook. The students can share their information with their friends through Facebook. The teachers can also provide guidelines to the students with the help of Facebook. In this modern age, Facebook has developed not only as a social networking site but also as a social learning site (Schachter, 2011).
Nowadays, people get all the information about the study, news, academic events, etc. through Facebook. With the help of Facebook, students have been able to take an active role in the learning process, as opposed to a passive role that the traditional classroom might end up providing. The active participation of students in the learning process through Facebook has helped them to understand better and retain that knowledge for the long term (Schachter, 2011). In order to establish Facebook as a learning site, Facebook has recently developed a section called “Facebook Educate” to help teachers and students in learning as well as a teaching process.
Twitter is a microblogging site which was created on 2006. Twitter is an additional application of social media. Usually, microblogs are used for instant messaging, SMS and allowing to post short messages of clients that are displayed on their personal pages. The post can be viewed by the followers as well. What makes the microblog unique is the distinguishing factor of short posting. It is a free application that helps to connect with the people, discover more about the things you love doing and express yourself. Twitter can be regarded as a fast mode of communication with a focus on sharing information and opinions. With the short statement “tweet” the twitter allows users to update their account. Twitter was able to attract 73.5 million unique viewers by January 2010, and it also demonstrated the growth rate of 11055% from 2009- 2010. Twitter users are increasing in a very rapid manner, and currently, the registered accounts have reached more than two hundred million.
Twitter and Education
Twitter is a very common site used by many people all around the world. It is a site to tweet about opinions but also an important site to gain knowledge about the events happening throughout the world (Davis, 2011). Recent research has established the fact that Twitter can provide students with an interactive learning environment and enhance the engagement of students in the learning process. People may view twitter as a waste of time, but its organizational structure makes it an effective tool for connecting with students and others online. Twitter has developed as a powerful tool not only for educational purpose but also for changing the world. Besides that, Twitter can provide students with the opportunity to ask the instructor and classmates questions related to homework or class projects. Teachers can monitor Twitter to determine which students are asking and answering questions. Twitter can also be a place to conduct class discussions, which promotes critical thinking and facilitates the ongoing learning process.
In a study conducted by Chichester, (2010), Dunlap & Lowenthal (2009) at the University of Colorado at Denver, which stated that the instructors used Twitter to encourage their students to post questions and queries to one another, send direct messages among students, share resources and comment, and exchange personal information. However, in a study by Faculty Focus (2009) indicated that more than (56.4 percent) have never used Twitter in the educational process because they “expressed concerns that it creates poor writing skills,” and did not know how to use it or did not have time to use it, while 30.7 percent of faculty reported that they used Twitter as a tool of e-learning and less than half of them used Twitter to communicate with students (Faculty Focus, 2009, p. 2).
Twitter provides the platform to the number of the researcher to share his knowledge to the millions of people around the world (Grosseck & Holotescu, 2008). It provides strong connection between researcher and the followers. It helps the student to know the real world and various issues which are revolving around the world. In the past few years, professional learning communities have incorporated social media as pedagogical learning tools because they play the significant positive role in communicating with students inside and outside the classroom (Bista, 2014; Blair, 2013; Rockinson-Szapkiw & Szapkiw, 2011). Twitter thereby enables students to participate in a wide range of interactions from private messages, to arranging meetings, and to engaging in learning processes (Al Khalifa, 2010; Bista, 2014; Dunlap & Lowenthal, 2009; McArthur & Bostedo-Conway, 2012).
YouTube Another example that allows content sharing of social media technology is YouTube. Since YouTube is the website which allows users to watch video clips, self-edit, import clips for free it is an online storehouse. YouTube was purchased by Google in the year 2006 since then YouTube has institutionalized quickly. YouTube is considered as the content communities as its main objective is to share the media content between the users but the users are not allowed to create a personal profile page. If users are found to be doing so, then those pages are to contain only some basic information such as the number of videos they shared and the date they joined. It exists for a large range of different media types which includes videos, photos, power point presentation, text, and so on. According to the argue made by Yuan-Hsiang lo (2013) YouTube freely access users to share videos with educational content. Users have the right to decide what best suits their needs, weather the video is created by random video blogger or accredited university.
YouTube and Education
YouTube is a very popular site where people can post their videos and share it to the people all around the world. It was established for entertainment purpose, but along with passing the time, it has come forward as a very important site to gain knowledge about almost everything (Duffy, 2008, p. 119). You can get videos about even how to tie the knot of a tie. The example maybe funny but you cannot imagine the range of knowledge that you can gain through the videos on You Tube. Nowadays You Tube can provide with all the information that you need about almost anything. YouTube has embraced the teaching and learning process by offering pages dedicated strictly to education. According to YouTube, the YouTube EDU page brings learners and educators together in a global video classroom (YouTube, 2013). Besides, YouTube also contains many motivational videos that can be very helpful for young and upcoming students.
YouTube provides knowledge to students through visuals which help students to absorb information quickly and for a longer period of time. You Tube is a convenient tool for students to gain an education as they can get access to You Tube from anywhere (YouTube, 2013). You Tube can help students by providing knowledge through images, listening to songs and thus expanding their visual and hearing abilities. You Tube also has a huge archive of educational videos for students and all the videos on You Tube are for free. Many educational institutions are integrating You Tube into classrooms which have enabled institutions to engage more students with great content at no additional cost for school systems. YouTube encourages teachers to educate, engage, and inspire your students with video. You Tube also has a separate education and teacher’s page which the teachers can utilize to enhance lessons and expand the world to which students are exposed (Duffy, 2008).
YouTube is playing an increasingly influential role in many classrooms because of its potential to positively impact student teaching (Dreon et al., 2011). The fact that students and teachers utilize YouTube on a daily basis makes it an easy tool to implement into the educational process. Educators can also upload and publish videos related to course material and content to YouTube and have students access these videos in the classroom or at home with relative ease (Browning et al., 2011). Education using multimedia and visual aid through You Tube has now become a strengthening component of many subjects, curriculum and today`s educators are taking steps to incorporate the internet and social media-based tools to improve participation and learning.
Wikipedia is another social media tool which is used in the study. It is the collaborative project tool which allows users to add, change and remove text-based content. Wikipedia is a social bookmarking web service currently available in more than 230 different languages including an online encyclopedia. Wikipedia is very easy to use and learn, and it doesn’t have any predetermined structure. It is the most democratic manifestation of user-generated content (UGC) in a sense that enables the joint and simultaneous creation of content by end-users. The advantage of Wikipedia 3 is users can find information in an effortless way and people from different part of the world can work on the same document. Attracting more than 4, 00, 00,000 unique visitors monthly, more than 2, 00, 00,000 papers in more than 283 languages and 1, 00,000 regularly active contributors. Wikipedia is considered to be the world’s largest web-based encyclopedia project.
Wikipedia and Education
Wikipedia is an encyclopedia of the internet where information about anything in the world can be found, but this encyclopedia is different from the regular encyclopedia. Wikipedia has developed a separate Wikipedia Education Program where educators and students around the world contribute to Wikipedia and Wikimedia projects in an academic setting. Wikipedia has more than 70 programs worldwide. The people who contribute to the educational program of Wikipedia are students, educators, volunteers, affiliate groups and the Wikimedia foundation. The Wikipedia contributes to education through helping in classroom assignments, extracurricular activities and policy changes of the government. With the help of Wikipedia, students improve their skills in reading, writing, research, critical thinking, communication, translation, technical skills, information literacy, media literacy, digital literacy and collaboration.
Wikipedia empowers students of this generation with the skills that they need. Students can gain confidence, voice and capabilities with the proper use of Wikipedia. The impact made by Wikipedia in the education of global citizens is real. Wikipedia helps students as well as the world to learn. Wikipedia has a variety of other features which are useful in the e-learning environment. Wikipedia is mostly used by the learners and student. It helps them by providing detail information on any subject matter. From the source, it was found out that around 73% of the students use Wikipedia for searching their quires. As all the required information can be retrieve from Wikipedia. By using Wikipedia one can gain all the information in concise, finding new things etc. Some of the information which we search in Wikipedia might be inaccurate it is because of careless of the editor. It seamlessly shifts between the teaching paradigm and the learning paradigm and allows students to actively engage with materials in ways difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional pages. If students cannot find information about something than Wikipedia is the website to visit where information about anything can be found. It is the information bank which can be used by students to enhance their knowledge about anything in the world for an educational purpose.
Another tool of social media is WhatsApp. Two ex-yahoo employees founded WhatsApp in the year 2009. WhatsApp is used to send free text messages to each other, and it is truly internet-based communication tool. It is a chat program which allows diverse types of messages, from simple to pictures to audio files and is available in almost all smartphones. It allows for sharing the files, media messages, videos, audio and their location using integrated mapping feature. Users are notified about the text message with the help of push notification. People are attracted towards these kinds of social media because it allows users to message without high fee payments for text messages. WhatsApp allows users to exchange messages with the same internet data plan which is used for email and web browsing purpose. Since WhatsApp is a freeware, cross-platform for instant messaging application users can send unlimited messages to their friends connected in WhatsApp. It has gained popularity as it is easy to use and doesn’t consume more memory and it also works on 2G, 3G, 4G, and on Wi-Fi.
WhatsApp and Education
The introduction of WhatsApp has not only made mobile social networking popular but also has made the mobile learning preferred among the students. It has made a huge positive impact on the learning process of the students. The feedbacks of students suggest that WhatsApp has made their learning process easier, has favored problem-solving and helped in resolving learning difficulties through the presentation of suitable contents to the students (Church and Oliveira, 2013). Students prefer innovative educational technology called WhatsApp which promotes mobile based learning for students. WhatsApp is easily accessible for students through their mobile phone which is one of the reasons for the popularity of WhatsApp among the students (Cheung et al., 2008).
WhatsApp instant messaging is very easy to use. Most students use this mobile system for academic and other purposes. WhatsApp has played important role in providing every up to date information among the students within their group members which they have created. It has become popular as it is easier to use and most of the students use this as it provides various benefits to them (Vygotsky, 1978). In this respect, the findings of this study confirm those of previous research projects that underestimate the importance of having a user-friendly Web-based platform. Social interactions through WhatsApp also improve the effectiveness of learning and teaching. The WhatsApp mobile learning is a satisfactory solution to improving community-level interaction and social presence among students (Facebook, WhatsApp, etc.). Along with the changing world, educational institutions are also improving with the use of mobile based learning app like WhatsApp which has proven to be beneficial for both students as well as the teachers
Skype is the final social media tool used in the study. It is regarded to be an application allowing users to communicate through the internet. Skype is an internet based communication which allows users to make voice and video calls. Not only video chat and voice calls, it also enables the features of instant messaging capability. Skype is one of the early successes which were founded by Nikolas Zennstrom of Sweden and Janus fries of Denmark. Skype has the feature of making calls up to five Skype users at one time without cost. It is observed that with each additional caller the quality of the call diminishes. The additional feature of Skype is webcam which facilitates to have a video conference call with the colleagues by looking the list of online contacts. Depending upon how the Skype is being utilized, it brings the advantage to both the personal and business communication. These days, Skype has become a fashionable way of communication with the ability to call anyone in the world that has Skype account without being charged.
Skype and Education
Skype is the app which is most in common between the people around the world as it allows instant messaging among the users and also video chat services. Not only this, it provides lots of other benefits like, exchange of various documents, images, clips etc. Nowadays, it has been popular in different universities among students and teachers for sharing their knowledge. More than 9317 teachers use Skype for sharing their knowledge. Another great thing is that Skype in the classroom can be used by students of all ages. With Skype, students can learn from other students, connect with other cultures and expand their knowledge in amazing ways. Skype helps students to engage in real-life conversations where students can practice their skills. Skype has helped students and teachers to learn what a classroom in another country does by giving previously unachieved access. Skype is about bringing education to life.
Skype for education opens the door to many possibilities. Depending on the type of school, educators can use Skype for everything to improve the quality of education. Chalkboards, textbooks and visual aids have been used to teach, but the advancement of the technology has begun altering the way of students in learning. Skype, an application you can download for free on your computer or mobile phone, allows you to make voice and video calls over the Internet. It can also be used in the classroom to expand the educational landscape. From guest lecture, field trips, parental conference and tutoring, Skype has the ability to enrich the learning process for both students and teachers.
Skype provides opportunities to different teacher and student which will support for the professional development of individual. Students gain knowledge from their respective teachers with the help video conference. It will provide them opportunity to improve their knowledge and skills. Nowadays interviews for college admissions are done through Skype. The idea of distant education has become a reality with the application of Skype for education. Many lectures and lessons are also provided through Skype in this modern era. Educators motivate students by developing the twenty‐first-century literacy skills in the classroom by using the technologies like Skype to link students with a global partner to exchange knowledge and collaborate with them. Skype in the classroom strives to enrich student`s learning experiences to discover new cultures, languages and ideas without leaving the classroom.
Skype is excited to collaborate with teaching, like-minded organizations to bring relevant content directly to innovative teachers who are looking to create unforgettable shared learning experiences for their students. Skype has played important role in grooming the knowledge of number of students. It is practice in most of the educational institution as it helps to empower the knowledge of individual students. With the access of Skype one can gain the knowledge as lectures from any corner of the globe can come in to the class room. This is all due to development in the technology. Teachers can have authors and other guest speakers who do not have the ability to travel to a classroom speak over Skype to share their ideas. Teachers often invite guest speakers to lecture or inform their students about a particular topic, relying on the speaker’s schedule to make it happen.
Using Skype in the classroom allows guest lecturers / speakers to talk with students from anywhere in the world at any time, eliminating the need for the speaker to physically be in the classroom. Students can ask the speaker questions in real time using Skype. Students can also receive answers from the speaker in real time. Honestly, nowadays it is common for any student to attend class through Skype and enhance their knowledge. For example, a student from Nepal can get admission in the University of USA and attend classes by just staying at home with the use of Skype. Skype is not only a social networking app but also a vital learning tool in this world full of technologies.
Al-Khalifa, H. S. (2010, May). Finding a place for Twitter in higher education. eLearn. Retrieved from http://elearnmag.acm.org/archive.cfm?aid=1821980
Adamson, C. (2012). The role of social media in education. Retrieved 21-01-2013 from http://www.icwe.net/oeb_special/OEB_Newsportal/the-role-of-social-and mobile media-in-education/
Bista, K. (2014). Twitter in higher education: New pedagogy in the knowledge era of globalization. In M. Limbu & B. Gurung (eds.), Emerging pedagogies in the networked knowledge society (pp. 195-205). Hershey, PA: IGI Global Publications. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4757-2.ch010
Blair, A. (2013). Democratizing the learning process: The use of Twitter in the teaching of politics and international relations. Politics, 33(2), 135-145. doi: 10.1111/1467-9256.12008
Browning, L., Gerlich, R.N., & Westermann, L. (2011). The new HD classroom: A “hyper diverse” approach to engaging with students. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 1-10.
Boyd, D. (2003). “Are you ready for social software?” Retrieved from www.darwinmag.com
Boyatt, R., Joy, M., Rocks, C., & Sinclair, J. (2014) What (Use) is a MOOC? In Uden, L.,
Tao, Y., Yang, H. and Ting, I. eds. The 2nd International Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud. Springer Proceedings in Complexity. Springer Netherlands, pp.133–145. Available at: http://link.springer.com/ chapter/10.1007/978 94-007-7308-0_15 [Accessed 28 September 2013].
Borges, B. (2012). 40year history of social media infographic poster. Retrieved 21 01-2013 from http://www.findandconvert.com/2012/02/40-year-history-of-social media/
Boyd, d. (2008). Why youth (heart) social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, Identity, and Digital Media (pp. 119-142). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Boyd d and Ellison N (2007) Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-mediated Communication 13: 210–230
Cheung, W. S., Hew, K. F., & Ng, S. L. (2008). Toward an understanding of why students contribute in asynchronous online discussions. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38(1), 29–50.
Chichester, K. (2010, August 27). Cross-county collaboration: It all started with Twitter. National Writing Project. Retrieved from http://iditalis/nwp.org/resource/716
Church, K., & de Oliveira, R. (2013). What’s up with whatsapp? comparing mobile instant messaging behaviors with traditional SMS. 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI’13), 352–361. https://doi.org/10.1145/2493190.2493225
Dabbagh,N.,& Reo, R. (2011b). Impact of Web 2.0 on higher education. D.W. Surry, T. Stefurak, R. Gray (Eds.), Technology integration in higher education: Social and organizational aspects, IGI Global, Hershey, PA, pp. 174–187.
Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environment, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and Higher Education., 15(1), pp.3-8.
Internet World Stats. (2012). Facebook growth in the world. Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com/facebook.htm
Davis, M. R. (2011). ‘Safe’ social networking tailored for K-12 schools. Education Week, 30(35), S17-S18.
Dreon, O., Kerper, R.M., & Landis, J. (2011, May). Digital storytelling: A tool for teaching and learning in the YouTube generation. Middle School Journal, 4-10.
Duffy, P. (2008). Engaging the YouTube Google-eyed generation: Strategies for using web 2.0 in teaching and tearning. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 6(2), 119-130.
Dunlap, J. C., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2009). Tweeting the night away: Using Twitter to enhance social presence. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 129-135.
Ellison, N., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends”: Exploring the relationship between college students’ use of online social networks and social capital. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12 (3), article 1. Retrieved July 30, 2007 from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue4/ellison.html
Grosseck, G., & Holotescu, C. (2008, April). Can we use Twitter for educational Activities? The 4th International Scientific Conference: eLearning Software for Education, Bucharest.
Faculty Focus. (2009). Twitter in higher education: Usage habits and trends of today’s college faculty. Madison, WI: Magna Publications, Inc.
Kaplan, A.M., & Haenlein, M. (2010), Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, 53(1). 61.
Kaplan & Haenlein (2011 Daft, R. L., & Lengel, R. H. (1986). Organizational information requirements, media richness, and structural design.
Kitsantas, A., & Dabbagh, N. (2010). Learning to learn with Integrative Learning Technologies (ILT): A practical guide for academic success. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
Lo, Yuan-Hsiang. (2013). What is the participant learning experience like using YouTube to study a foreign language? ProQuest Information & Learning. AAI3546245.
Martinez-Aleman, A.M. & Wartman, K.L. (2009). Online Social Networking on Campus. New York: Routledge.
McArthur, J. A., & Bostedo-Conway, K. (2012). Exploring the relationship between studentinstructor interaction on Twitter and student perception of teacher behaviors. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24(3), 286-292.
McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M.J.W. (2007). Listen and learn: A systematic review of the evidence that podcasting supports learning in higher education. In C.
McGloughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2010). Personalised and self-regulated learning in the Web 2.0 era: International exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(1), 28–43.
Nomar, Miriam Nariman (2012). The use of social networking sites and their impact on social relations, study a sample of Facebook users in Algeria, unpublished Master Thesis the University of El Hajj Lekhdar, Batenah Sergeant, Algeria.
Parks, M. (2010). ‘Who are Facebook Friends?’ Paper presented at the International Communication Association annual meeting, Singapore.
Tony ST, Van Der Heide B, Langwell L and Walther J (2008) Too much of a good thing? The relationship between number of friends and interpersonal impressions on Facebook. Journal of Computer-mediated Communication 13: 531–549.
Selwyn, N. (2007). Web 2.0 applications as alternative environments for informal learning — A critical review. OECD CERIKERIS International expert meeting on ICT and educational performance. Cheju Island, South Korea: Organization for Economic CoOperation and Development.
Schachter, R. (2011). The social media dilemma. District Administration, 47(7), 27-33.
Ramig, R. (2009, November/December). Social media in the classroom—for kindergartners through high schoolers’. MultiMedia & Internet at Schools, 117-120.
Rockingson-Szapkiw, A. J., & Szapkiw, M. (2011). Engaging higher education students using Twitter. Proceedings of Global Learn Asia Pacific, 360-364. Retrieved from http://works.bepress.com/amanda_rockinson_szapkiw/31/
Valjataga, T., Pata, K., & Tammets, K. (2011). Considering students’ perspective on personal and distributed learning environments. In M. J. W. Lee, & C. McLoughlin (Eds.), Web 2.0-based e-Learning: Applying social informatics for tertiary teaching (pp. 85–107). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Van Harmelen, M. (2006). Personal learning environments. In R. Kinshuk, P. Koper, P. Kommers, D. Kirschner, W. Didderen, & Sampson (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (pp. 815–816). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.
Valenzuela, S., Park, N., & Kee, K. F. (2009). Is there social capital in a social network site?: Facebook use and college students’ life satisfaction, trust, and participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 875–901.
Weisgerber, C., & Butler, S. (2010). Editor’s introduction: Special issue on communication pedagogy in the age of social media. Electronic Journal of Communication, 20(1-2), 1. Retrieved November 25, 2011, from http://www.cios.org/www/ejc/v20n12toc.htm
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds.) Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.
YouTube. (2013). EDU. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/education
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
Related ContentAll Tags
Content relating to: "Learning"
Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge through being taught, independent studying and experiences. Different people learn in different ways, with techniques suited to each individual learning style.
Impact of Social Media as a Tool in E-Learning
Introduction This study is designed to examine the use and impact of social media as a tool in e-learning at Bisha University. As a lecturer at Bisha University, I selected this topic due to the curr...
Effect of Traditional and E-learning Training on Employees
Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Research problem 1.3 Research objective 1.4 Importance of this study 1.5 Theoretical framework 1.6 Research Question 1....
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: