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Sustainability in Mechanical Engineering

Info: 8077 words (32 pages) Dissertation
Published: 11th Dec 2019

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Tagged: EngineeringSustainability

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 The concept of Industrial Symbiosis

Every century brings along new problems and novel solutions and the 21st century brought forth new social concerns due to the economic growth. However, during this period many new innovative ideas made possible thanks due to new technological advancements and the communications tools that were available. Subsequently, these brought an absence of boundary of ethics in between companies and countries, as there was a lack of emphasizing for environmental and social concern. Therefore, it was important to ensure that a better resource economy reached by all the resources/material and that energy was being used efficiently instead of wastes causes any harm it can bring.

An innovative approach can meet by a new concept that develops the culture of cooperation and expanding the system boundaries and adopting a broader systematic view. Through this, Companies increase its product value while simultaneously decreasing its use of resources and production of waste if its material and energy flows by integrating them into larger systems. This concept known as Industrial Symbiosis is a new term. This means a creation of value, which both benefits environmental and social standards for two or more organizations by making business decisions in utilizing shared resources.

Primarily industrial symbiosis challenges the corporate world to work on the same route from the regular eco-framework where everything has a place and capacity, and nothing goes to waste. Therefore, it involves an approach made between different companies that exchange raw materials or waste streams. Tire shred, plastic pellets or waste steam from a factory is examples of outputs that is sold on to other businesses.  Therefore, because of this process, one company’s waste becomes another company’s raw materials.

Companies usually are based on a supply chain, which is connected towards larger systems that are made of several factors, which is a based on a supply chain. The character and the extent of a company’s environmental impact are largely determined by this interaction between business and other external actors (c.f. Clift and Wright, 2000).

http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:16766/fulltext01.pdf

So Industrial symbiosis promotes economic growth and at the same reduces environmental problems since it converts harmful environmental features into benefits. Since this method accounts for a decline of raw materials and waste disposal costs, it can be seen as an integral part of economic/environmental strategies that put forth benefits not only to limited areas but also about global issues.

http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/what-industrial-symbiosis

1.2 Industrial revolution and Mechanical Engineering

1.2.1 History

The industrial revolution had a significant impact in society in the period about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. For example, when machines powered by steam in most manufacturers replaced labour workers early on the 1700s. Mechanical engineers were able to work with other engineers and production personnel, which developed and conserved the manufacturing process.

This had a significant impact concerning efficiency, which contributed towards the acceleration of manufacturing, business, and employment. The day to day to life of an average human being’s life was also improving regarding health, the standard of living, technology, average income and the population growth. So one of the many prime reasons of industrial revolutions for it to keep on evolving was mechanical engineering, which also contributed later on as it was needed for it support the industrial symbiosis.

Gdrc.org. (2017). Sustainability Concepts: Industrial Ecology. [online] Available at: http://www.gdrc.org/sustdev/concepts/16-l-eco.html [Accessed 15 Mar. 2017].

The term industrial symbiosis was invented in the small municipality of Kalundborg, Denmark, where a well-developed network of dense firm interactions was encountered. The primary partners in Kalundborg, including an oil refinery, a power station, a gypsum board facility, and a pharmaceutical company, share ground water, surface water, wastewater, steam, and fuel, and they also exchange a variety of by-products that become feedstocks in other processes. High levels of environmental and economic efficiency have been achieved, leading to many other less tangible benefits involving personnel, equipment, and information sharing. Many other examples of industrial symbiosis exist around the world and illustrate how the concept is applied.

https://books.google.co.uk/books [Accessed 15 Mar. 2017].

1.3 Support of mechanical engineering

Historically, mechanical engineers early on provided a structural analysis based on mathematical expressions and design of building structures, which later was used to lead industrial development. So one of the many prime reasons of industrial revolutions for it to keep on evolving was mechanical engineering, which also contributed later on as it was needed for it support the industrial symbiosis. One of the challenges that was being faced to combine economic development with a decrease in environmental pressure, so mechanical engineering then can be factored into these various situations and not only improves but revolutionizes these aspects of industrial symbiosis. For example;

  • Machinery is being used more efficiently due to mechanical engineers understanding of solid mechanics being combined with dynamics and control.
  • Cad can be used in a way to design the company machinery or equipment being one of the many skills and mechanical engineer possesses.
  • Improving data collection as this give companies more flexibility for their operations.

There comes with a risk of being an engineering as every improvement/development it can affect the public perception and cause it to be very complex for the public to integrate with all these advancements. It is obvious that an important part of the environmental pressure from industry is connected to its energy use. The use of fossil fuels contributes to the rising concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. Moreover, dependence on fossil fuels is not a long-term solution since they are a limited resource. Therefore, it is very vital an engineer should be trained not just as a pure designer of technology, but as a social engineer. Another important factor as regards environmental pressure from industry is the use of physical resources and the production of waste.

Google Books. (2017). MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ENERGY SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT -Volume V. [online] Available at https://books.google.co.uk/books [Accessed 15 Mar. 2017].

Chapter 2: Background Research Industrial Symbiosis

2.1 Industrial Symbiosis and the Circular Economy

2.1.1 The Modern Revolution

Population and economic growth coupled with climate change may cause to intensify the harm towards human natural resources. Due to massive changes during the industrial revolution regarding technology, it reformed the current industrial systems, which lead the business’s commodity prices decreasing as growth, flowed. However, this pattern then reversed very much, as the rise of urban cities, which supported the shortages of many useful supplies while putting others such as water and soil under high stress.

For example,

  • Fresh water is vital to help towards human sustainability, so to prevent/reduce the harms for toxic materials to pollute is by integrating an industrial symbiosis. Industrial symbiosis accelerates the transition from a traditional process towards a circular system to achieve a low-carbon, sustainable economy. The potential to reach resource efficiency and cost savings is also essential.
  • Industry ecology is also a system, which leads to sustainability. Balancing technical inputs and outputs to natural levels helps to improve environmental protection. Income generation through selling waste or by-products benefits other industries and organizations and market advantages enhancing their commercial image
  • The widespread acceptance of radial tires (lasting three to five times longer than the older bias ply technology and providing better gas mileage) caused excess capacity in the tire industry
  • The personal computer revolution forced contraction of the market for mainframes
  • The advent of aluminium and plastic alternatives reduced demand for steel and glass containers; and fibrotic, satellite, digital (ISDN).
  • New compression technologies dramatically increased capacity in telecommunication. Wireless personal communication such as cellular phones and their replacements promise to extend this dramatic change.

http://www.historyextra.com/industrial-revolution

2.1.2 The problem manufacturing has on the environment

One of the leading causes of our environmental problems is contributed by the development of the technology used in manufacturing.  Even though technology improved the quality of life that was the main reasons, which led to the industrial revolution, it can also be one of the key factors contributing towards global warming.

Serious problems that occur today that are caused by the industry include

  • Pollution to the environment e.g. water becoming contaminated.
  • Materials being dumped causing soil erosion, which leads to deforestation.
  • Climate change which due to the harmful gasses released by the industries, which can also result in acid rain.
  • Using toxic materials that can hurt our health can bring about growth, and innovation addiction can prompt other medical issues like heftiness and carpal passage disorder.
  • Non-sustainable resources, including valuable metals like gold, are utilized to make innovation. Numerous others, for example, coal, are expended to create the power to utilize innovation. Indeed, even some sustainable assets, similar to trees and water, are getting to be plainly polluted or are spent speedier than they can restore themselves on account of technology
  • Producing innovation makes a lot of waste, and utilized PCs and electronic gadgets get tossed out when they break or wind up noticeably outdated. Called “techno trash,” these gadgets contain a wide range of dangerous materials that are extremely perilous for the earth. They should be discarded using special techniques.

2.1.2.1 Global warming and its relation towards the industry

It is unexpected that a dangerous atmospheric devastation is a consequence of human induced contamination.  As seen some time recently, there are many sorts of ecological contamination and particularly air pollution, which contrarily influence the soundness of nature however do not specifically add to an unnatural weather change.

Modern an unnatural weather change; rather, the fundamental swift an earth-wide temperature boost cause is the expanded convergence of nursery gasses in the environment. The nursery gasses are the by-results of numerous human exercises.  once transmitted, some of these nursery gasses wind up in the environment, where they trap a specific measure of initially sun based energy (which would have generally gotten away to space), and hence send this energy back to the earth raising the planet’s normal temperature.

Along these lines, the principal key an unnatural weather change cause is a flat out reliance of the present day human culture on the consuming of non-renewable energy sources, which is the most vital wellspring of ozone harming substance outflows.  The point of convergence of this cause is the era of Energy for utilize both in industry and business/private segment.

Petroleum derivative ignition is particularly vigorously utilized as a wellspring of vitality for industry. Truth be told, industry truly cannot exist without non-renewable energy sources. As Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principle ozone depleting substance transmitted as a by-result of non-renewable energy source ignition. This gas is the most critical prompt an Earth-wide temperature boost cause.  A few measures of carbon dioxide are expelled from the air by the carbon sinks, for example, tropical rainforests and seas, as a major aspect of the procedure of carbon trade between the climate and the Earth (“carbon cycle”). This carbon trade has been occurring for a huge number of years. It is a certain underwriter of the Earth’s atmosphere security since the measure of carbon on the planet is steady. Carbon is for sure “the concoction premise of all known life”

(Ref. 2). Carbon. (May 18, 2008). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carbon&oldid=213356211

The carbon substance of past living beings has been put away as non-renewable energy sources – oil, gas and coal (ref. 3), which we use in for all intents and purposes each part of our lives. Nevertheless, the issue is that, as Barry Commoner notes, (ref. 4): “The amounts of these fuels burned to provide society with energy represent the carbon captured by photosynthesis over millions of years. So, by burning them…we have returned carbon dioxide to the atmosphere thousands of times faster than the rate at which it was removed by the early tropical forests,”

At the end of the day, a lot of carbon dioxide is discharged at a high rate, and the nature cannot expel it in great time.  This prompts the amassing of additional carbon in the air and, thusly, to an unnatural weather change.

. Colls, J. (2002). Air Pollution, p. 432. New York: Spon Press. Retrieved May 30, 2008 from Questia.com

. Johansen, B. E. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference,p. 5. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved May 30, 2008 from Questia.com

2.2 The Circular Economy and to a new phase of ‘Industrial Revolution.’

Due to the development of technology and the problems it put forth, it led to the start of the new phase of the industrial revolution. Therefore, ideologies that could conserve energy and lead to sustainable environments were much looked-for as it promoted eco-friendly industries at the same lessening the stress it had on the environment. As the sector, evolved new concepts were being introduced one of them being ‘The Circular Economy.’ A system that was more about than just recycling and managing landfills.  In a circular economy, product was being fully utilized as they were either been reused, recycled, remanufactured or sent back into the biosphere so that the resource can be used on earth over and over again.

The circular economy is a process of people making, selling, and buying things is a digital revolution as much as a last/helping the planet one. The beauty of the circular (the process of people making, selling, and buying things) is that it delivers clear benefits for (the health of the Earth/the surrounding conditions) while (at the same time) driving entirely new money income and business models. That is the circular advantage, not only does it fit well in industrial symbiosis (IS) it also, benefits from it as before IS networks had some limitations.

https://www.upmbiofore.com/responsibility/toward-a-new-industrial-revolution/

2.3 The Limitations 

Industrial symbiosis can overcome many of the factors that are cause harm to the environment, but unfortunately, it does not ultimately overcome global warming. Nevertheless, by creating a situation that suits best the environment, it can prevent further damage and maybe repair the ones already caused. Due to limitations towards industrial symbiosis, it is very tough to provide a platform to manage best to decrease pollution, due to the following factors

  • Lack of resources as to some materials needed are expensive.
  • Lack of support from the government.
  • Some industries were not willing to invest in the appropriate technology.
  • Industrial symbiosis a method that only delivers a lot of profit.

Hence, circular economy is a digital revolution that allows profitability and economic growth while spurring job creation and innovation. This helped Industrial Symbiosis in as the public perception of it changed as it brought many benefits.

2.4 Benefits industrial symbiosis has towards the environment and contributing towards manufacturing

This can also be seen as a human-made ecosystem that is designed in a way that can be operated in a similar way through a natural process. The waste or by-product are handled in the way that it’s used as an input into another process. The materials that are removed (the waste or by-product) which are usually disposed of that can cause pollution and cause stress to the environment. Industrial ecology saves these wastes or by-products by putting them back to use it efficiently so it reduces the environmental impact it can have.

Not only does the concept of industrial ecology fully utilize its natural resources, but it also has a close relationship, which maintains a close range of real industrial networks to purely natural ecosystems. Therefore, it covers both industrial technologies and management tools that can benefit the flow of the material analysis. This contributes to the sustainability towards the environmental comprehensive techniques. By this, the design should mainly focus on the material being dissembled and dematerialised throughout a cycle, which lessens the waste being disposed of.

Industrial ecology is a continual state of flux, which closes the loop of anything going out. So the wastes are perceived as a resource. This benefits not only environmental but with other industries to trade by-products, which are used as inputs to other processes.

Mechanical engineering seeks to develop industrial systems in a manner that the ecological system maximizes its productions towards its needs. By integrating mechanical engineering, output and consumption aspect of the design have to be efficiently prepared. This also helps aid the termination of products and services in a manner that minimizes environmental impact.

2.5 Other factors that can be benefitted by industrial symbiosis

  • Cost savings like materials purchasing, licensing fees, waste disposal fees, etc.
  • Improved environmental protection; income generation through selling waste or by-products.
  • Balancing natural industrial inputs and outputs to physical levels, this attains an environmental, industrial edge, which increases the knowledge ecosystems behaviour and recovery time.
  • Enhances the information of the durations and in what manner the industry can interact with natural ecosystems and their existing restrictions.
  • Improved environmental protection.
  • Income generated through the wastes or by-products, which potentially be sold or recycled.
  • Enhances the image of the company commercially as the public saving the environment sees it.

1.4 Overall Aims and Objectives of the thesis

As the report consists of many areas, each section will have its extensive discussion indicating how mechanical engineering fits into industrial symbiosis.

  • The background material of industrial symbiosis
  • What the problem manufacturing has on the environment
  • Literature research into mechanical engineering and how fits into industrial ecology
  • Major factors contributing towards mechanical engineering
  • Through an analysis of case studies to identify what aspects of mechanical engineering enable or constrain moves towards more sustainable manufacturing
  • Discussion and conclusion for the case studies.
  • Summary and conclusion for review.

Chapter 3: The Role of Mechanical Engineering

3.1 Mechanical engineering influence on industrial symbiosis 

Engineering, in general, uses the fundamental knowledge that is studied through science to offer the range of plans so it can contribute towards the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies. Sustainability involves the development and management of sustainable technology, research into environmental and social impacts and management of resources which starts if off. The primary objectives to reach a sustainable environment is to provide the world that offers safe, secure, healthy, productive, and decent life. Engineers prioritize improving and making the basic needs that people need accessible like:

  • Cultivating to avoid water/air pollution through essential routes.
  • Disposing or recycling waste products in a method, it does not affect the environment later.
  • Displaying a hygienic approach that involves some social conducts. Therefore, it slowly gets integrated into the environment.
  • The quality of health and quantity of food being improved which will directly improve the quality of life.
  • Renewable energy being introduced as it is way cheaper than non-renewable and doesn’t affect the environment.

Industrial symbiosis takes all these factors into consideration as it covers most of the sustainability-related topics including life cycle assessment, cleaner production and eco‐efficiency strategies, industrial symbiosis, green chemistry, green engineering and design for the environment, that help conserve resources and mitigate pollution for current and future generations.

Therefore, mechanical engineering then can be factored into these various situations and not only improves but also revolutionizes these aspects of industrial ecology. There comes with a risk of being an engineering as every improvement/development it can affect the public perception and cause it to be very complex for the public to integrate with all these advancements. Therefore, it is very vital an engineer should be trained not just as a real designer of technology, but as a social engineer. According to a national review of engineering education, there are evolving demands for future engineers, including the ability to communicate more clearly, to function effectively in multidisciplinary and multicultural environments.

3.2 Factors that can influence mechanical engineering contribution

3.2.1 Ethical views

Too often people consider ethics in a negative light; they seem to think that doing what is right is an unnecessary limitation of their freedom, requiring them to do things they do not want to do. In some way, this is true but not entirely right. Conflict of interest situations takes place where engineer’s loyalties and obligations may be compromised due to self-interest or other duties and commitments, which lead to biased judgments. Cases in which the proper conduct may be questioned requires that the engineer avoid being put in the position of making decisions, which could be challenged later on.

3.2.2 Social views

Engineering has the vital capacity to help provide benefits to society as the other contributions in this Report demonstrate but it also has a similarly large size to be used to cause harm. It contributes to providing basic needs such as water, food, shelter and energy and does so on the scale necessary for industrial society to function. Engineering and technology are also a crucial contributor to global environmental problems, such as climate change and loss of wildlife. For example, industrial society now emits the equivalent of about 50 billion tons of carbon dioxide each year with the burning of fossil fuels being the main culprit. The resulting climate change is predicted to have huge impacts on both humans and wildlife over the coming decades and beyond with many millions of people at risk. Indeed, a recent report by the World Health Organization estimated that climate change could already be responsible for 150,000 extra deaths every year. Engineering and technology are also key contributors to the global loss of wildlife through their role in activities ranging from industrial deforestation to industrial fishing.

3.2.3 Business/Economically

New technologies and innovations that could change the market and increase or reduce the demand for your existing product or service. Economic growth in an industry can be impacted not only by the environmental effect the goods or services have but also by consumers’ perceptions of that impact. The economic state of the country and consumer confidence can also spur growth and development or harm it. In recessionary times, consumers begin limiting their purchases to the essentials, preceding luxury or big-ticket items. Companies also scale back production, hiring and the development of new products and services to ensure that their finances can weather the storm. In periods of overall economic growth, these companies once again expand.

All businesses experience changes in the general sales environment at some point. These changes could affect the entire economy such as a recession or economic downturn or they might only have an impact on a specific industry or sector. It is important to be alert to possible changes and amend your forecasts and plans to compensate for them to avoid potential cash flow problems.

Development of new technologies can only take place if technologists and engineers have a good understanding of the needs of those who will be affected by the new technologies. Engineering innovations need to respond to social demand while considering ecological and economic principles.

3.3 Other major factors contributing towards mechanical engineering

Mechanical engineering plays a vital role in industrial symbiosis especially as it most of the society methodologies leans towards technological advancements. Mainly industry sectors rely on manufacturing especially the mechanical engineering aspect as it provides a structured approach, distinguishing different system scale levels starting from a unit process focus, respectively the multi-machine, factory, multi-facility and supply chain levels that cover. Therefore, the industry sectors cannot only provide the services to provide goods the goods needed by consumers and manufacturers worldwide, but it also accounts for a significant portion of the employment, community presence, and economic strength.

In the next two decades, almost two billion additional people are expected to populate the Earth, 95 percent of them in developing or underdeveloped countries This growth will create unprecedented demands for energy, food, land, water, transportation, materials, waste disposal, earth moving, health care, environmental clean-up, telecommunication, and infrastructure. The role of engineers will be critical in fulfilling those demands at various scales, ranging from remote small communities to large urban areas, mostly in the developing world.

Therefore, to establish and to survive in the global market, companies have to reconsider their business models and work towards more sustainable industries. Therefore, a strategic scheme must be pursued in order the activities to be enabled a longevity regarding profit, competitive variation and meeting all the other objectives.

One of the biggest challenges for industries in the 21st century is not only to maximize their profits but also to minimize the effects it can have on the environment like resource shortage, landscape changes, and greenhouse gasses emissions. Therefore, Industries try to build industrial symbiosis systems that are grouped together within a vicinity to make savings towards resources needed and transport required. Subsequently, this attracts other industries as they are closely linked together which can have the potential to enhance further synergy developments.

Mechanical engineering brings forth a more sustainable development for societies regarding getting increasing energy efficiency of processing and utilizing the resources available. So more energy regarding development can achieve;

  • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Increase Productivity and Reduced Costs
  • Reduce operating expenses by undertaking initiatives that reduce waste, water and energy consumption
  • Improve Financial and Investment Opportunity
  • Enhanced Brand and Increase Competitive Advantage
  • Attract and retain valuable staff by adopting policies that meet with employee values and concerns

3.4 Energy and sustainable development

It is necessary to in general to secure a source supply of energy that can be developed within the society. Furthermore, sustainable development demands a sustainable supply of energy resources. It is important that sustainable development within a community coming from this supply of energy resources be for the long term. It should also be readily and sustainably available at reasonable cost and can be utilized for all required tasks without causing adverse societal impacts.

Infinite supplies of energy resources can be available at a cheap cost like fossil fuels;

  • Coal,
  • Oil,
  • Natural gas.

Long-term energy sources like sunlight, wind and falling water are considered suitable, as they are renewable. Other sources like wastes and biomass can be viewed as sustainable as they can be converted into useful energy forms, which then can be fully applied to necessary tasks, for example, waste-to-energy incineration facilities.

So society can maximize the benefits that you can attain from these energy resources it should be used as efficient as possible while minimizing the negative impacts it can bring forth. This shows that all energy resources should be fully exploited to its full potential, thus when its full efficiency potential is reached it lets it contribute for it to develop and sustain over an extended period. The benefits can be:

  1. Energy sources that may eventually become inexpensive and widely available.
  2. The increase in energy efficiency will remain required, to reduce the resource requirements energy, material, etc.
  3. To create and maintain systems and devices to harvest the energy, and to reduce the associated environmental impacts.
  4. The role of energy efficiency in achieving sustainable development is less discussed and understood.

3.5 Environmental and sustainable development

The main factors that alarm the environmentally sustainable development that keeps on tarnishing the environment are not sustainable over time. Therefore, a large reason of these concerns are the fact that it often leads over time to a variety of health, ecological and other problems. The problem is society pursues a sustainable development utilizes only energy resources that do not negatively affect the environment. Consequently, all energy resources mostly lead some sort environmental impact so therefore the other way to overcome concerns regarding the limitations imposed on sustainable development by environmental emissions and their negative impacts can be reduced if efficiency is increased. Energy efficiency has a strong relation with environmental impact because, for the same services or products, less resource utilization and pollution is associated with increased energy efficiency.

Improved energy efficiency leads to reduced energy losses because it directly enhances the environment in two ways:

  1. Power input requirements are reduced per unit output, and pollutants generated are correspondingly reduced
  2. Consideration of the entire life cycle of energy resources and technologies suggests that improved efficiency reduces environmental impact during most stages of the life cycle.

3.6 Industrial symbiosis systems and links to eco-industrial systems

1) Mixed-use developments that combine residential, agriculture, commercial and industrial activities onsite.

These parks require a careful evaluation of the activities and processes located onsite that guarantee the safety of all the stakeholders. An attractive design of infrastructures and landscape is also needed to assure a successful combination of activities that could attract companies, residents, and visitors. Illustrative of this kind of combined development is the Fujisawa Factory in Japan.

2) Environmental designed eco-industrial parks.

The design, construction and infrastructure provision in these parks are inspired by environmental criteria and guidelines so that the environmental impact of the park during design, construction and operation phases is minimized. In many cases, a balance between conservation of nearby valuable ecosystems and the development of industrial and commercial activities are expected. An example of this can be found in Dyfi Eco-park in Machynlleth (U.K).

3) Industrial parks designed around a single environmental theme e.g. removable energies, waste management, etc.

This category of estates focuses on the development and clustering of companies around a single environmental theme so that knowledge and technological transfer is favoured and acts as a symbol and pioneering anchor of the sector of activity. The IBA Emscher Park in Gelsenkirchen (Germany) Is an example of this form of development. The estate tenants are mainly companies involved in the development of solar technology and other environmentally-friendly production techniques.

4) Eco-innovation and green technology parks.

Clustering companies involved in research and development activities in the area of renewable energy and green techniques in an estate promotes the technological transfer among businesses and generates spin-off effects in other sectors of business while becoming a local anchor for attracting new businesses and high-tech activities. The Environment Park in Torino (Italy) fits into this category of eco-industrial development.

5) Environmentally-friendly products and processes park.

This category includes initiatives and estates formed mainly by companies involved in green manufacturing and production, where the environmental impact along the product life cycle is minimised.

6) Resource and energy recovery and waste management parks.

Industrial estates formed by a community of companies working in the reuse and recycling sector are included in this category. The clustering of this kind of company in an industrial estate is considered a guarantee of their safety and compromise with the recovery of waste for its use as raw materials in new processes. The London Remade initiative (UK) can be included into this category.

7) Industrial Symbiosis Park.

The most representative type of eco-industrial development is doubtless an industrial symbiosis park based on the connectedness of companies and activities through exchange and cooperative networks. This allows the material and energy exchange among companies and technological and knowledge transfer.

3.6.1 Benefits of eco industrial parks

1.       Corporate benefits

  • Less costs on production as unwanted by-products come at cheap prices.
  • There will be less transportation needed for employees.
  • Less energy will be consumed.
  • Less costs of compliance.

2.       Environmental advantages

  • There will be a decreased demand on natural resources.
  • Toxic gasses causing air pollution will be reduced, so will be solid wastes that can harm the water or environment.

3.       Social benefits

  • Improvement of the economy, which will directly influence the increase in employment.
  • Better and cheaper heating due to the technology and sustainability of the sites
  • Better water, cleaner air this will also directly influence the improvement of the health and quality of the residents.

Chapter 4: Whole system models of sustainable manufacturing

Over the last few years, the very industrial systems function has totally been changing particularly in Europe, as some countries want a more sustainable environment. The modern building uses significant amounts of valuable supplies, creates waste and toxics to the natural surrounding conditions. Some of the raw materials and energy used are non-renewable and often, harmful pollution is vented off into the atmosphere and waste is thrown out carelessly. This practice has resulted in bad problems such as polluted causing acid rain, worldwide warming, (related to the Earth’s weather) change, and concerns about deforestation.

Therefore, to establish and to survive in the global market, companies have to reconsider their business models and work towards more sustainable industries. Therefore, a strategic scheme must be pursued in order the activities to be enabled a longevity regarding profit, competitive variation and meeting all the other objectives.

Therefore, to achieve some sustainability you have to implement a way that reaches a method with the most efficiency and effectiveness use of the limited financial and natural resources available.

To accomplish sustainability many countries have put into a law related to surrounding conditions rules that restricts valuable supply consumption, pollution levels, and waste disposal and encourages users of recyclable materials. Such laws (and law making) often forces people minimum recyclable materials, CO2 and other pollution (GHG) emission, and the disposal of waste and manufacturing.

Today, with increasing knowledge for Earth-health protection, many people who use a service prefer “green” products. The connected goodwill of companies that practice sustainable manufacturing could improve market prospects for their products. Hence, in response to environmental regulations, awareness, and in some cases consumer and community pressures, companies have started to assert sustainability as one of their strategic priorities.

4.1 Possible solutions to manufacturing sustainability

My proposed framework is designed to cater to a flexible scope for a full number of possible situations and different modelling objectives. The framework should apply to modelling sustainable manufacturing from a global level to community level. The proposed scheme is intended to be used to these widely varying levels of detail. The resulting models may be utilized for a range of decisions related to sustainable manufacturing including, for example:

  • Comparative analysis of sustainability policies in considered domains
  • Evaluation of composition of manufacturing industry within a geographical area
  • Identification of strategic manufacturing industries
  • Analysis of environmental impact of new construction sector on a geographic area
  • Evaluation of policy incentives to attract desired construction industry to a state or community.

There is a cross-link between three different areas that all link and come back together to reach a sustainable model for manufacturers. However, there is no direct flow between them as they all correspond each other.

4.1.1 Industrial importance

This is the where all the final products come together and contain all the services necessary for manufacturing to take place. These are all the factors to regulate the level of manufacture

  • Machine size and volume.
  • The number of employees.
  • The kind of level of employees required and if they need the training to carry the labour out.
  • Transport size/distance needed to support the manufacturer’s activity.
  • Renewable energy is available.
  • Manufacturing contributions and the availability of the property.
  • Laws and regulations of the state or region are determining what is legal for the industries to use.
  • Meeting the needs of the consumers and reaching marketing objectives.

4.1.2 Environmental importance

One of the main reason of manufacturing sustainability is to save the environment by reducing pollution. This can be done by if all the old system and reduced by this new model where they clean up the waste and limit the usage rate of the natural resources such as energy and materials by using efficient technology. Until a point is reached that, it is replaced completely by renewable energy.

These are all the factors to regulate the elements affecting the environment

  • Water pollution may influence the flow from clear water route to a polluted water Stock.
  • Avoiding items that damage the atmosphere, such greenhouse gasses, and many other air or living compounds.
  • Land mass and the protection of the plant life, which can also affect animals, especially the livestock.
  • Reducing non-renewable energy, making companies more environmental friendly instead getting rid of harmful waste products that can damage the environment. Water, solar and wind energy should be introduced.
  • The motor vehicles can also be seen as a reason for pollution because of manufacturing transportation.

4.1.3 Financial importance

Finance is a significant factor that has relevance that plays in a sustainable manufacturing model. Funds are essential to pay for materials, wages, taxes, and fines. The resources available for making the operations run day to day better are needed especially when it comes to long-term investments. Operating capital is increased by money/money income from sales and investment income. Some these funds needed/demanded to run the business could be a deciding/figuring out factor in giving out dividends at the end of a period or not. If the net after paying income taxes are below a given level or there has been a loss during the period, no dividends are given.

4.2   Industrial symbiosis success in Kalundborg

The exchange of ‘wastes’ between independent firms in some sectors has been taking place for over a century, simply because it makes good business sense. The establishment of ‘industrial ecosystems,’ however, is a relatively new phenomenon, with the best known example being located in Kalundborg, Denmark. There, an industrial ecosystem has been established which involves an oil refinery, a gyproc factory, a pharmaceutical firm, a fish farm, a coal-fired electrical power station and the municipality of Kalundborg, among others.

At Kalundborg, steam and various raw materials such as sulfur, fly ash and sludge are exchanged in what is the world’s most elaborate industrial ecosystem. Participating firms each benefit economically from reduce costs for waste disposal, improved efficiencies of resource use and improved environmental performance. For example, gas captured from the oil refinery which had previously been flared off is now sent to the electrical power station which expects to save the equivalent of 30,000 tonnes of coal a year. Figure 3 is a flow diagram which represents the industrial ecology system at Kalundborg.

Over the last decades Kalundborg has evolved as an embedded industrial symbiosis network. The development of embedded relations has allowed the progressive undertaking of more challenging cooperation projects and the integration of collaboration into the companies’ know-how. Joint problem solving, trust and tacit knowledge are all mechanisms in place in Kalundborg that contribute to the achievement of the economic and environmental benefits of industrial symbiosis. The IS network has become a generator of “untraded dependencies” (Storper, 1995), contributing to collective learning and the enhancement of tacit knowledge, adding value to the location and the business processes connected through the network. Although, the network is limited to environmental issues, other infrastructural cooperative projects have arisen from it, expanding the business impact of the IS network. Although the scope of the network is mainly local, a number of formal and informal institutions have been constituted to support the operation of the network. Institutional thickness refers not only to formal bodies, such as research institutes, clubs, trade associations or in this case, the industrial symbiosis centre, but also refers to the sense of common purpose and vision shared by the companies, the informal commitment that links companies together and the practices of communication and interaction between industrial actors, regulators and the community, that implicitly and/or explicitly includes IS and cooperation. In fact, as already mentioned, the network has become a key element in the building of legitimacy of the industrial companies and has favoured their integration into the community.

The power station produces other valuable by-products including 170,000 tonnes a year of fly ash, which is used in cement manufacturing and roadbuilding. The wallboard company, Gyproc, uses the power plant’s fly ash to obtain gypsum, a by-product of the chemical desulphurization of flue gases. Gyproc purchases about 80,000 metric tons of this material each year, meeting almost two-thirds of its requirement.

Surplus gas from the Statoil refinery, which used to be flared off, is now delivered to the power station and to Gyproc as a low-cost energy source. Local farmers, meanwhile, make use of Novo Nordisk’s by-products as fertilizers. Industrial enzymes and insulin are created through a process of fermentation, the residue from which is rich in nutrients. After lime and heat treatment, it makes an excellent fertilizer. Some 1.5 million cubic metres a year are delivered to local farmers, free of charge

, the motivation behind the clustering of industries at Kalundborg was to reduce costs by seeking income-producing applications for unwanted by-products. Gradually, though, industry managers and local residents realized that they were generating environmental benefits as well.

This project has enabled its participants to achieve substantial cost savings and to improve their resource efficiency. Gyproc has recorded a 90-95% saving in oil consumption after switching to gas supplied by the adjacent refinery.

In addition to these reductions, the use of the excess heat from Asnaes for household heating has eliminated the need for about 3,500 oil-burning domestic heating systems.

Cooperation between companies in Kalundborg Symbiosis has occurred from the bottom-up, initiated by the companies themselves with continuous support from the Kalundborg Municipality. The close physical proximity of the companies and exchange of resources has resulted in a collaborative mindset among the partners, as they have actively chosen communication, openness and cooperation. This extends beyond the economic benefits involved with the transfer of waste products, surplus heat and water, and these very different companies see the potential of joint-problem solving and development for the area, for example with a recent project to move towards renewable energy sources for Kalundborg.

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