1. The Impacts of Tourism on Socio-Cultural Development in Kenya
With a growing population around the world, as well as an increasing travel and tourism industry, the impacts generated from tourism are on the rise (Mason, 2016). Social impacts of tourism most commonly refer to the changes which occur in the lives of the people living in host destinations (Pizam & Milman, 1986). Cultural impacts of tourism are closely intertwined with this definition as well, witnessing changes to local people’s traditions in the form of their arts, culture and customs (Mason, 2016). Therefore, socio-cultural impacts of tourism are a combination of experiences that are felt and seen as a result of direct or in-direct contact with tourism and how this interaction affects their lives on a daily basis (Moyle, et al., 2010). The impacts can either be positive or negative, with positive impacts being beneficial to the creation of employment in the host destination and negative stemming from the contrast in cultures, especially if the contrast is large (Ooi, 2002). Therefore, the title will focus on the generation of both positive and negative impacts on socio-cultural development that occur from tourism, taking a case study approach with Kenya as the focus due to being a developing country which received a total of $7,432 million dollars from tourism alone in 2017 (World Travel and Tourism Council [WTTC], 2018).
Mason, P., (2016). Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management. Oxon: Routledge
Moyle, B., Croy, G and Weiler, B., (2010). Tourism interaction on islands: the community and visitor social exchange. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 4 (2). pp. 96-107
Ooi, C-S., (2002). Cultural tourism and tourism cultures: The business of mediating experiences in Copenhagen and Singapore. Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Pizam, A and Milman, A., (1986). The Social Impacts of Tourism. Tourism Recreation Research. 11 (1). pp. 29-33
World Travel and Tourism Council (2018). Travel & Tourism Economic Impact Kenya 2018. (Online). Available at: https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/countries-2018/kenya2018.pdf. (Accessed 26th August 2018)
2. The Role of Tourism in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Sustainable Development
CSR is becoming significantly important in tourism due to businesses needing to take accountability and responsibility for the impacts which they produce as a result of tourist activity (Coles, et al., 2013). This is so that they can adopt and become more sustainable in their practices due to tourism growing in many low developing countries (LDC) and an increase in long-haul flights (World Bank, 2005). Sustainable development in tourism has been defined as development which aims to meet the future needs of the current host destination, whilst also making decisions which protect and enhance opportunities for their future (World Bank, 2005; Mundt, 2011). CSR and sustainable development have similar elements where they both focus on identifying stakeholders and the idea that initiatives should be developed to measure and determine the possible impacts which they have on others and the environment (Arnaudov & Koseska, 2012). Currently, CSR and sustainable development must go beyond just environmental protection and address the quality of lives of tourists and residents in the destination (Popa, 2015). Therefore, the title will focus on how the tourism industry is managing and planning CSR and sustainable development initiatives and whether these are effective in reducing impacts and enhancing development to destinations.
Arnaudov, K and Koseska, E., (2012). Business ethics and social responsibility in tourist organizations in terms of changing environment. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences. 44 (1). pp. 387-397
Coles, T., Fenclova, E and Dinan, C., (2013). Tourism and corporate social responsibility: A critical review and agenda. Tourism Management Perspectives. 6 (1). pp. 122-141
Mundt, J., (2011). Tourism and sustainable development: Reconsidering a concept of vague policies. Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag GmBH.
Popa, R.A., (2015). The corporate social responsibility practices in the context of sustainable development: The case of Romania. Procedia – Economics and Finance. 23 (1). pp. 1279-1285
World Bank, (2005). CSR in the Tourism Industry? The status of and potential for certification, codes of conduct and guidelines. (Online). Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEXPCOMNET/Resources/CSR_in_tourism_2005.pdf. (Accessed 26th August 2018)
3. The Role of Tourism in Economic Development
As tourism increases, so does the economic importance and value for a destination (Kim, et al., 2006). International tourists grew by an outstanding 7% in 2017, with 2018 expecting a 4-5% increase (United Nations World Tourism Organisation [UNWTO], 2017). International tourism is recognised for increasing export-led growth in the form of improving efficiency via competition between local businesses (Krueger, 1980) and exploitation of economies of scale in these businesses (Balaguer & Jorda, 2002). The development in tourism has also contributed to the growth in household incomes and government proceeds through the multiplier effect which is often the most profound impact felt from tourism, such as a boost to GDP (gross domestic product) which stimulates other positive impacts in the form of tourism related policies (Kumar & Hussain, 2014). Therefore, the role of tourism in economic development is usually considered positive (Sharpley & Telfer, 2015). For many destinations, revenue generated from tourism is regarded highly important to the livelihoods of people due to its potential to increase employment (Oh, 2005). However, as Sinclair (1998) suggested that economic development in tourism must be viewed from two perspectives which are positive and negative. Consequently, international tourism can also cause the value of goods to rise and local travel which affects residents in the destination (Tkalec & Vizek, 2016). It is also identified that international tourism has the potential to damage assets and resources of a destination which they rely upon for a consistent stream of revenue (Alaeddinoglu & Can, 2011). Therefore, this title will explore the benefits of tourism and how this enhances economic development to destinations as well as considering factors that can also hinder economic development in the future due to a high amount of visits.
Alaeddinoglu, F and Can, A.S., (2011). Identification and classification of nature-based tourism resources: Western Lake Van Basin, Turkey. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences. 19 (N/A). pp. 198-207
Balaguer, L and Jorda, C-M., (2002). Tourism as a long-run economic growth factor: The Spanish Case. Applied Economics. 34 (7). pp. 877-884
Krueger, A., (1980). Trade policy as an input to development. American Economic Review. 70 (2). pp. 288-292
Kumar, J and Hussain, K., (2014). Evaluating tourism’s economic effects: Comparison of different approaches. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences. 144 (N/A). pp. 360-365
Oh, C-O., (2005). The contribution of tourism development to economic growth in the Korean economy. Tourism Management. 26 (1). pp. 39-44
Sinclair, M.T., (1999). Tourism and economic development: A survey. Journal of Development Studies. 34 (5). pp. 1-51
Sharpley, R and Telfer, D., (2015). Tourism and development: Concepts and issues.UK: Channel View Publications
Tkalec, M and Vizek, M., (2016). The price tag of tourism: Does tourism activity increase the prices of goods and services? Tourism Economics. 22 (1). pp. N/A
United Nations World Tourism Organisation (2018). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. (Online). Available at: http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/unwto_barom18_01_january_excerpt_hr.pdf. (Accessed 27th August 2018)
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