Tag: Finance

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Equilibrium Exchange Rate Theoretical Research Review
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Literature review 3.1 equilibrium exchange rate theoretical research review The equilibrium exchange rate (EER) is commonly defined in three ways .The first definition comes from the most common equi...

Foreign Exchange Risk in the Airline Industry
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION Airline carriers sell tickets in many part of the world, and each country has different policies that govern their currencies. Countries such as the Great Britain uses Pounds sterling (BG...

Adequacy of China's Foreign Reserves
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Literature Review focusing on China’s Foreign Reserves The recent surge in foreign reserves of emerging market has revived old debates about the optimal level of reserves. China is a typical re...

Factors Affecting Gold as an Investment Option
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Factors affecting gold (globally) and gold ETFs as an investment option .I have tried to give a detailed description about the factors which moves gold prices globally. Moreover I had put some light ...

Relationship between Financial Constraints and Investment
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: In order to explain the aggregate behavior of investment and production, it is necessary to understand the factors that affect investment. The pioneering work by Fazzari, Hubbard and Petersen (1988) d...

Literature Review of Stock Market Anomalies
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: The history of fundamental analysis as a trading mechanism began with Benjamin Graham in 1928. Graham published his first book, Security Analysis in 1934. This book defined the framework of Value Inv...

Impact of Cross Border Mergers on Shareholders
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Introduction: Companies are involved in mergers and acquisitions to achieve certain strategic or financial objectives. Recent years have seen a huge arise in such activity over £ 1 and half billion w...

Predictability of Stock Returns
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION Many empirical studies have been done to show the predictability of stock returns and plenty of evidence supports that security returns are predictable. Purpose of this paper and summary...

Impact of Capital Structure on Market Value
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Introduction A capital structure is nothing one can touch or see in reality, but it is measured using according and financial information. It can hence be calculated for organisation sophisticated eno...

History of Three Month Klibor Futures Contract
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION 1.1 FUTURES VS of KLIBOR VS Three Month KLIBOR VS Futures Contract Futures are a contract between two parties for one party to buy something from the other at a later date at a price agre...

Literature Review on Holidays and the Stock Market
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: The Calendar Effect Calendar holidays always cause an effect on overall condition of the stock market. Same situation happens to the Karachi Stock Market. The predefined calendar closures always affec...

Impact of Political Instability on Pakistan Stock Market
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: INTRODUCTION: The topic of my research is Impact of political instability on the performance of stock market of Pakistan. To my opinion, political instability is a situation where by a country is curr...

Importance of Ratio Analysis in Evaluation of Firms
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: This study aims to define the importance of ratio analysis in evaluation of firms’ financial position and performance, second, to identify that which ratios have a significant role in the predi...

Free Cash Flow and Capital Spending Relationship
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between free cash flow and capital spending; evidence from the Automobile industry of Pakistan. Capital spending is strongly and positively associ...

Is the Small Firm January Effect an Anomaly?
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: The main target of this paper is to find evidence of January effect especially in small size firms and to look for proper explanation for this phenomenon from existing literature. The structure of the...

Investor Perception and Financial Reports
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: The prime objective of this study is to examine the perception of investor pertaining to the availability, adequacy, and usefulness of information disclosed in the financial reports of companies liste...

IPO Performance on Indian Stock Market
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: The main focus of this research is to examine the IPOs Performance in Indian Stock Market. Taking the IPOs listed on National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) market during the 200...

Institutional Holdings and Corporate Governance
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Corporate governance paradigm is based on the argument of Berle and Means (1932) that separation of ownership and control leads to the problems associated with agency theory so that the managers of a ...

Literature Review on Credit Derivatives Swaps (CDS)
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Credit derivatives swaps (CDS) are the main pillars in the credit derivatives market and represent about half of its volume (George Spentzos, 2005). A CDS is a bilateral contract between a protection ...

Models to Describe Interest Rate Uncertainty
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Introduction An interest rate is the rate at which interest is paid by a borrower for the use of money that they borrow from a lender. Interest’s rates are fundamental to a capitalist society. I...

Comparison of Fundamental Analysis and MPT
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Theory The stock investment process looks considerably different depending on the investor’s belief about market efficiency. The discussion in the academic literature about whether the stock mar...

Determinants of Dividend Policy
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: Literature Review On Determinants Of Dividend Policy LITERATURE REVIEW The roots of the literature of determinants of dividend policy relate to the linter (1956) who conducted a traditional study on ...

History of Financial Ratios
6th Dec 2019
Introduction: In the beginning of nineteenth century essential improvement in ratio analysis occurred. In this period few developments are endogenous. First, large number of ratios was conceived in comparison to ea...