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14–19 Age Range: Policies and Legislation for Student and Teachers

Info: 9131 words (37 pages) Dissertation
Published: 10th Dec 2019

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Tagged: EducationSocial PolicyTeaching

Unit 34: Working with the 14-19 Age Range in Education and Training

(1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)

Task 1: Carry out a research and write a report on the following:

   National policies and initiatives for the education of the 14–19 age range

   Legal framework and key legislation relating to teachers working with the 14–19 age range

Include at least 2 of the following current national policies and initiatives:

  • Widening Participation, Success for All, Skills for Life strategy, 14-19, Curriculum (Curriculum 2000), Every Child/Learner Matters, Apprenticeships, meeting Ofsted schools standards, addressing needs for social and workforce developments, blended learning approaches, Wolf Report, PLTS (personal, learning and thinking skills)

Report on national policies and initiatives for education of 14-19 learners with emphasis on Every child matters and Apprentice


Every Child Matters: (ECM) is an initiative of the UK Government for England and Wales that was launched in 2003. A government green paper was issued in 2003 called Every Child Matters as a formal response to the report on death of Victoria Climbie, the girl who was horribly abused, tortured and killed by her great aunt and her husband

This initiative could be considered the doyen of development program related to child and child services in the last decade and has been described as a “maritime shift” children and families which was the title of three government documents the Children Act of 2004. The Children Act 2004 provides services provided to children and youth by local authorities and other agencies and requires that “they work together to improve the well-being of children in the region. Each child involves children and young adults up to the age of 19 or 24 years for persons with disabilities.

Its main objectives are to provide the support needed for every child, regardless of the context or circumstances:  stay safe: to be protected from harm and neglect, To be in a good health, Enjoy and achieving: to get most of life and develop skills for adulthood,  making a positive contribution: able to involve in community and society and not engage in anti-social or offending behavior, Achieving economic well-being: children should not to be prevented by economic disadvantage from achieving full potential in life. A useful acronym to remember the 5 objectives is SHEEP – Every child should be: Safe, Healthy, Enjoy / Achiever, Economic, and Positive Contribution. These goals are the benchmark for ambitions of reference for all children and youth, regardless of context or circumstances.

These themes are embedded in a framework that is required for multi-agency partnerships to work together to achieve same goals. This framework was proposed in the green paper and it’s referred to as a common evaluation framework; The CAF is a shared assessment and planning framework for use in all childcare and all local areas in England.  CAF is a standardized and non-bureaucratic approach to assessing a child’s additional needs and determining how these needs should be met.   It is can be that professional’s inability or failures to work in cohesion with each other’s roles or work together in an effective and non-bureaucratic manner that precipitated changes. ECM seeks to change this by emphasizing that it is imperative for all practitioners that work with children to have full understandings of the contribution that could be made through their own services and services and to plan their work with children and young people accordingly.

The primary objective of ECM is to make sure that every learner has the opportunity to work to achieve their chosen ambitions. To make sure that these objectives are realized, most of the initiative has been made to laws and the directives within, apply to England and Wales, and all schools present have put in place the policy; it has also been influential in the rest of the UK and in some independent schools.

However, since the creation of the Cameron Department in 2010, there have been some changes to the initial emphasis and how Every Child Matters is funded, government now prefer sending health checks for the child to health visitors in their more traditional setting (the child’s home) and subsidizes the independent choice of parents for child care, through tax credits because it is no longer than funded a centrally.


  • Apprenticeship:

Apprenticeship is a framework to learn a trade skill. The age range 14-19 years old forms the core of school leavers. This is learners that chose not to remain in the mainstream school or seeking work by willing to join a fulltime or work-based route to further their study.

Programs for this age group are usually vocational or academic based. The main providers are further education sector or private training provider. An apprenticeship tends to be fulltime and is funded by skills funding agency. The academic subject is usually delivered within sixth form colleges, academy or schools.

Priority areas are based on the national and local skill needed and funding is provided. The different college has to plan their curriculum according to the trend. A provision that is not a priority is offered on self-financing basis. These groups of learners need personal development towards adulthood. Most of them are adolescent and hormones play a big part in influencing behaviors at this age, therefore learning and teaching method are influenced and should be flexible or changeable to take this into consideration. It is my role as a teacher to develop learner autonomically and independently to prepare for this age range towards self-development. These age groups need to be seen as work in progress rather than ready to follow the path to the chosen subject. This is a group in transition from childhood to adulthood. Most of them need structure guardian and direction, they will benefit from Tester opportunity. Therefore, the teacher involved with this group is expected to be well grounded and be ready to experiment. Unlike adults, 14-19 years are still transitioning; they don’t have career plans and need to be guided and allowed some time to develop whilst reaching adulthood. Unlike adult that is mostly learned cantered, 14-19 may have to use varied learning method; such as peer feedback and another model to meet their specific needs and keep them motivated. I must consider, identify and reflecting on my choice of teaching and learning strategy in promoting a shared responsibility for learner to create successful outcome

  • Include at least 2 of the following current provision, e.g. National Curriculum in schools, focus on academic performance(GCSE/AS/A Levels), national vocational qualifications (NVQ), work-based learning post 16, Foundation Learning, Key Skills transition to Functional Skills, ‘taster sessions’, age restriction on workplace and work-based learning, structured work experience, academics, city academies.


Current provision for 14-19 learners with focuses onNational curriculum and work-based learning



  • National curriculum: To understand the 14–19 education in its current provision one would have to review the historical development from the end of compulsory schooling and the completion of study based on the National Curriculum, to further education, lifelong learning and training, and progression to sixth form studies, further and higher education and the workplace. It builds on the National Curriculum at Key Stages 1-3 and provides the foundation for adult lifelong learning and training in all its forms.  It is during the 14-19 stage that many young people gain the qualifications which form a foundation for their future learning and careers. As important as forming the foundation for future learning and entry to the workplace, 14-19 develops the Key Skills which prepare young people to be able to engage and participate fully in adult life, family life, citizenship, an increasingly global society, workplaces, and the wider community. 14-19 education has the potential to contribute positively towards realizing social cohesion, social justice, and an inclusive society.

Adequate provision will need to be built-in throughout the education system in order to provide appropriate support for all young people to the age of 19 and eliminate issues which have traditionally posed barriers to learning and training.

The 14-19 curriculumThe 14-19 stage should be defined by a broad curriculum for all learners offering a balance between a general education entitlement—which provides a solid foundation of ‘general’ knowledge and skills which are transferable to a variety of settings, and high quality ‘vocational’ —and ‘applied’ options which are more channeled towards the world of work.  The curriculum should be based on an entitlement for all learners within a framework of structured choice, and would not stream individual students into narrow pathways which were exclusively ‘academic’, ‘vocational’ or ‘occupational’. All young people need skills which equip them for the world of work and for careers which meet their abilities, talents, and aspirations. But all young people further need the wider skills which enable them to play a full part in society outside the world of work. The NUT and UCU believe that a key historic weakness of the British system of education has been a failure to recognize that this full range of skills is important to every learner and that too often the curriculum and qualifications system fails to sufficiently connect some of these skills for some learners. The curriculum should balance breadth with depth as learner’s progress through the various levels of attainment of the 14-19 stage. While learners will increasingly specialize as they progress through the levels of achievement, their studies should retain a focus on broad, transferable Key Skills regardless of their specific learning programmed.  The curriculum throughout 14-19 should enable clear progression routes to be identified. Progression routes open to students should not be so narrow as to leave them at learning or career ‘dead ends’

Work-based learning post 16 (WBL) is an educational policy that provides students with an experience from learning to the work role with the objectives of gaining real-life work experiences where they can apply academic and technical skills and develop their employability. Three strands have been identified: learning for work, learning at work, and learning through work’ (Brennan and Little 1996, p.8) but it does involve providing the opportunity for people to undertake higher level learning to develop knowledge as well as vocational, professional and technical competencies so that they can apply these more effectively to work. So the learning needs to be relevant to the requirements of the employer. Example of how to strategies:  WBL can be arranged in a formal way for apprenticeship, work placement or an informal learning on the jobs. Apprenticeship is an initiative to learn a trade skill. The age range 14-19 years old forms the core of school leavers. This is learners that chose not to remain in the mainstream school or seeking work by willing to join a fulltime or work-based route to further their study. Programs for this age group are usually vocational or academic based. Their main providers are further education sector or private training provider. An apprenticeship tends to be fulltime and is funded by skills funding agency. The academic subject is usually delivered within sixth form colleges, academy or schools. Priority areas are based on the national and local skill needed and funding is provided. Work placement as a programme of studies; where leaners are full-time employees, and most of the fieldwork and researches are carried out in the student’s job placement. Platform for Professional course Preparationis a situation where full-time students have access to learning on the job such as in industrial, commercial or service work placement as a part of their higher learning studies or a major constituent of a program of study.  Access to higher learning: where learners’ experience outside school is fully accredited by an institution of higher learning, to gain access to that institution.

  • Include at least 3 of the following legal framework and key legislation: equality and diversity, Equality Act 2010, Every Child/Learner Matters, Equipping our Teachers for the Future, CRB requirements, duty of care, KS4 requirements, Ofqual, inclusive practice, education acts, Kennedy, Wolf


Report on the legal framework and legislation, reference 14-19 learners with focuses on CRB requirements, Equality and Diversity and The Equality Act 2010

  • CRB Requirements:  The Criminal Records Bureau is an organization established by the home office to conduct criminal checks on potential teachers or employees to ensure that unsuitable people don’t gain access to working with learners, children or vulnerable people in the society.  Its primary objective is to keep safe learners, children and vulnerable people from abuse; it was formed under Part V of the Police Act 1997 and was launched in March 2002, due to public concern over children safety. Within its framework, the checks are conducted routinely to filter out the unsuitable.  Further,  to achieve an inclusive, practice a teacher should take into consideration the requirement set by criminal record bureau as a model in which to sure the organization safe guiding policy are effective and inclusive. By doing so, I will keep my organization free of many administrative irregularities as well as incompetence and harmful people. This would reduce the risk of harm so that my learner does not experience victimization or discrimination due to violent behavior, abuse or bullying in the classroom. The procedure also ensures that the learners are protected in the classroom from harmful people.

Equality and Diversity: Equality is the state of assurance that every individual or groups of individuals are fairly treated and nobody should be discriminated against, thus, to promote equal society (University of Edinburgh 2005).Within the framework of law, it states that every individual should have equal opportunities and protect individuals from being discriminated against by way of bullying or victimization. It proffers protection from being prejudiced against because of association with others.  stipulated in its framework are nine characteristics of evaluations that prevent an individual from being discriminated against. These categories are; age, disabilities, gender assignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion and belief, sex, sexual orientation Age: The equality Act 2010 stipulates, that an individual should not be discriminated against for being of age or with age range, an example of these, a job offer to the individual should not be based on age consideration factor. Disability: The Act also states that a person should not be discriminated against because of physical or mental disabilities, even if the impairment has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on their ability to carry out  activities in a  normal  way on a daily basis, e.g. blindness shouldn’t be a reason why  a person is not to offer opportunity to secure a job. Gender reassignment:A person should not be discriminated against just because he or she is proposing to undergo or has undergone a process for of reassigning their sex, i.e. transitioning from one gender to the other (male to female or vis versa). A person should not be penalized or dismiss from their job because of sex change. Marriage and civil partnership:Individuals are protected under the Equality Act 2010 from being prejudiced against because they are married or are in civil partnership. Also, same-sex couples and the non-the same-sex couple should be treated equally, an example of these, if same-sex couples living together and one of them were to die, the partner should be considered for the beneficiary rights as with non-same sex couples.   Enshrined in the Act, is the empowerment to seek redress from discrimination where it can be proven. Pregnancy and maternity: Under this equality Act, 2010 women are protected from discriminated against, or not begin treated fairly because she is pregnant, or because she has given birth or breastfeeding.  If she suffered prejudice because of her condition, the law states that he or she has been treated unfairly or unfavorably (citizen’s advice 2015). Race:The equality Act 2012 state that individuals shall not be discriminated against because of the race, color or nationality. A person should not be refused a job because of skin color. Religion and belief:The Act 2010 protects the individual from suffering discrimination because his or her religion and belief, essentially, a person should not be refused a job purely because of his or her religious belief i.e. Christian, Muslim, Hindu etc. Sex:The Act of 2012 state that a person shall not be discriminated against because of his or her gender; a man should not be paid a higher salary than a woman for the same job description especially if there is parallel in qualification and experience. Sexual orientation: The equality Act 2010 protects a person from discrimination because of his or her sexual orientation. Sex preferences should be respected and treated equally and fairly; sex attractions to the same sex or non-same sex should be treated equally; a person should not be a sanction or dismiss if he reveals that he’s Gay or homosexual, that would be against the equality act 2010. Discrimination breed negativity in an organization and it also induce low productivity. Discrimination does not promote a safe and productive environment for learning. Indeed, there is law in place to discourage the discrimination and protect the vulnerable and promote total inclusion, Therefore, for total inclusion to thrive teachers should put into practice the principle of equal right; treat all learners equally, make the environment of learning comfortable.  

Diversity Aims at recognizing, respecting and valuing people differences to contribute and realize the full potential, thus promoting inclusive culture (The University of Edinburgh 2015). In understanding the full depth of diversity, one would need to consider the following point:  Celebrate Differences-We must celebrate differences, it is only through accepting other people culture and differences that will produce a conducive environment for learning. We are all different and we can learn from one each order.According to Yahiya, (2015). We should celebrate the cultural diversity of the people around us. We should find out what we have in common, often what we have in common far outstrip our differences, of course though, our differences make us unique, example, one of the most popular cuisines in the UK is Curry. Curry is not traditional British cuisine, however, because of diversity and mix culture we have come to embrace and appreciate the taste of other culture.  Positively, in present-day Britain many people are multilingual. Leaning other languages has become easier because our different culture is all intertwined.  Thus, have to increase us in knowledge and experience. As a teacher, I will endeavor to create a learning environment where the learner can achieve regardless of their background, to meet the need of my students. I will utilize the gifted students in helping the weak student at the same time harness the strength of the gifted students by challenging them with extra work. I recognize that every individual learner is different and learn at a different pace that said I will work towards meeting individual learner range and learning needs. The range of student and learning needs:  To explore students learning needs because every student learns at a different pace. To bridge the gap, students should be supported to break down any barrier that inhibits there learning progress, example, providing more challenging work to the talented students, also provide an access to learning for students with a disability. A learner with a disability such as dyslexia should be supported by creating a learning environment that is adopted or modified to encourage inclusive practice, resources, and curriculum that is relevant and appropriate for the disabled learner (Wilson, 2014). Diversity in race, culture or religion resulting in a difference in perspective and perception: Self-perception plays a major role in our ability to embrace diversity. Our race, culture, and religion sometimes define who we are, thus resulting in differences in perspective and perception which are visually shaped by the environment we grew up in, our family structure and our value system.

Equality of Act, 2010,   The Equality Act 2010 has three objectives;to make simple with clarity and consolidate the law also to strengthen the lawand to harness progress in promotingequality and achieving improved outcomes regularly. It defines learner’s right to equality and explained how learners are protected from discrimination, harassment, bullying or victimization. The law made clear that every learner must have equality of opportunity to learning. This is to ensure that the learning environment is fully inclusive to meeting the need of all learners, particularly those that arise from their ethnic heritage, social and economic background, and gender, level of ability or disability. It ensures that the practice of learning provided focuses on anti-discriminatory practice, and to harness equality of opportunities and to value diversity for all learners. It ensures that all learners have equal access to a curriculum which meets their needs and enables them to achieve their potential by eliminating prejudice, discrimination, and harassment of any kind. I will also collaborate with relevant staff in the organization thereby creating equal opportunity. I will focus on removing barriers to learning and adopting a holistic approach to support each individual learner. As part of my teaching practice, I will track and monitor al learners in my care and intervene to meet individual needs, and remove barriers which inhibit learning. I plan to provide differentiated task activities and resources which support all learners to take an active part in their own learning to achieve their full potential. I will ensure that the learning actives utilize a range of learning and teaching approaches which meet the need of learner with different learning style. I will ensure that all learning resources and activities, communication and assessment procedures are free from discrimination and biases, but actively promote and celebrate diversity and inclusion.


Word count – 1500 -2000

Evidence: Report

Drawing on your research, write a reflective journal on your own role and responsibilities in relation to working with the 14–19 age range and evaluate the impact on your own practice of the legislation relating to working with the 14–19 age range

  • Address at least 4 of the following role and responsibilities in your reflective writing: working within organisation policies and procedures, meeting requirements of compulsory sector, acting in loco parentis, promoting inclusive practice and student inclusion, challenging inappropriate behaviors, celebrating successes, encouraging self- and peer assessment, encouraging reflective practice, enabling opportunities for building study skills and functional skills
  • Also, address how at least 3 of the followinglegal requirement impact on your practice: recognition of qualified teaching status for teaching 14-19, establishing relevant guidelines and codes of practice, sector-specific CRB checks, meeting Ofsted schools standards, up-dating personal and professional skills when dealing with young people, retraining in required personal skills, developing appropriate learning and teaching strategies.


Word count – 1500 -2000

Evidence: Reflective writing



Task 2: Analyse the relationship between schools and other providers of learning for the 14–19 age range

  • Research and write a report on at least 3 of the following:  widening choices, developing links to industry, alternative to academic for those wishing to continue formal vocational education, more specialized teaching, opportunities for applying learning in employment context, increasing level of challenge, higher-level qualifications, working towards providing skilled workforce, increasing flexibility of provision.
  • Report on the relationship between schools and other providers of learning for the 14–19 age range with focuses on widening choices, working towards providing a skilled workforce, opportunities for applying learning in employment context


  • Widening choices:   Being efficient in delivering curriculum management planning, student support, staff expectations and school leadership, Schools can significantly influence how young student decides choice. It can be said that when students felt supported in decision-making by the school, they tend to be more influenced by school factors -teachers and the careers education and guidance provisions available and less reliant on external factors such as friends and family. That said, the influence of parents and careers of young people’s choices at age 14 leaners is somewhat significant.  Contextualizing young people decision-making mechanism; the young student tends to require more time to make career decisions, and they do respond very well to having quality and impartial conversation with the teacher about courses information and career pathway. The quality of teachers impute goes a long way to helping to make an informed choice. Importantly, school children varied in the way they make a decision and not many of them are skilled in decision making, therefore, their decision making depends on curriculum planning and the level of support available to them the time of deliberation. Often Young people mindset to make a sustain decision is marred making by constant fluctuation in their interest, this including those who seemed to initially know what they want, the majority would still make decisions differently.  These issues suggest that that approaches to support needs to vary and the type of support be different at a different stage.  In chosen subject, a collaborative relationship between school and other providers need to be forged closely. The student Age 14 would require supports and adequate information in choosing the appropriate subjects, understanding the content and the criterions. Hence, the involvement of other providers to create sustainability. We have to remember this stage is a crucial period in their educational development, it is important for the young student to get the support necessary to help them in choosing the appropriate subjects for future sustainability. Facilitate support for learners with opportunities to learn to develop and progress through meaningful engagement with the world of work including the use of employers within curriculum delivery. Young people’s decision-making is influenced by their own unique characteristics. Whilst some have clear career goals, others have a less fixed pathway in mind: both of these mindsets need to be catered for when supporting their choices. Some have decided planner mindset- and some have comfort seeker mindset.  Relation to the subjects that young people choose to study, young people opt for particular subjects and types of course and qualification for differing reasons, and in this respect, they are no different from their peers who choose the GCSE and A-level pathway. In some cases, young people opt for certain subjects and courses because they are directly related to a future career path they are interested in pursuing. For instance, young people following the Young Apprenticeship program in the engineering or automotive skills sectors tended to consider moving onto an Apprenticeship in the same vocational area, after the end of compulsory education (O’Donnell and Golden, 2005). Some young people may choose particular courses because they contribute towards a future career plan, without involving direct study in that area. For instance, young people who choose to study chemistry at school may do so as a means towards studying (and ultimately following a career in) veterinary science, rather than with the intention of pursuing
    a career in chemistry (Lord et al., 2006).  However, in other cases, young people choose particular courses and subjects in order to keep their options as open as possible. This tended to be the case for those young people who opted for post-14 courses in areas such as business administration, information technology, or creative and media studies (O’Donnell and Golden, 2005). 
  • Working towards providing skilled Workforce:  Workforce development is a policy strategy that involves Government, employer, school and individual learner to collaborate in the development of skills for employability and sustainable economic growth. To contextualize the needs for workforce improvement and skills needed for employability amongst 14-19 learners and economic growth nationally;  the following action should  be deployed – the workplace must be engaged  as a platform to provide a learning environment to develop and also to improve the different type of skill and knowledge needed by 15-19 learners to face the real world of employment. This involves strategies:  Active learning in the workplace to develop skills and competitiveness to improve performance in the current role or in a new role in the near future. Education and training pursued by current learner/employees leading to qualifications related To job knowledge and skills,  learning which is promoted by the company and is located or marketed within companies. Learning in the workplace is an important part of workforce development, but there are other ways in which the workforce may be developed and a wide range of methods may be used.  Learning Method used for effective outcome in Workforce development involves; (1) job training conducted by and specific for the employers, and (2) also through generic vocationally related skills. This may include knowledge, competence, and skills needed to perform a set ask, basic skills, transferable skills, interpersonal skills, reasoning, and judgment, coordinating skills, information skills, originating skills, core skills, key skills. Some of these skills are associated with employability, adaptability; change management; social and team- working skills; thinking skills Benefits:  to individuals -it enhances learner/employee competence, confidence, and skills and improves the recruitment of quality workers.  It engages and motivates the employee. Benefits to employers; it reduces recruitment cost, it also improved and increase productivity and efficiency of employers, It increases the economic development.
  • Opportunities for applying learning in employment context: This highlights the learning outcomes for careers and the world of work. For learners aged 14–19 to develop the awareness of careers and the world of work and how their studies contribute to their readiness for a working life. Developing thinking skills, opportunities are presented by schools through the curriculum for the learners to develop and apply their thinking processes of planning, developing and reflecting which is going to be required in their careers and the world of work.  In the world of work learners would need to respond to others as well as to their own work, therefore it is an invaluable learning process for learners to be presented with these opportunities to learn and develop thinking skills applicable to a different segment of life. Developing communication skills through the curriculum opportunities are presented to learners to practice, develop and apply skills of speaking, listening, reading, writing, and oration. This can be achieved through reviews of their work and also of others. The objectives are to help the learner to develop effective communication skills that can be applied in various section of life. These skills, if it’s well developed through practice within the learning environments and beyond, could be a very useful process l in their careers and the world of work.  Developing ICT skills – opportunities for learners to develop and apply their ICT skills as designed in the school curriculum to find and resolve problems by using a wide range of equipment and software. These skills are important in their careers and the world of work, this is more so as learners would need to apply technology to do research and to have a good understanding of work-related matters. They also use it to record and present their work appropriately, ICT can be used selectively and efficiently to find, develop and synthesise information so that it can be ideal for their work Developing number skills –opportunities for learners to develop and apply number skills as design in curriculum in order to use mathematical information, calculating, and interpreting and presenting findings.  This would enhance learners ability explore and analyze data relevant to their needs in their careers and the world of work.   They should be given the opportunity to seek information.  In developing the number skill learners should be given opportunities to select and interpret data about learning and career opportunities. They should also be encouraged to examine employment and learning opportunities and trends.  Personal and social education development:  opportunities for learning, for learners to promote their health and emotional well-being and moral and spiritual development.    Careers and the world of work contribute to learners’ personal and social education through contacts with the world of work and by challenging stereotypes. It also provides opportunities to develop their understanding of social interaction through working with others.

Word count: 500 – 750

Evidence: Report


Task 3: Analyse teaching, learning and assessment approaches for use with 14–19 learners

  • Your analysis for Teaching and learningshould address experiential (Kolb), ILT (information and learning technology) and at least one of the following: learner-centered to develop cognitive and psychomotor skills (Bruner), multisensory approaches, workshops for practice of skills, project work to develop research skills (GENERIC)


  • The Analysis of Teaching, learning, and assessment for use with 14-19 learners with focus on Kolb Theory, and  ILT (information and learning technology)

“Learning is the process, where knowledge is created through the expressions of experience” (Kolb, 1984, p. 38). Therefore, teachers must pay great attention to developing a learning environment that’s appropriate for learners to succeed.  To achieve this, teachers must adopt a holistic approach to teaching, learning, and assessment;  they must ensure  to provide an effective learning  opportunity for learners –  provide each learner with a personalized experience which supports development, achievement, and progression; it is important to Provide a customized and differentiated teaching, learning and assessment to match each learner`s needs and interests. Also, to Support the development of personal, learning and thinking skills including independence in learning. To Provide appropriate additional learning support to support individual development and progress and to make sure that all learners, as required to gain access to and achieve high-quality skills that enable young learners progression to the world of work or and higher education, to gain qualifications which are tailored to their individual needs and interests. Facilitate support for learners with opportunities to learn to develop and progress through meaningful engagement with the world of work including the use of employers within curriculum delivery.  To improve the quality of student learning; the teacher must understand the relationship between learning context, perception, and evaluation of context and student approaches to learning on learning outcomes.

Kolb’s theory: In 1984 David Kolb publishes a version of learning styles:  he said for effective learning to be seen,  that learner must progress through a cycle of two-level stages. In his theory, he developed the learning style inventory which entails dealing with learners mental process mechanism.- Kolb states, that the advancement t of new ideas is supported by new experiences. The two-level stages in his theory were referred to as; (1) four stages of experimental learning cycle and (2) four separate learning style.Description of  Experiential Learning Cycle; involve four elements (1) concrete learning: is explained  as situation learner perceive new outlooks to existing experience, (2) reflective observation: expressing personal experiences to an encounter, (3) abstract conceptualization: to develop new ideas on reflection of an existing idea,(4) active experimentation:  situation where learner would interject renewed  ideas to his environment and hope that it may generate a modified result in future encounter.  Kolb (1974) perceive learning to be a connected process with each stage complementary to the next, there is no specific sequence in entering the cycle of learning. However, effective learning only occurs when a learner is able to execute all four stages of the model. Therefore, no one stage of the cycle is effective as a learning procedure on its own. Description of Learning Styles: Essentially, to provide each learner with a personalized experience and to Provide a customized and differentiated teaching, learning and assessment to match each learner`s preferred method. These are the four learning styles to be considered:  Diverging styles – they like to adopt a practical approach to issues and keep an open mind. They would rather watch and they are good brainstormers, they often perceive thing in a different context, they are also very imaginative and could be considered a team player. Assimilating learners are said to be direct and logical. They focus their minds pertinently on ideas and concepts but less focus on people. Converging learneris a problem solver and will use their ability to resolve practical issues. They prefer technical tasks and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects.  They thrive with practicals to solving problems. social or interpersonal issues is not their forte.  Accommodating learners are spontaneous and would act on instinct, they use interpersonal ideas to resolve issues. Logic is not their forte. Information learning technology- (ILT) Another way for learning platform to be effective for 14-19 learners; is to encourage the use ILT. To develop a highly effective e-learning platform that supports independent learning, to make provision of high-quality electronic progression, assessment and tracking systems. More importantly, to make sure that all teaching staff is working to reduce any achievement gaps between different groups of learners on their programs.


  • Your analysis for assessment should address initial or diagnostic to establish needs, formative to encourage learning, use of peer-assessment, self- assessment to build confidence, summative assessment to measure achievement, online testing and at least one of the following: project based to allow building of understanding, observation of practice to allow skills development and holistic approach, norm or criterion referenced to suit needs and context


Analysis of assessment

  • Online testing can be an effective media for initial and diagnostic assessment e.g. reference my initial assessment at LSME, was tested in literacy, numeracy and IT to determine my level. I also use observation or interview when initially assessing. The observation or interview will indicate the learner’s prior knowledge or skills. Initial anddiagnostic assessment establish creed of your learner, therefore it is vital when designing or planning a program for your learner. When assessing I also use peer assessment and self-assessment to build confidence and give a relaxed environment for learning. Peer assessment and self-assessment can lead to a reflective practice, this can improve your practice. It gives you the ability to judge oneself and can be used for critical analyses of the individual learner. Peer assessment and self-assessment is also useful when evaluating new teaching method of approach. Learners do benefit from peer assessment, they are able to share information and development, therefore, it is important to continually monitor or assess b Test or verbal questioning inform of formative assessment to ascertain if the learner is achieving and happy. It also gives you a good indication of learners progress and indicates if learner requires a change of approach. Firstly, I conduct an initial assessment of my learner and then design a plan to meet their need. I  also use formative assessment to measure my learner’s progress during lesson session and use summative assessment at the end of the course by Test or exams. This done at the end of the course to know the outcome of which a pass is given and the certificate is awarded. A judgment is made at the end of  the summative assessment on knowledge or skills  leading to results and reward

Word count: 1000

Evidence: Report

(3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2)

Task 4. Plan, deliver and assess learning sessions for 14–19 learners, taking account of:

•own analysis of teaching, learning, and assessment approaches for use with 14–19 learners

•curriculum requirements

•individual learner needs

Evidence: Complete a Lesson Plan and submit an Assessor’s Observation of your teaching practice

Evaluate own practice in working with 14–19 learners and identify areas for improvement in own practice in working with 14–19 learners


Evidence: Complete a Self Evaluation based on your teaching practice

5.1 Own practice, e.g. planning variety of appropriate learning and teaching activities, the timing of activities, sequencing and pacing to specific learning group needs, actively engaging students, embedding functional and wider skills.

5.2 Assessment methods, e.g. engaging students, encouraging self-assessment, check-and-correct, medal-and-mission, standards of observation of practice, online testing, achievements, value added.

5.3 Improving own practice, e.g. liaising with others, working with 14-19 specialists, identifying opportunities for CPD, researching issues affecting 14–19 age groups, observation or work shadowing, awarding organization events, retraining.





Candidate’s name: Beaulah Anderson Date:

To be completed by the candidate at the end of the teaching session:

  • Provide both positive and negative feedback and give examples from your session to illustrate your points
  • Suggest how you intend to improve future sessions and identify your future personal development aims
Planning: Did your plan meet the needs of every learner during the session? Evaluate how your plan met individual needs.

The planning that I design after my evaluation met the needs of my learners during the lesson.  Firstly, I assess my learner to determine prior knowledge or skill and subsequently design a … scheme of work to meet their needs. This includes learning methods been defined.

Justify your selection of resources for the session. Where possible, analyze how effective the resources were in supporting the session delivery.

After my Learners had been assessed and their specific need indicated. I chose to use appropriate resource to meet their  need e.g. the use of slides with appropriate color on paper that is user-friendlyto dyslexia and learners with vision and hearing impairment 

Teaching: Justify and evaluate your selection of teaching and learning approaches for the session.

The method I used was a collaborative and exposition method. Also, used learner-centered approach. I ensure that learners get involved and learn from each other. I took shy learners into consideration by organizing a group activity to encourage and motivate them to speak to other learners.

Evaluate the effectiveness of your teaching and suggest how you would modify the session to make it more effective.

I observed that learners were keen to participate in group activities. They discuss and learn from each other in the session. The learning environment was good, and learners especially the 14-19 were able to work together to achieve their goals.

Evaluate your own communication skills and identify how you could improve. How could you overcome any barriers to effective communication next time?

During the session, I communicated using language familiar to the14-19 learners. I made sure that they understood the content in given time.  I spoke loud and clear enough to be understood. I got them engaged in adopting the learner-centered approach and group activities.

Explain how you used feedback and questioning In your session to support the assessment of learning. Where possible, analyze how the feedback and questioning contributed to learning.

Peer feedback was a helpful learner; they assessed each other and therefore express appreciation of their peer’s opinions.  They also valued their peer feedback and that consequently spared them to improvement.

Use the points to be considered to evaluate the effectiveness of the assessment methods used in working with 14–19 learners.

5.2 Assessment methods, e.g. engaging students, encouraging self-assessment, check-and-correct, medal-and-mission, standards of observation of practice, online testing, achievements, value added.

Using feedback from others (including learners, peers and your tutor) evaluate how you could improve your own practice in working with 14–19 learners. Reflect on how effective others thought you were and suggest modifications to your teaching as a result.

Leaners within the age range of 14-19 years value the opinion of their peer; as such feedback from their peer motivates them. Also, they tend to rely on their peer’s feedback to assist them in making decisions.


5.1  Own practice, e.g. planning variety of appropriate learning and teaching activities, the timing of activities, sequencing and pacing to specific learning group needs, actively engaging students, embedding functional and wider skills.

PLANS FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT. From your evaluation above, what main points will you take forward to help with being a more effective teacher next time?


Identify areas for improvement in own practice in working with 14–19 learners and use the points to be considered to plan for this improvement. You need to set an achieve by date for each point to be considered used.


5.3  Improving own practice, e.g. liaising with others, working with 14-19 specialists, identifying opportunities for CPD, researching issues affecting 14–19 age groups, observation or work shadowing, awarding organization events, retraining.

From October 15 to November 15, 2017, I will attend a specialist course for dealing with 14-19 years learners with emotional and social problems. This will assist me in  understanding this group of learners and hope to  improve my teaching method and  approach to dealing them, with the primary objective to meet my learner’s needs.


Candidate’s signature:  Date:

Assessor’s signature:  Date:

IQA’s signature (if sampled):  Date:












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Teaching is a profession whereby a teacher will help students to develop their knowledge, skills, and understanding of a certain topic. A teacher will communicate their own knowledge of a subject to their students, and support them in gaining a comprehensive understanding of that subject.

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