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Bullying Risk Factors, Effects and Interventions

Info: 7597 words (30 pages) Dissertation
Published: 10th Dec 2019

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Tagged: ChildcareEducationPsychology

The Effects That Bullying Has Produced In Society

Abstract

The prevalence of bullying within society has increased in different forms of victimization. Research has brought changes and insights to the problems of bullying.  Additionally, research has identified the various forms of bullying that most often occur in the schools. Cyber, physical, verbal, and social are common forms of bullying that are more likely to occur in the schools.  Individuals who are more susceptible to being bullied include people who are perceived to be different, disabled, and weak, have low self-esteem or lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth.  Finally, research has identified that the effects of bullying harm the perpetrator, victim, and the witness.  Harmful consequences include poor academic skills, physical, behavioral, or emotional disorders such as depression or substance abuse.  These consequences can be detrimental and of extreme concern to society, since many young people have turned to violence or suicide.

Literature Review

Introduction

Bullying is a harmful offense that according to PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center.org (2017a) is described as “repetitive behavior that harms or hurts another person physically, socially or emotionally; and is an imbalance of power in which the target cannot stop the behavior and defend themselves” (para.2).  Additionally, it can be a social problem. It affects all those who are involved including principals, social workers, teachers, and the schools.  Bullying can change or ruin the lives of many people in a harmful or tragic manner.  Many long or everlasting detrimental effects occur as a result of bullying.  Poor mental health, behavior disorders, and loss of academic interest or skills are associated with bullying.  Additionally, there is a strong correlation between school violence and suicide (Allison, Lester & Notar, 2015a).   It is crucially important for students, and their families to understand that there are many resources and help available.  To broaden the perspectives and knowledge on bullying, this paper will focus on its definitions, roles of bullying, characteristics and environmental factors that influence and develop bullying.  Moreover, prevention or intervention resources and programs, have been effective in teaching parents and students how to take the appropriate steps to act on decreasing bullying, suicide, and school violence.

 

 

Literature Search Strategy

The search for relevant literature that I accessed included: Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, and Google as the main search engines.  I used the following key terms to access data related to bullying: Prevalence of bullying, history of bullying, development of bullying, and statistics of bullying, risk factors associated to bullying, short and long- term effects of bullying, what parents should know about bullying, research on bullying, trainings on bullying, suicides and violence from bullying, laws and policies on bullying, characteristics on bullying, misperceptions of bullying, types of bullying and roles of bullying, and interventions and preventions on bullying.  Because of the extensive amount of online literature available, I limited the year range to 2014-2017.  I reviewed the National Bullying Prevention Center, Stop Bullying.Gov and the American Psychological Association, International Journal of Education and Social Science.  Since the National Bullying Prevention Center, Stop Bullying.gov, and the Upper Iowa University Library provide many resources, articles, and journals on prevention, education, and support for parents, students, and educators, the literature was extremely helpful in obtaining recent and relevant data, statistics and current solutions or interventions on Bullying.

 

 

Evolution of Bullying

Background

Allanson, Lester, and Notar (2015b) noted that research since the late 1900s has brought great changes and insights to the problems of bullying.  They explained that Dan Olweus was a professor of psychology who created the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP).  Through his research, significant changes were regulated within the schools that implemented safety, and the reduction of school bullying (p.33).  The authors indicated that other programs were further developed from his research.  Along with these changes, the definition of bullying was also expanded to bring the awareness and immediate attention that was direly needed in the schools (p.31).  According to Allanson et al., (2015b) bullying was considered and perceived to be a childhood rite of passage” that “made kids tougher ” (p.33).  However, they contended new facts and perceptions.  Bullying can have everlasting effects that affect an individual who is being bullied; such as poor health or behavioral disorders, mental health or depressive disorders along with poor academic interests or skills (Allanson et al., 2015c, p. 35).  Additionally, in the United States in 2006, a campaign by the National Bullying Prevention Center was held during the month of October.  National Bullying Prevention Center is a parent training and information center located in Minneapolis, which serves families, youth with disabilities and young adults across the nation.  Additionally, the History of National Bullying Prevention Month (n.d.), explained that many associations have united together to decrease and prevent bullying:

The National Bullying Prevention Center has partnered across the United States with education-based organizations such as the National Parent Teacher Association (NPTA), American Federation of Teachers and National Education Association to raise awareness and provide support and essential resources on how to better address bullying behavior. (History of National Bullying Prevention Month, (n.d.), para.2)

Furthermore, they have partnered with other world technology communication advancements such as Facebook, Disney, Instagram, Cable News Network (CNN), The Learning Channel (TLC) and Yahoo” to disseminate in our communities the importance of education and awareness in decreasing or preventing bullying amongst the communities. (“History” (n.d.), para.2).

Definition

Bullying may come in different forms and with different misperceptions.  It is more complicated to describe because it is no longer limited to the school grounds.  Additionally, the meaning has evolved over time.  Allanson et al. (2015e) described the old-fashioned meaning of the word in a positive sense.  They explained that from the 1530s through the 17th century, it was associated with “sweetheart, fine fellow, and blusterer ” (p. 31).  Since then, Allanson et al. (2015f) indicated that the definition has evolved to include characteristics that indicate; “repetitive behavior that harms or hurts another person physically, socially or emotionally and an imbalance of power in which the target cannot stop the behavior and defend themselves” (p. 32).  They explained that other definitions also include the type of bullying.  For example, was the bullying overt and direct with aggressive behaviors that include physical and aggressive contact towards the individual, or was it covert that involved gossiping with emotional-social interactions?  Was the intent of the bullying willful, knowingly and deliberately to hurt or harm the target?  Another implication they indicated is that bullying not only affects students who are involved but also those who have witnessed the act (p. 32).  Additionally, there are major differences between bullying, conflict, and harassment, which must be considered along with the nature and scope of how the harmful act of bullying was performed (Allanson, Lester & Notar, 2015f, p. 32).

          Roles of Bullies

According to PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center.org (2017b), there are three main roles that develop from bullying situations: the victim, witness and, the initiator.  They asserted that the initiator’s behavior of bullying is behavior that can develop from labels and expectations (para.1).  Additionally, Cross (2017d) explained that a power imbalance amongst peers might develop feelings of anger, resentment, guilt, or shame. He explained that these feelings unfold into bullying incidents (pp. 10-11).  What are the Causes of Bullying (2017a) also identified many other variable factors such as jealousy or frustration, lack of understanding or empathy; attention seeking, control or family influences may all influence the likelihood of bullying.  They indicated that students who experience difficulties, lack support or family issues in their home environment, may feel powerless, and a tendency to easily become upset or angry (para.2).  Yet, the notion that bullies have low self-esteem is not accurate.  A study by Juvonen (2012), a professor of developmental psychology and her colleagues from the University of California, Los Angeles, (UCLA) indicates that most bullies are very popular in school and have “almost ridiculously high self-esteem ” (UCLA Newsroom, 2012, para.3).  What are the Causes of Bullying (2017) also pointed out that being bullied by someone else might be a reason that compels kids to bully others.  They maintained that parents or other family members could be very influential and powerful role models in influencing negative or abusive behavior on children, especially in bullying.   They explained that children usually want to imitate behaviors that are exemplified to them by the parents or other family member and can become poorly influenced (para.8).  In conclusion, they asserted that children who have experienced bullying from an authority figure are prone to bully others in an attempt to claim authority for themselves (para.4).  They explained that the bully gains reinforcement from bullying by gaining attention, control or unintentional rewards (para.9).

Victims of Bullying

PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center.Org. (2016) reported that “more than 1 out of every 5 students reports being bullied” (para.1).  They also indicated that 64% of the children who were bullied claim they did not report it while 36% reported the bullying (para.4).  So, why do some people get bullied and others do not?  Even though bullying comes in many various shapes, forms, sizes, and personality traits, they reported the characteristics that made the victims more often susceptible to bullying include 55% looks, 37% body shape, and 16% race (para.7).  They described other factors such as disability, and gender.  The American Psychological Association (APA, 2017) explained, “that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth are more likely to be targeted for bullying” (para.24).  Additionally, they reported that 80% of the youths have reported a form of harassment or bullying. Bullying is in every community across the nation and has been a problem in society.  According to Cross (2017a), some victims may have experienced depression or another form of mental health disorder, while others may experience substance abuse, violent behavior or, poor academic skills.  He further indicated that a student’s ability to focus and concentrate could become distorted if they worry about being threatened by a bully.  According to him, if they feel inadequate around their peers or in a hostile environment, this may develop truancy issues.  He reported that 4,000 teens commit suicide and approximately 160,000 kids skip school to avoid being picked on by their peers (pp.10- 26).  No one deserves to be bullied because they are different, over or underweight, looks different or because they belong to a different race or culture.

Witnesses of Bullying

The Bystander Archives (2017a) indicated that students who witness the bullying could have a major influence on the situation.  They advised that a witness could either prevent or encourage the behaviors (para.1).  Sometimes, it may be difficult for the bystander, or they may be presented with conflict by intervening or standing up to the bully (para.10).  It is in the best interest of everyone involved, to help de-escalate the situation and demonstrate that bullying is unacceptable behavior.  There may have been situations in which the witness walked away from the situation because they may have been afraid to be considered a tattletale or snitch (para.8).  Unfortunately, many times witnesses do not have a choice of escaping the possibility of becoming a target or fighting back. On the other hand, they may regret not discouraging or anonymously reporting it (para.4).  The Bystander Archives (2017b) explained that not knowing if they will be the next target or not may produce anxieties, fear, depression or another form of guilt may occur if the witness chooses not to discourage the behavior, or makes no attempt to defend the victim (para.9).  Finally, it is also possible that a traumatic event the bystander may have witnessed can trigger previous distressing or harmful events that they have suffered.  Essentially, bullying not only affects the victim but also the witness, the bully, and everyone else (para.6).

The Most Common Types of Bullying

According to Cross (2017b) regardless of the type of bullying that a student has experienced, it is significantly important it is taken seriously and reported so that it can be addressed accordingly.  Most importantly, it is crucially important to be empathetic and conscious towards the pain, humiliation and, emotions that the victim is experiencing (p.23).  He described the different types of bullying, which include cyber, verbal, emotional, physical and, sexual.  Furthermore, he explained the differences in bullying that exist amongst boys and girls.   According to him, he reported that boys tend to be more physical by intimidating, hitting and pushing, while girls are more verbal and spread rumors or gossip (p.23).

Verbal

PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center.org (2017c) reported that “verbal bullying is the most common and easiest form to inflict on other students because it is quick and direct” (para.1).  The Center explained that even though girls may be more prone to name calling, boys also like to use name-calling and threats.  However, girls like to gossip for social control and power (para.1).  The choice of words can either be painful or demeaning and can emotionally hurt someone’s feelings, or they can be supporting, encouraging or loving.  Furthermore, Lehnardt (2016) explained that negative or insulting words can be internalized and affect a person’s self-esteem into adulthood. Additionally, she indicated that girls are more likely to be more indirect and to use other emotional forms of bullying (para. 5).

Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is another common and serious form of bullying that according to Cross (2017c), it is becoming more prevalent as students get older.  He explained that people use media devices to post intentional or demeaning comments or gossip via the Internet to hurt or embarrass someone (p.23).  Also, Online Bullying (2017) estimated that 43% of adolescents experience some form of cyberbullying (para.2).  They indicated that cyberbullying is different from verbal bullying because it is often anonymous, or the bully may use a false name and identity.  Because of the anonymously sent message, they assume that they will not get caught.  However, modern technology has advanced so far that there are ways to track the message back to the sender.  Additionally, many other people view the message that was posted on the social media site and continue to virally spread it.  Consequently, because many public agencies and organizations also use social media to network, the cyber bully postings can be viewed and essentially affect future college applications or jobs for the bully (Online Bullying Statistics, 2017).

Physical and Sexual

PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center.org (2017d) indicated that physical bullying is obvious and intentional harm towards the victim.  It includes physical contact involved such as hitting, kicking punching or stealing the victim’s personal belongings (para.3).  Sexual bullying or assault is in the same category of physical bullying because they both involve unwanted, forced physical contact.  Comments, inappropriate physical contact or glances or sexual jokes can all be considered a form of sexual bullying.  Additionally, sexual assault is more common in teenagers and is very uncomfortable for the victim to talk about (para.4).  According to Lehnardt (2016b), sexual cyber bullying or derogative cyber messages can result in criminal charges and register as a sex offender (para.33).

 

How Bullying Affects a School Climate

School Bullying (2016) indicated that bullying; harassment or any other hateful offense is harmful to a student’s physical, social, psychological or academic capabilities.  Whether it occurs in the cafeteria, locker rooms, bathrooms, classrooms, or hallway it can disrupt the learning process or environment (para.18).  They reported that 70.6 % of students have witnessed bullying and that “1 in 5 admitted to bullying or being bullied” (School Bullying, 2016, para.13). Cornell & Limber (2016) explained that the state and federal laws have helped in the fight to change the culture of bullying by holding schools contingent to funding.  Every school must have a zero-tolerance policy that addresses bullying conduct (para.5).  The harmful acts and words that bullies use to hurt other students can leave an everlasting emotional or physical pain.  In addition, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (CDC), (2016) also indicated that it could negatively impact a student’s academic access and performance in school.  CDC also explained that physical or mental health problems are associated with bullying, so the student may experience other psychological effects such as depression, bed-wetting; sleep disturbances, fear, or anxiety and poor school adjustment.  Likewise, CDC reported that the bully might also be at risk for negative health effects or substance abuse, which can develop long-term academic problems or violence into adulthood (para.3).  In reality, while some students can escape or outgrow being victimized; others are not that fortunate and turn to other desperate or tragic measures (Allanson, et al. 2015c).

 

School Violence and Suicide

Bullying Statistics (2016) reported a strong correlation between bullying, suicide, and violence.  They indicated that 87 % of school shootings are influenced by revenge towards those who have hurt them and 86 % turn to lethal violence.  Additional factors that also contribute to school violence and suicide include physical or emotional abuse at home, delinquency, and depression (para.8).  Violence is not the only negative effect or statistic from bullying.  Suicide Archives (April) indicated that suicide is likely to be thought of and attempted by those who are bullied by their peers.  They reported that over 4,000 young people have committed suicide each year in the United States (para.3).  Furthermore, they explained that traumatic events such as rejection, failure, guilt, or the loss of a boyfriend or girlfriend can trigger a student into suicidal behavior.  Moreover, they described other underlying causes; such as mental health disorders such as depression or bullying, or being a member of the LGBT population can increase the tendency of suicidal behavior (para.6).  Gunn III and Goldstein (2017) reported that social experiences are also likely to influence suicidal behaviors.  They noted that differences exist amongst socialization and gender-specific expectations.  Because females are taught to, directly and indirectly, value relationships they may become more emotionally distressed and report higher levels of depression with suicidal thoughts.  On the other hand, males focus more on dominance, competition, and physicality; and externalize any problems or act aggressively.  Males use lethal means or firearms more than females.  Hence, suicide rates are higher in males than females (p. 86).  Sadly, in 2015, suicide was on the rise in Southeast Wisconsin.  Fox 6 News.com (2015a) reported that a total of 71 kids and teenagers who committed suicide and died became a public health crisis that affected everyone.  According to Fox 6 News.com (2015b), the ages ranged in years from 19 with 11 being the youngest victim of suicide. Unfortunately, the report also indicated that nearly half of them had barely celebrated their 16th birthday (para.8).  Of all the 71 unfortunate losses, the loss of 14-year-old girl from Racine brought a lot of public attention in an attempt to end the crisis in the school (Fox 6 News.com, 2013).  Lexi Lopez was a 14-year-old girl who was a transgender and suffered a lot of pain from being a victim of bullying (para.6).  According to the news report, she was bullied one too many times.  If she had sought help would she have had a happy ending to her painful stories?  What if she did seek help and her parents or other educators did not listen to her?  Perhaps she was told to just ignore them and walk away. Regardless of what is considered socially acceptable, absolutely no one deserves to be bullied to an extreme point where the victim considers or attempts suicide or any other form of self-harm.  The news reported that one positive result of this tragic loss is that the students in the school are developing the Lexi Project.  The intent of the project is to address the issues of bullying and sexuality in the schools (para.1).  Additionally, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender organization from Racine explained that they would be working with the school Principal, students, and educators on issues of bullying (Fox 6 News, 2013).  Similar to Lexi, another transgender student from the same school killed himself by suicide.  According to Fox 6 News (2015c), “the student who was loved by a lot of people wrote on one of his notebooks, that he wore a mask every day and pretended to be happy” (para.5).  Martina Gollin- Graves, the President of Mental Health America of Wisconsin indicated that teenagers are not resilient and suggested that as a whole society, “We all have to do a better job at understanding and recognizing the warning signs and acting upon what we think we’re seeing even if we’re wrong” (Fox 6 News, 2015b, para.8).  Most students who are bullied usually wear a mask to hide away the fear or shame that they experience from being bullied (para.6).

Findings

In an attempt to gain a better understanding of the link between youth bullying and suicide, the different sources were used.  After evaluating the resources, data indicated that bullying could have negative health and behavioral outcomes.  Additionally, mental health disorders along with bullying can influence suicidal behaviors (Cross, 2017a, pp.10-26). These effects can have detrimental impacts on the bully, victim, and the witness.  From these sources, the following facts on bullying were obtained.

Allanson, Lester and Notar (2015b), noted that bullying was considered and perceived to be a “childhood rite of passage” that made kids tougher (p.33).    Additionally, through Dan Olweus’s research, school safety was implemented and reduced school bullying (p.33).  As a result, other programs were further developed and expanded on the definition of bullying.  Furthermore, Allanson et al., (2015c) indicated that there is a strong correlation between school violence and suicide (p.33).

The American Psychological Association (2017) explained, “lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth are more likely to be targeted for bullying” (para. 4).  They reported that 80% of the youths from the LGBT population have reported a form of harassment or bullying (para.4).  Additionally, Fox 6 News.com (2013) concurred by reporting the death of Lexi Lopez, a transgender student who brought much attention to the public health crisis linked to bullying.  Seventy-one students between the ages of 19 and 11 committed suicide in Southeast Wisconsin (para.6).

PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center.Org (2016) reported that 64% of the victims who were bullied did not report it.  However, only 36% reported the bullying (para.4).  They reported that characteristics that made the victims more susceptible include (1) looks, (2) body shape, and (3) race (4) lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) (Para. 7).  Victims or witnesses do not always have a choice to escape.  Either they do not know how to stand up to the bully, or they are afraid.  As a result, bullying is not always reported (The Bystander Archives, 2017).

School Bullying (2016) reported that bullying is harmful to student’s physical, social, psychological or academic capabilities (para.18). Their report indicated that 70.6% of students witnessed bullying.  However, “1 in 5 admitted to bullying or being bullied” (para.13).  In the United States, over 4,000 young people have committed suicide each year (Suicide Archives, April).

David Cross (2017b) explained that 4,000 teens commit suicide and 160,000 students skip school to avoid from being bullied. Additionally, he indicated that differences exist amongst bullying in girls and boys.  Boys tend to be more physical such as hitting, pushing, or intimidating.  Alternatively, girls tend to be more verbal and gossip or spread rumors (pp. 10-26).

Gunn and Goldstein (2017) noted that social experiences are also likely to influence suicidal behaviors. He explained that differences exist amongst socialization and gender-specific expectations. Females tend to internalize emotions more and report higher levels of depression and distress with suicidal thoughts while males are more dominant, competitive and physical; and tend to externalize problems or act aggressively.  Additionally, suicidal rates are higher in males than females because males use more firearms or other lethal means than females (p. 86).

From the data gathered, bullying is a social problem that has gained much national attention.  Regardless what the motive is, whether it is for power, control, jealousy, differences, or prejudices.  Consequences such as behavioral, emotional or physical disorders can occur as a result of bullying.  In conclusion, bullying is harmful and aggressive behaviors that can change or ruin an innocent life.  The following recommendations are made to decrease and prevent bullying within the schools.

Recommendation # 1

Cross (2017c) contended that the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) is an instrumental program in bullying prevention.  OBPP was designed in the mid-1980 for students in the elementary, middle and high school grades.  Furthermore, out of the 32 bullying prevention programs, in 2006, OBPP was the only one that made the surgeon generals best practice list (p. 41).  A major component and strategy in Olweus’s theory is empowering students.

He indicated that OBPP promotes equality and empowers students with strong, healthy and positive peer relationships and self-perceptions by eliminating social barriers within the schools.   Social support, weekly meetings, and everyday rules can be found on the walls throughout the school to help and guide students and teachers with information on how to react to bullying and victimization.  Furthermore, the weekly meetings provide students and teachers with an opportunity to learn more about how to prevent, diffuse and protect against bullying through different strategies like role-play as an example (pp. 28-38).  In addition, four main principles that can guide in establishing a safe and bully-free culture within the schools include the following:

1) Gain enthusiasm and positive interest from the adults or parents in the school, 2) firm limits in place that define unacceptable behavior, 3) consistent consequences enforced when unacceptable behavior occurs, and 4) positive adults within the school that serve as role models and    disciplinarians. (Cross, 2017e, p. 38)

Cross (2017f) explained that school statistics reported the effectiveness of the OBPP bullying prevention reductions in bullying of 53% in 20 months.  From a financial perspective, OBPP costs over $3,000.00 just for one school.  However, this includes implementation, teacher and classroom guides, weekly lessons on prevention strategies and on peer relationships for 500 students, and 30 teachers (pp. 39-44).

Furthermore, the four main OBPP rules that are heavily emphasized and can be found throughout the school also include:

  1. We will not bully others, 2) we will try to help students who are bullied, 3) we will try to help students who are left out, and 4) if we know somebody that is being bullied, we will tell an adult at school and an adult at home. (Cross, 2017e, p. 42)

 

Recommendation #2

Another intervention approach that Clark (2017f) advocated for was The Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS).  He explained that is an instrumental program in bullying prevention.  PBIS emphasizes the importance of a safe school environment and promotes a positive approach to students, to improve and decrease bullying within the schools.  In addition, PBIS discourages challenging behaviors and imbalances of power or conflict amongst peers by empowering students with strong positive peer relationships and self-perceptions (pp. 11-12).

According to Cross (2017g), PBIS is a research-validated program that fosters building a positive school environment and is designed to teach:

  1. Student’s to be respectful of all student’s, 2) a three-step response- stop, talk and walk to minimize potential reinforcement when they encounter disrespectful or problematic behavior, and 3) train and promote changes in staff behavior to positively impact student outcomes. (Cross, 2017g, pp. 44-45)

The outcome positively impacts by decreasing bullying, aggressive behavior problems, student discipline referrals, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation, and concentration (p.41).

Finally, Cross (2017h), pointed out that PBIS is inexpensive, for just a few hundred dollars, the cost considers materials for the creation of signs, banners, or logos.  It is nationally recognized as an effective program that meets the credentials for government funding.  More than 16,000 schools throughout the United States have implemented PBIS to promote a positive approach to decrease bullying and improve their school culture (pp. 45-46).

Recommendation of Primary Solution

Previous studies from PBIS prevention programs indicated that the program significantly contributes positive results in strengthening student’s self-perception and in developing positive peer relationships.  Furthermore, the program has been recognized as a valid system that promotes and implements for everyone in a school, the essential components on how to intervene in bullying incidents.  Components also include training and development that focus on how a teacher’s behavior can have an influence on the student.  To make a positive impact, it provides the teachers with the tools and strategies on how to teach the student, as well as take a proactive approach to teaching (Cross, 2017g, pp. 44-45).

Another component the program implements, is the inclusion of all students.  This component is important to implement amongst students to decrease social imbalances or barriers that may produce the feelings of jealousy, power struggles or insecurity in a student.  On the other hand, by considering a student’s emotional, physical and social feelings, it will provide a student with the autonomy and satisfaction necessary to decrease or prevent behavioral issues such as bullying (Cross, 2017g, pp. 12-15).

Even though OBPP and PBIS may have many similar components and strategies, PBIS is economically affordable.  For just a few hundred dollars, the entire school culture benefits the incentive of a positive school culture, compared to OBPP, at $3,000.  However, because all school communities are different, finding the right anti-bullying prevention program should involve the input of all school and community stakeholders.

Conclusion

Bullying was considered to be a childhood rite of passage that made kids tougher (Allanson et al., 2015b).  However, research since the late 1900s has brought great changes and insights to the problems of bullying.  New facts are that many long or everlasting detrimental effects occur as a result of bullying.  Poor mental health, behavior disorders, and loss of academic interest or skills have been associated with bullying.  Additionally, there is a strong correlation between school violence and suicide (Allison, Lester & Notar, 2015a).  Even though state and federal laws have helped in the fight to change the culture of bullying, violence and suicide remain high amongst youth.  From the data gathered for this paper, 4,000 teens commit suicide each year and 87% of school shootings are influenced by revenge towards those who have hurt the victim (Cross, 2017a).  Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) and Positive Behavioral Intervention Supports (PBIS) are instrumental in preventing bullying and decreasing suicide and violent rates.  Both anti-bullying programs emphasize the importance of promoting a positive approach to students.  These strategies improve and decrease challenging behaviors and imbalances of power or conflict amongst peers, all of which may influence bullying behaviors amongst peers.  In an attempt to decrease suicide and violence rates amongst teens, it is crucially important for students, and their families to understand the anti-bullying resources and programs available to them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Allanson, P. B., Lester, R. R., & Notar, C. E. (2015a). A history of bullying. International Journal of Education and Social Science2(12), 31-36. Retrieved from http://www.ijessnet.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/5.pdf.

 Allanson, P. B., Lester, R. R., & Notar, C. E. (2015b). A history of bullying. International Journal of Education and Social Science2(12), 31-36. Retrieved from http://www.ijessnet.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/5.pdf.

Allanson, P. B., Lester, R. R., & Notar, C. E. (2015c). A history of bullying. International Journal of Education and Social Science2(12), 31-36. Retrieved from http://www.ijessnet.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/5.pdf.

Allanson, P. B., Lester, R. R., & Notar, C. E. (2015d). A history of bullying. International Journal of Education and Social Science2(12), 31-36. Retrieved from http://www.ijessnet.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/5.pdf.

Allanson, P. B., Lester, R. R., & Notar, C. E. (2015e). A history of bullying. International Journal of Education and Social Science2(12), 31-36. Retrieved from http://www.ijessnet.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/5.pdf.

Allanson, P. B., Lester, R. R., & Notar, C. E. (2015f). A history of bullying. International Journal of Education and Social Science2(12), 31-36. Retrieved from http://www.ijessnet.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/5.pdf.

American Psychological Association. (2017). Bullying and school climate. Bullying and climate are linked to children’s academic achievement, learning and development. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/advocacy/interpersonal-violence/bullying-school-climate.aspx.

Bullying Statistics – No bullying – Bullying & Cyber bullying resources. (2016, October 19). Retrieved from http://nobullying.com/bullying-statistics-2014/.

Cornell G. Dewey, Ph.D, and Limber, P. Susan, Ph.D. (2016, February). Do U.S. laws go far enough to prevent bullying at school? (Vol. 47, No. 2). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2016/02/ce-corner.aspx.

Cross, D. K. Jr. (2017a). The effects of a bullying prevention program and a positive behavioral program on the self-perceptions of building positive relationships among middle school students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/doctoral/1538/.

Cross, D. K. Jr. (2017b). The effects of a bullying prevention program and a positive behavioral program on the self-perceptions of building positive relationships among middle school students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/doctoral/1538/.

Cross, D. K. Jr. (2017c). The effects of a bullying prevention program and a positive behavioral program on the self-perceptions of building positive relationships among middle school students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/doctoral/1538/.

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