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Application of Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training

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Published: 10th Dec 2019

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  Introduction This writing explains the understanding and proper application of important theories, principles and models of learning in education and training; explaining ways that the theories, principles and models of learning can be applied to teaching, learning and assessment and models of learning preferences with emphasis on the explanation of how identification and taking account of learners’ individual learning preferences enables the topic of discussion. It also reveals efficient application of theories, principles and models of communication and ways they can be adopted to teaching, learning and assessment. Better understanding of theories, principles and models of assessment and, the ways they can be effectively applied in assessing learning. This report is being culminated with the detailed analysis of the theories and models of curriculum and development, the ways they can be well used, and the understanding of the theories and models of reflection and evaluation within my area of specialism.         1. Understanding the Theories, Principles and Models of Learning in Education and Training Learning can efficiently take place when the right strategies identified are effectively garnered and applied (Anderson, J.R., 1994). Therefore, acquiring any knowledge as it should be certain basic and relevant theories, principles and models of learning have to be put in place to ensure the absolute acquisitions and understanding. These theories, principles and models can be in different forms depending on what is needed to be learnt and to what they are to be applied (Corbett, A.T., 1994). This writing explains the needed and applicable theories, principles and models of learning needed to be engaged to give a proficient and detailed analysis of various means of optimum knowledge acquisition in education and training. They are: 1.1 Theories, principles and models of learning According to Anderson, J.R. (1994)procedural and declarative knowledge are theories, principles or models which identifies and differentiates the qualities of both procedural and declarative knowledge and how they can be well applied. 1.1.1 Procedural v Declarative knowledge: These have differences as declarative knowledge deals with the factual knowledge and the information that a person has/possesses. While procedural knowledge is the knowledge on how to perform certain activities. According to Anderson, J.R. (1994), all knowledge was initiated as declarative knowledge while procedural knowledge is acquired through illation from existing knowledge because it’s done without any attention to an action done and the reason why things are being done e.g. riding a bicycle. I ensured that my students are well informed with the necessary materials for knowledge required for their tuitions and allowed them to actively involved in and with it. All skill being learnt started as declarative knowledge, giving my students necessary information of what to learn like how to read and assimilate effectively, Deborah, L.J. (2014). The instruction given by me to the students is declaration knowledge while the acquisition of the knowledge by the students through their involvement in class drill for thirty minutes each time we met for lecture and allowing each student to present what he/she has learnt for ten minutes for assimilation and retention of what is learnt. This is procedural knowledge. I ensure a combination of the declarative and procedural knowledge because declarative knowledge has to be present to form procedural knowledge as learning the declarative knowledge provides the platform for procedural knowledge. The facts and information given to students to learn can be retained by them as they are refined to be assimilated and later expressed as part of them. There are benefits associated with the emphasis of procedural in my tuition, Kannan, A. (2014). They include: Declarative knowledge
  • It encourages dependency, telling me what to do and think attitude.
  • It is easily forgotten
  • It depends on authoritative instruction
  • It gives itself to elaborate grading and ability grouping.
  • It permits teacher to be the dispenser and arbiter of knowledge.
Procedural knowledge
  • It is self-directed and foster personal efficacy.
  • It allows long-term retention.
  • It uses teacher’s role as enabler, facilitator, stage manager, resource and guide.
  • It depends on modeling & modeling from teachers.
  • It is flexible with an open-ended, spontaneous, continuous and dialogic context.
(b) Skills Development Skills can be developed when certain principles are put in place (Gagne, R., 1985). Some models e.g. conditions of learning states that there are several types of learning which require different levels of instructions. This is categorised into: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitude. Each of these learning types requires conditions which are internal and external e.g. to acquire attitude the student must be exposed to a persuasive argument or credible role model. It shows that the cognitive strategies of students can also be improved by creating a space for them to practise developing new solutions to challenges/problems. Learning task for intellectual skills of students can be organised in a hierarchy by complexity according to stimulus recognition, response generation, procedure following, discrimination, terminology usage, concept formation, rule application and problem solving. Gagne theory as applied on my students, outlined  these instructional events  with corresponding cognitive processes: Enhancement of retention and transfer(generalization), provision of learning guidance (semantic encoding), stimulating recall of prior learning(retrieval), gaining attention(reception), eliciting performance(responding), provision of feedback (reinforcement) and informing learner of the objective (expectancy).       (c) Scaffolding Learning This model of learning that uses the support system of scaffold as being used in building construction to provide support by breaking information up into chunks of information that can be more easily learnt. This allows a natural support for students’ absorption of such information passed across to them, Goverts, M.J. (2007). With these scaffolding models of learning, students are able to gain and master skills/ideas that are needed for further learning of certain concepts. Breaking up large chunk of information on lesson into smaller bits allows me as a lecturer to see which students are having challenge and with what patterns. For example if a student is having difficulty with a particular chunk of new information, backtrack is done to make sure such student has a proper grasp on important background information i.e. their scaffolding. As students show their comprehension of the lesson chunks, to remove the support from already-mastered patterns and introduce new patterns. This is continuous until a whole unit, book, or pattern is well understood by the students and they are able to work without the support in place, Florin, L. (2015). 1.2 Application of Theories, Principles and Models of Learning 1.2.1 Linking of existing aspect practice with theories  Learning is better improved when well-known facts are attached and used to set up new ones by anchoring on the known facts and theories that have been found and applied. Students are encouraged to furnish themselves with necessary materials which have been found to explain certain principles, theories or model and use it to create a better and superior models or principles which may be used by others or themselves to create better models for improved studies and analysis. This linking of an existing aspects practice provide a building block for which other principles or model can be built upon base on the model which has been created to develop new ones upon creating a bench mark on which the other ones can rely or on, Pratt, L. (2015). 1.2.2 Development of Teacher’s Personal Theories of Learning Teachers, instructors, lecturers, counselors etc. are known to have undergone some training based on certain principles, models or theories. These are the materials and resources with which they are built to become who they are. The same principles are adopted by the teachers with the addition of modifications that they accrued as a result of experiences in the process of teaching their students. These teachers initiate success proven theories created by them to inform and enlighten their students to increase learning and present them as worthy students. My own students on a regular basis are encouraged to paraphrase every topic I discuss or treat with them every time I have tuition with them, Helsby, G. (1995). This is my own model that I designed to help my students. It has been a sustainable model to that has helped them in so many ways to retain most of what is being taught. 1.2.3 Development of competency-based Programmes Various programmes on how students can be trained on how to learn and increase their efficiency in understanding what they are being taught. Coming up with a well-designed programme based on competency is a better way of helping students to learn better and to stay polish. Improved programmes are set up on each student’s competence to incorporate a new set of learning tools needed to for the students to grow. For example in my own class, students are placed in groups based on what they are competent of. Students that are visually dominated in learning are engaged with pictures, charts and other diagrammatic tools to enhance their learning, while those that are kinaesthetic are involved with the head-on approach of getting thing done as they are taught to get the information taught assimilated, Okumus, H. (2013). 1.2.4 Individual Learning Plans (ILPS) Students are given the duty of introducing their own learning styles and plans. I encourage my own students to come up with their own learning plans that are suitable, convenient and efficient for them. This fosters their learning and also enhances their abilities and comprehension in subsequent tuition given to them. There is always something new and creative being developed by students as they come up with their own strategies on how to excellently manage their learning. 1.3 Analysis of Models of Learning Preferences 1.3.1 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences According to Gardner, H (1989), intelligent quotient (IQ) is not a suitable yardstick for measuring intelligence.  He proposes that without productivity, having high IQ amount to nothing. He then developed several criteria to establish a capacity as ‘intelligence’, which he states to be:
  • The potential for brain isolation by brain damage
  • Its evolutionary background
  • Core operation
  • Susceptibility to encoding
  • A unique developmental progression
  • The existence of exceptional people, and
  • Support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings
The above generated multiple intelligences that are common resources use by us for effective learning. The common kinds of intelligence that are known, taught, reinforced and rewarded are linguistic/verbal and logical/mathematical intelligence. There are also other important kinds of intelligence that cut through cultural, educational and ability differences that most people speak as language. These intelligences include: (a) Visual-spatial intelligence: This involves perceiving the world around oneself and try to create similarity of such world with the use of activities that pictures, drawings, doodling, mind mapping, patterns/designs, colour schemes, imagery, active imagination etc. (b) Verbal-linguistic intelligence: This involves the ability to analyse information and acuity in written and oral language which is actualised through hearing and seeing words, reading, speaking, discussing and sometimes debating. (c) Logical-mathematical intelligence: This creates the ability to develop equations, make calculations, and solve abstract problems. It allows working with sequences and patterns, classifying working with abstract ideas. (d) Bodily-kinaesthetic: It is the ability to use physical and motor skills and hand-eye coordination. It allows learning through touching and moving, that is, gain knowledge through bodily sensations. Others include musical, naturalistic, intra-personal and inter-personal intelligences. 1.3.2 Honey and Mumford Learning Styles/Preference According to Honey, P. and Mumford, A (1982), learning styles built on Kolb’s learning styles model (leaver, 2005), which enabled them to produce their own Learning styles questionnaire (LSQ) because of Kolb’s LSI’s low validity with managers. They use questionnaire that probes people general behavioural tendencies because most people never consciously consider what they really learn. So, Honey and Mumford learning styles uses questionnaire to enable individuals to become effective learners, which enables them to knowing about their learning styles or preferences, help them to make smart decisions and increases learning skills and awareness (Zwanenberg, 2016). The questionnaire is built on a continuum that gives rise to four learning styles. These styles are:
  • Theorists: These learners use their opportunity to understand the hypothesis behind the activities. They use models, truths and ideas with a specific end goal to engage in the learning procedure. They like to categorize and integrate that is, drawing new data into a methodical and consistent ‘hypothesis’. They make use of models, stories, statistics, quotes, background information and applying concept theoretically for their learning activities.
  • Pragmatists: They are known to preview how to put their learning into practice in their present reality. To them, conceptual idea and recreations are artificial utility unless they have practical use to them. Their mode of actions includes speculations, experimenting with new ideas and methods for checking if they work. They take time to think about the application of their learning in reality, case studies, problem solving and discussion to learn better.
  • Activists: These are individuals that learn by doing. They always get their hands grimy by being receptive to deal with learning, putting the whole of them without inclining new encounters. Brainstorming, competition, problem solving, puzzles, role-play, group discussion etc. are their learning activities.
  • Reflectors: These set of individuals learn by watching and contemplating on what happened. They prefer watch from sidelines rather than jumping in by remaining back and see encounters from various alternate points of view to gather information and use the opportunity to work to towards a suitable conclusion. Their learning activities are self-analysis questionnaires, time out, paired discussions, personality questionnaires, observing activities, interviews etc.
 Image result 1.4 Explanation of how Identification and Taking Account of Learners’ Individual Learning Preferences The significance of identifying and taking account of learners’ individual learning preferences for enabling inclusive teaching, learning and assessment to effectively enhance creative ways of making education and teaching sustainable. The various learning styles or preferences adopted like the Gardner’s multiple intelligence, explaining the usage of multisensory approaches like the bodily-kinaesthetic, visual-spatial, logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic intelligences etc. which creates resources or materials with which learners are engaged, which help to indicate the kind of learning preference suitable for learners. These multisensory approaches allow the learners to determine the best learning preference that are suited for them by challenging them. This results into the maximisation of their learning preferences. The introduction of an alternative learn learning approach to shake their long-held habitual behaviours of learning and allow them to choose an appropriate learning preferences to know what is needed to identify their strengths as well as their weakness on a particular learning preferences, Stanny, C. (2015). 2 Understanding the application of Theories, Principles and Models of Communication in Education and Training It is a known fact that for any activity to effectively take place, communication must be involved. Communication can be said to be the backbone of any activity be it physical, mental, emotional or psychological. In education and training, certain theories, principles and models of communication are required or involved, for it to be effective.       2.1 Analysis of Theories, Principles and Models of Communication There are many theories, principles and models of communication that are effective in all communication for office, campus, or within ones environment. Examples of such theories, principles and models include: (i) Behaviourism Theory According to Watson, J. (2013 ), a theory of behaviour which focuses its attention on aspects that deals with language behaviour and the relationship between stimulus and response to the world around it. It’s a theory that includes all behaviour with response caused by the stimulation. Counter motion can always be predicted, if the stimulus has been observed and known. Watson firmly rejected the influence of instinct and awareness of behaviour which makes every behaviour to be studied according to the relationship between stimulus and response. Behaviourism being as a result of introspection and psychoanalysis that not only focuses on the analysis of visible behaviour, which can only be measured, described and predictable but on learning, which is the change in human behaviour as his environment changes. The theory does not want to know whether human behaviour is good or bad, rational or emotional but if it can only be influenced by the environment, Topping, K. (1998). (ii) Information or Mathematical Theory This is a kind of communication theories that sees communication as mechanistic phenomena, mathematical and informative, that is communication is expressed to be transmission of a message and how to use the transmitter channels and communication media. This theory as put together by Weaver, W. and Shannon, C. (1998), refer it to mathematical theory of communication which greatly affect subsequent communication theories. The majorly focuses on  a number of signal points passing through the channel or medium in the communication process, useful in electrical systems of transmitter, receiver and code to facilitate information efficiency. Piaget J. (1971), proposed a theory of cognitive developments that explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world. He regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment and disregard intelligence as a fixed trait. His theory majors on the explanation of the mechanisms and processes by which infant, and then the child develops into an individual who can reason and thing using hypotheses. Piaget sees cognitive development as progressive reorganisation of mental processes as result of biological maturation and environmental experience. The theory is made up of three components, which are:
  • Schemas – the building block of knowledge
  • Adaptation processes that enable the transition from one state to another ( equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation)
  •  Cognitive development stages. These are: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational
Bruner, J. (1973 ), proposed a theory on intellectual development of education as he believed that curriculum should foster the development of problem-solving skills through the processes of inquiry and discovery and be designed so that the mastery of skills lead to mastery of more powerful ones, that the subject matter should be represented in terms of the child’s ways of viewing the world and that  culture should shape notions through which people organise their views of themselves, others and the world they live. Bruner, J. identified three stages of cognitive representation. They are:
  • Enactive: This is the representation of knowledge through actions
  • Iconic: This is the visual summarization of images
  • Symbolic representation: This is the use of words and other symbols to describe experiences
Other forms of communication are accessibility to materials or resources which are usually through information on paper or the one obtained online, Pratt, L. (2015). SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) measure of readability estimates the years of education a person need to understand a piece of writing. The SMOG has a formula which goes thus:
  • Step 1: Take the entire text to be assessed
  • Step 2: Count 10 sentences in a row near the beginning, 10 in the middle and 10 in the end for 30 sentences
  • Count every word with three or more syllables in each group of sentences.
2.2 Ways in Which Theories, Principles and Models of Communication can be applied to Teaching, learning and Assessment One of the many effective ways that theories, principles and models of communication can be applied to teaching, learning and assessment are categorically divided into two. And they are: 2.2.1 Verbal ways of communication: This involve the use of words in passing across ideas or messages: These include:
  • Use of video to review session within the classroom and among people that are having a business meeting.
  • Use of voice to effectively pass a message across to students or give important news and lecture on a particular subject.
  • Use of motivational languages: These are uplifting words that inform and transform, making the listener a better person.
  • Development of learner’s communication skills and expression through powerful training and development
  • Preparation of feedback on process and product enhances the communicative skills in learner.
2.2.2 Non-verbal ways of communication: This involves the ways of communication other than using words. It includes:
  • The use of body language in communicating vital experiences and influence of what is meant to be communicated.
  • The use of emotions like anger, smiles, happiness etc. in conveying ideas or messages.
  • Provision of handout and digital materials for teaching, learning and assessment.
  • Creation of a script questions to assess dyslexia patients.
    3 Understanding the Application of Theories, Principles and Models of Assessment in Education and Training Employment of good theories, principles and models of assessment is of utmost important in education and training especially in the development of curriculum and satisfaction of learner needs and wants. 3.1 Analysis of Theories, Principles and Models of Assessment 3.1.1 Initial and Diagnostic Assessment Initial Assessment is a method of acquiring students/learners prior knowledge in course undertaken and allows the tutor to be use the information as a means of selection. This is usually taken or carried at the beginning of a particular course or a chosen qualification which may add to the requirement needed by students for the furtherance of that particular course. As for any     student, necessary initial assessments are put in place to enhance their proficiency in a new course of study. Diagnostic Assessment is an assessment undertaken to give a lecturer the understanding of the levels at which students will be working with. It avails me the opportunity of knowing how best a tutor can work with students and application of the needed strategies needed for their learning and training. Diagnostic assessment can highlights and needs additional support. Students’ weaknesses and strengths are easily assessed and play a major role in ensuring that the needed solution is provided. The initial and diagnostic assessments start with appropriate application of strategies which prepare the students for the new task in the course and then followed by continual assessment which occur throughout the qualification or course of study. These help a lecturer to monitor the growth and development of students in their learning and training.       3.1.2 Assessment for Learning and of Learning Assessment for learning embeds assessment processes throughout the teaching and learning process to constantly adjust instructional strategy. It also addresses other qualitative and quantitative data with an inclusion of test data and covers a great deal of anecdotal and descriptive data, Gonzalez, M. (2015). Examples of assessment for is the use of NWEA in addition with teacher generate daily data (check for understanding, exit tickets, observation of student engagement) alters instructional strategy during lesson or unit delivery. Assessment of learning involves looking at assessment information at the end of the teacher and learning process to set students’ achievement levels against a standard. Its summative nature that involves standardized tests is used to rate teachers’ or schools’ ability to move student achievement based on the result of single and point-in-time test. The major distinction between the two assessments is that in assessment for learning, the test data is just one data element in the discussion, and the assessment process is constant rather than at a single point in time. 3.2 Ways in which theories, principles and models of assessment can be applied in assessing learning Assessing learning through the usage of theories, principles and models of assessment provide numerous advantantages as it enhances the possibility and connect the initial assessment to diagnostic assessment. So the advantages or merits are initial assessment as applied by a tutor provides the basis of where my students ought to begin their studies. This is imperative and essential in the process of agreeing individual learning goals because it enables learner to proceed and measure their rates of learning. Some of the methods employed by initial assessment include: (i) Organisation of educational activities; (ii) Variation of questionnaires; (iii) One-on-one assessment of group work; (iv) Quizzes. Methods obtained from diagnostic assessment are specific talents and skills that provide a measure that encourage lectures/teachers with the relevant knowledge to measure students’ strengths or weaknesses. The basic method here is organisation of individual learning plans for proper information implementation. 4 Understanding the Application of Theories and Models of Curriculum development within own area of specialism There are relevant theories and models of curriculum in education and teaching. It aims at analysing the impact of the theories of learning, identify and discuss the correlation between teaching practices and learning theory and develop new strategies to improve teaching.  4.1 Analysis of the Theories and models of curriculum and development According to Wilson, L. (2017), a theory is “something which either attempt or has been proven to explain something. Wilson confirmed that there are three main theories that relate to the study of human behaviour. They are:
  • The behaviourist theory
  • Cognitivist theory, and
  • Humanist theory
(a) Behaviourism Learning Theory This is achieved by teaching human simple tasks and following it up with reward for good performance. The behaviourist psychologist believed according to Wilson, L. (2017), that “behaviour is learnt from the environment or that individuals respond to stimuli and that learning and ability to learn requires behavioural change. The theory originated from Watson, J.B (2013 ), who claimed that that psychology was not concerned with human consciousness but rather with behaviour learning which focuses on the physical actions of the learner, depending on the environment. Skinner, (1981) also confirmed that “Giving immediate feedback whether positive or negative will enable a learner to behave in a particular way. Skinner believed that behaviour is a function of its consequences and he developed the theory of ‘operant conditioning’ the idea that human behave the way they do because this kind of behaviour has had certain consequences in the past. (b) Cognitivist Learning Theory Piaget, J. (1932) cognitive development theory with that of Edward Tolman’s theory challenges           behaviourism’s limitations because behaviourism reduces human behaviour to cause and effect. The two theories combined to form cognitive-behavioural theory that consider that new learning must be built on existing learning which can only be beneficiary to the learner. The cognitivist believed that learning is a process of acquiring knowledge through thought, sense and experience. While most educationalists believed that useful learning is not the same as remembering facts and techniques, but making personal meanings. Cognitivists also believed that learner should be asked difficult question which will encourage the learner think through and develop his own sense of study. (c) Humanist Learning Theory This theory works on the thought of that learner takes control of their own learning and the teacher becomes more of a facilitator within this learning environment. The humanist approach also believed that it essential to have a good working environment, which encourage the learner to consider new ideas and not being afraid of making mistake. This is generated by a self-assessment which can continue to enhance him and form a belief. 4.2 Ways in which Theories and Models of Curriculum Development can be applied in Developing Curricula own Area of Specialism The very special curriculum prepared for optimum development of curriculum and evaluation in ensuring that the needed for learner development and improvement. Specialist Curricula which engage the application of curriculum theories to programme design. This involving meeting the requirement of an awarding organisation as it reflect appropriate standards with the embedded functional skills to boost study skills and create opportunities for vocational and employer experience, Truong, H.M. (2016). The involvement of variety of approaches suited to context in building knowledge content, which enhances the development of skills to engage in available opportunities. There is presence of flexible learning which encourage learner to have choice to link achievements to reflects timescales and resources to promote equality and diversity. 5 Understanding of Theories and Models of Reflection and Evaluation to Reviewing own Practice Theories and models can effectively review practice in education and education when the efficiently reflected and evaluated. The reflection and evaluation provide materials or resources for the proper and adequate sustenance of the reviewing the practices in education and training. 5.1 Analysis of Theories and Models of Reflection and Evaluation 5.1.1 Kolb’s Learning Styles Kolb, D. (1984), developed a learning style which works on two levels: a four stage cycle of learning and four separate learning styles. Much of his theory is concerned with the learner’s internal cognitive processes. He states that learning involves the acquisition of abstracts concepts that can be applied flexibly in a range of situations. The impetus for the development of new concepts is provided by new experiences. The Kolb’s learning style theory is typically represented by four stage learning style in which the learner touches all the bases. The four stages are:
  • Reflective Observation of the new experience having particular importance between experience and understanding.
  • Concrete Experience is a new experience of situation is encountered or a reinterpretation of existing experience.
  • Abstract Conceptualisation which gives rise to a new idea, or a modification of an existing abstract concept.
  • Active Experimentation allows the learner to apply them to the world around them to see what result.
Image result for diagram of kolb's four stages of learning                                      Kolb’s Four Stages of learning Cycle 5.1.2 Honey and Mumford learning Styles According to Honey, P. and Mumford, A (1986), learning styles built on Kolb’s learning styles model (leaver, 2005), which enable them to produced their own Learning styles questionnaire (LSQ) because of Kolb’s LSI’s low validity with managers. They use questionnaire that probes people general behavioural tendencies because most people never consciously consider own they really learn. So, Honey and Mumford learning styles uses questionnaire to enable individuals to become effective learners, which enables them to knowing about their learning styles or preferences, help them to make smart decisions and increases learning skills and awareness (Zwanenberg, 2016). The questionnaire is built on a continuum that gives rise to four learning styles. These styles are:
  • Theorists: These learners use their opportunity to understand the hypothesis behind the activities. They use models, truths and ideas with a specific end goal to engage in the learning procedure. They like to breakdown and integrate that is drawing new data into a methodical and consistent ‘hypothesis’. They employ the use of models, stories, statistics, quotes, background information and applying concept theoretically for their learning activities.
  • Pragmatists: They are known to preview how to put their learning into practice in their present reality. To them, conceptual idea and recreations are constrained utility unless they have practical use to them. Their mode of actions includes speculations, experimenting with new ideas and methods for checking if they work. They take time to think about the application of their learning in reality, case studies, problem solving and discussion to learn better.
  • Activists: These are individuals that learn by doing. They always get their hands filthy by being receptive to deal with learning, putting the whole of them without inclining new encounters. Brainstorming, competition, problem solving, puzzles, role-play, group discussion etc. are their learning activities.
  • Reflectors: These set of individuals learn by watching and contemplating on what happened. They prefer watch from sidelines rather than jumping in by remaining back and see encounters from various alternate points of view to gather information and use the opportunity to work to towards a suitable conclusion. Their learning activities are self-analysis questionnaires, time out, paired discussions, personality questionnaires, observing activities, interviews etc.
     Image result for diagram of honey and mumford learning styles                                       Honey and Mumford Learning Styles 5.2 Ways in which Theories and Models of Reflection and Evaluation can be applied to Reviewing Own Practice Reflecting on own practice allows theories and models of curriculum development to be effected. Some of which are: Scaffolded Questioning Scaffolding in education refers to a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and greater independence I the learning process. In scaffolding, teachers provide successive levels of temporary support that help students to reach higher levels of comprehension and skills acquisition, McGowan, B. (2015). In scaffolding, the supportive strategies are incrementally removed when not needed and more attention is shifted on the learning process. Scaffolding is an effective teaching element as it used to bridge learning gap, the different between what the student has learnt and what they supposed to know. Examples of Scaffolding are:
  • The teacher gives students a simplified version of a lesson, assignment, or reading, and then gradually increases the complexity over time.
  • The teacher describes a concept, problem in multiple ways to ensure understanding.
  • Students are given an exemplar or model of an assignment they will asked to complete.
  • Students are given a vocabulary lesson before they read a difficult text.
SWOT Analysis This is a study undertaken to identify its internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as its external opportunities and Threats, Baskaran, R (2014). It helps to uncover opportunities and craft a strategy that helps to distinguished one from competitors. The SWOT questions include: Strengths
  • What advantages does education has?
  • What do learners in education see as strength?
  • What unique resources can be drawn from education?
Weaknesses
  • What could you improve?
  • What should you avoid?
  • What are people in the education sector likely to see as weakness?
Opportunities
  • Changes in technology and markets on both a broad and narrow scale
  • Changes in government policy related to education
  • Changes in social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes etc.
Threats
  • What obstacle do you face?
  • Is changing technology threatening education position?
  • Could any weakness seriously threaten education?
  Conclusions This report explained clear understanding of the application of the theories, principles and models of learning in education and learning. It effectively analysed the procedural v declarative knowledge of assessment, Bruner’s inductive v Ausubel’s deductive approaches of assessment. It further analysed the theories, principles and models of communication and its application in education and training. It major focus was verbal and non-verbal means of communication and how it can be well adapted to learning and assessment. The theories, principles and models of assessment was also explained, explaining the high points of initial and diagnostic learning assessment and the use to which the assessment can be put, using planning and planning assessment schedule. It also elucidates on the theories, principles and models of curriculum development and how it can be applied effectively to education and training. The theories and models of reflection and evaluation in reviewing own practice was carefully explained to have compete understanding of the whole concept of theories, principles and models in education and training.                                 References Anderson, J.R. and Corbett, A.T., 1994. Knowledge tracing: Modelling the acquisition of procedural knowledge. User Modelling and user-adapted interaction, 4(4), pp.253-278. Bruner, J.S., 1973. Beyond the information given: Studies in the psychology of knowing. WW Norton. Deborah, L.J., Baskaran, R. and Kannan, A., 2014. Learning styles assessment and theoretical origin in an E-learning scenario: a survey. Artificial Intelligence Review42(4), pp.801-819. Florin, L., and Pratt, L., (2015). Embedding equality and diversity in curriculum: an education practitioner’s guide. Higher Education Academy. Gagné, M. and Deci, E.L., 2014. The History of Self-Determination Theory in Psychology and. The oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory, p. Gardner, H. and Hatch, T., 1989. Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational researcher18(8), pp.4-10. Govaerts, M.J., Van der Vleuten, C.P.,  Schuwirth, L.W., and Muijtjens, A.M., (2007). Broadening perspectives of clinical and educational performance assessment:rethinking the nature of in-training assessment. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 12(2), pp.239-260. Helsby, G., 1995. “Teachers’ construction of professionalism in England in the 1990s. Journal of Education for teaching, 21(3), pp. 317-332. Honey, P. and Mumford, A. (1982). Manual of learning styles London. Kolb, D.A., 2014. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. FT press. Obtained from http://academic.regis.edu/ed205/kolb.pdf Leaver, B. (2005). Learning styles and learning strategies (chapter 3) – Achieving Success in second language acquisition. [online] Cambridge core. Moon, J.A., 2013. Reflection in learning and professional development: Theory and practice. Routledge. Özkan, İ.A., Okumuş, H., Buldukoğlu, K. and Watson, J., 2013. A Case Study Based On Watson’s Theory of Human Caring: Being an Infertile Woman in Turkey. Nursing science quarterly26(4), pp.352-359. Piaget, J., 1971. The theory of stages in cognitive development. Shannon, C.E. and Weaver, W., 1998. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois press. Skinner, B.F., 1981. The shaping of a behaviorist: Part two of an autobiography. Stanny, C., Gonzalez, M. and McGowan, B., 2015. Assessing the culture of teaching and learning through a syllabus review. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 40(7), pp. 898-913. Stufflebeam, D.L. and Coryn, C.L., 2014. Evaluation theory, models, and applications (Vol. 50). John Wiley & Sons. Topping, K., 1998. Peer assessment between students in colleges and universities. Review of educational Research, 68(3), pp.249-276. Truong, H.M., 2016. Integrating learning styles and adaptive e-learning system: Current developments, problems and opportunities. Computers in Human Behavior55, pp.1185-1193. Wilson, E. ed., 2017. School-based research: a guide for education students. Sage. Zwanenberg, N. (2016). Felder and Silverman’s Index of Learning Styles and Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles Questionnaire: How do they compare and do they predict academic performance?: Educational Psychology: 20(3), [online]  

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