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Religion Viewpoints and Human Evolution

7947 words (32 pages) Dissertation

9th Dec 2019 Dissertation Reference this

Tags: PhilosophyReligionTheology

Introduction

150 years have gone since Charles Darwin completed his research ad published the findings in the unprecedented and unconventional work On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859. Despite the various changes in the expansion an modification of the Darwin theory ,their central core element have stood the test of time  Some of the critique of the Charles Darwin usually cite  the incomplete record in fossil record as evince of failure of the theory suggested by Darwin (1871). However, with time various important gaps have been filled as evidence that is more persuasive emerge and consistently show the sequence of the fossil. The evolutionary theory seems to come true just like the religion perception of the truth, as the evidence is hard to ignore (Fortey, 2002).

Human evolution and Abrahamic religions share and relate in several confirmations and contradictions that expound on whether the can effectively co-exist or they don’t. Amongst many Muslims, Protestant and Catholic Christians, human evolution is derived from science and its partially in confirmation of what is written in the Qur’an and biblical teachings (Ridley,2003).  Human beings were created with brains that they could utilize for survival and better living while here on earth. This explains why they evolved periodically to present day Homo Sapiens Sapiens, the modern human being, in better living standards compared to the past forms.

On the other hand, extremes in these religions  seem adamant to disagree with evolutionary theory. They call for holding to the fact that souls are immediately crested by God and there is no way they could have evolved.  Therefore, this paper will seek to critically evaluate the Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection as well as the Abrahamic religion among other significant religion such as Hinduism and Buddhism in their perception to evolution (Bowler, 2003). The paper aims at understanding human evolution and Abrahamic religions with the desire to establish the perception that the two viewpoints can coexist as a contradiction or a confirmation.

There wide spread acknowledgement of the book published by Darwin lead to adoption  of variety of approach by the Abraham religion in interpreting the  design of earth and well interpretation of the origin of the earth and its living organism (Darwin, 1859).  Rejection or acceptance partial or full integration of the Darwinism theories and concept of religion has been observed through various research on these religions. This observation is unsurprising despite the two viewpoint seeing to describe same process.

As at the time and even now, there exist various controversial argument on the applicability of the theory in the human evolution, if anything the theory has gained traction and intensity in the argument as more scientific and religion facts emerge with advanced knowledge of the modern day.  Unlike other ground breaking scientific findings such as theory of gravity, the topic on evolution has theological implication with the perception that one rules the other one out due to their opposing views on the origins of life (Bowler, 2003).

The Abrahamic religion refers to the religion based on followers who believe their origin is from the Abraham and his descendants. Abrahamic religions which are based on the belief that God  the supreme being is responsible for the creation of the mankind and the nature. The three religion based on Abraham origins have strongly belief and fundamental that are considered unquestionable as they as key measure of faith and belief of the followers.

Popular Abraham religions include Christianity, Judaism and Islam.  These religion share the common belief that Abraham was the very first prophet to have Covenant with their supreme being.   Religion has acted as source of authority and guidance in most of the ancient kingdoms. Religion acted as source of cohesion and shared belief and ritual that helped maintain order and discipline.  Throughout their existence, Abrahamic religion have acted a central role in the governance and management of the citizens. The Arab used the Islamic teaching to spread across Europe and Middle East. Christianity through the Roman Empire spread under across the edges of the world. The Judaism religion was critical in the Israelites spread across Europe in the 18th century as business (Ridley,2003).  It is evident that Abraham’s religion has served the purpose of enhancing the society belief and acceptable moral and ethics. Introduction of contravening belief and thinking system are usually met with harsh resistance and regarded as immoral.

Based on the creationist belief held by most of the Abraham religion, many followers believe that the religion explanation the creationism concept on the development of life can stand up for the scientific explanation of the origin and development of life. This contradicts the Darwin evolution that suggest the life development  on earth are based on evolution from one organism and evolved through natural selection mechanism over the time due to the variation in the environment. The theory of human evolution as stipulated by Charles Darwin is a controversial topic that not only shock the scientific institution as well as the social frameworks upon which the very fabric of religion entangle (Ridley,2003).  Religion and human evolution contemporaneously relate but not until we assume the sensitive question of where the life originated on the above argument.

As acknowledged by Armstrong (1912), the process  of evolution as for  biological progress is a heavily debated issue that has raised huge dust  in religious discussion its acceptability or rejection.   The Darwin theory has resulted in readjustment of long held beliefs and perception in the religious platforms. Some theological view the new knowledge as well as evidence supporting or opposing their religious views assertion. It was unsurprising to identify  the great influence of the finding of Darwin vetoing the biological realms of influence due to its question on the origin of life and development of life on earth as these are basis upon which  most religion are bound in the attempt to signify the greatness of the creator (Darwin, 1859).

Radical religion leaders have numerously opposed  the suggestion made by the Charles Darwin theory is dangerous to the social as well as political misrepresenting especially the resilient statement that on “survival for the fittest”.  They have refuted and tried to eliminate the teaching and findings of the theory as baseless suggestion (Ridley,2003). The light engendered by the controversial topic as raised by Darwin on fallacy of the religion views on the source of life not only raised the necessary speculation and confusion touching on the religion as source of enlightenment. Ultra in various Abraham religion question the logic and incomprehensive nature of the Darwin theory with total refuting the explanatory principle of Darwin theory on evolution. This is majorly contributed by their perception that it degrades and seek to eliminate the position of Supreme Being in managing the affairs of the universe (Bowler, 2003). Hence their perception that this position should not be doubted or abandoned in pursuit of new position of viewpoints.

Based on these roots, the perception that man is a descendant from some animals is not only abusive but unacceptable perception (Armstrong, 1912). Furthermore, efforts have been made to disregard the author Charles Darwin as disillusioned man whose reputation as researcher and academic contributor is questionable. There are almost even split ideas on acceptance or total rejection of the evolution theory by the Abraham

Darwin theory.

Darwin theory asserts that the current of the world was achieved through billion of years of evolution that were affected by the environmental factors. This contradiction between the Jewish and science. However as evidence by the presence of various segment of the Abraham religion, there exist ultra as well as moderates hence they differently perceive the evolution theory. Ultra Jews especially in the orthodox religion sects banned and utterly reject any support for the evolution as its undermine the faith and authority established in the religion that is based on the teaching  of the holy book.

As Daniel notes the idea of evolution was a dangerous as revolutionary as it was  in term of realm of life, space and time perception.  The provocative thinking by Darwin  and likeminded thinkers cases extension of the Darwin vision beyond other aspects life. Altering the society long held perception and fundamental as well as challenging the religion, political and scientific held views.   Apart from providing a description go common descendent, the Darwin theory suggestion of natural selection is dangerous discussion. The natural selection process has sufficient influence to evolution but it’s a dangerous perception in handling generation of life.   Daniels acknowledge the need to incorporate the Darwin evolution theory with moderation.  However, despite the  agreement that the origin of life is based on the single source , the respective uncontrolled chaotic development is questionable.

Darwin developed the theory of evolution by natural selection. He defined evolution as the process in which organisms change over time as a result of physical and behavioral characteristics. The changes that organism undergo is as a result of environmental demands which will allow it adapt and have more offspring. These theory of natural selection stands out as it is one of the most substantiated in the study of evolution.  This is because of the vast nature of the evidence from many disciplines which include; geology, paleontology, development biology and genetics (Dawkins, 2006).

In his theory, Darwin defines species as a population of organism closely related and are very similar having the capability of interbreeding to produce an offspring which is fertile. The theory of natural selection has major components. First, life diversity is a product of modifications of populations by natural selections and the second component is all life on earth inter-related. Different traits of various lives are favored in an environment over others. The idea of “descent modifications” implies that the living organisms are descendants of living organisms that lived before them.  Darwin, in  his theory argues that more species are produced limiting the chances of survival because of the limited nature of resources. The survival of an organism will depend on its ability to compete well with other organisms within the environment. The theory can sometimes be called “Survival for the Fittest”. The organisms with poor qualities are regarded inferior and are eliminated by natural selection gradually over time leading to extinction of the species.

The traits of organisms are often heritable. Many characteristics are passed to the offspring from the parent via genes. The genetic composition of the parent would be inherited by the offspring. Despite the nature of genes, Offspring of the same parent vary in their heritable traits. The offspring in any generation will vary slightly from one another. These genes are responsible for the behavioral and physical traits of an organisms. Acquired traits will over time be hereditary depending on the nature of the organism.

In a nutshell, some individuals in a population are endowed with advantageous traits which will help them adapt well to the competitive environment. the competition in this context refers to competition for resources (the predators and prey). The species with better qualities will have more offspring than the weak ones thus taking a larger fraction of the population. This leads to dominance of certain species in the population. Over time, certain individuals will have traits suitable for certain environment.

Creationism

Creationism is an idea based on religion and it is defined as the belief that the life and universe came from the acts of a supreme being out of nothing. The concept of creationism is based on the book of Genesis where it is believed the universe was created by God in six days which each day having its chronological activities. Creationists are those who subscribe biblical dimension of the creation of the universe. This creation theory has been of interest until the emergence of the theory of natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin.

Both creationism and evolution to some extent have some elements of faith. This is because of the lack of written accounts or availability of eye witnesses that the theory is correct. Creationists only belief that there exists a supreme responsible for the existence of the universe without a set of evidence. These two theories create viable debates among scientists and religious subscribers.

The term evolution appeared In the English dictionary in the 1647 in reference to all progression that began from simple beginning (Worrall, 2004). This is Clear indication that the use of the term did not begin with the publication of  the On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection  in 1859 by Charles Darwin.  Ancient Greek philosophers inferred the common ancestry of similar special as well as descent with modification.  According to the Charles Darwin propose evolution and survival of organisms. The naturally occurring variation led to the natural selection where the best suited organism were better equipped to survival in the dynamic environment conditions.  The fact that organism passed their inheritable trait t their offspring as well increased number of offspring enhance their survival changes and gave theme competitive edge in particular niche in the ecosystem. Darwinism was backed up by the geological work showing the successive and progressive evolution of human kind species from ape like status to the current homo sapient sapiens (Bowler, 2003).

With advancement of technology in the modern day, evidence that show variation and share common traits between associated classes of organisms illustrates the reliability of the Darwin theory.  Richard’s “Fossils the Key to the Past” offers critical evidence that support that support Darwin assertion in his evolution theory and natural selection concept.  The various aspect ab comprehensive analysis of the fossil  as well as their history in  earth not only enhance understanding of previous life but also provide critical data and information that act as evidence to prove the Darwin assertion and significance in the viewpoint towards life and its development from simple organism to the current evolving complex life forms.

Through the various identification and classification the fossil in the various geological past , it evince that the earliest form of life were simple and probably share a common ancestry . The variation are allocated with the logical explanation by the Charles Darwin theory (Fortey, 2002). With the recent development in molecular paleontology and carbon dating, it is evident that life existed by far than the biblical calculation of 6000 years. This contravention on the precious firmly believed religion facts led some of the theological to undertake a philosophical and metaphorical understanding of the ideals and values expressing the holy books in the Abraham religions.

Better understanding of genetic mutation and its impact on the organism survivability in the environment are well understood in the modern day science world.  Moreover, experiments have shown that geographically separated organism evolve and generically develop differently leading to the acknowledgment of natural selection concept (Tattersall, 1995).  The ease of proving evolutionally changes in detail has not only confirmed the Darwin theory but also strengthen the need for religion acknowledgment of these concepts.  Research indicate that fossil remain found in lower strata layer of rock were more primitive that those found in the upper layers of rocks (Francis, 2006).  These findings showed that the lower fossil have evolved and their descent became advanced through modification of their traits and behavior.

The paleontological gaps and records gave showed that there was progressive improvement in the successive organisms they advances through various evolutionary transition that enhance the microbial life that existed in the about the 3.5 billion years to develop in to the complex life forms of the modern day (Bowler, 2003).   Of importance, it is note that various organism share similar structure, hence, it suggestive that they share a common ancestry , the bat wing and human arm serve different purpose in the modern life but they have the same basic component that show that the species are likely to have descended from a limbed vertebrate ancestry (Francis, 2006).

As suggested by the intelligent design theory the structural complexity of the molecular evolutionary is an indication of the God specialty in creating the organism that are unique and intricate in organization. The proponents suggest that the irreducibly complexity in the processed and structure in molecular as well as numerous step involved in the development of some natural processes such as blood clotting cannot be possible through stepwise slow process rather than simultaneous operation, which contravene the ideology behind the natural selection stepwise mode (Laland & Brown, 2011).

The complexity of the anatomic structures such as the eye perception of the various color and visual images are an indication of the several neuron evolution in order to achieve the highly complex operation of the eye for vision. It is believe that it took millions of years for the eye to evolve from simple organ to the current ability in perceiving light (Francis, 2006).

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Furthermore, in accordance to the evolution perception by the Richard Dawkins in his book The Selfish Gene. Despite its inadequacies in its content, the evolutionary theory suggest that genes play a more contributive role in the determine the survivability of specific species.  The genes serves the own selfish role in the evolutionary consequences “selfishness phenotype” with each body serving as the gene survival machine.

Implication

Dennet is critical of the fact the creativity and culture is responsible for diversity hence the suggestion of randomness and less deign occurrence is biased and unfounded as the randomness associated with Darwin’s theory can be observed as biological natural deign in a philosophical manner.  Dennett refers to the Darwin ideas as “corrosive acid that eats and transform everything even in other fields” (Dennett, 1996).

As highlighted by Dennett, the various feature that serve the common good to the genome are favored by the natural selection as they are served well by the meiosis.  Moreover, the lack of adequate knowledge leading to the uncertainty on various process as stipulated by Darwinism as well as the lack of intermediate stage in irreducible complexity structure highlight the work of intelligent designer (Dennett, 1996). Moreover, the complex adaptation lead to random mutation can be considered an assertion that only the creator the master designer can do.

The theological implication of the Darwin theory had fundamental ineradicable impact in harmonizing religion beliefs and scientific explanations. There are almost even split ideas on acceptance or total rejection of the evolution theory by Christianity and Muslim religion theologists. The more literalistic theologians not only refute the claims by the evolution but also question of the theory assertion in the orderly creator plan for the creation.

Christianity and religion

Leigh, evaluate the significance of the evolutionary biology and its implication on the Christianity. He concludes that the evolutionary concept should not threaten the Christianity believed and faith.   The criticism of the natural selection as wrong as most of the opponent use it on a literal social science application, which may lead to social injustices. Moreover, the fear of determinism through the randomness of the evolution process may rule out the role of the God tin in managing and guiding the direction in the creation to achieve his will on his subjects. The fossil records and gradual changes of the structure and size of similar structure as well as distinctive features are no longer a missing link but rather appreciation of the diversity of the creator universe (Francis, 2006). In union with the evolution theory, the development of useful functions was transferred to the offspring who are distinct and different from each other. The establishment of the evolution as facts is essential in acknowledging the numerous divergent modification of the life in the universe from the common ancestors (Tattersall, 1995).

However, as highlighted by the Peter J. Bowler, Charles Darwin publication on evolutionary ideas challenges the Christianity belief while underpin the concept of progressive application of science in bringing light to obscure facts that the religion inadequately addressed (Bowler, 2003). The achievement of the Charles Darwin disentangle the complex relationship between religion and science.

Religion perception of Abraham

Abraham was asked by the Supreme Being to leave the comfort of his father residence and seek the journey to settle in Canaan the Promised Land. Of the sons he bores with the Sarah, only Isaac receives the promised goods to with other being giver gifts to survive. This divine selection enhance the survival of Isaac sons and descendants as compared to other sons as they are less equipped to survive as compared to the talents and skills of Isaac. This is union with Charles Darwin suggestion that the best among the special are well equiped to survive and reproduce.

Christianity views Abraham as the man of faith, the perfect prototype for the followers his descendant are successively accountable for the lineage that lead to the introduction of messiah Jesus on the earth the son of God. Roman Catholic refer to Abraham as the “our father in Faith”.   In Judaism, Abraham is considered the father of Judaism. He links the Jewish people as the blessed tribe on earth with the Supreme Being while   in Islam he serves as the link between the successive lineages of prophets culminating in the Islamic religion founder Muhammad.

Human evolution and Abrahamic religions

As evident by the above analysis, it is clear that the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859 by Charles Darwin was unavoidable. However, principle of the Darwinism cannot be considered entirely universality hostile to the religious perception of life. Through insightful analysis of the various religion: Abraham religions as well as others such as Hindu and Buddhism it’s evident that though there is lack of clear-cut evidence that shows lack of discontinuity or support the scientific theory. There is a possibility that both concept of religion and Darwin theory can coexist without necessary harming unwavering commitment to religion as well exploring full potential of scientific research.

The evolution posed challenges to religious views on the Catholics, Jews, Hindu, and Buddhism as it offered straining conclusion on the Abrahamic faith as well contravenes the consistency of the teachings. Moreover, unlike the evolution theory that is concerned with the natural history, the holy reading in Judaism, Islamism and Christianity are more focus on the human history. They readily welcome the inefficiencies and weakness in the history as opposed with Darwin that promote eradication of the inferior beings.

The Abraham religion have been greatly enriched through interaction of the science and other informed viewpoint and philosophies. These new knowledge are tested and if true issues identify with the religion working they can be appreciated , however, it is important to practice truth and in order to achieve good results.

The religion view of human evolution

Judaism

According to the Judaism teachings, the Darwinian perception of life is rather materialistic and inappropriate in understanding or studying n the contentious topic of origin of life and its development on earth. Judaism hold their religion interpretation of the origin of life as unquestionable and irrevocable as the human beings were created in the image of God. The Judaism views of life according to the biblical teachings that declare the world was created into its current form in six days with the man created in perfect image of the Supreme Being. However, there is the Torah findings show unitary with adoption of science as Torah teachings and science are considered key aspects of the mind of the God.

Many liberal religion scholar  have been vocal in maintain that its  inappropriate to adopt a literal understanding of the holy books teaching and understanding  in relation to the explanation of life with the reference of adopting a metaphorical and allegorical touch when studying the holy books. Moreover, apart from  Darwinism  theories there are many other instances such as the Bing bang assertions that the universe began at a particular time are  coherent with the biblical perception on life and creation often universe by the supreme being. More over the randomness of the evolution can be related to the mystic as miraculous ways that Christian. Jewish and Islamist follower believe their God operates.

The lack of Darwin theory to accommodate the concept of evil which is based on the Quran story of human evolution from perfect images to tainted being due to sin cause conflict. Furthermore m the randomness of the plant and animal variety causes due to selective evolution and adaption through evolution contradicts the tradition view of the God’s creation in the Islamic worldview. More over other philosopher argue that the Darwin theory may have applicability on life (animal and plants) but has the exceptionalism of the creator and human beings.

The modern Jew society has greatly embraced technology in almost all aspect of life. The essence of natural science cannot be rule as it has critical ramification of the acceptable concept and belief of the Jewish religion and society. Contemporary thinkers in the Judaism religion have critically evaluated this relation between the evolution and the Jew religion (Peterson, and Vanarragon, 2003). They are quiet liberal in accepting to align the beliefs of the religion and minimize the discord between the evolution theory and the teaching of the Torah. The issue of evolution as applied by Darwin theories demanded reexamination of the Judaism and its affirmative sources as well as potential areas of reconciliation with these disruptive scientific findings on the evolution of life on the earth.

The Judaism religion find the acceptance of the Darwinism thinking a challenge as it questions the very foundation upon which religion is based. Furthermore, the varied conception and conflicting belief seeks to offer different form of enlightenment that is undesired in the Judaism religion and society.  The Darwinism content categorically and radically question the position of man in universe, Judaism perceive that human being play a central role in the universe development. , man who was created by the Supreme Being is a complex being from the start and was created complete (Peterson, and Vanarragon, 2003).

In contrary, the Darwinism theory says that man developed from simpler organism, this contradicts the distinct belief in the Judaism view of man as it implies that his comes from other beings other than God and his central role in the relationship with God becomes questionable.  However, to align these two point of views, some theologians sell the argument that the Judaism acknowledges that man was created from dirt. More so, the religious interpretation of human being that of being responsible of ones actions and capable of accountability in following the words and commandment of the Supreme Being.

Furthermore, the perception that the creation on the universe is a result of perfection and systematic design of God. Darwinism refutes this claim as excessiveness and wastefulness. For instance, the presence of rudimentary tail in the human body that is never used or has any known use as opposed to the perfection of the body as design made by the creator. Darwin seek to use these observations to strengthen his assertions of diversity and imperfection as highlighted by his theory. He reasoned that human ancestors must have a tail and hence the apelike structures correlation. The notion that the teaching of Darwinism are indeed a test of proof the religions as well as question the relationship between the God and his people.  The Judaism teaching supports the impression and appreciation of diversity in nature as the uniqueness is significant in serving the ultimate goal of appeasing the ultimate Supreme Being.

Christianity

Christianity belief that the man was created first as the command of everything on the earth. The first setting of humankind was in the Garden of Eden where the man was created in likeness of the God. The woman was created from one of the ribs of the man as the perfect helper and companion.   A large percent of Christians oppose that human beings underwent an evolution to upgrade to the current form. This is mainly because they believe that there is existence of a supreme human being who freely created the world and all that is in it. And as a result, the current form of human nature is constant and has never been altered since the masterpiece was exceptional (Peterson and Vanarragon, 2003).

However, Christian do not deny the fact that knowledge and novel ideas have evolved greatly hence acceptance of technological advancements. These ideas emanate from the human beings. A large correlation exists in the way people used to live several years ago and how life has been simplified now. This shows some coexistence between human evolution and religion as an aggregate overview. In the scientific world, there is no single scientific assertion that science 100% perfect as well as the fact the science is constantly and conditionally changing new position developed. (Deut. 4:6).  “If the world is looking at us and laughing, then perhaps, we should reexamine our position.”

The subtle claim by the Darwinism that the world in not the best that it can be contradicts the Judaism and Christian worldview in the creation narrative that the God has created world was good. The negative worldview of Darwinism in the respect to the God and nature is unacceptable criticism. The criticism of the God, who is known to be just, merciful and special in those he blesses is unwelcome in the Abraham religions.

The Darwin theory assertions that the ubiquitous nature, natural selection criteria favoring the best winners without consideration of the rational of the harm caused on the ecosystem. Religion promote the principle of beneficence as well as promote peace instead of misery in the world. The tendency of Darwin to divert from the organized religion perception is considered worldly and incoherent with the religion and spiritual changes that most Abraham religion considered as ultimate steps in achieving unison with the Supreme Being.

According to Christian religion, God created human beings and as a result, they could not have evolved. This belief is accorded meaning through faith and thinking of the presence of a mighty God (Peterson, and Vanarragon, 2003).  Nevertheless, this cannot just be simply agreed upon without questioning and this is where science comes in to effectively say that man evolved. Both scientific and theological questions are dependent but remain separate as they agreeably interpret the first paragraphs of the first book of the Bible, Genesis where they have used several techniques of metaphors, basic models, value coherence and completeness (Barbour, 1966). According to Armstrong (1912), epistemological extensions are basic to fruitful duet on dialogue between human evolution and Abrahamic religion and how relational and depend they are to on another.  Based on the Christianity teaching it seems the selection of the best specimen as based on the adherence and following of man commandment as a key factor in determining the survival. For instance, Noah was selected to ensure survival of humanity and other species due to high strict adherence of the religious teaching when other beings were evil and immoral.

Theistic evolution

With the publishing of the controversial yet partial relevantOrigin of Species, some theologians started to consider the Darwin theory compatibility with Christian view of life. Rather controversially, the Darwinism was comprehensively compatible with the atheist perception of life.  Some of the Christianity theologians accepted the perception of common ancestry but were in total disagreement with the conception of natural selection due to their religious reasons.

Some research suggests that the biological evolution is harmonize with the God’s intention and motion for the creation. These studies seek to suggest that there is no need for contradiction between religious standing in creation as well as Charles Darwin view or scientific theories of evolution.  As Francis Collins (2006), illustrated the evolution occurs with the direction from God. As noted in the theological works divine intervention in making man evolve in union with God is consistent with the scientific theories of evolution and selection as  divine intervention helps achieve more complex development that have to adopt through time to accommodate the changing times.

Concordism

Concordism which is the interpretation of the Bible according to modern science, has shed light on the biblical teachings and promoted theology in one way or another for instance, it’s agreed scientifically that the mustard seed is not the smallest seed under the sun and that the moral lesson is in order and very sensible. As a result, Christianity, which is the largest religion in the world has shaped and developed the Western science. Clark (2014) states science cannot make sense without including God who is most valued by greatest philosophers of the scientific revolution and can never be disregarded.

Islam

There are various relation to Abraham in the holy book of Islam Quran.   He is referred to as “Ibrahim Khalilullah”.  The perfect Muslim and friend of Allah.  Muslims are known for acknowledging the science and technology advancement since the inception of the religion as highlighted by the presence of world renowned scholarly, mathematicians, researchers, cosmology and information libraries distributed across the various sphere of world that have experience Islamic dominance in history.  It is important to highlight that the evolutionary theory has implication of the belief system of the Muslims. Understanding the theory has helped some liberal Muslim seek to reconcile the evolution concept with the Islam religion, however, most Muslim seek to not question the imam and the Islamic teachings on life.

However, some modern theologians have argued that the Islamic religion always incorporates science and surely, the theory of evolution has room for accommodation in the religion (Peterson, and Vanarragon, 2003).  Other Muslim scholars believe that Adam was inserted into the natural order as maxima without any desired changes in that state. Proponents of the evolution believe that the Muslim religion is composed on the changing religion that seek to change its interpretation with more revelation on the  knowledge of the world as indicated by the revelation on the close interpretation of the flat earth and earth centered

It is evident that blatant labeling of the evolution theory as evil, false and out of context in the religious realms is inadequate to rule out the impact of evolution on the Abraham religions (Clark, 2014). Despite the inadequacies and structural weakness of the Darwin theory and relating theories on evolution leading t misconception and misunderstanding of the theory, it is relevant to start that evolution is real.

The extreme idea of no evolution at all is akin to no change in DNA structure over time is unfounded and misconceived perception in the religious perspective (Laland & Brown, 2011). The biological anthropology supports proof of gradual evolutionary changes and has gained traction in the confronting the sophisticate theology of the world religions (Kemp, 1999). The evolution theory among other concept may have exposed the shallowness of the biblical and Muslim theology as well as the religion itself but acts as fantastic opportunity to explore deeper meaning in the religious teachings as science and religious growth and development in the modern day society.

Does the hindu and buddhist belief of reincarnation work for apes to?

Tactically the concept of evolution is neither rejected nor categorically accepted by the reincarnation work of the Buddhism and Hindu. These religion which are considered some of the oldest religion  in the human kind history. Some scholar have classified the context of evolution as among the 14 unanswerable question that the Buddha maintain as unproductive and un useful in relieving the suffering or complexities of life (Safina, 2009).  The Dalai lamas refute the randomness of the Darwin theory and natural selection concept. The concept of reincarnation is based in the action of consciousness rather than randomness of nutation hence unsatisfying correlation between Buddhism and Darwin perception on origin and development of life (Schuelka, 2013).  More so , the Buddha followers believe that the world  the beginning for the end of the world is immeasurable, the world continuously recreate itself every time unlike the evolution conception  the evolution  has been occurring for billions of years.

Hinduism believe that in the force behind life and its manifestation of the higher god Brahman.  Darwin theory conception that evolution is as a product of matter the rise of inertia matter through an intelligent consciousness from a supreme being can be related with the Hindu teachings.  More so the Ten Incarnations of Visnu are almost systematically in apparently the notion of life evolution from the fish, amphibians, land animals, into humans and animals (Safina, 2009).  Thus based on the scripture read and interpretation of the Hindu religion, it is evident that the Darwin theory has some merit on creation and gradual appearance of human among other complex forms of life. Based on the analysis of the Buddhism and Hinduism, it is evident that the incarnation, which is metaphysical, is complimentary with the evolution concepts.  The belief do not work for apes as the necessary elements for the incarnation is the conscious soul that can be related with the human beings.

Summary

Science and religion have coexisted since time immemorial. Despite the occasional differences and conflicting world viewpoints, these two aspects of the society have collaborated enhancing progressive development in the human community. There exist extreme elements in two disciplines that view the own assertion as the absolute truth and nothing else holds. Creationism believes that God created the world as evidenced in the books of Genesis and Revelation in biblical and Torah teaching as well as Quran.

The concept of evolution existed before the publication of Darwin but thus approach of elaborate display of evidence and comprehensive nature of the research caused many to belief that the assertions were in contravention with the religion view as thus had negative impact on the development of religion and its interpretation of source of life and world. As illustrated in the above analysis, the various religion have different perspectives within themselves depending on the scholar viewpoint on Darwin woks (Laland & Brown, 2011). Some think Darwinism controversy strategically questioning for evidence and this brought the debate on origin of life while other focuses in redirecting the concept as truth but the process is guided by the  supreme being (Worrall, 2004).

Theological study has agreed that there is much to answer since the creation of human by Supreme Being is not well evidenced. It is not clear on when exactly the creation took place as well as the mode of creation taken by God to effectively perform the creation task. As a result, this leaves a large room for question on coexistence of human evolution and Abrahamic religions(Laland & Brown, 2011). However , there exist significant gaps in the scientific proof that man evolved has been evidenced through archaeology and scientific research.  In evolution theory, the morality of human beings is continuous and this interprets why the man has effectively evolved to the current state through the natural selection that is argued to favor the best for survival.

As an extension, working scientific techniques for the betterment of human being should be incorporated with the religious beliefs for equally balanced living standards. This will make sure that people don’t major mainly on conflicting section of evolution and religion but take advantage of the two for making their life more meaningful. Where the religion beliefs and faith doesn’t offer a convincing solution to emergent questions, surely the human evolution will try to find an appropriate one. This highly shows the coexistence of human evolution and Abrahamic religions, which has always brought better results to those who respect the two concepts and obtain the maximum from each without mere contradiction.

In my view, the more human beings are inclined to certain staunch belief systems, the, more they become aggressive to fight one another and cause chaos and fights. Definitely, this will hinder human advancement in civilization that is fashioned to help everyone in the community in one way or another. There is need to tolerance of conflicting ideologies in the society with ensuring amicable state of living  as human are social and compassionate beings. Religious cognition possesses an important explanatory solution to those who question evolutionary biology amongst human beings.

The evolutionary theory has wide reaching influence eon the biblical faith and ignite a heated discussion on the impact, benefits and issues that the theory  to the relationship between Christianity, believer as well as their relation with the creator.  The theory of  evolution can act as good source ok knowledge  as it dealt with the creation of the supreme being the creator.  creation being in honor and glory of the creator as they serve as revelation of his presence and foundation of his power to govern the universe.  Given the fundament issue raised and address through the evolution , it important for the Christianity to embrace the  evolutionary discipline as it offers more evidence  on the nature as well as strengthen  the faith that understanding the evolution process is critical in helping   comprehend the God-ordained natural process of leading the world as well progressive development .

In conclusion, the fact that the argument has existed for over 150 years on the religious perception on human evolution it is clear that the matter remains out of a clear definitive status of approval and evidence. However, given the significant role that science and religion plays in the community, it  is paramount to ensure moderation in application to two concepts and their divergent view to ensure harmony in  the society.   To live in this society with no faith and belief systems is almost impossible, as they are core elements in living a purposeful life in full capacity. Moreover, based on the religious teachings, there is need for ethical consideration of other human beings, respect their capacity and belief and live with a constant and independent mindset.

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Peterson, M.L. and Vanarragon, R., 2003. Contemporary debates in philosophy of religion., Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 59–72.

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Safina, C., 2009. Darwinism must die so that evolution may live. The New York Times, 10, p.D3.

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