Today in the United Kingdom (UK) many policies and procedures outline current legislation and guidelines, to maintain the safety of children and young people (Gov, 2014 a). While continuing the right for parents to raise children in an appropriate manner, Brigden (2014) clarifies, the responsibility of safeguarding children and young people from any abuse is everyone’s duty of care. Blum, (2017) states, abuse forms through an adult, parent or guardian conducting acts of sexual and physical cruelty, or emotionally, neglecting a child or young person.
Highlighting legislation, codes of practice, policies and procedures will provide an insight on safeguarding children and young people whilst working in childcare practices. While safeguarding remains the heart of the enquiry, discussing strategies in depth to consider the relevance and importance of multiagency working for the protection of children and young people. Importantly, supporting children and young people’s resilience and wellbeing will be critically reflected on while underlining theoretical perspectives and case reviews appropriately.
Historically, Bilston, (2018) explains, children and young people were frequently manipulated and used for parent’s advancements, leaving children and young people with little or no rights to be protected. Children and young people saw punishment in ways that are illegal today, Social Services removed children from homes unnecessarily. During the 1900’s Delap, (2015) explains, legislation was implemented that cruelty to children meant authorities had the power to legally remove children from an environment that caused harm. The media became overloaded with Dennis O’Neil death, Dennis aged twelve and killed by a foster guardian in 1945 was the United Kingdom’s (UK) first child to die from abuse (Monckton, 2018). Considering Dennis’s death, the lack of intervention, communication and the attention drawn to the adults rather than the child needs, services failed to protect, similar to the cases of Maria Colwell in 1973 and Jasmine Beckford 1984 (Jones, 2015). The shift from child protection to safeguarding appeared in the Twentieth century providing services with more responsibility to assess the child’s needs (King, 2016).
The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPPC) (2018) explains, safeguarding are the actions taken by all professionals and practitioners, working directly with children and young people to protect them from harm. Safeguarding requires the protection from all types of abuse and ill treatment including exploitation and extremism (Gov, 2017 b). Ensuring children and young people live free from significant harm, in an environment that’s is safe with the right care.
Schilling et al (2016), explains the categories of abuse which provides four areas; Physical, Neglect, Sexual and Emotional, although abuse is never isolated to one area and emotional abuse is the hardest to recognise. Children and young people experiencing abuse will be exposed over time. To help professionals to intervene practitioners require the knowledge of identifying abuse in all areas and knowledge on changes of the child’s development and circumstances (ibid).
Berkowitz (2017) describes, children and young people involved in physical abuse are likely to receive sustained injuries in rare places which include; biting, hitting, shaking, burning in areas of the inner thigh, back and genitals. Fabricated illnesses are another form of physical abuse, a child or young person receiving medication on false pretences (Helton et al, 2017).
Maguire-Jack and Font (2017) explains, neglected children or young people are subject of parents or guardians not meeting the basics needs. Malnourishment, inappropriate clothing, inadequatehome environment, lack of boundaries, medical attention are all indicators of neglect. Dickerson et al (2017) suggests, neglected children suffer long term scaring through no fault of their own, parents own experiences, stress or mental health can contribute to neglect which links to Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow’s explains that children and young people require nourishment, a consistent home, knowing they are safe before beginning the school experience (Steenbakkers et al, 2018).
Lyon et al (2017) clarifies, children and young people affected by sexual abuse may continue to be promiscuous in adulthood. Identifying sexual abuse consists of individuals being scared, reluctant of parents, guardians or friends, seeks sexual attention through language or physically being touched with or without objects. Underaged pregnancy, sexual transmitted infections (STI) and genital irritation are all indicators to concern practitioners (ibid). The Department of Health (2016) explains, Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) is another form of sexual abuse, young people are led in to false deceptions through grooming, while negotiations take place for sexual actions, including Child Trafficking and Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
Vaillancourt-Morel et al (2016) states, emotional abuse provides questionable debate for practitioners as the indicators are less visible and the child or young person’s confidence will vary depending on age and stage of development. The NSPCC (2018) enlightens, children may become anxious, express aggressive behaviour, become socially isolated or struggle with relationships. Importantly remembering young people will display such behaviours during adolescence stages (Lyness, 2013). Additionally, Mattsson et al (2016) states, extremism and bullying is climaxing exposing children and young people in to believing a religion, violence, self harming and suicide or racism are a part of normality. Practitioners are required to be vigilant in changes in children and young people’s behaviour in order to investigate effectively (ibid).
The Child Matters (2018) elaborates, children and young people with disabilities, ethnical backgrounds, living in poverty, exposed to Domestic Violence, parent have mental health issues or misusing stutubstance and children that are placed in care are vulnerable, creating the risk of abuse higher. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model can be linked to child abuse through; Values, community settings, family environments and development stage of the individual (Oswalt, 2018). Practitioners adopting a holistic view will recognise not all risk factors will necessary lead to abuse, however, practitioners suspecting abuse are required to follow the setting policies and procedures (ibid).
The HM Government (2015) recommends legislation for safeguarding children and young people are updated, amended and revoked following dreadful incidents, which exposes multi agencies not collaborating to protect the most vulnerable which include; children and young people with disabilities and living in poverty (ibid). Nevertheless, safeguarding provides a large proportion of children and young people (19,000) in Wales being placed on the child protection register, involved with third sector agencies like Action for Children and Barnardos and children and young people being placed in foster care a success (NSPCC, 2016 and Gov. Wales, 2017).
The Children Act 2004 delivers lawful foundations for professionals, practitioners and multi agencies like schools, health services and police to collaborate for the benefit of children and young people, irrespective of the child or young person being in a home, a school or an agency environment (Tullo, 2018). The Children Act 2004 enforces responsibility of professionals working with children and young people to report any mistreating of children or any misconduct from the guardian of young people to appropriate services like Social Services or National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC). The Children Act 2004 reinforces Every Child Matters Green Paper (ECM) to improve life chances for children and young people in five areas, stemmed from case reviews that lacked collaboration (ibid). Working with Kids, (2018) describes that all practitioners are required to ensure children and young people thrive to be Healthy; Enjoy and Achieve; Stay Safe; Make positive outcomes and Achieve economic wellbeing. In schools the Foundation phase framework is implemented by ensuring the right ratio numbers are provided to safeguard children, which was introduced by the ChildCare Act 2006 (Gov. Wales, 2017).
Parents and guardians are required to be mindful that all practitioners in a school, outcome based service or childminding setting are required to promote and safeguard children under the age of eighteen (Department of Education, 2016). The Education Act 2002 obligates responsibilities to authorities including; Head Teachers, Governing bodies, Local Education Authorities (LEAs) and practitioners within educational practices (ibid). To ensure the safety of children all practices are required to follow policies and procedures within, appointing individual staff to safeguarding, appropriate checks are undertaken and training practitioners correctly (King Ely, 2016).
The United Nations Convention for the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), is a universal agreement with forty two artefacts connected to children and young people, including the right to be protected from abuse (Articles 19, 34, 35 and 39), express opinions and taken seriously (Article 12) and be provided with the right care, education and suitable living arrangements relating to disabilities (Article 9 and 23) (UNICEF, 2018 and Save the Children, 2018).
Wales imbedded the UNCRC values creating the Children and Young Persons (Wales) Measure 2011 policy ensuring seven core aims are met (Rees and Williams, 2016). Keith Towler Children’s Commissioner for Wales advocates children and young people’s voices which provides such initiatives; Eco clubs and Schools councils direct opportunities for children and young people to be included in affairs that are directly concerning individuals (Children’s Commissioner for Wales, 2016).
The All Wales Child Protection Procedures 2008 suggests all professionals in constitutional, independent and third sector agencies work together to safeguard children and young people, vulnerable adults and family’s. The sectors involved may include the Police, Education, NHS, Social Services, Youth services and Probation services. Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCB) ensures polices are clear and followed by individual organisations at a local level.
The Social Services Wellbeing Act (Wales) 2015 broadens outside social services limitations and encourages multiagency to cooperate effectively by prioritising safeguarding (Gov.wales, 2018). Through this framework, suggestions are made to transform social services by providing support to improve the welfare of children, young people and adults from harm, section 130 of this Act covers FGM which is mandatory to report directly to the police and local authority (ibid). Providing a child centred approach establishes the views of the child and to should be accounted for by all professionals involved as set out by Working Together to Safeguard Children 2015 (Gov, 2018 c). Recently changes have been made to the policy of Working together to Safeguard Children 2015 which includes LSCB to update training professionals to supports children and young people form sexually exploitation, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), Terrorism and radicalisation (ibid).
Evidently, legislation is complex and multi layered, however to ensure the children and young people are safeguarded and protected implementation of policies, guidance and regulations are required (Gov, 2018 d). Therefore, procedures are developed for practice assisting professionals and practitioners, to understand roles and responsibilities of each individual and agency that protects children from harm and abuse while emphasising the children’s needs and wishes (ibid).
Thompson, (2016) states that all agencies working together are required to protect the wellbeing and human rights of children and young people, through sharing information appropriately and providing a correct solution to meet the needs of each individual. Potentially, the effectiveness of protecting and safeguarding any child or young person is only achievable through collaborations between all agencies while initiating a child centred approach (ibid).
Views about an abuser will vary depending on the individual’s belief, most common views include; the abuser as not worthy, malformed and should be lock away (Point of View, 2014), however, while any form of abuse is wrong the reason behind an abuser’s actions are profound and multifaceted which theoretical perspectives reflect on. Iram Rizvi and Najam, (2014) explore Psychological theories that suggest that characteristics and psychosomatic features resurface through the abuser’s abnormalities, therefore, signifying that parents or guardians that suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression or have been subject to abuse in childhood are likely to abuse (ibid).
An abuser is not born an abuser according to Dlamini and Makondo (2017), the behaviours are instrumentally learnt or modelled, Bandura believed the environments in which children are brought up will contribute to such behaviours of aggression and neglect. Children that witness aggressive behaviour will adopt the behaviour pattern and believe it is acceptable, continuing this behaviour in to adulthood therefore increases the cycle of violence (Gracia et al 2017). Importantly, Shannon (2018) explains, teaching children, young people and family appropriate behaviours through parenting classes and working with third sector agencies improves relationships and decreases the chances of child abuse.
Vaillancourt‐Morel et al (2016) stated, relationships are significant and contribute to child abuse, without secure and nurturing relations with parents or guardians within the first year, children are mistreated and exposed to neglect. Wells (2018) agreed with Bowlby which categorised types of bonding; Secure, Preoccupied, Dismissive and Fearful and believed by securing the bond early, children can understand and express emotions appropriately.
Clearly, the responsibilities are significant on all professionals to safeguard children and young people from abuse, therefore all practitioners are required to follow the practices policies and produres. Conversely, several Serious Case Reviews (SCR) had been subject to renovations made for all partnership working to collaborate effectively to safeguard children and young people.
Peachey (2013) Reviewed Victoria Climbie and Baby P’s death, highlighting insufficient cooperation between, social services, the police, education and the medical staff during time spent or visiting these children. Victoria Climbie and Baby P was victims of abuse and all services miscarried their judgement and lacked in professionalism (ibid). In 2000 Load Laming provided 108 commendations which included creating a database for any child that encountered visits from authorities, police and social services (Wood 2016). Subsequently, 2008 found Lord Laming once again reviewing and making a further 58 recommendations which reinforced the guidance of Working together to Safeguard Children. The issues for social workers laid within the recruitment, guidance and reflecting areas which suggests failures hindered practice than policies (ibid).
The NSPCC (2017) explains, working together is imperative for children and young people’s safety, welfare and development, in essence, working together is a shared responsibly. Most vulnerable children and young people in danger of significant harm or child in need requires intervention from multiple agencies like social services, health services, education, youth services and voluntary groups like Action for Children, early to prevent the child or young person from social exclusion. However, Kay (2017) examines funding, which is currently an issue preventing third sector services like Action for Children and the Youth Service to effectively provide for children and young people.
Without the expertise of each agency children, young people and families will continue to suffer, therefore, relationships between each agency and practitioner needs to be constructive in order to be effective and consistent, sharing information appropriately is vital (Twitchett, 2018). Additionally, NSPCC (2018) believes, the community plays a vital role in safeguarding the welfare of children by reporting concerns to the LSCB or Social Services, although, Hoyle et al (2016) states, people do not report suspicions due to the lack of evidence or afraid of the aftermath. Thus, opens debateable questions on the public’s knowledge, understanding and approval of such agencies (ibid).
Practitioners are required to acknowledge own role of job description while working with children and young people which includes reporting concerns to the correct person, in such cases the senior staff member, manager or safeguarding officer would be the first protocol to discuss the reasons (Gov, 2018). The practitioner’s involvement will depend on the severity of the case; however, it is the duty of the manager to assess and respond appropriately in accordance to policies like whistle blowing (Vandekerckhove and Phillips, 2017), this includes taking further action and referring to the local Social Services, following a report within 24 hours. The social worker’s duty is to investigate and provide a strategy meeting which can involve services like the police, health and education service to determine if a section 47 or 11 of the Children Act 2004 is to be initiated (Cardiff University, 2018), this may escalate to a child protection conference and assess whether the child is placed on the child protection register which assessment plan are needed (NSPCC, 2018).
In such events, multiple agencies like Youth Work and Action for Children and Barnardos can assist the family and child working together to reinstate the safety and wellbeing of the child by working towards positive outcomes. Action for Children (2015) states, practitioners will follow settings procedures conducting risk assessments, observations and recording information during community based activity’s, any concerns raised are reported to the on call duty team (Barnardos, 2018). Similarly, the NSPCC (2018) suggests, if a child discloses information of abuse direct or indirectly, practitioners are required to record the information in the words the child or young person have spoken. The practitioner’s discretion is vital to ensure the child or young person is not led in to questions and is comfortable discussing the disclosure on the basis of reporting if necessary (Creative Education, 2018). The NSPCC (2018) confirms the importance of confidentiality and therefore, all practitioners are required not to discuss, leave information laying around and comply with policies of the setting. Breach of confidentiality can lead to disciplinary procedures if no concern of child abuse, suicide attempts are made and children and young people have not disclosed information (ibid).
Working Together under the Children Act 2004 requests organisations have the duty to support both practitioners, family and child through allegations made by staff, parent or child (HM Government, 2018. Practitioners with alleged allegations whether suspend or not should be informed of the outcome of the investigation. Parents, guardians and the child involved will be informed accordingly including the outcome of disciplinary action of alleged person (ibid). Additionally, the Care Quality Commission (2018) explains, the police service are required to investigate any criminal proceedings regarding safeguarding vulnerable children and young people, specialised officers are trained for child abuse cases including Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) and Child Trafficking. However, the Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act 1984 states the police have the legal power to gain entry to premises with suspected abuse concerns and remove the child if necessary, on the belief risk of significant harm is conducted (Gov, 2018).
A general strategy conducted for all services; Police, education and health and social care sectors is a Common Assessment framework (CAF) which indicates the best possible care the child requires (Easton et al, 2018). The assessment outlines the needs and requirements of both child and family, agencies that work together intervening early prevents events escalating if the assessment is carried out effectively (ibid).
Debatable questions arose after Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman’s death which led Birchard’s to investigate the recruitment process for individuals applying to work with vulnerable children and adults (community Care, 2018). Background checks are now a part of the employment agenda in schools, third sector agencies, health care services and voluntary services like football clubs, guides and scouts (Megele, 2017). The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 recommends employers to utilise the Disclosure and Barring Services (DBS) which identifies any criminal convictions, reprimand and cautions to justify suitability for applied positions, making the recruitment process safer. Thus, prevents people that have explored pornography, conducted sexual acts or behaved inappropriately placing a child at risk, from working in setting with vulnerable children or adults (SCIE, 2018). However, it is deemed the employer’s responsibility to ensure the correct decision is made regarding the individuals criminal status and nature of the project, not all employers dismiss minor criminal records as many understand unfortunate things happen (ibid).
To ensure children and young people are safeguarded appropriately practitioners are trained to recognise the signs of abuse, through introduction periods, practitioners will be advised on policies and procedures about reporting concerns (NDNA, 2018). Requested also, is the need to attend additional training sessions like First Aid, Medication, Health and Safety and food Hygiene, without such training practitioners are neglecting their role of responsibility and the child’s needs which place’s the child or young person at harm (PACEY, 2018). Practitioners adhering a child centred approach will ensure the child’s voice is heard through listening, being empathic, understanding, respecting and valuing the child’s interest that have suffered adverse experiences (Fertleman and Hann, 2016). Therefore, practitioners are reminded that children have the right to freely express opinions and views on decisions concerning their needs, wellbeing and safety (ibid).
School staff encourage young people to recognise forms of abuse through Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education (PSHE), Tutorials lessons and Sex Education in secondary schools, while primary children are taught through campaigns like PANTS and KidsCode, this is essential for children to speak out, know their rights and their body is their own (The Education Union, 2017, NSPCC, 2018 and Kidscape, 2018). Teachers are bound to statutory guidance while attending their duties to safeguard children and young people (NUT, 2013). Thereby, suitable filters and appropriate monitoring should be applied while utilising online systems to forbid indecent images and context to be exposed to children (ibid). Furthermore, children and young people are educated on conducting appropriate behaviours towards others, bullying and cyber bullying is a form of abuse and disciplining actions, police participation or social services can intervene depending on such seriousness (Gov, 2018). Recently, the Government have provided every childcare establishments, every authority, prison and health service guidance on Counter Terrorism and Security Act 2015 to generate steps of prevent temptation to terrorism, children and young people are taught to practice lockdown drills in schools in case of such events (Grace and Watkins, 2017).
Deprived areas have Welsh Government programmes like Flying Start connected to educational settings, the idea of Flying Start is to provide families with support on the Health and Wellbeing of their children including antenatal education (Children in Wales, 2018). Flying Start provides advice and tips on dealing with worries while accessing a team experienced staff ranging from Speech and Language Therapists (SALT), Midwifery and Health Visitors. Health Visitors are in a unique position to protect children, during home visits the health visitor is able to identify signs of abuse, factors and triggers of neglect. The highly qualified staff are encouraged to build a relationship with parents to support the child’s wellbeing, although, any concerns are reported in line with own policies and procedures including contacting Social Services (ibid). The health visitor will continue to monitor the family’s circumstances and attend relevant meetings with collaboration of General Practitioners (GP). GP’s protect children and young people by examining their general health, this, includes recording any sustained injuries and reporting concerns to the local Social Services (NSPCC, 2018).
Children and young people are advised through all agencies on the support offered by charitable organisations. The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) provides voluntary sessions in educational settings to brief children on factors abuse brings, raise awareness and support children and families with concerns according to Armes (2017). The NSPPC work in line with services that act on risk of significant harm and a child in need cases and are the only charitable organisation permitted too (section 31 of the Children Act 2004), therefore, it is imperative to educate, support and build resilience in children (ibid).
Coleman, (2016) believes, resilience is the ability to overcome and deal with challenges, adversities and strengthen social skills needed for adulthood. Mead Mead, (2018) explains, resilient children will have the ability to build a good relationship with parents, friends and practitioners, through caring and understanding peer’s emotions, being flexible and not take offence in laughable situations. Therefore, the child or young person have a sense of purpose and are supported by their families and their communities (Dodge, 2013). Furthermore, children and young people become independent, confident and actively balance their daily agenda with hope for future asperations. Effectively, resilient children and young people will academically achieve, engage, appreciate and expects well which contributes to the child’s self worth (Fulgosi-Masnjak, 2013). However, Challen et al (2018) aurges, creating resilient children depends greatly on parental styles, values and role modelling, parents over protecting can cause their child to feel suffocated leading the child or young person to rebel.
Hurd (2013) explains, if a parent that role model’s violence teaches children violence is acceptable, which can lead the child or young person to cause serious harm to others, involved in anti-social behaviour and criminal proceedings in school and in the community. Persaud (2017) continues stating, resilience can be learnt and is the duty of every practitioner, teacher, parent or guardian to assist children and young people in doing so, the core ingredient of resiliency is the relationship the child or young person have with others that care about them.
Resilient children become autonomous, value, self-esteem, are healthier, achieve academic goals and are generally more adaptable during difficult situations like bullying, bereavement, loss, separation (Persaud, 2017). Practices that promote resilience and wellbeing are pre schools, schools, after school activities, youth centres, organisations like Action for children and parents and family. NICE (2018) recommendes, all practices, practitioners, parents and guardians that encourage, role model and listen to children and young people’s views, opinions and concerns enhances the child or young person’s resilience and wellbeing.
Children and young people require rules and consequences for own actions, parents and practitioners can work in partnership creating an effective system that the child will understand (Action for Children, 2014). If a child displays challenging behaviour during periods of not having their own way, introducing a time out step, a time counter or reward charts are tools both parents and practitioners can utilise. However, Tickell (2018) argues that, if the system is not consistent or conducted daily the child will receive mixed messages which can contribute to unwanted behaviours, thus, needs to fair and age appropriate.
Mosley (2014) clarifies, children are taught in schools to stay safe and look after their wellbeing, circle time encourages children unity and respect, conducting activities and talks allows children to express their concerns and problem solve. Topics like bulling, cyber bulling and E Safety are raised on times to express the importance of for young children. The teaching tool recognises the child’s skills, attitudes and ability and contributes to their self esteem (ibid). However, Stewart (2013) argues, implementing circle time is difficult due to teacher’s overrun schedules.
Scheme like Design to smile helps children improve their oral health by getting children in a routine of brushing their teeth (Design to Smile, 2018). The programme offers advice and resources to families and children about protection against tooth decay, within deprived areas of Wales the Design to Smile service was applied in 1,121 childcare settings attending to the needs of 78,350 children (Nhs, 2018).
Furthermore, WLGA, (2018) reports the increase of obesity in children and young people, children and young people are taught the importance of health eating and physical exercise, encouraging children and young people to make decisions about their health, practitioners demonstrate this through talks, cooking sessions and worksheets. Sandhu (2018) agreed with the Government’s response, tax sugar products that contain more than 5% in aid of preventing childhood obesity increasing.
Additionally, Rainer et al (2014) believes, children that attend extracurricular activities benefit from time management and prioritising, friendships and explore diverse interests through sports, music, arts drama or Lego clubs. However, Mandic et al (2014) argues, children and young people living in poverty, extracurricular activities can serve as a life line, a piece of freedom, increase happiness and decrease stress for children that experiencing adverse circumstances. Furthermore, Galinha and Pais-Ribeiro, (2013) believes, deprived of such schemes, children and young people will neglect their health and damage their overall wellbeing, become introvert, less confident and lower their self image. Other ways practices promote resilience and welling is through; Stranger danger, community police talks on bullying, smoking, drugs and breakfast clubs, although, Merrick (2017) criticises breakfast clubs as parents abuse the system for own pleasures.
Liebenberg et al (2015) believes resilience helps children and young people to understand, learn and make choices, sometimes mistakes are made but the ability to acknowledge the mistake and correct the mistake during the same or similar situation is a valuable and achievable lesson if taught effectively. Rouse (2014) suggests, practitioners and parents work in partnership utilising tools like emotion cards and story books for children with additional needs to comprehend and communicate effectively which encourages their self control while under pressure. Praising children and young people on their efforts, encouraging and creating opportunities allows the child to grow and become proud of own efforts (ibid). Collie et al (2016) argues, without resilience children and young people can make drastic decisions like self harming, suicide or risk-taking behaviour causing emotional distress which can lead to anxiety and depression.
Hosie (2017) believes, young people are peered pressured and parents go to extreme lengths to eliminate risks which denies children from building resilience in ways past generations adored like; Climbing mountains, playing in streets unsupervised, walking miles to meet friends and playing conkers in the school yards. However, Utley (2017) and Rahhal (2018) argue, that parents have created children to become less adventurous, technology mad and thin skinned to offensiveness as per the Snowflake Generation.
Evidently, children and young people’s welfare is paramount and is the duty of each parent, practitioner and professional to safeguard the wellbeing of every child. Historically the implementation of legislation was vital to decrease child abuse from happening, although, parents and guardians in receipt of social services befriended social workers and deceitfully yarned the truth. That said, social workers lacked in competence and delivered a service that responded to the parent’s wishes rather than the child’s needs leading to the deaths of Dennis O’Neil, Victoria Climbie and Baby P. Much needed guidance endorsed all childcare practices and professional’s working with children and young people to tighten their professional performances in line with safeguarding, without such guidance children and young people would have continued to go unnoticed. Practitioners from all agencies and organisations are bound to policies and procedures in order to improve children and young people’s life chances early, for that reason, promoting resilience requires a nurturing relationship to understand and recognise individual needs and respond appropriately to concerns. The wellbeing of individuals is equally important to aid children and young people for adulthood. Recommendations would be to invest in permanent buildings like schools for youth services and Action for Children organisations to increase children, young people and families social and emotional wellbeing.
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