Background of the Study
The overall development status of every country depends upon the standard of education prevalent across that country. It is an era of knowledge based economies, and countries failing in education find it hard to catch up with the developed world. In other words a country's economic and cultural future as well as its scientific and technological growth owe to the academic standards being maintained by the teachers in its educational institutions. Thus teachers' contributions are well acknowledged as builders of the nation and molders of personalities. In fact the key player of every educational system is the teacher, who is considered the backbone of the entire system all over the world, and a pivot around which the whole education system revolves. Teacher is the major implementer of all educational reforms at the grass root level. Teaching without doubt is considered one of the very noble professions. It offers constant intellectual challenges, acknowledgement, respect in the society and above all the opportunity to mould the personalities of a big majority of youth. This centrality qualifies teachers to be the crucial position holders in creating impact on all aspects of students' personalities. They are the teachers who bring about positive behavioural changes in students by grooming and developing their personalities. That is why it is necessary that they should be adequately equipped with skills and abilities that would enable them to play an effective role in human development both from national and global perspectives.
The Indian Education Commission 1964-66, as observed by Sheikh M.A (1998) had ranked the quality and competence of the teachers as the most important factor determining the quality of education significantly contributing to the national development. Nothing is more important than securing a sufficient supply of high quality recruits to the teaching profession, providing them with the best possible professional preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of work in which they can be fully effective.” However, this central position, demands great care and attention in the education and training of teachers, who develop and enable students meet effectively the challenges of present and future. Ascertaining the effectiveness of these trainings asks for the analysis of teacher education programs in the social context of every country socio economic, cultural and historic factors substantially influence its nature and value.
Concept of Teacher Education
Teacher education is a discipline and sub sector of education with its distinct pre service and in service forms. It equips prospective and in service teachers with information, knowledge and pedagogical skills to help reform their attitudes and behaviour to the profession of education. The key objective is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) to students and to build their character and personalities. In other words teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the school and classroom. (Wikipedia, 09)  According to Sheikh M.A (1998), teacher education encompasses acquiring all that knowledge, skills and abilities which are relevant to the life of a “teacher as a teacher” It reshapes the attitudes, remodels the habits, and develops the personalities of teachers.
Need for Teacher Education
Teachers' general education and professional training both require utmost care and attention, as whatever is acquired by them is transferred to their students with high multiple effects. The present has witnessed and is still experiencing a rapidly but positively changing scenario of processes and procedures of teacher training. New innovative methods are continuously being added to the already practiced traditional pedagogical techniques. Acquainting with these developments to the point of mastery is needed for the promotion and maintenance of good teaching learning standards. Good quality teacher education about these key elements paves the way of the development of the education system in the long run.
Teachers are the layers of the foundations of future citizens, hence need to be educated with futuristic perspective, so that they can develop the personalities of their students, not only as per present requirements but also for the years to come, accommodating the new trends from the global outlook. This is very important as teacher is one of the key agents of change in all communities and a service provider as per needs of the future. Changes are taking place not only at national but also at international level. With every passing day distances are shrinking and communities are coming closer to each other affecting each other's practices of life.
Purpose of Teacher Education
The purpose of teacher education primarily is to equip prospective teachers not only with suitable aptitudes for teaching but also with appropriate skills and abilities required to make them effective and efficient professionals. Through different theoretical and practical activities, they are helped to understand not only the philosophical, psychological, and sociological basis of teaching, but also the relationship of education with the society and its values through teaching and learning processes.
The process of formal teacher education can help the prospective teachers minimize the troubles and save the students from the wastages of hit and trial. Appropriately rendered teacher education, provides ample opportunities to would be teachers to understand the nature of teaching; to envisage responsibilities of a teacher; to discover that to be a teacher is much more than learning by heart the philosophies and theories of learning; and to comprehend the practical implications of the pedagogical strategies. It is learnt that the profession of teaching is in fact facilitating the acquisition and retention of knowledge, values, skills and right attitudes for successful life that can initiate and promote positive changes in the society.
Keeping this in view teacher education, through teacher-preparatory years focuses on the development of abilities and skills that would not only make them capable teachers but will enable them to discharge duties effectively, take initiatives, motivate students and facilitate learning. With the belief that practice makes one perfect, students during teacher education phase are given the opportunity to teach or instruct and receive constant guidance and encouragement during practical delivery, in order to strengthen good habits and to overcome the pedagogical weaknesses.
Phases of Teacher Education
Farrant, J. S. (1990), observed that since the dawn of the twenty first century teacher education in developed countries remained divided into three phases:
- Initial Teacher Education
- Continuing Teacher Education
Initial teacher training / education
This education pertains to the training that is undertaken before formally starting the teaching profession. It is a pre-service course done before entering the classroom as a fully responsible teacher. It is usually provided in education colleges and education departments of universities where the student teachers are introduced to the knowledge and skills needed to be professional teachers. The students are formally taught the important components of this profession including aims of education, history of education, perspectives of education, modern approaches to learning, assessment and evaluation of learning and basics of curriculum development, educational psychology, philosophy and pedagogy. It also provides first hand experience of the practical aspects of the teaching profession. It usually takes a year or so and culminates into a certificate or a degree.
This informal phase begins when a student teacher changes from being a part time, visiting student teacher to a full time adequately responsible professional. Basically induction refers to the process of providing on the job guidance and support to the teachers during the first few months of teaching or the first year of the professional career. In countries like UK, during induction the teacher is on probation, and receives guidance and supervision formally by the teacher-tutor, and informally from all other colleagues & head teacher. The work load during this phase of education is reduced in order to provide time and opportunity for guidance, reflection and grooming. This is a transitional phase from being a student to being a full time teacher.
Teachers' continuous professional development
It is an in-service process for professional refinement of practicing teachers. It is a life long process in which efforts are made to improve and polish up the potentials of the teachers. It includes professional trainings like workshops, short courses and seminars. This is usually formally arranged by good schools or can be self directed through reading of professional books, discussions with colleagues, benefiting from on line courses, or attending training workshops, conferences, and symposiums.
With the passage of time, all institutions have started to value in service training of teachers more and more; and are regularly arranging training programs of different durations for their teachers. These trainings are sometimes general in nature for the improvement of the overall teaching methodologies, and sometimes focused on improving specific subject-teaching skills, enabling teachers master innovative concepts recently incorporated in the existing curriculum. Such in service trainings are usually taken up in anticipation for the expected promotions.
Usefulness of Comparing Teacher Education Systems
Sodhi (1993) documented, “Comparative education is a popular educational venture and is considered very useful in countries like USA, UK, Russia and even India. It is considered so, as education has been recognized an investment for development of human resources, which is in fact the development of human capital formation. All people engaged in the field of education have much to learn from the policies and educational practices of other lands. Apparently the educational system of a country grows out of the historical background, economic and social conditions, geographical features and political systems and no country is in a position to totally adopt the educational patterns of another country as such. But lessons can be learnt, and successful practices can be adopted to meet the needs from the angle it looks upon them.”
With advancement in technology and with communication explosion, the geographical distances are shrinking and people are coming closer to each other. The similarities caused by science and technology are overpowering the differences resulting from cultural diversities. The fact suggested by increasing similarities is that different nations of the world--which looks like a global village now, can learn a lot from each others' experiences and progress to save time, energy and resources required for the ‘try and learn' activities. The knowledge about the successes and failures of other systems can be very awakening and beneficial in comprehending one's own educational problems. The backwardness or advancement of one's own system can be ascertained only through analytical comparison, particularly with those of the economically and educationally advanced countries.
In spite of increased investment in education sector, Pakistan has not yet achieved its target of UPE (Universal Primary Education) set in 1960 that was to be achieved by 1980. Analysis of the educational status of Pakistan reveals that a reasonable progress has been made by it since independence. At that time not even a million students were studying in schools, whereas now more than twelve million children are in schools. But at the same time due to a very high population growth rate, more than twelve million school age children are out of school, doing jobs or just doing nothing. The recent comparisons with the educational situation in China and India show that Pakistan is still far behind than the more thickly populated neighbouring countries, where China with literacy rate of 90% and India with 65% are substantially ahead of Pakistan. The situation of full enrollment which is a far cry is further aggravated by an alarmingly high rate of dropouts. Female literacy rate is abysmally low, and education of females and rural population at all levels is much underrepresented.
As the population is growing at a geometrical rate, the need for more schools and for more and better teachers has risen substantially. With increased focus on the quantitative expansion necessitated by substantial raises in population, the qualitative dimension of teacher education in Pakistan has not received adequate attention, resulting in passing out of scores of teachers from different teacher education institutions with inadequate grip over the content and teaching methodologies. This demands special focus to improve the status of teacher education, by learning through analysis and comparison with education systems that are progressing and delivering well in other countries of the world.
As the education system has grown over years, the number of teachers has also shown
increases, but it is still far from being adequate, particularly for subjects like science and mathematics. Along with this teacher education programs in Peshawar based teacher education institutions like other similar institutions of Pakistan have some critical deficiencies, which are hampering their effectiveness. Some of those were summarized by Asia and the Pacific Program of Educational Innovation for Development (APIED)(1987), and are reproduced hereunder:
i) Short duration of teacher training programs
ii) Minimal interaction of trainee teachers at schools
iii) Outmoded methods of teaching and evaluation
iv) Shortage of audio visual aids and other educational equipment in teacher training institutions.
v) Deficiency of supplementary reading material/professional magazines/ research journals
vi) Lack of co ordination among training institutions.
vii) Absence of incentives for prospective teachers
These and similar other deficiencies ask for keen analysis of the local system and for its comparison with better performing systems. The best way to analytically compare any two teacher education systems, as highlighted by Galambos C. Eva, (1986)  would be to find out:
- How the two systems strengthen subject area preparation?
- How long and adequate is the duration of pre service training of teachers?
- How theory and practice address better inclusion of the practice of teaching in learning to teach effectively and efficiently?
- What level of general education would be necessary for all prospective teachers? and
- What major and minor subjects would be preferred as most supportive for the profession of teaching?
In order to survive successfully in the global community, and to bring the indigenous teacher education at the international level it would seem pertinent to critically analyze the local prevailing teacher education programs and to compare them with one of the educationally advanced countries, like that of the United Kingdom, which had laid the foundation of the existing education system in the sub-continent during the colonial rule.
Education System in Pakistan
Education in Pakistan comes in the domain of the responsibilities of the provinces. However the Federal government is responsible for over viewing Pakistan's entire system of education, and is assisted by the provincal ministries and departments of education in all the provinces. The Federal Ministry of Education (MOE) deals with policy-making, curriculum development, accreditation and coordination as an advisory authority, along with the direct administration of the educational institutions situated in and around the capital. Education up to Secondary level is provided by public and private schools, and by Islamic madrasahs, (the faith schools). Education provided at the public/government schools is free of cost, but in the private sector institutions educational expenses are borne by the parents for the purpose of good quality of education.
Provincial governments overview and administer all the Universities which are financed by the Federal government through the Higher Education Commission (HEC). Both public and private universities and other higher education institutions are overviewed by HEC for the planning, development and granting of charters. The academic progress of these institutions is coordinated, reviewed and evaluated by the HEC.
Primary education begins at five years of age and is completed in five years. The medium of instruction at the government schools is either Urdu or the regional language and is English at the private educational institutions. The curriculum revolves around Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, General science, Social studies, Islamic studies, and Physical training.
Secondary Education comprises of three stages: a three-year stage of middle level education; other two-year of secondary education; and a further two-year of higher secondary education at intermediate and degree colleges. At the Middle level, (Grades VI to VIII), at ages 11-13, compulsory subjects of Urdu, English, Mathematics, Social Studies and Islamic studies are studied and students are examined on terminal and annual basis. In Grades IX and X at ages 14 and 15 studies are divided into streams of Science and Humanities, and externally examined by the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education to award Secondary School Certificate on successful completion of ten years of education. However, Intermediate or Higher Secondary Education stream involves studies of Grade XI and XII either in Science or
Humanities at the ages of 16 and 17, with external examination and certification by the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education. Many students in the private sector opt for the examination of (GCE) General Certificate of Education.
Madrassahs / Madaris: (Religious Schools)
The madaris, operating simultaneously with regular schools are fewer in number as compared to the public and private schools. These provide Islamic education through Urdu and Arabic as languages of Instruction. The key features of the curriculum are the study of the Holy Quran and Hadith (teachings of the prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h). Enrollment and boarding & lodging facilities are mostly free of charge, although in some cases they receive grants from the federal government.
The primary level institutions called maktabs, are usually attachments of mosques, and provide basic Islamic education focusing on the reading and learning the holy Quran by heart. Secondary school madrasahs deal with the higher level of Islamic education. For better standards of education and in order to integrate the Islamic and formal education systems, the formal schools curriculum of English, mathematics, general science and computer Science are now studied compulsorily at all madaris. Madrasahs are largely self-governing and independent. The official regulatory and certificates/Sanads awarding bodies include ‘Jamea-tus Safiya' ‘Wafaq-ul-Madaris', and ‘Tanzeem-ul-Madaris'. Different madrasah levels correspond to the formal system, like ‘Tajweed wa Qiraat Ibtidaya' is equal to primary schooling, ‘Mutawassita' is at par with Middle level, ‘Saniya Aama' is equated with Secondary School Certificate, and ‘Saniya Khasa' to the Higher Secondary School Certificate, after which the students are eligible to continue higher education at Madrasah or at Universities of the formal sector.
Vocational / Technical Secondary Education
Nearly all vocational schools run both certificate and diploma programmes. The duration of certificate courses is one year and that of diplomas is two years, in various trades at the secondary level (Grades IX and X) leading to the Secondary School Certificate in technical education; qualifying students to continue their education at Technical Institutes of higher education.
At the time of partition in 1947 the country had only one University, the Punjab University. Now as of 2008-2009 Pakistan, according to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC), there are 124 recognized Universities in the country, 68 of these universities are public sector universities and 56 are from the private sector. The guidelines for charter and operations of Universities are issued by the HEC. For standardization, all degree-granting higher education programmes are assessed by HEC. With English as medium of Instruction the Higher Secondary School Certificate, & a pass in the entry test, are the essential pre requisites for admission to the study at the university.
University Higher Education
Stage I: A Bachelor's Degree is awarded after two years of formal education and with honours after three years of fulltime study in humanities, sciences or commerce. Four years of formal education is required for Bachelor's degrees in engineering, pharmacy & computer science, whereas five years are needed for Bachelor's in medicine.
Stage II: Two years of study after the bachelor's degree and one year after the honor's bachelor's degree leads to the acquisition of Master's Degree
Stage III: A minimum of four to five years of study beyond master's degree leads to the doctoral degree. But the duration of study is five to seven years for programmes like the Doctor of Literature (DLitt), Doctor of Science (DSc) and Doctor of Law (LLD).
Higher Education (Non University)
Polytechnics, technical and commercial institutes and colleges provide non-university higher education comprising programmes of two or three years leading to certificates and diplomas in commercial and technical fields, awarded by Provincial Boards of Technical Education.
Teacher Education Programs at Pakistan
Primary School Teachers
Teacher training at the post secondary level takes place in Regional Institutes of Teacher Education (RITE), and at the Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad for a one-year program known as the Primary Teaching Certificate. In addition, prospective teachers are also prepared at the private sector institutions affiliated or enlisted with universities of public or private sector.
Secondary School Teachers
Government training institutes of education and different affiliated colleges in private sector train teachers for the secondary school level. They are awarded a Certificate of Teaching (CT) for one year study after passing the examination of Higher Secondary School Certificate.
Teacher Education at Universities
The prospective teachers aspiring to teach at the higher secondary school level study for one year at the Education Colleges for the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree, after two-year bachelor's of Arts or Science (BA/BSc) education. Teachers possessing B.Ed degree are eligible to teach at the Secondary school level. Masters of Education (M.Ed) is a one year university education after completion of B.Ed.
Policy Priorities for Teacher Education
All the National Education Policies of Pakistan have accorded great importance to teacher education. The 1959 Commission on National Education stressed upon the necessity of adequate pre service teacher education gave recommendations about functions of teachers in a university and about selection and promotion of teachers. The Education Policy 1972-80 estimated the teacher producing capacity of then existing 12 teacher training colleges and 55 teacher education institutions in Pakistan, to be four thousand which was much less than the estimated demand of three hundred thousand additionally required teachers. It recommended the introduction of Education subject at Secondary, Higher Secondary and Degree level and students qualifying these subjects were suggested to be taken as primary, middle and high level teachers. Relaxation of training requirements for women teachers in special cases was recommended in order to increase the number of women teachers. An academy for teachers' and educational Administrators' training was recommended to be set up. The outdated nature of the teacher training courses was admitted, and their revision was recommended, along with this preparation of model standard textbooks for teacher trainees were advised.
The National Education Policy 1979 had vividly valued the significant role of teachers in the effective implementation of the education policies. It was asserted that teacher is the pivot of the entire educational system. In order to promote pre-service teacher education, all the Primary Teacher Training Institutions were planned to be upgraded to Colleges of Elementary Education. An Academy of Higher Education was approved to be established to provide in-service and pre-service training to the College and University teachers. Another Academy for Educational Planning and Management was also established to provide opportunities of training to administrators and supervisors working at different levels of the educational system. This National Education Policy envisaged that every teacher would be expected to undergo one in-service course during five-year cycle of his/her service. A system of National Awards for best teachers was planned to be instituted. Every year ten teachers of various levels and categories were planned to receive these awards from the President of Pakistan at national level. Similar awards were planned to be given to selected teachers by the respective provincial governors.
The Sixth five Year Plan (1983-88), earmarked sixty million rupees for the teacher education programs to establish additional primary and secondary teacher training institutes and to enhance the training capacity of the existing primary and secondary teacher training institutions, and departments of Education at the Universities. This plan was unique in the sense that it allocated special funds categorically for the teacher education programs. Prior to this the trend of blanket approval was in practice and the badly needed requisite improvement in the standard of teachers could not be facilitated. The incremental allocation, as given in the following table reflected the increased importance accorded to teacher education.
Table: 1.1 The Sixth Five Year Plan's (1983-1988) Allocations for Teacher Education
Year Recurring Expenditure Developmental Expenditure (in million rupees)
1983-84 12 16
1984-85 14 20
1985-86 18 27
1986-87 20 32
1987-88 24 38
Total 88 133
The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93) identified a number of shortcomings in the teacher training programs, which included the irrelevancy of curriculum for PTC and CT; the inadequacy of the training duration, of in service training, and lack of good career prospects due to which good students were not attracted to the profession of teaching. It was proposed to improve the efficiency of teachers by gradually raising the minimum qualification, revitalizing the teacher training programmes, continuous in-service education and providing better career proposals to teachers. The Ninth Five-Year Plan focused upon the strengthening of one hundred and twenty then available teacher training institutes. The high priority attached to the promotion and facilitation of teacher education as envisaged in the above mentioned policies and plans spoke of the importance accorded to teacher education by all the governments of Pakistan.
The requisite entry qualifications into the teaching profession at different levels are as follows:
a) Primary Level (I-V) : Matriculation + one year teaching certificate (PTC)
b) Middle Level (VI-VIII) : Intermediate + one year teaching certificate (CT) and,
c) Secondary Level (IX-X) : B.A/B.Sc + one year Bachelor of Edu. degree course/B.Ed
Non Formal Teacher Education
Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is offering non formal teacher training courses for both male and female students living in the far away areas of the country. These programs are substantially contributing to the provision of trained teachers.
United Kingdom's System of Education
In Britain compulsory schooling takes place between the ages of five and sixteen. The over riding objectives of the government's education policies are to raise standards at all levels of ability, increase parental choice, make further and higher education more widely accessible and more responsive to the needs of the economy, and to achieve the best possible returns from the resources invested in the education service. (Britain 1990)  Parents are legally bound to ensure that their children aged five to sixteen regularly receive efficient full time education. Most students receive free education financed from public funds, and a small proportion attends private schools independent of public financial support. Pupils follow a common curriculum leading to the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and Vocational Certificate of Secondary Education (VCSE). Students are allowed to select a number of GCSEs, VCSEs as per their personal preferences and aptitudes. Quite a few schools cater for the educational needs of the students for additional two years till they sit for the Advanced Level of General Certificate of Education. (GCE A Levels)
Primary and Secondary Schools
Ninety percent of boys and girls are taught together in most primary schools. Most independent/private fee-charging schools are mixed at the primary level and single-gender at the secondary level. These schools are registered with, and inspected by the government and governed by an independent board. No fees are charged in government schools, which are governed by the Local Education Authorities (LEA). There is no statutory requirement to provide education for the under-fives, but nursery education is well established now. Compulsory education begins at five at infant schools and at seven they go to junior/primary schools. The average age of passing out from primary school and entry into secondary school is eleven years. Schools are organized in a number of ways including secondary schools with age range, from 11 to 18; middle schools whose students move on to senior comprehensive schools at the age of 12 to 16. Tertiary colleges offer a full range of vocational and academic courses for students over 16.
At the completion of the secondary education at UK, at the age of sixteen, secondary school students appear for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). This examination in order to raise the standard of performance has replaced General Certificate of Education (GCE), Ordinary Level (O Level), and the Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) since 1988. GCSE examination is taken after five years of Secondary Education and evaluated at a seven point scale of grades, A to G. The GCSE Advanced level (A Level) examination is taken after two years of further study. Its successful completion qualifies the student for induction into universities.
Her Majesty's inspectors report to ministers on the quality of education provided at all schools colleges and universities. They also advise the Local Education Authorities (LEA) and the government, and publish the reports. LEAs also employ inspectors or advisers to guide the management of schools.
School Examinations and Assessment Council through its Performance Assessment Unit promotes methods of assessment and monitors the progress of students. Programs of monitoring are undertaken in English Language and Mathematics at the age of 11 and 15, in Science at the age of 11, 13 and 15, and in the first foreign Language at the age of 13.
Post School Education
Post school education is provided at Universities, Polytechnics, further and Higher Education Colleges, Adult Education Centers, Colleges of Technology, Agriculture, Horticulture, Art and Design and tertiary colleges of the public sector along with many independent colleges.
In Britain at present higher education courses are offered by approximately 325 institutions including universities, colleges of higher education and further education (UCAS.UK 2009) as compared with 17 in 1945, while some date from 12th and 13th centuries. These autonomous institutions are governed by Royal Charters or by the Act of Parliament, and enjoy complete academic freedom, including staff appointments, students' induction and courses selection. For effectiveness the universities are divided into faculties which are further subdivided into departments. First degree courses are full time and last for 3 to 4 years, though medical and veterinary courses require 5 to 6 years. First degree titles include Bachelor of Arts (BA), or Bachelor of Science (BSc). The second degree is Master of Arts/Science, and then Doctor of Philosophy. Benefiting from the services of external examiners for university examinations works as an effective means of uniformity of standards between universities. Research is an important feature of university education and the general pattern of teaching is fairly similar throughout Britain. Many colleges and institutions of higher education are the result of mergers of teacher training colleges and other colleges. The Department for Education and Skills is responsible for all universities. (wikipedia.org/Univ.UK 09)
Teacher Education in UK
The essential pre requisite qualifications for primary and secondary school teachers are a first degree and a PGCE, (Postgraduate Certificate of Education) awarded by a university or college of higher education, else it is a must to possess a B. Ed Degree and a QTS (Qualified Teacher Status) A QTS is acquired by successfully completing an approved course of initial teacher training (ITT). The main types of ITT courses are the one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education course or the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) course which normally lasts for four years. Teachers teaching at higher levels usually possess higher degrees.
In fact anyone wanting to teach in England must complete Initial Teacher Training (ITT). For teaching at schools run by the state, Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) is acquired by completing the course of Initial Teacher Training (ITT). For those with graduate degree, becoming a qualified teacher demands a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE). However mature entrants, can become qualified teachers through the Graduate Teacher Programme. PGCE courses as regular full time programmes can be acquired in one year from higher education institutions and from their affiliated schools. However it takes two years to complete this programme on part-time basis or through distance learning courses. Trainees for primary level teaching have to work for at least 18 weeks on school placements. The duration of placements of secondary level trainee-teachers is at least 24 weeks. Initial teacher training comes in different forms, providing options to suit everyone - irrespective of qualifications, experience, preferences or personal circumstances. In fact selecting from hundreds of available Initial Teacher Training (ITT) courses in the UK is a real challenge, and the aspiring candidates are expected to put in a lot of research. As initial teacher training courses are provided by different providers, hence there is a great variety in these courses. Each university, college and school demonstrates peculiar qualities, strengths, entry requirements, and a variety of contents of courses. Selection of Initial Teacher Training (ITT), being a foundational step for further teacher training requires special care and one has to consider the following:
- The subject and age group one intends to teach
- The kind of ITT one would like to complete
A candidate can conveniently select from different school-based training schemes, which may include School-Centered Initial Teacher Training (SCITT), or the Graduate Teacher Programme (GTP) or the Registered Teacher Programme (RTP). These are on the job training programmes carried out under the supervision of experienced teachers. Schools that are authorized to conduct postgraduate ITT programme are known as SCITT providers. This training is fully school based. Schools, or a group which may include several schools, Local Education Authorities (LEAs) and Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), develop the training programme. These trainings last for one year and result in PGCE recognized by a Higher Education Institution. The Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA) Graduate Teacher Program (GTP) provides flexibility to trainee teachers to follow a personalized programme of training to achieve QTS standard. The candidates will work and get trained at a school which will devise the training plan, and will pay the trainees about £14,040 per year. The job opportunities are explored by the candidates but LEAs and HEIs provide ample guidance in this respect.
Entry Requirements for an ITT Course
The basic entry requirement is a recognized degree from an institution of United Kingdom or a qualified teacher status from a country in the European Economic Area (EEA). The degree should have the certification of the study of the subjects which can provide a sound base for teaching these subjects. Teachers from other countries have to get their qualifications checked by the Department for Education and Employment. In order to be legible for teaching at UK they require some additional training through the GTP and flexible modular courses.
Other Selection Requirements
The other selection requirements for an ITT course include the following important aspects:
- Outstanding personal, intellectual and presentational qualities.
- Proof of appropriate experience with children.
- Suitability for teaching profession.
- References, attendance and state of health.
- A pass certificate of skills' tests in numeracy, literacy and information & communications to get Qualified Teacher Status (QTS).
- Only bright applicants are selected for ITT courses, as the details of applicants are thoroughly inspected by OFSTED, which makes the providers very careful in the selection of candidates.
All ITT courses cover the study of principles of teaching and on the ground practical experience. The different ways to complete ITT include, alongside a degree, straight after a degree, as a part-time course alongside work or as a full-time course. The correct choice will depend upon the needs and circumstances of the trainee. The prerequisites for all candidates include a grade C, at least in English, Mathematics and Science GCSE, or evidence of an equivalent standard. Initial Teacher Training (ITT) combines theoretical learning with at least 18 weeks practicing teaching during school placements. ITT helps a potential teacher develop the skills s/he needs to become an effective teacher.
All undergraduate and postgraduate courses offered by Colleges and Universities necessarily include 18 weeks placement time spent in schools. With QTS a degree is not required to begin For undergraduate teacher training, however a degree, such as Bachelor of Education (B.Ed), Bachelor of Arts (BA/B.Sc) is not essential. Those aspiring teachers who had been educated outside UK, need to apply to Academic Recognition Information Centre (NARIC) to get the equivalence certificate for the minimum requirements.
Statement of the Problem
The study would attempt to find out the current status of teacher education programmes in Pakistan and United Kingdom to compare the commonalities and diversities. The study would focus on two cities, namely Peshawar in Pakistan and Bradford in UK. The data would be collected at source from the graduate and under graduate teachers for a period of three years ending 2008, which would facilitate the study to identify gaps in teacher education in Peshawar based institutions of Pakistan for implementable solutions.
Delimitation of the Study
The study would be delimited in scope to the pre-service teacher education programmes implemented at Colleges and Universities at Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan and Bradford, UK.
Objectives of the Study
This study would attempt to:
- Provide basic information to stakeholders and planners about Education Systems in Pakistan and UK, with focus on these systems in Peshawar and Bradford.
- Explore in detail the pre - service teacher education programmes of the sampled areas, as regards the duration of training, ratio of theory and practice, and practical usefulness of the studied subjects.
- Look into the training programmes in both countries in terms of their effectiveness, as regards equipping the teachers with requisite skills for teaching.
- Identify gaps and suggest implementable strategies to improve the practices and procedures of teacher education programmes in Pakistan.
The study would attempt to develop comparative global perspective of teacher education with special focus on the programmes of the two selected areas in Pakistan and United Kingdom. The focus would be to find out the ways to improve the preparation of teachers to improve their service delivery in particular and the standard of education in general. The findings and recommendations would hopefully provide an input for the review of the teacher certification rules and national accreditation standards for teacher education programmes.
Questions of the Study
Are teacher Education programmes at Peshawar (Pakistan) and Bradford (United Kingdom) different from each other?
Is the pre service Teacher Education Programme being run in Bradford (UK) more comprehensive and practical-oriented than the one being implemented at Peshawar (Pakistan)?
Are teachers graduating from Teacher Education Colleges at Bradford (UK) more well equipped and committed to meet their professional responsibilities in a better and befitting way?
What is the impact of both the Teacher Education Programmes on ground realities in terms of their effectiveness?
What are the gaps in both the systems of teacher education at Peshawar and Bradford? How could those identified gaps in Teacher Education Programmes be addressed for implementable solutions?
Review of Literature
Reviewing literature greatly helps in the design of a study. According to Bordens & Abbott (1998) “The review of literature keeps the researcher up to date on current empirical and theoretical controversies in a particular research area.” Literature review, an essential pre requisite of every research study, enables the researcher to get familiarized with relevant existing studies, to place his/her work in context and to benefit from the earlier endeavours in order to make most effective contributions.
Research in the field of teacher education has contributed a lot in the refinement of the educating processes and procedures. Hillard F. H (1971) observed, “Teaching is a profession and teacher education is essential education for this profession. The distinguishing characteristics of a professional are that s/he is well learned and qualified to practice: s/he is not merely a learned person but one whose learning has been directed towards the acquisition of certain skills, the practice of which calls for appropriate knowledge. These for sure can be developed through sound teacher education programmes, which can adequately develop teachers' potentials for the forthcoming responsibilities.”
Farrant, J. S.(1990) argued, “A good teacher education programme is a necessity of our education systems. The key to the quality of the formal system of education rests squarely on the quality of the teachers who operate the system. That is why teacher education is vital.” He observed, “In the past there were people who were of the opinion that teachers did not need training; that what they learned on the job was of greater value than anything taught in the college. But few people would support that view today, for teaching has become a much more professional job, with the teachers called upon to fill roles and perform skills that need precise preparation and education.” He further observed “Teachers with little or no training tend to use authoritarian and inefficient methods that make students see school as a repressive place with little to enjoy.” Farrant further argued that educational change whether caused by new policies, curriculum development, increased investment or the adoption of innovative practices, almost always places the teacher in new, and more demanding roles. These expected enhanced levels of performances expect all the more professionally sound and effective education and training of teachers. The rapid changes currently taking place in the world are placing considerable strains on the teachers and are highlighting the need of much comprehensive teacher training than catered for in the past.
APIED (1987) reported “There are certain factors which make a strong impact on professional development needs for teachers. Three of these factors deserve special attention. One is the growth of knowledge, especially technology, which is being considered as a very special component of professional education. The second is the growing complexity of the education systems and their stronger relationships with the developments in the world. This demands more sophisticated and more comprehensive training, with specific skills and expertise, during the education of teachers. The third factor in change is the recognition that teachers at all levels require special staff development to meet the needs of the students and of internationally changing education systems and societies. The assumption that to be a teacher, academic expertise is sufficient, no longer holds.”
Farrant (1990) stated, “This purpose of preparing individuals into capable teachers is achieved through a dual approach. On the one hand students are helped to consider the educational basis of teaching, by understanding the relationship between human knowledge, child development, learning and society with its various aims and values. On the other hand they must receive training in how to exercise the essential skills of learning and teaching. Education and training both are essential, for one without the other leaves the teacher incomplete.”
Whereas Parkay W. F (1992) quoting Fuller F. and Bown O.H. aptly commented, “The experience of becoming a teacher needs to be acknowledged for what it is: complex and demanding” It is not enough to be a born teacher, as imparting of knowledge is not the only professional activity, in fact it is a whole lot of expectations which can be adequately fulfilled through very comprehensive and modern teacher education programmes. Sheikh (1998) also stated, “Teacher education is not only teaching the teacher how to teach, it is to kindle his/her initiative, to keep it alive, to minimize the evils of the ‘hit and miss' process; and to save time, energy, money and trouble of the teacher and the taught.”
Hussain, Altaf (2001), stated, “While the education of medical, engineering and other professional is basically similar, to a great extent, all over the world. The nature of teacher education is strongly dependent on the overall level of economic development and the social context of the country. Furthermore it is deeply influenced by local culture and history. That is why one can find in the contemporary world, the full range of institutionalized teacher education schemes or programmes that have been developed throughout the history of humanity, devoid of specific preparation at all to sophisticated university education. More over the context of teacher education is rapidly changing with new models, methods and procedures in this field of endeavor.”
Iqbal, Z. M (2001) highlighting the significance of comprehensive teacher education programmes indicated, “There is no denying the fact that the teacher occupies the most crucial position in the entire spectrum of educational activities. It is nobody else except the teacher, who influences the future personal, social and economic lives of people. The demand of a good number of academically sound and professionally trained teachers, therefore, poses the greatest challenge for the teacher training programmes to cope with challenges of 21st century. In this century schools are pretty different than teachers working in these schools. Teachers need to think and perform differently than in the past. Accordingly teacher education programmes also require a different approach. This is so as all fields of life are changing increasingly. Educational aspects like intelligence, learning styles, learning disabilities, giftedness and cultural differences are viewed very differently now. These diversities are to be considered important in the teacher education programmes and policies.” Iqbal Z. M. further asserted, “If we expect new teachers to use the knowledge necessary for the changing society, then we must improve our training programmes, to make them conducive for modern trends and practices. This has direct implication for initial preparation of teachers.”
Javed, H. Aly (2007) stated, “The dire need for change becomes very vivid if we analyze the current teaching learning scenarios. In many countries including Pakistan the morale of the teachers in general is low because they possess no great status, lack promotion opportunities, live up to the ever rising expectations of the society, are inadequately paid and have to teach usually under unsatisfactory conditions.”
All these requirements ask for more careful planning and more skillful implementation of teacher development programmes, enabling them to perform successfully and gain better results by fully exploiting the available opportunities and resources. This implies reviewing and analytically comparing the existing programmes of teacher education, both from local and international perspectives.
Philip L. Jones (1979) documented, “Comparative education, with its rapidly increasing resources and its hope for better methods seems admirably suited to provide a more rational basis for planning.” Similarly Edmund J. King (1989) is also of the view that “comparative education is a discipline which systematizes our observations and conclusions in relation to shaping of the future. He thinks that in this world now it is no longer possible to find the solutions of any educational or social problem entirely with in that country and thus we are to look for it from other countries, cultures and societies.”
Bereday, (1990) stated, “The knowledge thus derived gives satisfaction of intellectual curiosity which gives an insight and promotes self understanding in a better way for comparison with foreign people. Self knowledge born out of the awareness of others is the finest lesson the study of comparative systems transmits. It is therefore possible to deduce lessons from the achievements and mistakes of foreign schools and to use them in the improvement, reforming or reorientation of the educational system of one's own country.”
Sodhi (1993) quoting Bereday emphasized the importance of comparing different education systems of different countries, through which the lessons could be deduced from the variations in educational practices in different societies. By quoting Bereday he wrote: “Comparative education seeks to make sense out of the similarities and differences among educational systems. It catalogues educational methods across national frontiers and in this catalogue each country appears as one variant of the total store of mankind's educational experience. If well set up the like and contrasting colours of the world perspective will make each country a potential beneficiary of the lessons thus received.”
Education Scenario in Pakistan
The educational scenario of Pakistan is not very bright. The literacy rate and the participation rate, particularly of females are abysmally low. Only 49.9 % of the population can read and write, of which 63% are males and only 37 % are females. (2005 Estimates of Govt. of Pakistan) The UNESCO figures as reported in their official journal (19th October 2008) puts the literacy figure at 50%. The drop out rate is considerably high, and the average classrooms are overpopulated in the cities due to undisciplined growth of urban population, and the schools in the rural areas are so widely dispersed that the thin attendance of the teachers and students can not be avoided. In spite of the additional local and international funding, the speedily increasing population cancels out the impacts of expansion, and additional investment, making universal primary education a far cry. Availability and quality of teachers is another key issue to be resolved.
Javed Hassan Aly (2007) wrote, “One can safely aver that only a minority of teachers in the public sector schools is of good quality. Poor quality of the teachers in the system in such large number is owed to mutations in the governance, an obsolete pre service training structure and a less than adequate in-service training regime. Presence of incompetence in such a huge quantity and permeation of malpractices in the profession have eroded the once exalted position enjoyed by teachers under the eastern cultural milieu. Teaching has become the employment of last resort of most educated young persons especially males.”
He further lamentingly added that on the governance side the problems begin with non-meritocratic recruitments. A large number of serving teachers have been selected without merit on political quotas, on communal links or through bribes paid to the quota holders. These teachers are, mostly of poor quality. Teacher absenteeism has become a very common phenomenon in recent years. Some of them are permanently absent. Those with connections can be transferred to the place of their choice. Others are victimized. Without meritocratic recruitments, transfers and postings, the failure of the system is inevitable. The system functions mostly for the politically connected, the bulk of teachers remain a voiceless lot that survives in a structure that frequently disregards merit.
Javed futher wrote, along with 203 teacher training institutions of the country, and 300 Teachers Resource Centers established under the Education Sector Reform Program, a number of private sector institutes and Allama Iqbal Open Unibersity are also giving out teacher training certificates, diplomas and degree. These institutions train approximately 40,000 teachers a year. The result is a glut of trained teachers in the market. The absorption capacity of the system is low. The plethora of institutions also has implications for quality.
Javed Hassan Aly rightly observed that most stakeholders are critical of the pre service training because of archaic curriculum, poor quality instruction, inadequate hands on experience opportunities, misusing of distant learning programmes and malpractices in the examinations. In case of Allama Iqbal Open University where ten thousand personnel are trained each year, the distant learning programme has been misused and the quality of the graduates and of certificate holders has come into question.
Procedure / Methodology of the Study
Type of the Study
It is a descriptive survey study and would attempt to analyze the Teacher Education programs being practiced at Pakistan and United Kingdom, with a special focus on Peshawar and Bradford. It will envisage the procedures and practices involved in the education of teachers at both the places.
The study will explore the situation, to ascertain the practicality and usefulness of the programmes to better prepare the teachers for the service delivery. It will aim to investigate the similarities and differences in the procedures of training and education. As per nature of the descriptive research first of all the existing conditions will be studied and described.
As population means the sum total of all individuals relevant to one or more characteristics of interest; hence personnel including educational managers and teachers in the selected schools situated at Peshawar and Bradford will be the population of the study.
A sample is a small subgroup chosen from the larger population. Samples can be probability, non probability, cluster, random and purposive samples. For the materialization of the objectives of the study, due to its inherent qualities purposive sampling will be used by the researcher.
Staff of four schools at Bradford, both from the public and private sector will be researched upon and teachers and managers of at least six schools of Peshawar, again both from the Public and Private sector will be the sample for studying the impact of the teacher education programmes.
Sources of Collection of Data
The following instruments will be utilized for the materialization of the objectives:
a) Questionnaires both closed and open ended, as primary sources will be used to gather data from the intended population.
b) Interviews would be another primary source of information collection. Face to face interaction with key respondents would give in depth information about the actual situation and circumstances. Interview-questionnaires to remain focused in the interviews would be used.
c) Likert scales would be used to objectively assess the degree of agreement with the provided options.
d) Secondary sources of the data collection like study of the relevant research studies to find relevant facts and figures will also be done.
Preliminary testing of the instruments would be done in order to test the effectiveness of the design of the instruments. This mini pilot study would increase the chances of validity and minimize the possibility of errors. The questionnaires would be modified on the basis of the feedback.
A thorough introduction of this research study, its objectives and procedures would be done to each interviewee in order to develop rapport with the subjects.
Discussion and Analysis of Data
The obtained data would be organized and analyzed in detail, for the purposes of verification and interpretation. The quantitative data gathered through survey questionnaires and rating scales would be analyzed and presented with the help of tables, graphs and bar diagrams. The qualitative data acquired through interviews and discussions would be consolidated very objectively. The responses of the subjects would be converted into percentages, for quick comparisons and better assessment of the issues.
This part of the research report would necessarily include discussion over the findings. The tables and figures of the data section would be elaborated. Comments about the nature and input of the participants would be included. The gathered data will receive qualitative and quantitative treatment and the analysis would further be statistically tested.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations*
This chapter would give the summary of the whole report, on the basis of the discussion and findings as have been reported in the main text. Conclusions would be drawn very objectively and precisely. On the basis of the conclusions and findings such recommendations would be made, which if implemented would lead to better teacher education programmes, thereby facilitating better education standards.
All the necessary material that could not be accommodated in the main text or could not form part of the main body of the report would be placed in the appendix.
 Shiekh M. & Muhammad Ghulam Rasool(1998), “Allied Material for Teacher Education in Pakistan” Symaz Printers, Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan.
 Wikipedia: (2009) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universities in UK
 Farrant J. S. (1990) “Principles and Practices of Education” Second Edition, English Language Book Society, Longman, London, Britain
 Sodhi (1993) “Textbook of Comparative Education” 5th revised edition, Vikas Publishing House Delhi India.
 APIED (1987) (Asia and the Pacific Program of Educational Innovation for Development) (1987) “Teacher Education: Issues, Needs, and Plans for Actions,” Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok.
 Glambos C. Eva (1986) “Improving Teacher Education”, Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, San Francisco, London
 Refence Services, (1990), “Education in Britain”Central office of Information, London, UK
 Bordens and Abbott (1998), “A Research Design and Methods—A Process Approach” 4th Edition, London, California, Toronto: Mayfield Publishing company.
 Hillard F. H. (1971) “Teaching the teacher” Trends in Teacher Education” George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Ruskin House, London, UK
 ) Parkay W.F and Stanford H. Beverly (1992) 2nd ed., “Becoming a teacher: Accepting the Challenge of a Profession.” Allyn and Bacon, Boston, London, Tonoto.
 Hussain Altaf Dr. (2001), “Trends and Issues in Teacher Education, foreword”, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.
 Iqbal Z. M (2001), “Trends and Issues in Teacher Education”, AIOU, Islamabad.
 Javed H. Aly (2007) “Education in Pakistan”---A white paper: “A document to debate and finalize the National Education Policy”, Govt of Pakistan.
 Philip L. Jones (1979) “Comparative Education: Purposes and Methods”, University of Queensland Press, Australia.
 Edmund J. King (1989) “ Comparative Studies and Educational Decisions; Matheun Educational Ltd. London. The Association of Commonwealth Universities; AUC, Bulletin of Current Documents, 1989 no. 90: London.
 Bereday George Z.F(1990)”Comparative Methods in Education” Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi.
1) APEID (Asia and the Pacific Program of Educational Innovation for Development) (1987) “Teacher Education: Issues, Needs, and Plans for Actions,” Regional Office, Bangkok.
2) Bordens K. and Abbott B.B. (1998), “A Research Design and Methods—A Process Approach” 4th Edition, London, California, Toronto: Mayfield Publishing company.
3) Bereday George Z.F(1990)”Comparative Methods in Education” Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi.
4) Edmund J. King (1989) “ Comparative Studies and Educational Decisions; Matheun Educational Ltd. London. The Association of Commonwealth Universities; AUC, Bulletin of Current Documents, 1989 no. 90: London
5) Extracts from National Education Policy 1998-2010, (1999)”Education and Teacher Education in Pakistan-Part VII”, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Sindh, Allama I.I.Kazi Campus, Jamshoro, Sindh Pakistan.
6) Farrant J. S. (1990), “Principles and Practices of Education” Second Edition, English Language Book Society, Longman, London, Britain
7) Galambos C. Eva, (1986) “Improving Teacher Education”, Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, San Francisco, London
8) Hillard F.H. (1971), “Teaching the teacher” Trends in Teacher Education” George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Ruskin House, London, UK
9) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universities in UK
11) Hussain Altaf, Dr. (2001), “Trends and Issues in Teacher Education, foreword”, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.
12) Javed Hassan Aly, (February 2007) “Education in Pakistan”---A white paper: “A document to debate and finalize the National Education Policy”, Govt of Pakistan.
13) Parkay W. Forrest and Stanford H. Beverly (1992) 2nd ed., “Becoming a teacher: Accepting the Challenge of a Profession.” Allyn and Bacon, Boston, London, Tonoto.
14) Philip E. Jones (1971) “Comparative Education: Purposes and Methods”, University of Queensland Press, Australia.
15) Refence Services, (1990), “Education in Britain”Central office of Information, London, UK
16) Sheikh Mussaret Anwar & Muhammad Ghulam Rasool(1998), “Allied Material for Teacher Education in Pakistan” Symaz Printers, Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan.
17) Sodhi T. S. (1993) “Textbook of Comparative Education” Vikas Pub. House, Delhi India.
18) Zafar M. Iqbal (2002), “Trends and Issues in Teacher Education”, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
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