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Underrepresentation of Black Males in the Teaching

Info: 8787 words (35 pages) Dissertation
Published: 9th Dec 2019

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Tagged: EducationTeaching

­­­­­­­­­­­ABSTRACT This research study considers and investigated the discernments and lived encounters of black male teachers identified with the underrepresentation of black males in the educating field. The research was guided by five research questions. The information was gathered from 18 African-American male instructors at the primary school level, middle school level, high school level, administrative level, and resigned/retired level from an educational system in central New Mexico. Information gathering happened through educator/retired teacher and administrator interviews. The discoveries of the research demonstrated the explanations behind black male educators being underrepresented in the teaching profession is expected due to (Q1) sexual orientation and racial disparities playing a part in education; (Q2) black men selecting educating; (Q3) black male teachers being invited to the calling or enduring separation; (Q4) their choice being looked upon favorably or diminished; (Q5) black male instructors’ having bleak expectations for the future? Through the discoveries, the current research study could recognize four new subjects that could alter the course of black males being underrepresented in the teaching profession. The elements are: (a) give money related/budgetary motivating forces, (2) give positive presentation to teaching, (c) advance teaching in a positive manner, and (d) expand community involvement. The members communicated a want for the world of academia to completely grasp black male educators and take advantage of their exceptional aptitudes and capacities to positively affect the lives of students, particularly black male students. The research study was not without confinements and further research on the subject was suggested.

Black male teachers and the impact of feminization

In the United States, the educating calling has become an overwhelmingly female calling, and proceeds to end up this way, more so over time. Various investigations have been conducted, on why the education profession has ended up predominately female oriented and what a few of the impacts feminization has had on the culture of the scholarly world and the ordinary student that goes to school nowadays. The Education Department states that the majority of kindergarten through high school teachers are women, and that they account for three-quarters of all available teachers. The number of woman teachers continue to increase, with a difference of about two-thirds over a thirty-year period. Statistics that have been taken show a vast difference within elementary and middle schools, where the numbers show that an alarming 80 percent of the teachers are women (Rich, 2014). Numerous investigations have proven that young boys require more inspiration since they are livelier, while young girls do not require as much inspiration since they are calmer. Former inquiry appears to show, that instructors give more consideration to dynamic boys (they attempt to discover distinctive ways to draw their consideration) (Henfield, M. S. 2011).  In show of disdain toward the predominance of ladies in instruction and on the staff of specific schools, ladies have been the caretakers of the domestic, and regularly this behavior would exchange into the classroom and their everyday lives. One enormous errand is to advise the public about results of sexual orientation disparities, about the improvement of boys and girls, and speed up the hiring of black male instructors as part models for black male students. Current research studies have shown that there is a very small percentage of male teachers in the teaching profession that are black (J. W. Brown & Butty, 1999; Ford, 2013; Henfield, Moore & Woods, 2011; Lewis, 2006; Lynn, 2006), this research will further examine the disparity of black male teachers working in elementary and middle schools, and the role of black male teachers as role models for black male students. My study is centered on understanding the inspirations of black men who select the elementary and middle school teaching profession. I will take a look at some of the results of that choice, such as what they found simple and troublesome, and the bias that they confront due to the truth that they are the minority, and sub-group minority in this division. Therefore, the goal of this study was to understand: Q1: Why black men select educating; Q2: Does sexual orientation and racial disparities play a part in education; Q3: Are black male instructors invited to the calling or do they endure separation; Q4: Is this choice looked upon favorably or diminished; Q5: What are black male instructors’ expectations in the future? The paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 provides information on the methods used. Section 3 discusses the data and the descriptive statistics. Section 4 explains the empirical strategy. Section 5 reports the results of the study. Section 6 will contain the conclusion. Follow up and current research involving teaching and teachers in elementary and middle school that are black and male is essential. Whether public or private, the schools are where our youth obtain a strong scholastic and social foundation. Literature Review History has shown proof that we can now see, of numerous professions that have become women-oriented. (Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., Roth, E., Manning, E., Wang, X., and Zhang, J. 2013). Over time the educational system has brought forth consequential results. Teachers within the elementary and middle schools are models of specific subdivisions within the profession that are looked upon to be reserved more so for women (Almeida, 1998), providing women with a work opportunity, that is comprehensive to power and privilege, but also because of the “status quo” connected to women’s worth, depreciation of status and compensation as well. (Bertelli, 2006; Pincinato, 2004; Williams, 1995), arranged for us to get the drawbacks and/or points of interest of ladies in the labor advertise, it is a fundamental assignment, that we look at the preferences and the drawbacks for men. Does Sexual Orientation and Racial Disparities Play a Part in Education There are female and male teacher gender inequalities in education, but also inequalities when it comes to the racial identity, as it relates to male teachers. The setting most proclaimed in their professional life is one of feminization in the work place, because of the enormous sexual disparities and percentage of more than 80 percent of teachers in all elementary and middle schools are women (Brown, A, 2012). There are sexual orientation disparities inside families, which are ignored and are not diverse from the way these are seen by the open public. Ladies are the ones who generally take care of children and the family and these assignments have continuously been called on as women’s essential obligation. The thought that the family and household is basically a women’s circle is among female instructors indeed more grounded, as it is strengthened by the thought that the instructing calling is especially appropriate for women due to the organization of working time encouraging compromise of the family and proficient life. Instructors do not appear to see sex imbalances in their calling (moreover due to the sexual orientation inclination of the entirety segment compared to other divisions) or their family (moreover due to the so-called focal points of the instructing calling); subsequently it is no astonishment that they act upon sex generalizations moreover in their instructing. They are reflected in and sustained by the way in which instructors see their students in the setting of the school. There should be a possibility for students to potentially have teachers that have possibly shared some of the same real-world experiences, had comparable living conditions growing up, and physical similarity (Henfield, 2013). A numerous number of the common cliché demeanors and partialities that are lively in the school setting give an establishment for sexual orientation in-balance and sex inclination. This causes, instructors to have distinctive desires from their male and female understudies, making the exertion to supply a broader rate of educator separation excruciatingly critical (Brockenbrough, E, 2012). Why black men select educating?Current data taken, shows that the number of students that are Black and Latino throughout the nation’s schools, are increasing. There are projections that indicate non-whites will be the lions’ share of students in open schools. There has been a drastic increase in the number of students that have enrolled into public elementary, middle and secondary schools. The data shows that there has been an increase from 48.8 million to 50.3 million that has taken place within the ten-year span from 2004 and 2014, with predicted numbers to total more than 51.7 million in 2026. Racial Ethnic disseminations in the public-school frameworks have moved over the nation, as well. 2014, showed Latino, Black, Native American, and Asian students making up 50% of public school enrollment. It is anticipated that more than 55% of the students enrolled in public schools will be non-white, by 2026. This move in the socioeconomics of understudies is by no implication reflected in the instructing calling. The breakdown as far as teachers within the Public-School System shows that black male teachers numbers add up to about 1%, black female teachers, not far behind at 6%, white male teachers at 10%, and white female teachers rank at the top, representing 75% of total teachers. The information talk volumes--It is conceivable for understudies from all racial foundations to spend a total of 13 years in school, having a few white male instructors, and conceivably never having a black male educator! (Bryan, N. & Ford, D. Y., 2014). So, what are some of the motivations that black male teachers describe as motivating factors For choosing teaching as a career? The majority of teachers that enter the profession of teaching that are black and male choose to become a teacher, to serve as role models, make a difference, and to escape. There have been numerous studies that were conducted on the subject, and these studies seem to show many different life events, opportunities, and identifying wants of the men that choose this particular type of career. There could have been someone close to the individual that worked as a teacher, thus providing a want for this student with significant motivation to launch a career as an educator. The landmark case by, Ginzberg et al, 1951, puts emphasis on the importance of socialization factors, through the exposure of the individual to an occupation at an early age. Super, 1957; provided information that favored many others beliefs that pointed to psychological factors which predetermine the career path followed by an individual. This notion of career choice has been constantly challenged, because of perpetual thinking that it is only meaningful during times of full employment and disregards multiple levels of sociological factors (Finn, 1982; Roberts, 1984; Pole, 1989). The decision to become a teacher has remained as a study of centralized interest, that noted many interesting updated facts. Many of the black teachers that have succeeded in becoming qualified teachers did not fall into any categories mentioned in the various theories of career choice and have, in most cases, entered an occupation which is different from the norm in terms of their ethnicity. There were those that made career decisions throughout the study, that related and pronounced different motivations for doing so. Participants in this study made a definite career decision in its favor and identified a number of motivations for doing so.  Being a Role Model, and positive human example seemed to be positive at most levels. The teachers that did participate in the study, seemed to recall a teacher who had influenced their experience of school in general. Or, more specifically, they recalled the influence of a teacher in a particular subject. These two explanations seemed to be prevalent reasons why black teachers chose the teaching career. Given the body of work illustrating the significance of part models in the lives of understudies, receptive children, and youth, having nearly no or few guys as instructors is tricky. Within the public-school system, the male population makeup is 51% of the total number of students enrolled at elementary, middle, and high school students. According to Scott, L. A. (2016), the highest percentage of students performing at the lowest level academically within this total percentage of students in public schools are black males. This is happening due to the reality that this gather of under-studies requirements are not effectively being attended to. Dropout rate, diminished graduation rate, highly inflated suspension and removal rate, and diminished test scores to include anything within this range or outside the box of normal issues for all groups of students. (Brown, A., 2009). Through the observation of various programs and curriculum, there is evidence of that shows proof that black male students, whether in talented instruction programs (Gifted) and Progressed Situation (AP) classes (Ford, 2013) are the most under-represented group. Vice versa, when it comes to special education black male students are represented the most, in high ranges to include (i.e., emotional and behavioral disturbance, learning disabilities, cognitive delay, developmental delay). Are black male instructors invited to the calling or do they endure separation? The reality that there is a serious need for role models in the lives of black male students is evident, especially black role models. This is an issue that has been thought about and mentioned, due to a lack of black male figures inside the households of most black students in public schools. These students are mostly raised in single-parent homes, with the one parent being a woman (Henfield, 2013). This is not a claim, that single parent moms do a poor job of raising and being great role models for their kids. Simply, there is a conceivable need for black male instructors/teachers, and this argument must be taken serious and not diminished. MaletoMale connections and holding are critical. (Henfield, M. S., 2011) There are urban school systems that have shown positive effects when it comes to traditionally prepared students, in which almost half leave in three years or less, with the number of black teachers in the entire teaching force, being fewer than 19 percent. Educators created a program that had a 94 percent retention rate and 96 percent of its graduates that obtained or maintained a satisfactory or exemplary rating by the principals (Haberman, 1999). This study shows some proof, that minority teachers can be successfully recruited, selected, and prepared. It places emphasis on minority college graduates who already reside in a certain metropolitan area to remain, but suggest that it can be done locally at a much more successful rate; and that teachers are much more readily prepared when successfully evaluated by their superiors. There have been aggressive efforts to recruit black teachers, but through the use of conventional wisdom, there has not been an increase in the number of black teachers. There is a hypothesis that has been developed, that maybe educators are looking in the wrong place (Bryan N., & Ford, D. Y., 2014). Most educators assume that Colleges and Universities are the best place to recruit black teachers, but districts are now looking in their own metropolitan areas. This usually includes opportunities offered by alternative certification, where on-the-job training is stressed as the method of training in these urban districts. This is presumed to be a positive and effective effort, towards maintaining an untapped pool of highly qualified black teachers in these areas that can and will effectively teach urban students (Haberman, 1999). Students throughout the educational system relate to and value teachers that understand and view the world from a similar point of view, see instructors who see the world like them, who have shared their social and lived encounters, and who can serve as a “communal mediator” (Ladson-Billings, 2009). Female teachers are viewed diversely when this type of concern is brought forth. This doesn’t confirm or deny women teachers capability of being strong, socially proficient, and impressionable with male students. Or maybe, it is an attestation of collective individual and proficient encounters, moreover bolstered by grant, that having male nearness as instructors has the potential and guarantee to progress the instructive accomplishment and results of male understudies at all expertise levels and from all foundations. Is this choice looked upon favorably or is it diminished? Not at all like most essential connection figures, instructors are reasonably transitory figures in children’s lives, and the quality and impact of these connections on child improvement may appear comparatively insignificant to long-term advancement, but there is confirmation of proof a few instructors do frame significant and life upgrading connections with their under-studies that have a huge effect on their lives. (Howes et al., 1994, 1998; Pianta et al., 1997, 2002). Children show the same designs of interaction with instructors that are watched in parent/child connections, and these connection classifications show with comparable frequencies in both sets (Hamilton & Howes, 1992; Pianta & Steinberg, 1992). In addition, personal children may be able to shape social styles with instructors that are different from the connections they have shaped with their guardians (Goossens & van IJzendoorn, 1990; Howes et al., 1998; van IJzendoorn, Sagi, & Lambermon, 1992), which may be especially imperative for children who have destitute parent/child connections. Relationships involving a Teacher/Child can be one of immense power, that adds to the complexity and familiarity of a mother/child predictable relational outcome (van IJzendoorn et al., 1992). These sort of discoveries or imperative variables of instructor/child connections on child development, and focuses toward the significance and necessity for continued exploration of the nature of these connections. There doesn’t seem to be many men who want to become teachers, because of this reason when men do choose to be teachers they are seen as those at the lowest level of achievement or desirability for the profession. In a study of school students and student teachers that was carried out in Ireland (Drudy et al. 2005), there are representations of the views of student teachers already undertaking initial teacher education courses for primary teaching, and final year school students. These teachers and students explain why they think there are very few men choosing teaching as a profession, especially when specifying elementary and middle school levels. in particular primary teaching. The reasons mostly mentioned in the study were that there was a perception that primary teaching is a woman’s job, women were better with kids than men, teaching doesn’t pay well, males could make better pay in various other careers, teaching was unattractive, fear of abuse allegations, and that young children were difficult to deal with. This study did show that females offered this reasoning much more frequently than males. There was mention in the study that suggested male primary teachers indicated a bias towards seeing female teachers as the ideal primary teacher. There has been evidence that indicate patterns of choice or lack of choice of teaching as a profession, being linked to the social construction of masculinity and femininity. Via cumulative historical and social processes research has shown that these forces have enabled the feminization of teaching. Western cultures have seen subtle patterns of socialization, this being do to the “domestic ideology” that states women are “naturally” more disposed towards nurture than are men. As of late, contrasting focus has been directed toward the needs of young male children especially at primary school, to have male teachers as role models. Black male instructor expectations in the future? This study focuses on the ideological perceptions of parents, teachers, and community members. Studies have shown that teacher perceptions and expectations are especially influential in determining student success or failure. For instance, it has been found that teacher's expectations for student achievement can lead them to behave in a way that becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. That is, if a teacher believes that a student is not likely to do well, the teacher may not work as hard to help that child reach a high level of performance. Similarly, if the teacher expects a child to perform as he or she has done in the past, the teacher may disregard evidence when the child acts differently (Rubie-Davies, Hattie & Hamilton, 2006). Teachers' expectations have been found to be impacted by many factors including socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. For example, in one study, teachers were found to view low-SES boys less favorably than their high-SES counterparts and to hold more pessimistic views about their future (Auwarter & Aruguete, 2008). These kinds of expectations must be countered, researchers say, if teachers are to gain the sense of self-efficacy, or perception of themselves as being able to help all children, that is needed to eliminate achievement gaps in student performance. Thus, one tool against inequality in education is to uncover and change negative perceptions that individuals and groups hold about one another. Inequality in schools is a complex issue. Sociopolitical contexts reflect historical patterns of thought and behavior as well as community values, attitudes, and beliefs. School organizational systems and structures as well as individual actions are important factors affecting school equity. (Ransaw, T. S., & Majors, R. 2016) Inequalities exist today in the allocation of resources among schools and in the hidden advantages given to whites that support their achievement while inhibiting minority advancement. Yet the bright spot in the discussion of inequality is that more people are becoming aware of how the privilege of some creates disadvantage for others. With this awareness, there is hope that American schools, like American society, will be able to continue on a path that leads them to become both progressively more diverse and more equitable. (Ross, W., 2014) Methodology The reasoning for the subjective qualitative research was to investigate the impacts of feminization in the teaching profession, and the impact it has on Black Male Instructors and their part as role models. The investigation was meant to recognize, regardless of whether sexual introduction and racial variations have an impact in training and performance, why black men select teaching, regardless of whether black male educators are welcome to the calling or do they continue to partition, is this decision well observed or is it diminished, and what are black male Instructors desire later on? The socioeconomics of the state funded schools’ framework are changing, yet the teaching profession appears to have neglected to keep pace; Black Instructors remain underrepresented within the realm of education (Campbell Whatley, 2008; Irvine, 2002; Johnson, 2008; Mitchell, 2010; Snyder, 2008). The current qualitative research study to investigate and survey the viewpoints of black Instructors that have various experiences related to the feminization and underrepresentation of black Instructors in the teaching profession incorporates conceivable expert, scholastic, instructive, and initiative importance. Proof from the discoveries of this research could prompt educational systems endeavoring to employ and train more black males and attempt to accomplish a racial equivalence in the instructing power. The research discoveries could prompt the contracting of more black males which could help in the field of instructive administration as far as discipline, custom curriculum, special education, and black male student mentorship. The data contained within the methods section gives a point by point clarification of the research findings, review of the educational system utilized as the exploration site, the determination strategies for the members, methodology, information gathering, information investigation strategies, dependability, and moral issues. The Methods area additionally gives a clarification concerning the role of the analyst (researcher) and the effect on the research. The testing methodology are disclosed as it identifies with the current study. A summary features the key focuses portrayed in this section.   Research Questions The current qualitative research study was guided by five research questions. The information accumulation and information examination strived to furnish succinct responses to the inquiries with clear and rich detail. Q1:     Why black men select educating? Q2:     Does sexual orientation and racial disparities play a part in education? Q3:     Are black male instructors invited to the calling or do they endure separation? Q4:     Is this choice looked upon favorably or diminished? Q5:     What are black male instructors’ expectations in the future? Design Qualitative research.                 Qualitative research is multimethod in its focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic approach to its subject matter. This means that qualitative researchers study in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them (Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S., 1994). The participants are deliberately and purposively selected (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007). Qualitative research utilizes precise portrayals from the viewpoint of the research participants themselves as a method for looking at particular issues and issues under investigation (McRoy, 1996). Qualitative examination in instructive research have points of interest over quantitative investigations since it delivers more top to bottom far reaching data, offers an all-encompassing comprehension of the whole circumstance, watches the members in their regular settings, and information is collected over an expanded timeframe which takes into consideration the longitudinal investigation of procedures (Key, 1997). Participants The participants were chosen through purposeful sampling (deliberately picked). Deliberate sampling is the way toward choosing participants that are probably going to be data rich as far as the motivation behind the research (Gall, M., Gall, P., and Borg, W. 2007). In purposeful sampling, the justification for inclusion must be retained before drawing the example. Deliberate sampling isn't expected to achieve populace legitimacy. Purposeful sampling is utilized with the goal of accomplishing a careful and top to bottom comprehension of chosen participants (Gall et al., 2007). The current study employed homogenous purposeful sampling. Homogenous purposeful sampling entails intentionally selecting participants that are the same or similar in nature and uniform throughout (Patton, 1990). Homogenous purposeful sampling is used when conducting a study on a specific phenomenon to gain an understanding of the collective (Patton, 1990). The qualitative study purposefully sampled participants, who are black males who work or have worked as a teacher in the profession, making this sample homogenous. The current research study included exactly 18 deliberately picked participants. While choosing the proper number of participants for a subjective report, it is more imperative to recognize, look for, and incorporate the support of the local population, who might be most useful and accommodating than to endeavor to incorporate a huge populace (Doyle, 2006). The members of a qualitative research study ought to be a small and supple sample used to secure a ubiquitous sense of awareness (Sorenson, 2007). The role saturation plays in the current research study assumes a noteworthy part in choosing the suitable number of participants. Saturation occurs when there is repetitiveness that takes place in the information gathering process of data (Bogden and Biklen, 2007, p. 69). In a progression of analysis including 60 subjects to test the fitting number of participants and saturation development, Galvin, R. (2015) found saturation as a rule happens inside the initial 12 participants. After 12 instances of questioning and evaluation, the responses to the inquiries wind up repetitive and no new information is offered (Galvin, R. 2015). The three-year mark is important to the study because it demonstrates the participant has a level of commitment to the profession and there are factors that are keeping them retained in the profession (Croasman, Hampton, & Hermann, 1997). Three years of teaching is a critical point in the state of New Mexico. The first three years of teaching, a teacher must have at least six classroom evaluations from an administrator because they are considered to be in the process of honing their craft and mastering the content. After three successful years of teaching, the state of New Mexico deems the teacher eligible for promotion to the next level if they were effective. After distinguishing the qualified participants for the research study, there were 18 participants were haphazardly picked. The research study encompassed 18 black male educators in which six originated from every one of the accompanying levels, which include elementary (basic), middle (center), and secondary (high) schools. The research study likewise included black male teachers at three different levels: administrative, retiree who as of late resigned under 5 years prior, and classroom teachers with at least three years of experience. All black male teachers partook in finishing an individual interview to accumulate information to answer the five research questions. By including black male instructors at all levels of training, the research study could display an aggregate photo of the dispositions, convictions, and impression of black male educators in academia. Informed consent and confidentiality. The selected participants were furnished with an assent document before they consented to be integrated into the research study consider that itemized all desires as a subject in the research study. The finished assent documents remain secured in a secured file organizer in the classroom of the researcher with just the researcher possessing authority to safeguard the integrity of the participants. The participants additionally were given a duplicate of their rights as a research study participant. The individual participants had the privilege to audit any information gathered from them amid the research study and in addition the aftereffects of the discoveries. The participants were allowed to expel themselves with no punishment, throughout the research study. The confidentiality of all participants was secured for the entirety of the research study, especially during the data collection process. The identity and demographics of the participants was concealed by using assigned abbreviations for their names. The 60 participants were referred to as Black Male Teacher (BMT) and a number (1-18) depending on when they were interviewed. The location of the school system used in the research study is in Central New Mexico. The school system educates 19,000 students distributed throughout 23 schools. The system contains 142 schools: 88 elementary schools, 29 middle schools, 21 high schools, 4 K-8, 11 schools of choice, 25 APS-Authorized Charter Schools and 52 State-Authorized Charters Schools. The school system is the 34th largest school district in the nation, serving 90,000 students, with over 12,000 employees on 1,230 square miles. The classification of all members was secured for the whole of the research study, particularly amid the information accumulation process. The personality and socioeconomics of the participants was hidden by utilizing doled out contractions for their names. The 64 members were implied to as Black Male Teacher (BMT) and a number (1-18) contingent upon when they were met. The area of the educational system utilized as a part of the research study is in central New Mexico. The educational system instructs 19,000 students circulated all through 23 schools. The framework contains 142 schools: 88 elementary (rudimentary), 29 middle (center), 21 high (secondary), 4 K-8, 11 schools of decision, 25 APS-Authorized Charter Schools and 52 State-Authorized Charters Schools. The educational system is the 34th biggest school locale in the country, serving 90,000 students, with more than 12,000 employees on 1,230 square miles. Interview Protocol. The educator/retired teacher, interview was comprised of 14 questions. The administrator interview was comprised of 18 questions. The interview was regulated and open-ended. In a regulated and open-ended interview, every member reacted to the same preempted interview. A regulated and open-ended interview is the most organized and effective of the subjective talking systems and is helpful for decreasing inclination (Sewell, 1999). The interviewee does not have any adaptability in the wording or request of the inquiries (Sewell, 1999). This approach expands the consistency of the meeting and wipes out the chance of contrasts in the meeting procedure. The members are not confined to answer decisions gave by the questioner (Sewell, 1999). The participants had the flexibility to answer the inquiries with their own words (open-ended) (Valenzuela and Shrivastava, 2005). The educator/retired teacher interview and administrative interview questions were separated into six segments. The administrative interview incorporated a similar 14 inquiries as the educator/retired, yet contained one extra inquiry in relationship to the five research questions. Data Analysis The utilization of the grounded theory constant comparative method breaks down the information from the qualitative research study of black males in teaching. The grounded hypothesis approach is a subjective research technique actualizing a deliberate arrangement of systems to build up an inductively determined grounded hypothesis about a questionable phenomenon (Strauss and Corbin, 1990). The grounded hypothesis constant comparative method is an eight-stage process delineated in Figure 1 (Strauss and Corbin, 1990). The grounded hypothesis constant comparative method is a strategy for breaking down the information by coding the key purposes of the content; the codes are later arranged by shared traits, and the classes are utilized to make a hypothesis (Strauss and Corbin, 1990). Figure 1. 8 Steps of the Data Analysis Procedure 1. Analyst peruses each meeting transcript. 2. Specialist features basic words and expressions in the meeting transcripts. This is known as coding. 3. Specialist focuses on performing code/recode technique. This requires the underlying coding to be undermined and the perusing and coding process must be restarted from the beginning. 4. Analyst rehashes the meeting transcripts. 5. Analyst codes basic words and expressions in the meeting transcripts. 6. Specialist must look at the coded words and expressions from the underlying perusing against the coded words and data from the second perusing. This is finished to decide understanding between the two arrangements of codes which is known as between rater absention of information. 7. Researcher utilizes the coded words and expressions to make classifications. classifications are the aggregate musings of the participants. 8. Researcher makes speculations and conjecture in accordance with the phenomenon and research study. 75 The specialist began the procedure by perusing each participant transcript. The archives must be perused completely to center around normal words and expressions to be coded. The coded words and expressions can possibly move toward becoming classes. Once the underlying coding was finished, the researcher was focused on playing out the code-recode technique. In this procedure, the underlying coding must be defamed and the coding procedure must be performed again completely. The way toward coding-recoding enables the scientist to find if similar words and expressions require coding. The absention and simultaneousness between the two arrangements of codes is known as the inter-rater agreement of data (MedCalc, 2010). Using the inter-rater agreement of data raises the level of steadfastness of the research. This methodology offers unwavering quality and certainty that the classes shaped from the codes are dependable. The classifications bolster the structure of speculations and conjecture about the research study. The information research approach of grounded theory includes an admission of a lot of information and later decreased into classes or subjects to help record the research questions (Maxwell, 1996). Information diminishment sorts out the information fills as a component to elucidate the information to allow last conclusions to be drawn and confirmed (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The analyst coded the information and after that made and named classes based off the data in the interview transcripts for every one of the four research questions. The expectation of the research questions empowered the investigation of black male teaching professions. By perusing and rehashing the interview transcripts, the researcher could recognize textures and contrasts in the information on black male teachers in the profession and coded the information. The coding is featuring and taking note of watchwords, expressions, or ideas that show up more than once by various participants (Rhine, 2005). This gives the underlying understanding into the considerations, discernments, convictions, and thoughts of the members. The textures between the codes, which are proclamations and answers, have comparable significance or fundamental thought, uncovered classes. The classifications originated from the topics, words, and thoughts specified much of the time by the participants (Dick, 2005). The classes turn into the aggregate idea example of the participants. The continuous production of classifications proceeds until the point that saturation happens, which is where the information does not yield any new codes or classes (Dick, 2005). Summary           The current research study used to concentrate on and investigate the observations and lived encounters of black male teachers with respect to their underrepresentation used the qualitative method. A qualitative phenomenological look into research study considers the investigation of the subject through the lived encounters of the participants (Byrne, 2001). The participants of the research were 18 African-American male teachers with at least three years of educating background. The determination of 18 participants happened through deliberate homogenous sampling. Intentional homogenous testing is deliberately choosing participants who are comparative and have an inexhaustible measure of data as it identifies with the research study (Patton, 1990). The participants were from the primary school level, middle school level, high school level, administrative level, and retired. The information accumulation occurred through teacher/retired educator interviews and administrative interviews. A pilot study about utilizing two black male teachers in the profession for at least three years and two black male administrators were directed to approve the participation procedure. The information investigation happened utilizing the grounded hypothesis consistent relative technique, which codes the information, orders the information into regular subjects, and after that portrays the information in detail (Strauss and Corbin, 1990). The reliability of the research was set through a review trail and associate audit techniques. The interview procedure and pilot study clung to a strict protocol. The protocol kept up the consistency of the procedure (Social Research Methods, 2006). No moral issues or dangers were associated with the research study. The participants also, submitted their consent by signing a letter of educated assent and in addition got a nom de plume to ensure and protect their identity.   References Bhana, D. & Moosa, S. (2016). Failing to attract males in foundation phase teaching: an issue of masculinities. 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