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International Ecotourism Project to Greenland

Info: 9041 words (36 pages) Dissertation
Published: 10th Dec 2019

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Tagged: TourismTravel and Tourism


Greenland is the largest non-continental island on the earth belonging to the Kingdom of Denmark. In Greenland, icebergs are the most famous feature with the small number of population live on the coastal. Although Greenland tourism is still new to tourists but the increasing visitor numbers have brought benefits for the government and local communities in remote areas of Greenland. This report is written from the view of a consultant to National Tourist Board of Greenland for promoting Greenland as a top choice of the best destinations. The main purpose of this report is to examine aspects of tourism in Greenland and to establish a new ecotour to Greenland for Australian depending on the research about current trends of tourism in Australia. This project will raise awareness of sustainability and promote social responsibility which support for protecting the green environment.

  1. Introduction

Greenland is becoming a hot travel destination because of its distinctive beauty. Today travelling to Greenland is more accessible, hence it results in more tourists from new international markets joining Greenland tourism industry. Moreover, ecotourism is the most attractive kind of tourism because it combines the interesting experience of wonderful landscapes with the responsibility of preserving environment, the sustainability of local people’s life as well as the environmental education. By overviewing the history of Greenland tourism and the unique feature of Greenland that attracts tourists, an obvious perspectives of Greenland tourism is formed clearly. Besides, because of several differential characteristics, Australia is considered as a potential market for establishing a new Greenland ecotour. The analysis of Australia’s trends in tourism is important to determinate the ideal market for new Greenland ecotour. By applying SWOT analysis, a new Greenland ecotour is illustrated in details including the preparation before departure, an ideal itinerary and the marketing strategies for advertising this tour.

  1. Tourism Destination Region – Greenland
    1.          A history of tourism in Greenland

Greenland is the world’s largest island lying between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean (Rasmussen, 2017). In 1953, Greenland ended as a colony of Denmark and became a Danish province (Alfredsson, 1982).  Since the first excursion to Greenland was held in 1869, until the late 1980s Greenland hosted a few thousand tourists per year (King, 2009). However, the tourism investment was small and the country lacked an effective marketing program for tourism. Today although Greenland remains a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the island’s home-rule government is responsible for most domestic affairs (King, 2009).

Greenland’s economy is based on fishing. However, Greenland has great potential for tourism. The real commencement of the tourism industry happened in 1959 when Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) were first offered and the introduction of Home Rule in 1979 increasingly concerned about the development of the tourism industry (Kaae, 2006).

Tourism is considered as one of the four goals in a development strategy in Greenland. Christensen (1992) stated that Greenland focuses on the development of tourism as a new, stable industry that can expand the economy. Greenland Tourism was established in 1992 as the National Tourist Board of Greenland with target of identifying characteristics and maintaining the country’s cultural value in different areas of Greenland (Snyder, 2007).

Greenland is famous for 80% of vast glaciers. The population of Greenland is 56,200 people with over two million square kilometres in areas and the capital of Greenland, Nuuk has a population of 15,000 (Lambert, 2017). Greenland attracts tourists because of beautiful wildlife, breathtaking fjords, cliffs, hot springs, Viking ruins and clean air (Birbeck, 2016). Animals in the sea and on land like seals, whales, polar bears, and reindeers are also plentiful. Due to no roads between towns, visitors can explore unique transport such as dog-sledding and snowmobile. Most of the population of Greenland are Inuit with Kalaallisut is the official language of Greenland (Visit Greenland, n.d.). The large majority of people live in 5 popular towns and settlements in Greenland namely Ilulissat, Kangerlussuaq, Nuuk, Sisimiut, Qaqortoq which is famous for tourists (Greenland Travel, 2017).

The climate of Greenland rapidly changes. According to Visit Greenland website (n.d.), average winter temperature ranges from about −7 °C to approximately 4 °C in the summer. Greenland experiences two months of the midnight sun during the summer (Visit Greenland, n.d.) and Northern Light-Aurora Borealis in the winter (Aurora Zone, n.d.).

  1.          The current landscape in Greenland tourism

The world’s largest island Greenland has two-thirds area lying in the Arctic Circle and Greenland’s coastline is equivalent to the equator (Rasmussen, 2016). Due to this reason, Greenland has many breathtaking attractions and activities for ecotourism such as huge fjords, hot spring, museum, whale watching, Aurora Borealis and midnight sun. According to Oceanwide Expeditions (n.d.), the diversity of wildlife with species on land like polar bears, walruses, reindeers and marine mammals like seals, whales in Greenland is a pull factor for appealing tourists. Greenland is also attractive to visitors because of many activities such as skiing, dog sledding, mountain climbing, snowmobiling, kayaking and fishing. Lonely Planet (2015) recommended Greenland in a Top 10 “Best in Travel 2016” because of its beauty. There are many types of accommodations for travellers to stay in Greenland, for example hotels, bed and breakfasts, hostels, house rentals. For someone who like nature, they can try camping or glacier lodge (Visit Greenland, n.d.). It will bring them to be closer to the environment.

Besides, the desire of encountering another culture is another important motivating factor for people visiting this place. Pull factors emerge due to the attractiveness of a destination including cultural attractions (Uysal & Jurowski, 1994). There are 18 towns and 120 villages of local communities for visitors to experience the unique community’s life in Greenland (Kruse, J. et al, 2008).  Because of no roads between the towns, tourists can experience diversified transport with planes, helicopters or cruise (Government of Greenland, n.d.). Visitors have opportunity to meet the Inuit and discover their culture and lifestyle.

Greenland is also fascinating because it is still unpopular to human (Sejersen, 2015). There is a growing desire from tourists to discover an exotic place where they can escape from ordinary daily life. Moreover, Sheldon (2005) indicated Greenland offers an unpolluted environment for travellers. Because of almost ice cover and few local communities, Greenland remains green area which bring healthy life for tourists. According to Almasy (2012), Greenland is suggested as a place to go before it disappears because of the fast global warming. Therefore, Greenland ecotourism is developed for encouraging tourists to observe the effects of climate change, which is partly caused by carbon dioxide emissions from human activities. Depending on this, the visitors can improve their responsibility in preserving environment.

Moreover, Greenland is considered as a safe country. Kleist (2010) stated that Greenland’s government still use financial grants from Denmark to provide its citizens with welfare services and free health care. The high standard of living in Greenland turns it into a dream destination. Moreover, life expectancy in Greenland is comparable to the world average with 51.3% residents in the age from 25 to 59 years old (Visit Greenland, 2016). It results in increasing the workforce in Greenland tourism. Tourism is also a very significant contributor to the nation’s prosperity (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2006).

Figure 1: Estimated Earning from tourism industry in Greenland from 2006 to 2020

Unit: millions DKK

(Source: Tourism Statistics Report 2016-Visit Greenland website)

As can be seen that Greenland government earned 496 million DKK in 2016 which was 1.5 times higher than 2006. The income from tourism is forecasted to increase and reach 602 million DKK in 2020. Wood (2002) indicated ecotourism has various purposes, from educating and respecting different cultures to directly benefiting the economic opportunities for local communities. Therefore, tourism industry in Greenland is becoming the fastest growing economic sector in Greenland (UNWTO, 2017). The focus on pull factors of Greenland creates the multiplier effect (details on appendix 2) and brings employment opportunities for the local people as well as contributes positively to the preservation of natural and cultural heritage.

  1.          Inbound tourism statistics

According to Visit Greenland (2016), the most popular market of Greenland tourism is Denmark, Iceland, North America, Germany, France, Great Britain and Asia.

Figure 2: The number of international visitors by air to Greenland in 2001-2016

Unit: visitors

(Source: Statbank Greenland)

The foreign tourists in Greenland in 2015, 2016 by air increased by 8.2%, 7.3% compared to 2015, 2014 respectively. Comparing 2001, it was a gradual rise in the number of travellers coming to Greenland. It represented the attractiveness of this area over the world.

  1.          Apply the Butler Sequence

Greenland tourism is considered as an exploration stage when applying butler sequence model (Butler, 1980). In six stages are described by Weaver & Lawton (2014), Greenland is a remote area in the North of the earth, hence visitors travel to experience the beautiful nature and wildlife of this destination. Because Greenland tourism is expensive to tourists and the small number of local communities lives there, the limited accommodation and transport hinders foreign travellers to visit. However, today Greenland tourism is changing to involvement stage because of the increasing awareness of local people in the tourism development. They start to offer accommodation, food and host guide in order to increase the number of visitors and bring economic benefit for their communities (Visit Greenland, 2016). Both residents and tourists understand about the importance of preserving environment in Greenland and they desire to develop tourism relating to protect the ecosystem in the coldest area of the world.

  1. The Tourism Generation Region – Australia
    1.          Trend of tourism in Australia

There are many reasons for travel of Australian. One of the most reasons because of the desire to discover a new place for relaxation.

Figure 3: Outbound trips by purpose in Australia in 2016-2017

Unit: thousand visitors

(Source: Tourism Research Australia 2017)

In 2017, about 5 million Australian travel abroad for holiday and leisure, rose by 3% comparing to 2016. The number of visitors travel on holiday was as double as visiting families purpose. As can be seen that travelling becomes a part of Australian culture. Australians also live in a society where the majority of people receive a minimum of four-week holiday per year (Penrith, 2008). Therefore, Australian has time to travel wherever they want. Besides, 56% of Australian population own passport and Australia’s passport is one of the most powerful in the world, with a passport power rank of eight (Australian Federation of Travel Agents, 2016). Thus, Australian tends to travel abroad. Because Greenland offers visa free for Australian market staying less than 90 days (VisaHQ, n.d.), more people are flexible to travel to that area.

As one of the richest countries in the world, Australian can afford annual overseas trips across the world. Although the Australian dollar has fallen, Australians still ranked top 10 spenders on international tourism in the world (UNWTO, 2017).

Figure 4: Outbound trips expenditure by purpose in Australia in 2016-2017

Unit: million dollars

(Source: Tourism Research Australia 2017)

The expenditure which Australian spent on travel on holiday was 4 times higher than for visiting friend ($40 billion and $10 billion in 2017 respectively). Australian spends more on outbound tourism because Australia is an isolated country from other destinations so they tend to travel to explore the world. Pettit (2015) also indicated that Australia are founded as immigration, almost all Australians have cultural and familial roots in other countries, thus Australian has more motivation to investigate new land.

Australia is famous as 3S destination with sun, sea, sand (Weaver, 2001) and there is rarely snow in the winter. That is the reason why Australian chooses Greenland with over 80% of glacier as their destination to experience Christmas in Greenland where Santa Clause is considered existing in Nuuk, capital of Greenland (Bureau, 2016). According to Weaver (2001), ecotourism customers travel more frequently than average customers. AFTA Travel Trends Report (2017) indicated Australian tends to travel much in July, it is the best time to travel to Greenland because in July, the temperature of Greenland is warmer and it allows to travel by cruise.

Another reason is that Australian is active and they love nature and concern about the environment. Crompton (1979) identifies two motivations for travelling namely cultural motives and socio-psychological motives. The tourists care about nature conservation and want to experience a place that has not been polluted. Greenland nowadays still exists unspoilt landscape, diversified wildlife. Therefore, tourists try to visit this area before ice melts (Choat, 2013).  As a result of travelling, Australian aware of the importance of natural conservation and development of green tourism. Weaver (2001) indicated ecotourism is the meaningful travel to particular regions to understand the natural and cultural environment and create benefit for local people. In addition, Australian also appreciates the safety when they travel. This is the important reason why they choose Greenland.

  1.          Target market of Greenland Ecotourism

The World Tourism Organisation (2011) defined tourism in a green economy as activities to maintain, sustain the social, economic, cultural and environmental context. Besides, psychology and emotion influence on the decision of choosing destination. The ideal market for Greenland tourism is old people who have high standard of living and look for more experience. Because the retired Australian tend to spend money on holiday instead of saving like Asian people (Reisinger & Turner, 2002), they are considered as the target segmentation for Greenland tourism. The old not only has much time for travelling, they but also care about their health and have serious concern about the environmental issues. Besides, young people who is active and love nature are also the potential for Greenland tourism. According Visit Greenland (2015), 27% travellers want to try everything when they travel to Greenland. They want to understand lifestyle, the people, and participate in protecting the natural environment.

Moreover, the wealthy people are ready to pay for once experience in their lifetime because of the reputation of Greenland. The identification of clear market segments brings benefits to develop the promotion programs (Lumsdon, 1997). Applying market segmentation to the tourism industry is a recognition that all tourists differ from many aspects. Greenland tourism focuses on travellers who have open-minded lifestyle and desire to raise their awareness about ecosystem. According to Ceballos-Lascurain (1996), eco-tourists also travel to remote areas to experience the customs and native cultures. The new Greenland ecotour will provide an interesting itinerary and bring educational value to meet this ideal market’s satisfaction.

  1. Plan for New Ecotour in Greenland
    1.          SWOT analysis

According to Patterson (2007), SWOT analysis for ecotourism gives the better understanding the benefits associated with ecotourism to improve the local life.

Strengths: Greenland is famous for a variety of breathtaking attractions and activities. The biggest advantage for Greenland is its beautiful and unspoiled nature which makes Greenland be quite different from other destinations. (Johnston & Viken, 1997). There are 33 airports in Greenland (website Prokeraia.com) with many domestic flights every week between airports in Greenland. Greenland has the higher education and standard of living so it is a safe place to visit. The unique nature in Greenland and Inuit culture bring green environment to tourists. Besides, English is considered as the second language in Greenland (Visit Greenland, n.d.), thus it eliminates the travelling barrier of foreign tourists. New Greenland ecotour brings the sustainability of the natural environment and the benefit for local communities. Furthermore, this tour is new to Australian market, so it can draw the attention from travellers more easily.

Weaknesses: The lack of marketing and tour operators for Greenland tourism leads to few people visit this area. Moreover, the cost to travel Greenland is one of the most expensive destinations (Lonely Planet, 2012). Everything has to be shipped in with a limited resource. There are no two towns connected by road so travellers have to take a boat or plane to get from one place to another. There are so few visitors travelling outside of the towns that there might not be any hotels. It hinders visitors spend money on travelling to Greenland. Shackel (2011) indicated the inadequate transport conditions to and from Greenland and insufficient accommodation facilities discourage travellers coming to Greenland. In the winter, the unpredictable weather restricts travellers to visit. Moreover, there are no direct flight from Australia to Greenland, hence it takes much time for transit between airports to visit Greenland.

Opportunities: The development of Greenland ecotourism raise the awareness of visitors about the environmental conservation (Kaae, 2002). A successful marketing encourages visitation and brings the benefits for communities and regions. Greenland ecotourism may also generate more jobs for the local and improve the standard of living in Greenland. Depending on this, travel providers such as hoteliers, airlines and cruise liners can get more revenue. Moreover, Greenland government try to establish policy to increase the interest from international operators and tourists to visit Greenland. Visit Greenland (2016) indicated a new airport structure is being made by government to strengthen accessibility to Greenland.

Threats: Increasing the visitor numbers puts pressure on ecosystems and communities. The plan of developing facilities and accommodation could potentially destroy the appeal of this natural environment. Canavan (2016) stated local communities and lifestyles can be displaced, and ecosystem will be altered with the hotels, roads for tourists. Moreover, tourism creating a negative impact by producing waste, overusing water resources can influence on local inhabitants’ life. Besides, the investment in infrastructure for tourism is costly. Therefore, it will reduce the profit from tourism industry. The short tourist season and the lack of awareness about tourism among the local communities also reduce the effectiveness of Greenland ecotourism. Greenland is subject to strict government regulation in many areas (Maher, 2017).  Thus, it restricts the involvement of stakeholders in developing Greenland tourism.

  1.          Preparation for travelling

Greenland is a separated area although it is a part of Denmark, thus the permission for visiting Greenland differs from Denmark. The tourists need to remain a valid passport for at least 3 months from the planned date of departure from Greenland. However, Australia passport holders do not require a visa for a stay of less than 90 days. The Australian government recommended appropriate insurance to ensure that tourists are covered with the cost of medical, dental and the lost (Travel Insurance Saver, 2017). Australian can travel to Greenland via Denmark, Iceland or Canada. The foreign exchange rate in Greenland is favourable with 1 Australian dollar converts into 5 Danish Krone (Greenwich Mean Time, 2017). The flight time from Australia to Greenland takes around 19 hours with 5 popular airlines in Greenland namely Aasiaat, Kangerlussuaq, Nasarsuaq, Nuuk, Pituffik (Travelmath, 2017).

According to Greenland Travel (2017), summer season from June to August is the easiest time to travel in Greenland. Flights are more regular, more accommodation is available and a range of things to do are supported by temperate climate. The winter is severe in Greenland but tourists have chance to join dog-sledding and snowmobile. As can be seen each season will provide a totally new experience.

  1.          Establish New Greenland Ecotour Itinerary

According to Greenland Travel (2017), the most nonstop flights are from Copenhagen in Denmark to the largest airport in Greenland, Kangerlussuaq Airport in West Greenland with 4.5 hour flight. For tourists to Greenland, Kangerlussuaq is a wonderful place to visit. The town of Kangerlussuaq is 25 kilometre drive from the Ice Cap where travellers can lay their foot on the ice. The tour to travel Greenland also brings tourists to visit beautiful natural attractions and local culture. Travellers can witness The Ilulissat Icefjord listed as UNESCO world heritage, stay in cosy lodge at Glacier Lodge Eqi, visit the Nuuk-capital of Greenland and experience life in the traditional villages (Birbeck, 2016). Domestic flights in Greenland is popular in each tour because it is the effective and save-time way to travel among different regions of Greenland. Almost airports are small, hence tourists do not have to spend hours in airports. It is a range of package tour like helicopter tours, boat tours to discover the ice fjord, the glaciers and experience hiking, camping, dog sledging and kayaking (Visit Greenland, n.d.). Depending on the quantitative research (details on appendix 3), the New Greenland ecotourism itinerary is established for Australian market:

Day 1: Arrive at Kangerlussuaq Airport, Greenland from Australia via Dubai, United Arab (Qantas, Emirates), Copenhagen in Danmark (Air Greenland).

Overnight at the Polar Lodge which is several hundred metres from the airport.

Day 2: Go to Kelly Ville, a small science park which is 12 kilometres from the airport.

Drive to the Russell Glacier – 60 metre vertical ice wall.

Have dinner at the Rowing club that is 5 kilometres outside Kangerlussuaq.

Overnight at Old Camp.

Day 3: Visit the Ice Cap – the second largest ice sheet in the world and

Experience the Northern Light if travelling in the winter.

Overnight at Old Camp.

Day 4: Flight to Nuuk-capital of Greenland.

Experience the city tour in Nuuk including Greenland National Museum, Katauaq cultural centre, the statue of Hans Egede.

Overnight at Hotel Nuuk Seamen’s Home.

Day 5: Join a hiking tour to Kobbe Fjord, east of Nuuk.

Go by boat to the settlement of Qooqqut.

Return to Nuuk Harbour.

Overnight at Hotel Somandshjemmet Nuuk

Day 6: Travel by cruise through Sisimiut to Ilulissat, watch life on the harbour and village from deck.

Overnight at the vessel Sarfag Ittuk.

Day 7: Visit the old church with original colonial buildings in Sisimiut-Greenland second largest town.

Go sailing and dog sledding if the snow is fallen.

Overnight at Hotel Sisimiut.

Day 8: Sail to archipelago around Sisimiut to view Mount Nasaasaaq behid Sisimiut.

Watch sea birds.

Overnight at KatakHousing.

Day 9: Arrive at Ilulissat and witness Ice Fjord-an UNESCO world heritage.

Overnight at Hotel Arctic.

Day 10: Join city tour to museum, old colonial houses, Zion’s Church, harbour in Ilulissat.

Overnight at Ilulissat Guesthouse.

Day 11: Join a hike to Sermermiut, an old settlement next to the Ice Fjord.

Overnight at local community.

Day 12: Join the instruction lecture for sledding dog activities.

Take a cruise trip between the icebergs to see midnight sun if travelling in the summer.

Overnight at Ilulissat Guesthouse.

Day 13: Discover whale safari with various types of whales depending on each season.

Overnight at Hotel Icefjord Apartment.

Day 14: Try helicopter tour to see all giant Ice Fjord.

Go shopping in the high street.

Overnight at Hotel Icefjord Apartment.

Day 15: Flight from Ilulissat Airport to Kangerlussuaq Airport (Air Greenland).

Depart from Kangerlussuaq Airport to Australia.

  1.          Marketing Strategies for New Greenland Ecotour

Greenland has a wonderful attractions and culture for tourists who like green environment. Fennell (2014) demonstrated the main objectives of ecotourism are to provide natural experience, environmental education knowledge for tourists and manage this in a sustainable manner. Therefore, the increase in promotion of the Greenland ecotourism is an obvious way to attract the market segments. Depending on PEST analysis (details in appendix 1), Greenland tourism is a potential to Australian. However, the politic, economic, social and technological aspects will negative effects to Greenland tourism if the management is ineffective. In order to develop tourism industry, it is important to expand tourism across the year. According to Visit Greenland (2016), over 50% of tourists who visit Greenland in the third quarter, hence the breathtaking beauty of Greenland in low season should be promoted to attract visitors. The decrease in price of tour, flight, accommodation will attract more tourists and bring the income for local communities in Greenland.

Moreover, it is necessary to set up a completed website for each target market and give users the itinerary from their country to Greenland in details. The usage of advertisement and video to promote the Greenland’s image by search tool on Google are important to raise Greenland as an ideal destination for tourists.

In addition, it is more attractive to travellers if the Greenland tourism are presented in some Travel & Tourism Trade Shows in Australia or Australian Tourism Exchange, a place for Australian tourism businesses and tourism wholesalers and retailers from around the world for advertising the Greenland attractions and culture. By advertising through travel agents and social networks like Facebook, Instagram, Youtube, Greenland tourism can receive more attention from travellers. According to Long (2017), 70% of Australian booked one part of their trip with a travel agent. Furthermore, Australian travellers tend to make their own bookings online. Therefore, the corporation with some online booking websites like Tripadvisor, Expedia, Trivago will help visitors access more easily to Greenland tour. The online review is written by experience from real tourists is also a valuable way to raise the Greenland’s profile to potential visitors.

  1. Conclusion

Over the past decade, Greenland has witnessed a gradual expansion of its tourism industry. Travelling to Greenland allows tourist to experience an unspoiled landscape, learn about the history of the country and the local life in this remote part of the world. Relying on analysing the facts of tourism in Australia and choosing the target market for visiting to Greenland, a new Greenland ecotour is established for the purpose of developing tourism industry and raise the national image. Owning the impressive branding will attract more foreign investors and boost the tourists’ flow to Greenland. Although the Greenland ecotour is new to Australian market, it is still a potential international tourism project which will create more choice for Australian on their holidays. This tour not only meet the need of nature lovers, but also improve the knowledge about the environmental importance on the last frontier. Thanks to the new ecotour, Greenland can become an inspiring destination offering unique tourism experience for international tourists over the world in the future.


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Appendix 1

PEST analysis of Greenland

Political factors:

The grant of the Act on Greenland Self-Government in 2009 was an extension of Home Rule Act in 1979 about the right to elect for its own government and sovereignty in education, economy, environment (Margrethe, 2009). Although Greenland is a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, it took over the conditions for travelling in some certain parts of Greenland in 2010. Therefore, the tourism industry in Greenland is independent from Denmark. Because it located in the remote area of the world, the violence crime rate in Greenland is at the low figure (ranked 18th out of 113 countries) (NationMaster, 2009). It results in increasing the tourist numbers in Greenland. The three-party coalition in Greenland supports for increasing in accommodation capacity, reducing in passenger tax for cruise ships and promoting foreign language education to create a more multilingual workforce (European Country of Origin Information Network, 2015). Thanks to the opened policy of government, the tourist numbers is forecasted to increase in Greenland.

Economic factor:

Almost Greenland’s revenue is from Denmark, the rest is mainly from fishing (BBC News, 2017). Therefore, it is important for Greenlandic economy to find another sources of income and attract foreign investment. Many small regions and remote areas have attempted to enhance their economic situation by promoting tourism (Mason, 2015). The currency used in Greenland is Danish Kroner, so the monetary system in Greenland is the same as Denmark. Due to its vast geography, Greenland’s telecommunications and infrastructure less develop and it results in the difficulty in travelling. The income tax rate in Greenland is 30% (European Country of Origin Information Network, 2015), hence it reduces the demand for working and investing in Greenland. Besides, the lack of skilled labour in the tourism industry decreases the effective productivity. The plan for constructing accommodation also harm the nature and wildlife in Greenland. Although this country can achieve the economic development, it will threat the green environment in the rest area of the world.

Socio-cultural factor:

The tourists are more interested in travelling to Greenland due to the hospitality of the local. The boost in education creates the high standard of living, thus it is attractive to the travellers. The climate change is an important factor influencing on the Greenland tourism (Sejersen, 2015).  The ice melting allows more tourist to visit by boat. There are also growing concern for the preservation and protection of the social, cultural and physical environment. The Greenlandic language is challenged by new languages, particularly English, and the proportion of monolinguals increases. Besides, the population growth brings drawbacks for the nature and local culture. The large numbers of tourists can produce cultural resource impacts and put the pressure on this land. Furthermore, intrusive visitor behaviour violates traditional customs. The establishment of tours can generate the conflict that damage native people’s quality of life and the tourist experience (Snyder, 2007).

Technological factor:

Greenland enhances technologies, use electricity and improve infrastructures to develop and attract tourists. However, the introduction of technologies can impact the desire to maintain traditional lifestyles. The nature and wildlife can also be influenced by the development of modern infrastructure (Maher, 2017). Greenland is known as one of the most original areas where the tourists can escape from their daily routine. Therefore, if Greenland utilises much modern technology, it will hinder the international tourist from visiting this special area.

Appendix 2

Multiplier effect

Tourism involves many stakeholders including tourists, businesses, employees, local communities and society. All players take benefits when the tourism develops successfully in Greenland. The increasing number of tourists not only brings more employment opportunities for local people in tourism industry like jobs in hotels, restaurant, it also creates jobs for every sector of the country. The medical services and insurance companies obtain money from travellers for their safety. During staying time, the tourists require entertainment, consume more authentic local goods and services, so it will generate jobs in the local area. The demand for local products increases because the tourists often buy souvenirs when they leave Greenland. The fishing and mining industry also export to foreign countries because it is advertised by tourists. Moreover, tourism bring economic benefits from employing local guides, pilots, captains, using local transport. Hence, the local can spend their salary on buying products and services for their life. It will contribute to increase GDP and CPI of Greenland. Besides, some local activities concentrating on building infrastructure will bring the economic development. The development of tourism can create more funds for preserving environment in Greenland. Thanks to tourism, the country can get benefit from various industries.

Appendix 3

Quantitative Research

  1. Have you ever heard about Greenland?

 Yes   No

  1. How long do you stay in a trip?

 <1 week  1-2 weeks   >2 weeks

  1. What kind of tourism do you like most?

 Mass tourism   Ecotourism   Adventure tourism    Other

  1. How often do you travel abroad every year?

 None   1-5 times   >5 times

  1. Which season do you often travel?

 Summer season   Winter season   Other

  1. What is your impression before visiting the place?

 Nature   Weather   Local people   Other

  1. Who do you want to travel with?

 Groups   Families   Individuals

  1. What kind of accommodation do you like to stay on your holiday?

 Camping  Local house   Hotel

  1. What do you usually travel for?

 Holiday   Business  Visiting family and friends   Other

  1.            If you have a chance to visit Greenland, what is your reason for choosing this area?

 Landscape   Culture   Activities   Other

  1.            Where do you often find the information of your destination?
     Travel agency   Friends, family and relatives   Internet
  2.            When do you begin planning your vacation?

 <1 month   1-6 months    > 6 months

  1.            What age group do you think it is the best for travelling to Greenland?

 < 30 years old   30-50 years old    > 50 years old

The result after collecting data from 20 Australians:

  •     15 people prefer travelling for over 2 weeks.
  •     All people like ecotourism and adventure tourism.
  •     All people travel abroad 1-5 times each year.
  •     16 people like travelling in the winter.
  •     All people care about nature, weather when they choose their destination.
  •     All people like travelling in groups or with families.
  •     7 people choose to stay in hotels, 7 people choose camping, 6 people like local house.
  •     All people usually travel for holidays.
  •     People will choose Greenland because its landscape and specific culture.
  •     People find information about Greenland on the internet.
  •     All people plan their vacation from 1 to 6 months before departure.
  •     14 people think that the best age group for visiting Greenland is over 50 years old.

Comments: almost Australian like travelling because of the nature and culture of the destination. They often travel in the winter and they travel overseas at least once per year. The age group for travelling to the remote areas is usually the retire because they will have more money and time. Hotels and camping is the best choices for Australian when they travel. They are active so they tend to find information on the internet.

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