This research paper examines the effect of feedback environment on employee commitment, with role clarity being the mediating variable in the public and private sectors organizations of Islamabad & Rawalpindi city. From the previous researches a link was found between feedback environment and employee commitment at workplace, this study attempts to explore this link in the context of Islamabad. To create employee commitment amongst organizational members has become increasingly important in todayâ€™s dynamic business environment, because this factor leads to employee retention and a low degree of turnover. For this study a sample size of 200 was taken and different private and public sector organizations were covered in the research work. The research was of hypothesis-testing in nature and responses were collected using standardized questionnaires for each variable. All three variables supervisory and coworker feedback and role clarity proved to be positively associated with employee commitment; with the feedback from coworker source being the strongest in creating employee commitment followed by role clarity and feedback from supervisor source. The mediating effect of role clarity was not found to be significant and there is still an opportunity for further research in this area to explore this link. However the positive association of role clarity with employee commitment represents its importance in creating employee commitment, though its contribution is small, but this very dimension must not be ignored by the managers of the 21st century.
It has become necessary for business firms to satisfy all of their major stakeholders (consumers, employees, clients etc) to remain competitive in todayâ€™s dynamic business environment. The satisfaction and commitment level of a firmâ€™s employees is of key importance in determining its human resource strength, which in turn leads to their retention and make an organization able to satisfy the needs of its customers, consumers and clients in both the production and service sectors. Many variables have an impact on the level of commitment of a firmâ€™s employees, some of which are job satisfaction level (with intrinsic and extrinsic factors), the quality of leader-member exchange and the overall feedback environment that an employee works in.
Many researchers put emphasis on providing feedback to employees in order to satisfy them and consider providing feedback to employees to be essential for maintaining and increasing employee motivation and satisfaction. Traditionally the yearly formal performance appraisal/review in private sector organizations and Annual Confidential Report (ACR) in public sector organizations have been considered as the ideal platform for higher authorities (departmental/organizational heads, supervisors, immediate bosses) to provide feedback to employees about how they view their performance. But employees generally report problems and shortfalls regarding the current methodologies used to asses their performance and characterize the overall process as being too much restricted to a performance appraisal period and involving only one feedback source (departmental/organizational heads, supervisors, and immediate bosses).
A qualitative case study by Longenecker and Nykodym (1996) in the public sector illustrated some of the problems associated with traditional performance appraisal method. Employees noted that feedback in performance appraisal was problematic for improving employee motivation and performance, and as a communications tool to improve the manager/subordinate relationship and suggested that managers should:
- make more time available for providing performance feedback,
- increase their knowledge of actual performance,
- better clarify performance expectations,
- put greater emphasis on employee development,
- not dwell on negatives,
- provide more ongoing feedback, and
- increase two-way communication
These suggestions indicate that supervisors/immediate bosses might adopt a number of specific behaviors to support feedback processes in the organization, which in turn might lead to an enhanced manager/subordinate relationship and increased employee satisfaction and hence employee commitment. Here we can see that feedback only after some specified interval and through formal sessions is not sufficient to improve work outcomes (job satisfaction, productivity, employee commitment, organizational citizenship behavior etc). Considering this very fact; Steelman, Levy and Snell (2004) proposed a scale, known as Feedback Environment Scale (FES) with a validation study to demonstrate how different facets of feedback sources (supervisor and coworkers) constitute the overall feedback environment within an organization. This new instrument measures a much more comprehensive view of the feedback environment and is more relevant to the organizations of today and the responsibilities of 21st-century managers. FES may also be defined as a multifaceted construct with two major factors (Supervisor and Coworker) manifested in seven facets. Together, these seven facets reflect the contextual aspects surrounding the transmission of job performance feedback on a recurrent or daily basis (Steelman et al, 2004).
In general; Employee commitment is one's psychological attachment to his or her organizations. The higher the level of Employee Commitment of an individual, the lower are the chances of his/her psychological and physical job withdrawal. Moreover; committed employees are generally productive and go beyond their job descriptions in improving their organization's products and services.
Researchers have found a positive link between Feedback Environment Scale and Employee commitment. This link is mediated by a third variable called Role Clarity, which is defined as the subjective feeling of having as much or not as much role relevant information as the person would like to have Lyons (1971). This study is aimed to explore this link in a Pakistani context and more specifically in the context of Islamabad, After the confirmation of such a link, mangers can adopt a number of measures to improve employees' satisfaction, their level of productivity and employee commitment.
To measure the level of performance feedback (from supervisors and coworkers) received by the employees of different organizations, both of public and private sector operating in Islamabad city.
To Measure the level of employee commitment of employees working in different organizations
To explore the link between feedback environment and employee commitment
To suggest specific measures to be adopted in order to increase the overall feedback environment and employee commitment in organizations
In the past, the feedback environment has been defined as the type of job performance information that employees perceive as being available to them (Herold & Parsons, 1985).but according to the refined and most up-to-date definition; the feedback environment refers to the contextual aspects of day-to-day supervisor-subordinate and coworker-coworker feedback processes rather than to the formal performance appraisal feedback session (Steelman et al, 2004). Consequently, up to now, an organizationâ€™s feedback environment has been defined as the amount and availability of positive and negative feedback from different sources (Steelman et al, 2004).
Measurement of Feedback Environment
Feedback environment in an organization is measured through a new multifaceted instrument, the Feedback Environment Scale (FES), which helps inform the feedback process in organizations. This new instrument measures a much more comprehensive view of the feedback environment and is more relevant to the organizations of today and the responsibilities of 21st-century managers. FES may also be defined as a multifaceted construct with two major factors (Supervisor and Coworker) manifested in seven facets. Together, these seven facets reflect the contextual aspects surrounding the transmission of job performance feedback on a recurrent or daily basis (Steelman et al, 2004).
It is clear that employees receive feedback information from various sources (Greller, 1980; Morrison, 1993) but some authors suggest that supervisor and coworker feedback sources are the most practical and relevant from the feedback recipientâ€™s point of view (Ashford, 1989). Thus, the FES postulates two factors called Supervisor Source and Coworker Source and the following seven specific facets within each of those source factors: source credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, frequency of favorable feedback, frequency of unfavorable feedback, source availability, and promoting feedback seeking (Steelman et al, 2004).
Source Credibility is conceptualized as the feedback sourceâ€™s expertise and trustworthiness (Giffin, 1967). Consistency and usefulness have been demonstrated to be important aspects of feedback quality (Greller, 1980; Hanser & Muchinsky, 1978; Herold, Liden,& Leatherwood, 1987). A feedback recipientâ€™s perceptions of the sourceâ€™s intentions in giving feedback will affect reactions and responses to the feedback (Fedor, Eder, & Buckley, 1989). Favorable feedback is conceptualized as the perceived frequency of positive feedback such as compliments from supervisors and/or coworkers when from the feedback recipientâ€™s view, his or her performance does in fact warrant positive feedback. Correspondingly, unfavorable feedback is conceptualized as the perceived frequency of negative feedback such as expressions of dissatisfaction and criticism from supervisors and/or coworkers when from the feedback recipientâ€™s view, his or her performance warrants such feedback (Steelman et al, 2004). Supervisor and/or coworker source availability is operationalized as the perceived amount of contact an employee has with his or her supervisor and/or coworkers and the ease with which feedback can be obtained (Steelman et al, 2004). Feedback seeking is defined as the extent to which the environment is supportive or unsupportive of feedback seeking. It is the extent to which employees are encouraged or rewarded for seeking feedback and the degree to which employees feel comfortable asking for performance feedback (Williams et al, 1999).
Lyons (1971) defines role clarity as the subjective feeling of having as much or not as much role relevant information as the person would like to have. The importance of having role clarity (knowing the tasks and expectations of a job) has been shown in previous research that used both emotional and performance-related measures (Abramis, 1994; Jackson & Schuler, 1985; Tubre & Collins, 2000). Role clarity is a prerequisite for harmonious interactions with others in the role set (Mcgrath, 1976). The absence of role clarity leads to stress, intrapersonal tension and lowered job satisfaction (Cooper, Sloan & Williams, 1988; Hall, 2004).
Breaugh & Colihan (1994) defined role ambiguity to be job ambiguity and indicated that job ambiguity possesses three distinct aspects: work methods, scheduling, and performance criteria.
It is recognized that an employee’s commitment to an organization can be expressed in three particular ways: affective, continuance, and normative. Affective commitment is focused on an emotional attachment to the organization (Herscovitch, 2002). On the other hand, continuance commitment is when an employee stays with an organization based on a perceived cost of leaving (Herscovitch, 2002). In this case, the employee is staying because he/she thinks it will cost more to go find work elsewhere. Lastly, normative commitment refers to an employee’s moral obligation to stay with the organization (Herscovitch, 2002). This can arise due to the employee feeling that the organization has treated him/her well and therefore, he/she owes the organization a continued period of employment. In one sense, each type of commitment somewhat ties the individual to the organization; however, each impacts differently on the manner in which the employee conducts him/herself in the workplace. For example, an employee with an affective commitment will often go above and beyond what is required of his/her position in order to assist the organization in meeting its goals. Employees with high affective commitment tend to be absent from work less frequently and display a higher work motivation and organizational citizenship (McShane, 2001). Continuance commitment, however, is negatively related to performance whereby employees tend to do simply what is required, have higher rates of absenteeism, and low motivation (Johns and Saks, 1996).
Feedback Environment, Role Clarity/Ambiguity and Employee Commitment
Over recent years, there has been a surge of interest in the effects of the feedback environment on work-related outcomes (e.g. Norris-Watts & Levy, 2004; Rosen et al., 2006). A favorable feedback environment is positively related to supervisory reported organizational citizenship behavior and that this relationship is partially mediated by affective commitment (Norris-Watts & Levy, 2004). Another study tested a mediated model suggesting that the effects of the feedback environment on job satisfaction, and supervisory rated in-role and extra-role performance are mediated by perceptions of organizational politics. In general, this model was supported, again demonstrating the relationship between the feedback environment and several work-related outcomes (Rosen et al., 2006). A field experiment conducted by Tziner and Latham (1989) revealed increased work satisfaction and employee commitment when a goal-setting and feedback program was introduced, but it is not possible to draw the conclusion that this effect emanates from feedback only.
Researchers have found a relationship between feedback and role ambiguity (Herold et al, 1987, Peiro et al, 1994, Sawyer, 1992, Teas, 1983, Vredenburgh, 1983). So, even though previous studies lend support to the hypothesis that feedback affects attitudes towards work, there is also a possibility that the uncertainty reducing effect of feedback is the link between feedback and work attitudes, through the intervening influence of role ambiguity. Resultantly, there is also support to hypothesize that feedback only indirectly affects attitude towards work with role ambiguity as a mediating variable (Anders et al, 1999).
Mathieu & Zajac (1990) conducted a meta-analysis of 48 studies and found that overall employee commitment was low when employees were unsure about what was expected of them (Role Ambiguity). In nine studies, Dunham, Grube, & Castaneda (1994) found that employees understanding about the significance of their tasks were somewhat positively related to affective commitment, but not related to normative or continuance commitment.
Workers need role clarity to be able to navigate on their own. To improve the opportunity for self feedback there appears a need to strengthen the connection between the individualâ€™s work and the organizational goals (Anders et al, 1999).
On the basis of literature review, a relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment was found, being mediated by a third variable, Role Clarity. The following hypothetical link between the variables was drawn and tested.
Feedback Environment (Independent Variable)
Feedback Environment has been taken as the independent variable for this study which is defined by Steelman et al (2004) as the amount and availability of positive and negative feedback from different sources.
As the feedback environment in organizations is generally measured using the Feedback environment Scale (FES) proposed by Steelman et al (2004), the same will be employed to measure the quality of feedback environment that takes into account two major feedback sources which are:
Feedback from each source has seven dimensions which are:
Giffin (1967) defined source credibility as the feedback sourceâ€™s expertise and trustworthiness. Perception of trustworthiness an individual imparts to other people. Factors that influence source credibility are expertise and reputation for honesty.
Feedback quality refers to its consistency and usefulness which are important aspects of feedback (Greller, 1980; Hanser & Muchinsky, 1978; Herold, Liden, & Leatherwood, 1987).
It refers to the feedback environment in terms of sourceâ€™s consideration and intentions in his or her delivery of the feedback (Steelman et al 2004). In simple words this dimension is related to the extent of empathy of the feedback source.
Steelman et al (2004) defined favorable feedback as the perceived frequency of positive feedback such as compliments from supervisors and/or coworkers when from the feedback recipientâ€™s view, his or her performance does in fact warrant positive feedback
Unfavorable feedback is conceptualized as the perceived frequency of negative feedback such as expressions of dissatisfaction and criticism from supervisors and/or coworkers when from the feedback recipientâ€™s view, his or her performance warrants such feedback (Steelman et al, 2004).
Supervisor and/or coworker source availability is defined as the perceived amount of contact an employee has with his or her supervisor and/or coworkers and the ease with which feedback can be obtained (Steelman et al, 2004).
Promoting feedback seeking
Williams et al (1999) defined Feedback seeking is defined as the extent to which the environment is supportive or unsupportive of feedback seeking. It is the extent to which employees are encouraged or rewarded for seeking feedback and the degree to which employees feel comfortable asking for performance feedback
Responses about each dimension relating to both the sources will be gathered using the FES Questionnaire, proposed by Steelman et al (2004) in their validation study of the FES.
Employee Commitment (Dependent Variable)
For the purpose of this study employee commitment has been defined as an employee's psychological attachment to his/her organization. Mainly the three component model of employee commitment by Herscovitch (2002) is used, which says that the commitment level itself consists of three parts; affective, continuance and normative commitment. Somers (1995) defined Affective commitment as an employee's emotional attachment to an organizational goals and values. Normative commitment is a perceived duty to support the organization and its activities, whereas; continuance commitment is however interacted with affective commitment in predicting job withdrawal intentions and absenteeism.
The level of employee commitment was measured using the employee commitment questionnaire by John Meyer & Natalie Allen (1991).
Figure 3.1: The Theoretical Relationship between Feedback Environment and Employee Commitment with the Mediating Effect of Role Clarity/Ambiguity
Role Clarity/Ambiguity (Mediating Variable)
Role clarity is defined as the subjective feeling of having as much or not as much role relevant information as the person would like to have Lyons (1971). Or simply knowing the tasks and expectations of oneâ€™s job is known as Role Clarity.
From the previous studies there appeared a relationship between feedback and employee commitment with the mediating effect of role clarity/ambiguity, and it was conceived in this study that the quality of feedback environment leads to role clarity or ambiguity as feedback serves the purpose of clarifying an employeeâ€™s role which leads to employee commitment (Mathieu & Zajac 1990, Dunham, Grube, & Castaneda 1994).
Role Clarity was measured using the standardized questionnaire proposed by Rizzo et al (1970).
The following seven hypotheses were tested to explore the link between the following:
Supervisory Feedback and Subordinateâ€™s Role Clarity
Coworker Feedback and Incumbentâ€™s Role Clarity
Feedback Environment and Employee commitment
Role Clarity and Employee commitment
Hypothesis 1: Ho:
There is no relationship between supervisory feedback and subordinateâ€™s role clarity
Hypothesis 1: H1:
There is a relationship between supervisory feedback and subordinateâ€™s role clarity
Hypothesis 2: Ho:
There is no relationship between coworker feedback and employee role clarity
Hypothesis 2: H1:
There is a relationship between coworker feedback and employee role clarity
Hypothesis 3: Ho:
There is no relationship between feedback environment and employee role clarity
Hypothesis 3: H1:
There is a relationship between feedback environment and employee role clarity
Hypothesis 4: Ho:
There is no relationship between supervisory feedback and employee commitment
Hypothesis 4: H1:
There is a relationship between supervisory feedback and employee commitment
Hypothesis 5: Ho:
There is no relationship between coworker feedback and employee commitment
Hypothesis 5: H1:
There is a relationship between coworker feedback and employee commitment
Hypothesis 6: Ho:
There is no relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment
Hypothesis 6: H1:
There is a relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment
Hypothesis 7: Ho:
There is no relationship between employee role clarity and employee commitment
Hypothesis 7: H1:
There is a relationship between employee role clarity and employee commitment
Research Design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing needed information.
Having identified the variables of the study and developing the theoretical framework, the next step was to design the research in a way that the required data could be gathered and analyzed to arrive at a solution.
A Survey was conducted, based on a questionnaire. The term questionnaire refers to a list of questions, usually printed, and submitted for replies that can be analyzed for usable information.
Purpose of the Study
The research was of hypothesis-testing in nature. The characteristics of variables and their relationship were defined in the previous section. Hypotheses were formulated on the basis of relationships between the two main variables (feedback environment and employee commitment). Researches have shown that there is positive relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment. Those studies were conducted in different parts of the world and the current research is based on the hypotheses which are to be tested to find if there is a positive relationship between the said variables.
Type of Investigation
The purpose of our research was to find out if there is relation between variables, the type of investigation chosen was correlation.
Extent of Researcher Interference with the Study
The primary data was collected through the questionnaire. The data was collected in natural environment and the researcherâ€™s interference was minimal.
The research was conducted in natural environment where work proceeds normally, i.e. in non-contrived settings. The study was based on Field Experiment where all activities were occurring in natural work environment.
Unit of Analysis
In this study, individuals were studied separately. Research team studied the feedback received from the two sources (supervisor and coworker) and through the questionnaire investigated the relevant variables and their relationship.
A sample is a subset of a larger population that contains its major characteristics. In this step the following decisions were taken:
Who is to be sampled (sampling unit)
How large a sample should be (sample size)
How will sample units be selected (sampling technique)
To get the representation from all levels of management and all types of organizations, employees form each layer of management were selected as sample from different organizations ranging from manufacturing to service, both from public and private sectors. Responses were gathered from the employees of the following organizations:
Askari Bank, Balochistan Teachersâ€™ Training Academy, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences (BUITEMS), Cantonment Hospital, Chiltan Ghee Mills, Civil Secretariat, Concern Worldwide, Habib Bank Ltd, Mercy Crops, National Bank, PTCL, Islamabad Electric Supply Company (QESCO), SME Bank, Sui Southern Gas Company Ltd (SSGC), Telecard, Telenor, UNDP and Warid Telecom
The sample size for the study was 200. Employees from each of the above-mentioned organization were asked to respond the questionnaires.
Probability sampling was used for the research; in such type of sampling each member of population has an equal chance of becoming a sample.
The Questionnaire had the following sections:
The first section investigated about the respondentâ€™s demographical characteristics including:
Nature of work
Experience in years
The respondents were not asked to mention their names or disclose their identity and it was ensured to keep the information confidential.
Section-2 & 3 (Supervisory and Coworker Feedback Measurement)
These sections contained questions about the supervisory and coworker feedback received by the respondents focusing on the following dimensions:
Promoting feedback seeking
The items of this section were obtained from the validation study of feedback environment (Steelman et al, 2004).
Section-4 (Employee commitment Measurement)
This section contained questions about the level of employee commitment of the respondents.
Section-5 (Role Clarity Measurement)
This section contained questions measuring the Role Clarity of the respondents.
In this phase the research moved from papers to the field. Data was gathered in the form of responses from the respondents. Questionnaire was used as a tool to collect data and 100% of the respondents were surveyed through it.
As mentioned above different organizations from public and private sector were visited to collect the responses. Questionnaires were distributed and taken back from the respondents after two to three days. Total time taken to complete the data collection process was two weeks. The respondents were guided about filling the questionnaires and the queries were responded properly.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All seven hypotheses of the study were tested on the following parameters:
Confidence level: (1-Î±) = 0.95 (95%)
Level of Significance: Î± = 0.05
Statistic used: t-statistic
Sample size: n = 200
Table 5.1: Results of Hypothesis Testing
tcal = the calculated value of t-statistic
ttab = the tabulated value of t-statistic
It is clear from the results of table 5.1, that all seven alternative hypotheses were accepted as the value of t-calculated found be higher than the value of t-tabulated regarding each hypothesis. This shows that there is a link between each of the independent variable (feedback from supervisor and coworker source, feedback environment and role clarity) with the dependent variable (employee commitment).
The second analysis involved regressing each of the predictors on the outcome variable i.e. employee commitment. The results are presented in table 5.2
A correlation matrix was developed for Supervisory Feedback, Coworker feedback and Role clarity with Employee Commitment. According to the results, all the three variables were positively associated with Employee Commitment. The association represents a positive linear relationship between the dependent variable; Employee Commitment and each of the independent variables.
Table 5.2: Correlation Matrix for Employee Commitment
Coworker feedback was most strongly associated with Employee Commitment (0.439), followed by supervisory feedback (0.257) and role clarity (0.097). All relationships were statistically significant at p < 0.01.
The correlation analysis of employee commitment as shown in table 5.1 indicates that all the associations (between x and y variables) were positive. This signifies that a positive linear relationship exists between x and y variable. Coworker feedback was most strongly related with employee commitment, followed by role clarity and supervisory feedback. All relations were statistically significant at 0.01 levels.
The value of R2 was 0.195. The first independent variable, coworker feedback [0.419, P <0.05] made the highest contribution to the model, the findings suggest that the coworkersâ€™ feedback matters most in creating employee commitment.
Table 5.3: Regression Analysis of Feedback Environment at workplace (Dependent Variable= Employee Commitment
Note: R2= 0.195; F-value=15.803
The second variable, role clarity feedback [0.036, p<0.05] was also statistically significant, contributing towards employee commitment. The last variable supervisory feedback (0.029) contributed the least amount towards employee commitment and is statistically significant at p<0.05.
Mediation of Role Clarity
As there was no significant difference in the regression results of employee commitment with and without role clarity and the value of R2 0.193 with role clarity being the mediating variable did not have a noteworthy difference therefore; no or very less mediating effect of role clarity in creating employee commitment was found.
When studied as a single independent variable with employee commitment; role clarity proved to be contributing notably towards employee commitment
Graphical Representation of Linear Equations
For the purpose of better understanding of relationships between independent and dependent variables for the overall model and the individual relationships between each independent and the dependent variable/s; general linear equations are made and graphically represented.
X1= Supervisor Source
X2= Coworker Source
X3= Role Clarity
X4= Feedback Environment
E= Error Term
Regression Equation: Y= βo+β1X1+ β2X2+ β3X3+E
Supervisory Feedback vs. Employee Commitment
The graph shown below represents the relationship between supervisory feedback and employee commitment. X-axis represents supervisory feed back and Y-axis represents employee commitment. The Graph shows positive correlation between the two variables i.e. if one variable increases; the other variable also increases in the same direction.
Y= βo+ β1X1+E
Figure 5.1: Supervisory Feedback vs. Employee Commitment
Coworker Feedback vs. Employee Commitment
The graph shown below represents the relationship between coworker feedback and employee commitment. X-axis represents coworker feedback and Y-axis represents employee commitment. The Graph shows positive correlation between the two variables i.e. if one variable increases; the other variable also increases in the same direction.
Figure 5.2: Coworker Feedback vs. Employee Commitment
Feedback Environment vs. Employee Commitment
The graph shown below represents the relationship between feedback environment and employee commitment. X-axis represents feedback environment and y-axis represents employee commitment. The Graph shows positive correlation between the two variables i.e. if one variable increases; the other variable also increases in the same direction.
Figure 5.3: Feedback Environment vs. Employee Commitment
Feedback Environment vs. Role clarity
The graph shown below represents the relationship between feedback environment and role clarity. X-axis represents feedback environment and y-axis represents role clarity. The Graph shows positive correlation between the two variables i.e. if one variable increases; the other variable also increases in the same direction
Y1 = Role Clarity
Y1 = βo+β4X4+E
Figure 5.4: Feedback Environment vs. Role Clarity
Role Clarity vs. Employee Commitment
The graph shown below represents the relationship between role clarity and employee commitment. X-axis represents role clarity and y-axis represents employee commitment. The graph shows positive correlation between the two variables i.e. if one variable increases; the other variable also increases in the same direction
Figure 5.5: Role Clarity vs. Employee Commitment
Supervisory Feedback vs. Role Clarity
The graph shown below represents the relationship between Supervisory Feedback and Role Clarity. X-axis represents Supervisory Feedback and y-axis represents Role Clarity. The graph shows positive correlation between the two variables i.e. if one variable increases; the other variable also increases in the same direction
Y1 = Role Clarity
Figure 5.6: Supervisory Feedback vs. Role Clarity
Coworker Feedback vs. Role Clarity
The graph shown below represents the relationship between Coworker Feedback and Role Clarity. X-axis represents Coworker Feedback and y-axis represents Role Clarity. The graph shows positive correlation between the two variables i.e. if one variable increases; the other variable also increases in the same direction
Y2 = Role Carity
Figure 5.7: Coworker Feedback vs. Role Clarity
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The research was based on hypothesis-testing and several hypotheses were proposed to test the relationship between supervisory feedback, coworker feedback (The Feedback Environment), role clarity [independent variables] and employee commitment (dependent variable). The results verified that a positive relationship exists between the independent and dependent variable/s in the model and all seven alternative hypotheses proved to be true.
The strongest bonding of employee commitment was found to be with coworker feedback, which is a very important feedback source in organizational context. Role clarity was the second most important variable in creating employee commitment and the third variable causing employee commitment was supervisory feedback.
According to the basic model of research, Supervisory and coworker feedback have the dimensions of, source credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, favorable feedback, unfavorable feedback, source availability and promote feedback seeking.
From the statistical results it can be interpreted that different organizations in Islamabad city are low on each of the seven above-mentioned dimensions with respect to supervisory feedback and the resulting level of commitment with supervisory feedback is low. On the other hand coworker source is more valuable for employees and is substantially rich on each of its dimensions, resultantly contributing a greater amount towards employee commitment.
As per the results of the research, Role Clarity also contributed towards employee commitment and was the second strongest variable in causing employee commitment in the overall model, which means that employees must know their jobs in terms of authority, guidelines, expectations and the importance of their job in the achievement of overall organizational objectives.
Overall the research suggests that the theoretical model shown in figurer 3.1 represents that feedback environment has a positive impact on employee commitment. From the research it can be derived safely that employees of different organizations in Islamabad city are receiving a low amount and quality of feedback from their supervisors (immediate bosses, departmental or organizational heads) and a relatively higher quality and amount of feedback from their coworkers. Thus, the quality and amount of feedback received by both the sources are critical factors in creating employee commitment. Supervisory and coworker feedback jointly forms the overall feedback environment for an employee to work in, which is a controlled factor and can be improved in a systematic manner.
Based on the findings of the research named “the impact of feedback environment on employee commitment”, conducted in Islamabad city, it is recommended that:
Coworkers are important source of feedback to an employee and he/she gets useful input from them in the form of suggestions, techniques, performance discussions etc; therefore; firms must improve coworkers’ feedback process and the quality of peer-to-peer interactions, which can be done by arranging formal sessions of employees with experienced coworkers or by arranging a formal coaching or mentoring program. In general, a culture of providing feedback on performance should be nurtured, so that it becomes a part of the organization which can cause consistency and proper feedback on various issues ranging from individual performance to organizational productivity and performance. Through formal sessions of feedback training; employees can learn how to provide true feedback, positive and negative feedback and what should be the tone and expressions while providing feedback to others. Such training program should also focus on motivating employees about asking for performance feedback by themselves instead of waiting for others to provide them feedback.
The amount and quality of supervisory feedback can be improved by training managers to identify flaws in the feedback culture prevailing in the organization and to provide tools and techniques to them in improving it. Major points to be emphasized in managers’ feedback training should be:
Making managers more expert interpersonally in treating their subordinates and being credible to their employees
Providing feedback on a consistent basis rather than in formal performance appraisal sessions only
Managers should consider their subordinates’ feelings while providing feedback to them (being empathetic)
Favorable and unfavorable feedback should be provided when required or when the situation warrants such feedback
Managers should spend more time with their subordinates in order to understand their feedback needs and should make themselves available whenever the feedback is required by their subordinate/s
Mangers should encourage their subordinates to ask for performance feedback to improve two-way communication between the two stakeholders
Though feedback environment serves the purpose of clarifying employees of their roles, however other methods should also be used to have employees clarified their roles, so that they can participate more and more towards organizational improvement. Some of the suggestions to improve the role clarity dimension of an employee’s job are:
Properly written job descriptions
Orientation sessions for new employees
Formal sessions to clarify organization’s vision, mission, goals and policies to its employees
Clear performance review standards and criteria
Schedules and deadlines for different performance outcomes
Limitations of the Study
The study was conducted in Islamabad city, considering the organizations working within its boundaries.
Financial and time constraints did not allow the researchers to expand the sample size beyond 200 respondents.
As English is not the first language of the local population, some respondents were unable to understand the questionnaire properly which might have led to responding some questions wrongly.
The findings of this study might not be applied to other cities of Pakistan as Islamabad has different corporate culture as compared with other cities of the country.
Abramis, D. J. (1994). Work Role Ambiguity, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance: Meta— Analyses and Review. Psychological Reports75: 1411-1433.
Aharon Tziner. &Gary P. Latham (1989). The effects of appraisal instrument, feedback and goal-setting on worker satisfaction and commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 145 – 153
Anders Pousette &Christian Jacobsson (1999). Consequences of feedback environment in human service organizations. GöteborgPsychological Reports, 7:29,1-22
Ashford, S. J. (1989). Self assessments in organizations: A literature review and integrative model. In B. M. Staw &C. C. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, 11, 133-174. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
Breaugh, J. A. &Colihan, J. P. (1994). Measuring facets of job ambiguity: Construct validity evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 191 - 202.
Cooper, C. L., Sloan, S.J. &Williams, S. (1988). The Occupational Stress Indicator. Windsor: NFER-Nelson
Dunham, R.B., Grube, J.A., &Castaneda, M. B. (1994). Organizational commitment: The utility of an integrative definition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 370-380.
Fedor, D. B., Eder, R.W., &Buckley, M. R. (1989). The contributory effects of supervisor intentions on subordinate feedback responses. Organizational Behavior and Human DecisionProcesses, 44, 396-414.
Giffin, K. (1967). The contribution of studies of source credibility to a theory of interpersonal trust in the communication process. Psychological Bulletin, 68, 104 -120.
Greller, M. M. (1980). Evaluation of feedback sources as a function of role and organizational level. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 24-27.
Hanser, L. M., &Muchinsky, P. M. (1978).Work as an information environment. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 21, 47-60.
Herold, D. M., &Parsons, C. K. (1985). Assessing the feedback environment in work organizations: Development of the job feedback survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 290-305.
Herold, D. M., Liden, R. C., &Leatherwood, M. L. (1987). Using multiple attributes to assess sources of performance feedback. Academy of Management Journal, 4, 826-835.
Herscovitch, L., Meyer, J.P., (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 474-487
Jackson &Schuler (1985) Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationships Between Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict, and Job Performance. Journal of Management,26, 155-169.
Johns, G. &Saks, A.M. (1996). Organizational behavior: Understanding and managing life at work (5th ed.). Toronto: Addinon Wesley Langnon.
Lisa A. Steelman, Paul E. Levy &Rea F. Snell. (2004) The feedback environment scale: construct definition, measurement, and validation. Journal of Eduactional and Psychological Measurement, 1, 165-18.
Longenecker, C.O, &Nykodym, N (1996). Public sector performance appraisal effectiveness: A case study. Public Personnel Managemenrt, 25,151-164.
Lyons, T. F. (1971). Role clarity, need for clarity, satisfaction, tension, and withdrawal. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6, 99 - 110.
Mathieu, J., Zajac, D. (1990), A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates and outcomes of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171-94.
McGrath, J. E. (1976). Stress and behaviour in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette
(Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organisational psychology, 1360–1395. Chicago: Rand McNally.
McShane, S.L. (2001). Canadian organizational behaviour (5th ed.). Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Morrison, E.W. (1993). Longitudinal study of the effects of information seeking on newcomer socialization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 173-183.
Norris-Watts, C., &Levy, P.E. (2004). The mediating role of affective commitment in the relation of the feedback environment to work outcomes. Journal of VocationalBehavior, 65, 351–365.
Peiro, J.M., Gonzáles-Romá, V., &Lloret, S. (1994). Role stress antecedents and consequences in nurses and physicians working in primary health care teams: A causal model, European Review of Applied Psychology, 2, 105-114.
Rizzo, J. R., House, R. J., &Lirtzman, S. I. (1970). Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15, 150 - 163.
Rosen, C.C., Levy, P.E., &Hall, R.J. (2006). Placing perceptions of politics in the context of the feedback environment, employee attitudes, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 211–220.
Sawyer, J.E. (1992). Goal and process clarity: specification of multiple constructs of role ambiguity and a structural equation model of their antecedents and consequences, Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 130-142.
Teas, R.K. (1983). Supervisory behavior, role stress, and the job satisfaction of industrial salespeople; Journal of marketing research, 20, 84-91.
Tubre, T., &Collins, J. M. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relationship between role stress and job performance. Journal of Management, 26, 155-169.
Vredenburgh, D.J., &Trinkaus, R.J. (1983). An analysis of role stress among hospital nurses, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 23, 82-95.
Williams, J. R., Miller, C., Steelman, L. A. &Levy, P. E. (1999). Increasing feedback seeking in public contexts: It takes two (or more) to tango. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 969-976.
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
Related ContentAll Tags
Content relating to: "Management"
Management involves being responsible for directing others and making decisions on behalf of a company or organisation. Managers will have a number of resources at their disposal, of which they can use where they feel necessary to help people or a company to achieve their goals.
Silver Fern Farms Strategic Management Analysis
“Silver Fern Farms” Text of Contents Executive Summary .......................…………………………………………………...................3 History of the Company & Status...
Transnational Mergers in the Airline Industry and the Hofstede Dimensions
Cultural issues accompanying transnational mergers in the airline industry with the example of Air France – KLM Table of Contents Introduction Chapter 1. Transnational mergers in the airline indust...
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: