REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
First Chapter manages the reasonable casing work of the present examination issue. It had the announcement of the issue, terms characterised, destinations of the study, and inquiries of the study, importance of the study and the extent of the study. Chapter 2 manages the hypothetical establishment of present exploration work at the same time, for a particular examination to involve the spot in the improvement of a control, the research scholar should be completely acquainted with both past hypothesis and research exploration. To guarantee this recognition an audit of the examination writing is finished. It permits the research scholar to know the measure of work done in the concerned zone. The clarity of the examination issue is conceivable with the through comprehension of the learning era in the territory of exploration. It maintains a strategic distance from the replication. It proposes the strategy, system, wellsprings of information and measurable procedure/techniques fitting to the arrangement of the issue. The audit of the related writing gives some understanding with respect to the issues on which the agent is working. The research scholar ought to ponder the related writing for the near study which gives a credible foundation, recognition, rule and instructive data.
(The review of the past inquiries about is critical in light of the fact that it gives a knowledge into the issues on which the research scholar is working. The research scholar ought to think about the related writing for the near study which gives a bona fide foundation, commonality, rule and instructive data.)
- Significance of the Review of Related Literature
According to Borg and Gall(1979, p98), “The review of the literature in educational research provides you with the means of getting to the frontier in your particular field of knowledge. If we fails to build the foundation of knowledge provided by the review of the literature, the work is likely to be shallow and naive.” (Riedel, 2000)
The review of the related writing gives fundamental references to the research scholar. It gives the information about target and bearing of exploration. It helps in figuring out what techniques can be utilised; how to discover applicable data legitimately. The past explores direct the route for the study goals, scope, apparatuses, tests, constraints and thus the entire configuration of the study. It gives research scholar a foundation to thinking about an issue region. The reasonable points of view and aides in arranging, selecting instrument for information accumulation and receiving strategies, procedures for the investigation and understanding of information.
According to Charter V. Good,
The keys to the vast storehouse of published literature may open doors to sources of significant problems and explanatory hypotheses and provide helpful orientation for definition of the problem, background for selection of procedure, and comparative data for interpretation of results. In order to be creative and original, one must read extensively and critically as a stimulus to thinking. (Sharma, 2008)
According to John W. Best,
Practically all human knowledge can be found in books and libraries. Unlike other animals that must start anew with each generation, man builds upon the accumulated and recorded knowledge of the past. His constant adding to the vast store of knowledge makes possible progress in all areas of human Endeavour. (Mishra & Dhir, 2005)
According to (Desai & Desai, 1989), “The review of related literature should be distinct for the development of problem and for the insight of the research.”
- The Purpose of Review of Related Literature
The researcher has reviewed the related literature for the following purposes.
- To give a connection to the exploration and legitimise the examination.
- To be guaranteed the exploration hasn’t been done before (or on the off chance that it is rehashed, that it is set apart as a ‘replication study’).
- To study/show where the exploration fits into the current collection of information.
- To acquaint oneself with the related works, its targets and procedure.
- To delineate how the subject has been contemplated, highlight blemishes and layout crevices in past examination.
- Whatever the work is giving a few inputs to the present study.
- To determine some essential ramifications for the present study.
- The Details of Reviewing
- Carl Rogers contribution to humanistic and clinical psychology
- The Details of Reviewing
- Why is everyone so unhappy?
Fig 3.1 How ‘wellbeing’ behaves in real life usage (Ereaut and Whiting 2008) (Jackson, 2015)
Carl Rogers was very close to some other eminent scholars (especially Abraham Maslow and George Kelly) was in charge of planning the fundamental thoughts of Humanistic psychology. Carl Rogers, another influential humanistic psychologist working in the therapeutic field, believed that people are basically good, that they are driven to fulfil their potential to actualize themselves and that they have the capacity to choose their own behaviour (Sammons 2009). He imparted to different humanists the general suppositions of humanistic psychology: that individuals are essentially great, that they are headed to satisfy their potential and that individuals have the ability to pick their own particular conduct. He additionally accepted that each of us sees the world in our own particular novel way and that, keeping in mind the end goal to comprehend what somebody does, you need to attempt and see the world as they see it.
The research scholar find one specific question that Rogers welcomes us to ask is for what good reason, when we live in a general public that is in such a large number of regards vastly rich, so a considerable lot of us are so troubled. The answer, in Rogers’ perspective, is in any event mostly that the things to which we append worth are not the things that are fundamentally useful for our mental prosperity.
Carl Rogers’ main ideas
|Everything that is alive is headed to satisfy its potential. This inclination can be found in every single living framework, from the blossom that strengths its way between the clearing stones to the timberland biological system that tries to spread similarly as it can. In people, it is showed as the propensity to attempt to be everything we can be.|
|Organismic valuing||The thought that each life form has an inborn thought of what’s great or awful for it. Indeed, even the least difficult creature or plant has a tendency to maintain a strategic distance from things that harm it. An infant will release nourishment that tastes terrible. Individuals will, for the most part, move far from circumstances or things that debilitate them or are bringing about them hurt.|
|Unconditional positiveregard||We should be cherished, esteemed and regarded by others. It’s a precondition to our advancement. A youngster that is nourished and cleaned however not cherished and supported might survive, but rather it won’t create and flourish. We require the unlimited positive respect of others so as to have positive self-respect.|
|Positiveself- regard||A feeling of self-esteem or self-regard. In the event that we do not have this, then the best approach to accomplishing our potential gets to be blocked. Take a gander at how much troublesome conduct and scholastic disappointment at school comes to fruition since a few youngsters don’t trust they are ‘sufficient’.|
|Conditionsof worth||The positive respect of others ought not have strings joined, but rather regularly it does. After some time, this might bring about contingent self-respect, where we trust we are just worth something on the off chance that we meet the conditions that others have forced on us. For instance, ‘I fizzled my exams, so I’m futile’, or ‘I should be rich to be cheerful’.|
|Incongruity||The crevice between what you are and could turn into (the ‘genuine self’), and what you think you ought to be (the ‘perfect self’). The greater the crevice turns into, the more troubled we feel. States of worth are a piece of the perfect self, so on the off chance that we are just ever esteemed for accomplishing the objectives others set for us, we are set up for an existence of misery.|
|Defences||The things we do to adapt to the sentiments of uneasiness connected with disjointedness. One type of guard is refusal. For instance, the student who never turns up for an exam never needs to face less than stellar scores. Another resistance is twisting. For instance, an student who accuses poor educating or an out of line test for their less than stellar scores.|
Table 3.1 Carl Rogers’ ideas
What determines whether someone is happy?
The issue is that our general public can meddle with our actualising propensity. The things that society (through our guardians, instructors, companions, bosses) lets us know are critical are not as a matter, of course, the things that are entirely for our improvement as individuals. As an outcome, we work persistently to satisfy states of worth that might be implausible or unhelpful as individual objectives. Since we see that the respect of others is contingent, we just esteem ourselves in connection to the conditions forced on us.
Where there is incongruity between the real and ideal selves, the person is motivated to ‘close the gap’.
This may involve distorting reality, avoidance or striving to meet conditions of worth (e.g. by passing exams or accumulating possessions or money).
The Research Scholar find that a crevice opens up between the perfect-self and the genuine-self, and the more extensive that hole turns into, the more troubled we are.
All we can do is help to create the conditions under which the person can start to make their own authentic choices, and support them through the changes they decide to make. Rogers compared it to learning to ride a bicycle. You can’t tell the person how to do it, they will only learn through trying. (Smith, 2012)
To attempt to manage this ambiguity, we begin to misshape our impression of the world or maybe to prevent angles from securing it totally. Presently we are distant with parts of reality, and on the off chance that we don’t see the world and our place inside of it precisely, in what capacity will we ever satisfy our potential – the main thing that will really give us a more mollified life.
So we constantly seek after the objectives that others have set for us, continually trusting that the following accomplishment, the following advancement, the following capability, the following pay rise, the following sexual accomplice, the following pair of shoes will be the thing that at long last makes up upbeat. Shockingly, it never is.
The fully functioning person
Rogers’ didn’t utilise ‘upbeat’ while depicting mentally firm individuals, regardless of the fact that that is the thing that he essentially implied. Rather, he utilised the term ‘fully functioning person’. This is somebody whose mental set-up is such that they are in a position to satisfy their human potential. Completely utilitarian individuals are:
- Open to Experience – they don’t twist the world to secure themselves.
- Living in the ‘here-and-now’ – they don’t dwell on the past or worry about the future. Doing what’s good for them – they trust organismic valuing to guide their decisions and choices
- Experientially free – they feel as if they are in control of their lives, rather than being constrained
- Creative – They contribute to the actualization of others through art, science, parenting or their job.
- Inventive – they add to the realisation of others through workmanship, science, child rearing or their occupation.
Can we make individuals cheerful (or completely working)?
No, we can’t say this for certain. On the off chance that we go around attempting to change individuals or letting them know how they should think we wind up forcing yet another arrangement of states of worth and that is adding to the issue, not giving an answer. That is not the same as saying that individuals can’t change. Maybe, the fact is this is the main change that checks and originates from inside of the individual themselves.
The researcher would like to add is that what we can do is make the conditions under which the individual can begin to settle on their own valid decisions, and bolster them through the progressions they choose to make. Rogers contrasted it with figuring out how to ride a bike. You can’t advise the individual how to do it, they will just learn through attempting. You can help by supporting them as they learn yet in the event that you never let go of them, they will never do it freely. Rogers built up his own particular arrangement of remedial systems to individuals move towards satisfying their potential. These methods are differently called non-order treatment, client focused treatment, or all the more regularly, Rogerian Counselling.
Rogers’ trusted that the achievement of treatment or directing has less to with the systems utilised by the advisor as with the relationship that the researcher creates with the client. On the off chance that you add to the right kind of relationship, then that gives the client space to inspect their own particular issues, wellsprings of despondency and methods for seeing the world. They can then choose what they need to change and find a way to change it. By, the advisor must have three critical qualities in their association with the client:
|Congruence||Honesty and genuineness. The therapist must relate to the client as one human being to another, not as a professional like a doctor would.|
|Empathy||The client must be able to feel what the client feels because this is the only thing that will allow the client to feel as if they are genuinely understood.|
|Respect||The therapist must show acceptance and unconditional positive regard for the client, as the lack of this is usually at the root of the client’s unhappiness|
Table 3.2 Explanation of the terms
The main technique used in counselling is reflecting back to the client the things they say. This means more than just repeating what they say. It involves demonstrating to the client that they are really understood whilst at the same time helping them explore their perceptions and feelings to arrive at their own understandings.
- A brief summary of Carl Rogers’ major Works
Review of On Becoming a Person (Rogers, 1961)
In On Becoming a Person via Carl R. Rogers, the creator talks about his one of a kind way to deal with psychotherapy as a distinct option for the Freudian model of analysis. Rogers’ hypotheses move the researcher’s control of an advising session over to a ‘client-focused’ (non-mandate) psychological model. This moving of control far from the advisor permits the ‘client’ to utilise ‘information of self’ to mend his own particular issues. The client needs to develop, develop, and go up against his issues and resolve them. At the point when given the open door, the client will take part in self-investigation and work his issues through. Utilising client focused treatment, the client starts to comprehend his emotions, accumulates experiences, and takes fitting activities to enhance numerous parts of his life. This kind of treatment is not attempting to take care of only one issue, but rather is a completely coordinated methodology meaning to offer the client some assistance with accepting and comprehend himself.
Rogers comprehends that self-awareness is a constant procedure of getting to be. This sort of self-improvement ought to be a ‘characteristic’ procedure of self-realization. Tragically, the individual encounters numerous set moves in this formative process and gets to be lost and befuddled. In any case, every individual has a ‘driving inward compel’ that needs to offer him some assistance with learning and develop. This powerful urge permits the individual to end up his own particular educator, and he can lead himself back to his normal procedure of getting to be. Adding to one’s self, and helping other people understand their potential is a primary subject all through this book.
Rogers says a man feels great when during the time spent building up the self. Subsequent to the client is his own particular educator, Rogers supplies the model for instructing and listening to the self. Ahead of schedule in the researcher client relationship, a sentiment coinciding ought to be set up. Rogers characterises consistency as: “an accurate matching of experience and awareness” (Rogers, On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy, 1989, p. 282). The researcher must feel tolerating, legitimate, and open with the client, so his responses mirror an exact consciousness of his emotions and experience. He can’t give off an impression of being feeling one way, yet really be feeling another way.
Rogers is not ready to offer counsel to the client or coordinating, inducing, translating or diagnosing him on a superficial basis. His idea of self-coordinated development gives the client opportunity and decisions. The client can possibly comprehend himself by watching and evaluating his own particular conduct and convictions. Rogers’ methods change the way advisors see the client. Rather than seeing the client as a task that the advisor needs to settle, Rogers sees the client as a man who is imparting a one of a kind ordeal to researcher. The researcher ought to see positive potential in the client. He needs to offer the client some assistance with becoming mindful of his demeanours, mental self-view and self-coordinated practices.
Every individual is in a procedure of getting to be and is continually developing. Numerous individuals think they require a ‘false face’ to play by societal guidelines. In specific circumstances, the individual is feeling he should utilise a ‘face cover’ for putting on a show to be somebody else. Rogers acknowledges the client as he may be, and needs him to evacuate the false cover and uncover his actual face. The procedure of uprooting the cover helps the client find his actual self. This prompts the acknowledgement that the external persona is not spilling out of the individual. The answer for this issue is for the client to achieve the piece of himself that has been denied or concealed. He permits himself to ‘feel and be’ who he genuinely is, without requiring the mental brace of a face veil. Removing the veil is unnerving for the client since he is uncovering a concealed a portion of himself. By, when the individual encounters his sentiments at ‘an organic level’ he comprehends the truth inside of himself (Rogers, On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy, 1989, p. 111). Rogers quotes Kierkegaard, who offers valuable psychological insights into the causes of despair. Kierkegaard posits that the most common form of despair stems from not choosing to be oneself (p. 110). As a solution, Kierkegaard says that when a person chooses to be his true self, he will feel the opposite of despair (p. 110).
The client ought to permit himself to ‘experience what he is feeling’. He ought not to attempt to persuade himself that he is feeling a specific way when he is feeling in an unexpected way. There are parts of his identity he needs to reveal, so he can encounter his actual sentiments ‘freely and fully’ (Rogers, 1989, p. 111). To experience his actual emotions, Rogers says, the client must break out of his shell. The client needs to encounter ‘pure culture’ (p. 112). This wonder happens when the individual – ‘is’ – the inclination itself, and is encountering his emotions to a great. At this stage, the client is beginning to end up who he really is. He is encountering himself.
The research scholar in the book by Carl Rogers finds that during the process of becoming a person, the client is more ‘open to his experience’ (Rogers, 1989, p. 115). His experience is his over a significant time span, and the time he goes through with everyone around him. ‘Openness’ identifies with imagining different choices for future conduct, and killing examples of feeling restricted, yet acting another (incongruence). Rogers says that openness “is the opposite of defensiveness” (p. 115). By opening himself up, the client turns out to be more sensible when communicating with individuals, experiencing new circumstances, and overcoming challenges. Rogers focuses on the significance of opening-up to the consciousness existing apart from everything else “in oneself and in the situation” (p. 116).
The client will ‘discover his ‘self’ through experience’. The individual is getting to be himself as his encounters lead him to a comprehension of who he genuinely is. The genuine self is uncovering itself through individual implications that are gotten from backgrounds. These encounters will impart their importance, and the client ought not to hurry to judgment by marking them. By not making suppositions, the client is getting to be himself. He is preventing himself from complying with the wishes of others and is not denying his actual emotions. He is not claiming to be somebody else and is perceiving that he lives in a perpetually streaming, fluctuating procedure of background.
Another procedure to use for ‘living the good life’ is by ‘living existentially’. This includes living in the occasion (without being cautious) and permitting one’s self to feel the progression of presence. The client turns into ‘a participant and observer’ as opposed to the ‘controller’ of a continuous procedure of getting to be (Rogers, 1989, p. 188). Thus of living is unstructured and does exclude assumptions about the way things should be. No judgments or assessments are important on the grounds that the individual is experiencing every experience as it comes his direction. Existential living permits the client to live ‘outside the box’ of societal standards and gives the client flexibility to adjust and respond to every circumstance.
‘Trusting in one’s organism’ identifies with believing a wide assortment of sentiments and propensities that exist at the ‘organic level’. The individual turns into his life from “without self-deception and without distortion” (Rogers, 1989, p. 102). Rather than attempting to comprehend what others expect of him – or second-speculating himself in light of the assessments of others – he begins acting on the basis of his own satisfaction. He comes to be fully aware of who he is while having the experience (p. 104). This mindfulness helps him to end up an entire, working living being. By turning out to be entire, the individual can comprehend his actual sentiments at the natural level. This prompts self-acknowledgment and believing one’s own instinctual knowledge. Therefore, the individual’s cognizance is living serenely with itself and does not have to always screen frightful considerations and sentiments.
‘The process of functioning more fully’ permits the client to experience his emotions and to overcome dread connected with his sentiments. The client adds to a framework whereby, he is picking who he needs to turn into. He is receptive and settles on choices in light of regardless of whether the circumstance offers him some assistance with becoming the individual he needs to be. He is occupied with social occasion however much data as could reasonably be expected to act in ways that will deliver positive results. He is turning into a completely incorporated individual. At the point when a man is straightforward with himself, he acknowledges his sentiments as a basic part of the individual he is getting to be. By confiding in himself, the client can perceive his sentiments about occasions that are occurring around him and knows about future conceivable outcomes. He starts to comprehend why he is – where he is in life, and how to discover importance in every experience.
The client begins to feel that what he possesses has ‘an internal locus of evaluation’ (Rogers, 1989, p. 118). He comprehends that he is the chief and does not require the endorsement of others. He is open to looking inside to assess a circumstance and is no more depending on the outer world for deciding. Particularly for the innovative individual, the way in which he is living and communicating is critical. Flexibility of self-expression permits him to experience the way he needs to and bears him the chance to express his one of a kind singularity at all times. The face cover is no more essential since he is not attempting to please anybody other than himself. His inner assessment process gives him the capacity to disentangle what is valid for him. He moves far from individuals, spots and things that are not in arrangement with his actual self. The client comprehends that he is in charge of controlling his life in the right heading. Be that as it may, when the client acknowledges he is the “chooser” and “the one who determines the value of the experience”, it can be either an energising or frightening realisation (p. 122).
Another characteristic that the research scholar finds regarding that a person becoming himself is to have a ‘willingness to be a process’. Rogers points out that the client should view himself as a process rather than a product (Rogers, 1989, p. 122). At the point when the client enters treatment, he might have assumptions about how he needs to ‘turn-out’ after he is ‘altered’. He might have particular objectives, in which he is expecting a specific result. Rogers says desires can prompt disillusionments. Along these lines, Rogers suggests that particular objectives ought to be set aside since there is no altered mental state that can be accomplished in the middle of advisor and client (p. 122). At the point when the client acknowledges there is no impeccable condition of perpetual equalisation, he might get to be confounded, disillusioned and annoy. He goes to the acknowledgement that his life will persistently be in a condition of flux, and he will constantly be tackling issues. In any case, in view of psychotherapy, he is currently better furnished with the mental devices that are important to offer him some assistance with maximising his satisfaction and minimise despair.
The client keeps on peeling off layers of the false-self and moves toward understanding the genuine self. He figures out how to believe the life form and needs to advance. Be that as it may, once in a while he won’t be pushing ahead or going in a positive course. As a feature of the learning process, he will discover his way back to where he needs to be. In the end, he will discover significance in each minute, regardless of which course he picks. At the point when settling on the wrong choice, he looks for new potential outcomes or worthy arrangements.
Rogers needed the client to wind up himself. Amid treatment, Rogers was not guiding the client to think in a particular bearing. He gave the client aggregate opportunity to pick the conversational heading he felt most good with. Rogers’ expectations, be that as it may, were to urge the client to finish a giving up procedure of disposing of old covers, false convictions, false pictures, unsafe connections, and self-ruinous behavioural examples. Rogers needs to fabricate a trusting association with the client, and offer him some assistance with becoming self-propelled. He needed the client to look after his interests, and express his inventiveness (and singularity), without contemplating it mentally. Rogers’ remedial strategies were intended to bolster the client’s endeavours to mend the identity while increasing genuine information of the self.
The thoughts Rogers raised are useful for implementing in treatment as well as for training. While perceiving the imperfections of the training framework, Rogers connected the ideas he saw as compelling jolts for learning in the classroom. A class without instructors, addresses, or examinations was his optimal, yet this perfect wasn’t promptly affirmed by any college. Rather, Rogers endeavoured to make a situation where students and staff are looking for an answer for an issue or issues, pushing aggregately far from imperfect thoughts and utilising assets cooperatively to progress to a less wrong thought. Rogers recommends we see examinations not as markers of the material we’ve adapted, but rather as important tickets for passage into focuses in life, for example, graduate school. On the off chance that we as learners could come to esteem to procedure of adapting more than the examinations and last grade, what would we be able to accomplish together? Rogers expresses that there is no perfect that is a stasis, yet a continually streaming process that we can permit ourselves to end up occupied with, and that in turning out to be a piece of this procedure, we can accomplish what he considers to be the great life. ((1), 184-196). Adapting as well, is a procedure of consistent change, of development in our own insight and in the, for the most part, acknowledged thoughts of society. By tolerating learning as a liquid idea, we can encourage our satisfaction in life and our scholarly interests.
Some Important Chapters of the Book
Part II – How Can I Be of Help?
- Chapter 2: Some Hypotheses Regarding the Facilitation of Personal Growth
- Chapter 3: The Characteristics of a Helping Relationship
Part III – The Process of Becoming a Person
- Chapter 6: What it Means to Become a Person
Part IV – A Philosophy of Persons
- Chapter 9: A Therapist’s View of The Good Life: The Fully Functioning Person
Part VI – What Are the Implications for Living?
- Chapter 13: Personal Thoughts on Teaching and Learning
- Chapter 14: Significant Learning: In Therapy and in Education
- Chapter 15: Student-Centered Teaching as Experienced by a Participant
- Chapter 16: The Implications of Client-Centered Therapy for Family Life
- Chapter 17: Dealing with Breakdowns in Communication – Interpersonal and Intergroup
- Chapter 18: A Tentative Formation of a General Law of Interpersonal Relationships
- Chapter 19: Toward a Theory of Creativity
Other important ideas in this book:
- Autonomic functioning;
- Importance of creativity;
- Experience of Psychotherapy;
- Feeling meaning;
- Free will;
- Goals of science;
- The Good life concept;
- Importance of Listening;
- Outcome of therapy;
- Predictions of behaviour;
- Elements of relationships;
- Interpersonal relationships and;
- Emphatic Understanding.
Review of Freedom To Learn (Rogers, 1969)
Carl Rogers is recognised as one of the founders of human psychology, having developed the Client Centred Approach to counselling and psychotherapy which has been widely used (Rogers, Freedom to Learn, 1969, p. iii). In correlation with the previous speculations of human inspiration and office, his hypothesis of human realising, which will be abridged in this segment, is more extensive in degree, and locations not only the methods by which a man is stirred, however the learner in general individual.
Rogers displayed his hypothesis of learning in Freedom to Learn (1969), which he composed while an inhabitant individual at the Centre for Studies of the Person in La Jolla, CA. His objective was not to expound on learning as far as the “inert, clean, purposeless, immediately overlooked stuff which is packed into the psyche of the unfortunate individual tied into his seat by the ironclad obligations of congruity” (p. 3), but instead the kind of learning described by “the insatiable curiosity which drives the adolescent boy to absorb everything he can see or hear or read about gasoline engines in order to improve the efficiency and speed of his ‘hot-rod’” (p. 3). The student of this sort of learning, he said, is “the student who says, ‘I am discovering, drawing in from the outside, and making that which is drawn in a real part of me’” (p. 3).
To advance portray the two sorts of adapting as of now said, Rogers, depicted them as characterising inverse closures of a continuum of significance, feeling, and pertinent. One end of the continuum he spoke to by the accompanying impactful perception:
Toward one side of the scale is the sort of assignment clinicians now and then set for the subjects—the learning of babble syllables? To retain such things as baz, ent, nep, arl, lud and so forth, is a troublesome undertaking. Since there is no importance included, these syllables are difficult to learn and are prone to be overlooked rapidly.
The research scholar trusts that we would neglect to perceive that a great part of the material displayed to students in the classroom has, for the student, the same puzzling, trivial quality that the rundown of drivel syllables has for us. This is particularly valid for the underprivileged student whose foundation gives no setting to the material with which he is stood up to. Be that as it may, almost every student finds that substantial segments of his educational modules are for him, unimportant. Consequently, instruction turns into the pointless endeavour to learn material which has no individual importance.
Such learning involves the mind only. It is learning which takes place from the neck up. It does not involve feelings or personal meanings; it has no relevance for the whole person. (Rogers, 1969, pp. 3-4)
Interestingly, he depicted the flip side of the continuum regarding noteworthy, important encounters, which are not effortlessly overlooked:
At the point when the little child touches the warm radiator, he learns for himself the importance of, ‘hot’; he has taken in a future alert with respect to every comparable radiator; and he has taken in these learnings as insight, included manner which won’t be soon overlooked. In like manner the student who has remembered “two plus two equals four” might one day in his play with pieces or marbles all of a sudden acknowledge, “Two and two do make four!” He has found something huge for himself, in a way which includes both his considerations and emotions. Or the child who has laboriously acquired “reading skills” is caught up one day in a printed story, whether a comic book or an adventure tale and realises that words can have a magic power which lifts him out of himself into another world. He has now “really” learned to read. (Rogers, 1969, p. 4)
Rogers (1969) recorded five characterising components of noteworthy or experiential learning:
It has a nature of individual inclusion – Significant learning has a nature of individual contribution in which “the whole person in both his feeling and cognitive aspects [is] in the learning event” (p. 5).
It is self-started – “Even when the impetus or stimulus comes from the outside, the sense of discovery, of reaching out, of grasping and comprehending, comes from within” (p. 5).
It is pervasive – Significant learning “makes a difference in the behaviour, the attitudes, perhaps even the personality of the learner” (p. 5).
It is assessed by the learner – The learner knows “whether it is meeting his need, whether it leads toward what he wants to know, whether it illuminates the dark area of ignorance he is experiencing” (p. 5).
Its essence is meaning – “When such learning takes place, the element of meaning to the learner is built into the whole experience” (p. 5).
As a case of noteworthy taking in—the kind that represents his hypothesis of opportunity to learn—Rogers referred to the casual notes kept by Barbara J. Shiel, an instructor, who out of sadness and dissatisfaction chose to attempt an intense trial in advancing experiential learning in her 6th-grade class. In the analysis, Mrs Shiel presented the idea of work contracts. These were likewise sheets that contained a rundown of the greater part of the subjects the class was to think about, alongside a rundown of recommendations for study under each, and a space for students to compose their arrangements in every territory.
When the agreement was made, the student started to study or work on his arrangement. He could function the length of the required or needed to deal with an undertaking or venture. Since I was not allowed to toss the state-contrived educational programs time plan, I clarified the week by week time-subject squares to the kids—this was to be a thought in their arranging. We likewise examined successive adapting, particularly in math, mastering an aptitude before continuing to the following level of learning. They discovered the text provided an introduction to a skill, demonstrated the skill, and provided exercises to master it and tests to check achievement. When they felt they were ready to go on, they were free to do so. They set their own pace, began at their own level, and went as far as they were able or self-motivated to go. (Rogers, 1969, pp. 17-18).
Since assessment was self-started and regarded by the instructor, there was no requirement for swindling to make progress. We discovered that ‘failure’ is only a word, that there is a difference between ‘failure’ and making a mistake, and that mistakes are a part of the learning process. (Rogers, 1969, p. 18)
One cannot measure the difference in attitude, the increased interest, the growing pride in self-improvement, but one is aware that they exist (Rogers, 1969, p. 19).
The experience of Mrs Shiel’s experiment is illustrative of ten principles of learning that Rogers (1969, pp. 157-164) abstracted from his own experience:
1. Human beings have a natural potentiality for learning.
They are curious about their world, until and unless this curiosity is blunted by their experience in our educational system (p. 157).
2. Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the student as having relevance for his own purposes.
A somewhat more formal way of stating this is that a person learns significantly only those things which he perceives as being involved in the maintenance of or the enhancement of his own self (p. 158).
3. Learning which involves a change in self-organization—in the perception of oneself-is threatening and tends to be resisted.
Why has there been so much furore, sometimes even lawsuits, concerning the adolescent boy who comes to school with long hair? Surely the length of his hair makes little objective difference. The reason seems to be that if I, as a teacher or administrator, accept the value which he places on non-conformity then it threatens the value which I have placed on conforming to social demands. If I permit this contradiction to exist I may find myself changing, because I will be forced to a reappraisal of some of my values. (p. 159)
- Those learning’s which are threatening to the ‘self’ are more easily perceived and assimilated when external threats are at a minimum.
The boy who is retarded in his reading already feels threatened and inadequate because of this deficiency. When he is forced to attempt to read aloud in front of the group, when he is ridiculed for his efforts, when his grades are a vivid reflection of his failure, it is no surprise that he may go through several years of school with no perceptible increase in his reading ability. On the other hand, a supportive, understanding environment and a lack of grades, or an encouragement of self-evaluation, remove the external threats and permit him to make progress because he is no longer paralysed by fear. (pp. 159-160)
- When threat to the self is low, experience can be perceived in differentiated fashion and learning can proceed.
When [the learner] is in an environment in which he is assured of personal security and when he becomes convinced that there is no threat to his ego, he is once more free to…move forward in the process of learning. (p. 161)
- Much significant learning is acquired through doing.
Placing the student in direct experiential confrontation with practical problems, social problems, ethical and philosophical problems, personal issues, and research problems, is one of the most effective modes of promoting learning (p. 162).
- Learning is facilitated when the student participates responsibly in the learning process.
When he chooses his own directions, helps to discover his own learning resources, formulates his own problems, decides his own course of action, lives with the consequences of these choices, then significant learning is maximised (p. 162).
- Self-initiated learning which involves the whole person of the learner—feelings as wells as intellect—is the most lasting and pervasive.
We have discovered this in psychotherapy, where it is the totally involved learning of oneself by oneself which is most effective. This is not the learning which takes place “only from the neck up”. It is a ‘gut level’ type of learning which is profound and pervasive. It can also occur in the tentative discovery of a new self-generated idea or in the learning of a difficult skill, or in the act of artistic creation—a painting, a poem, a sculpture. It is the whole person who ‘lets himself go’ in these creative learnings. An important element in these situations is that the learner knows it is his own learning and thus can hold to it or relinquish it in the face of a more profound learning without having to turn to some authority for corroboration of his judgment. (pp. 162-163)
- Independence, creativity, and self-reliance are all facilitated when self-criticism and self-evaluation are basic and evaluation by others is of secondary importance.
If a child is to grow up to be independent and self-reliant he must be given opportunities at an early age not only to make his own judgments and his own mistakes but to evaluate the consequences of these judgments and choices. (p. 163).
- The most socially useful learning in the modern world is the learning of the process of learning, a continuing openness to experience and incorporation into oneself of the process of change.
If our present culture survives it will be because we have been able to develop individuals for whom change is the central fact of life and who have been able to live comfortably with this central fact. It means that they will not be concerned, as so many are today, that their past learning is inadequate to enable them to cope with current situations. They will instead have the comfortable expectation that it will be continuously necessary to incorporate new and challenging learning’s about ever-changing situations. (pp. 163-164).
Rogers’ theory of learning also included ten principles that define the role of the teacher as a facilitator of learning. Rogers (1969) summarised this role by stating that “the primary task of the teacher is to permit [italics added] the student to learn, to feed his or her own curiosity” (p. 18). Rogers’ ten principles of facilitation are complementary to his ten principles of learning. Together they form a human learning theory that emphasises learner agency, cognition, and affect. These ten principles are as follows (summarised from (Rogers, Freedom to Learn, 1969, pp. 164-166):
- The facilitator has much to do with setting the initial mood or climate of the group or class experience. “If his own basic philosophy is one of trust in the group and in the individuals who compose the group, then this point of view will be communicated in many subtle ways” (p. 164).
- The facilitator helps to elicit and clarify the purposes of the individuals in the class as well as the more general purposes of the group.
- He relies upon the desire of each student to implement those purposes which have meaning for him, as the motivational force behind significant learning.
- He endeavours to organise and make easily available the widest possible range of resources for learning.
- He regards himself as a flexible resource to be utilised by the group.
- In responding to expressions in the classroom group, he accepts both the intellectual content and the emotionalized attitudes, endeavouring to give each aspect the approximate degree of emphasis which it has for the individual or group.
- As the acceptant classroom climate becomes established, the facilitator is able increasingly to become a participant learner, a member of the group, expressing his views as those of one individual only.
- He takes the initiative in sharing himself with the group—his feelings as well as his thoughts—in ways which do not demand nor impose but represent simply a personal sharing which students may take or leave.
- Throughout the classroom experience, he remains alert to the expressions indicative of deep or strong feelings. “He endeavours to understand these from the person’s point of view and to communicate his empathic understanding…he helps to bring them into the open for constructive understanding and use by the group” (pp. 165-166).
- In his functioning as a facilitator of learning, the leader endeavours to recognise and accept his own limitations. “He realizes that he can only grant freedom to his students to the extent that he is comfortable in giving such freedom” (p. 166).
The research scholar finds that here Rogers makes reference to Teaching Machines: “This is also one of the great advantages of the teaching machine when properly used. Here the poor reader can begin at his own level of achievement and practically every minute step he makes is marked by reward and a feeling of success.” (p. 160)
- Some key thoughts of Carl Rogers on Teaching and Learning, Learning and Its Facilitation,
- Regarding Learning and Its Facilitation
Here are a number of the principles which can, I believe, be abstracted from current experience and research related to this newer approach:
Critical thoughts on Teaching and Learning
The researcher wishes to present some very brief remarks, in the hope that if they bring forth new light on the researcher’s own ideas.
- The research scholar’s experience is that he can’t instruct someone else how to educate. To endeavour it is for me, over the long haul, pointless.
- I can’t help suspecting that anything that can be taught to another is generally irrelevant and has practically no critical impact on conduct.
- I understand progressively that I am just inspired by learnings which fundamentally impact conduct.
- I have come to feel that the main realising which fundamentally impact conduct is self-found self-appropriated learning.
- Such self-found learning, truth that has been by and by appropriated and absorbed in experience, can’t be straightforwardly conveyed to another.
- As an outcome of the above, I understand that I have lost enthusiasm for being an instructor.
- When I attempt to educate, as I do in some cases, I am dismayed by the outcomes, which appears somewhat more than insignificant, on the grounds that occasionally the instructing seems to succeed. When this happens I find that the outcomes are harming. It appears to bring about the person to doubt his own particular experience and to smother huge learning. Thus, I have come to feel that the results of educating are either irrelevant or destructive.
- When I glance back at the aftereffects of the research scholar past instructing, the genuine results appear the same – either harm was done – or nothing critical happened. This is honestly disturbing.
- As a result, I understand that I am just keen on being a learner, ideally learning things that matter, that have some huge impact on the research scholar own conduct.
- I think that it’s extremely compensating to learn, in gatherings, involved with one individual as in treatment, or by the researcher himself.
- I find that one of the best, however most troublesome, routes for me to learn is to drop the reseach scholar own preventiveness, at any rate incidentally, and to attempt to comprehend the path in which his experience appears and feels to the next individual.
- I find that another method for learning for me is to express the research scholar own instabilities, to attempt to illuminate the specialist puzzlements, and in this way get nearer to the implying that the reseach scholar’s experience really appears to have.
- This entire train of encountering, and the implications that I have so far found in it, appear to have dispatched me on a procedure which is both interesting and on occasion a bit of alarming. It appears to mean giving the specialist’s encounters a chance to convey me on, in a course which has all the earmarks of being forward, toward objectives that I can however faintly characterise, as I attempt to comprehend at any rate the present significance of that experience. The sensation is that of skimming with an intricate stream of experience, with the entrancing plausibility of attempting to grasp its continually evolving multifaceted nature.
The researcher is almost afraid that he may seem to have gotten away from any discussion of learning, as well as teaching. Let me again introduce a practical note by saying that by themselves these interpretations of the researcher’s experience may sound queer and aberrant, but not particularly shocking. It is when the researcher realized the implications that the researcher shook a bit at the distance the researcher have come from the common sense world that everyone knows is right regarding teaching and learning. The researcher can best illustrate this by saying that if the experiences of teaching and learning others had been the same as mine, and if the researcher had discovered similar meanings in it, many consequences would have had implied. Meaning that the reasercher has found that many of the lerning patterns vary from person to person and teacher to teacher or instructor to instructor.
The researcher believes that the humanistic aspects in the teaching has a much deeper introspective need than just the superficial and narrow understanding of the human psyche. In the following book the researcher finds the Rogerian ideas of experience (Rogers, Kirschenbaum, & Henderson, 1989)
- Such experience would imply that we would do away with teaching. People would get together if they wished to learn.
- We would do away with examinations. They measure the inconsequential type of learning.
- We would do away with grades and credits for the same reason.
- We would do away with degrees as a measure of competence partly for the same reason. Another reason is that a degree marks an end or a conclusion of something, and a learner is only interested in the continuing process of learning.
- We would do away with the exposition of conclusions, for we would realise that no one learns significantly from conclusions.
The researcher would like to show primarily whether anything in the researcher’s inward thinking, as have tried to describe it, speaks to anything in experience of the classroom as one have lived it, and if so, what the meanings are that exist for one in your experience. The researcher also focuses on the fact that self-learning and instruction based learning has its advantages and disadvantages.
Person Centred Approach as shown in (Rogers, A Way of Being, 1980)
Person Centred psychotherapy (otherwise called Client-Centred or Rogerian treatment) is a type of talk treatment created via Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s. The reason for this type of treatment is to increment a man’s sentiments of self-esteem, diminish the level of incongruence between the perfect and genuine self, and help a man turn out to be all the more completely working. Rogers’ solid faith in the positive way of human creatures depends on his numerous years of clinical directing. He recommends that all customers, regardless of what the issue, can enhance without being taught anything particular by an advisor, once they acknowledge and regard themselves.
The Founder of The Humanistic Psychology Movement and the father of client-centred treatment, Carl Rogers constructed his all-encompassing purpose with respect to his key faith in the human potential for development. A Way of Being (1980), more individual and philosophical than his prior works, was composed in the mid-1980s, close to the end of his recognised profession. Reissued for the anniversary of Roger’s introduction to the world, this one of a kind accumulation follows his expert and self-improvement from the 1960s to the 1980s and finishes with a man focused prescience in which Rogers requires a more compassionate future.
- Reviews of books on Carl Rogers / Humanism
Title: Person-Centred Therapy: 100 Key Points
Author: Paul Wilkins
Paperback: 336 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition
Publisher: Routledge, Tailor and Francis Group
Person-centred therapy, in light of the thoughts of the prominent psychotherapist Carl Rogers, is broadly drilled in the UK and all through the world. It has applications in wellbeing and social care, the wilful area and is progressively significant to work with individuals who are extremely rationally and sincerely upset. This book offers an extensive diagram and shows the centre hypotheses, advances and practices of the methodology in a brief, available structure.
Person-centred therapy: 100 Key Points the book starts with a thought of the standards and reasoning supporting individual focused treatment before moving to a complete examination of the exemplary hypothesis whereupon practice is based.
Further ranges of discourse include:
The model of the individual, including the birthplaces of mental and enthusiastic trouble the procedure of valuable change an audit of updates and advances in individual focused hypothesis kid improvement, styles of handling and designs of self the nature of nearness and working at social profundity.
At last reactions of the methodology are tended to and refuted, driving perusers to the more extensive individual focused writing. In that capacity this book will be especially valuable to students and researchers of individual focused treatment, and also any individual who needs to know more around one of the real restorative modalities.
- Reviews of past researches related to Rogers Theory or Clinical counselling psychology
Title: B.F Skinner and Carl Rogers on Behaviour and Education
Investigator: EUGENE “E” SWAIM
University: University of Oregon
Degree: Doctor of Philosophy
Method: 1) Content Analysis
2) Ideas Exploratory
3).primary Sources Material
B.F.SKINNER AND CARL R. ROGERS ON BEHAVIOR AND EDUCATION
EUGENE “E” SWAIM has studied B.F.Skinner and Carl R. Rogers on Behaviour and Education. The objectives of the study were to study human behavioural control by focuses upon two conflicting approaches, those of B.F.Skinner and Carl Rogers and derived its Messages for Education.
The Researcher has used Content Analysis Method in which he deals with Ideas as Exploratory in design. Researcher used the writing of B.F.Skinner and Carl Rogers as a Primary Sources. Both the psychologist’s theories were sharply contrasted to each other. Conditioning-a Mechanistic approach B.F.Skinner Operant to study human behaviour, while Carl Rogers’s favours’ Humanistic approach to study Human behaviour. B.F.Skinner sees man as an organic machine; therefore Skinner advocates immediate and maximum use of technology in behaviour control. Skinner gave a famous example of a novel, Walden Two. He visualises a society in which people are controlled by a hierarchy of experts. The experts decide what is “good” and they prescribe appropriate conditions of living and learning, while Carl Rogers strongly denounces such action. Rogers says,
There is a lot about behaviourism that I accept, I was simply trying to go beyond it… The assumption is that the subjective human being has an importance and a value which is basic: that no matter how he may be labelled or evaluated him is a human person first of all and most deeply. He is not only a machine, not only a collection of stimulus-response bonds, not an object, not a pawn. (Swaim, 1974)
The concept of ‘self’ was also differing by Carl Rogers and B.F.Skinner. Skinner explain that the concept of self-knowledge and self-control imply two selves. The self-knower is a social product; the known ‘self’ comes from other sources. The controlling self is of social origin; the controlled self is of genetic origin.
These selves are not persons; they are observed pattern of behaviour exhibited by the same physical organism under different stimuli and contingencies of reinforcement. Much of Rogers’s theory centres in the self. The ‘self’ represents the core of the individual. “As the infant interacts with his environment he gradually builds up concept about himself, about the environment, and about himself in relation to the environment” (Rogers, Client Centred Therapy (New Ed), 2012). But the parents and others also impose conceptual patterns upon the infant. As long as the developing child can keep thinking of all experiences which enhance his self-image as positive and all experiences which threaten his self-image as negative, he is psychologically healthy. As soon as the conceptual patterns, which are imposed by others, become a part of the evaluation of the SELF, the individual can experience difficulty. All kind of evaluations, made by others, becomes a part of the infant’s perceptual field. And because of these social pressures, the individual begins to deny to his own awareness some of his actual experiences. What the individual is actually experiencing is being filtered through impose conceptual patterns. So Rogers advocates self-enhancement. Self-awareness is an element in the process toward the goal of greatest realisation of all potentials of the individual. In order to counteract or minimise the self-destroying results of socialisation, Rogers recommends a ‘safe environment’ for the individual whose self-image and self-awareness has suffered from over socialisation.
The researcher has concluded his research work by following educational implications.
SKINNER ON EDUCATION
Skinner believed that behaviour is a function of its consequences. The learner will repeat the desired behaviour if positive reinforcement (a pleasant consequence) follows the behaviour.
Positive reinforcement or ‘rewards’ can include verbal reinforcement such as ‘That’s great’ or “You’re certainly on the right track” through to more tangible rewards such as a certificate at the end of the course or promotion to a higher level in an organisation.
‘Negative reinforcement’ also strengthen a behaviour and refers to a situation when a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a consequence of the behaviour. Punishment, on the other hand, weakens a behaviour because a negative condition is introduced or experienced as a consequence of the behaviour and teaches the individual not to repeat the behaviour which was negatively reinforced. A set of conditions is created which are designed to eliminate behaviour (Burns, 1995). Laird considers this aspect of behaviourism has little or no relevance to education. However, Burns says that punishment is widely used in everyday life although it only works for a short time and often only when the punishing agency is present.
ROGERS ON EDUCATION
For Rogers, learning is a function of need; need is what the individual perceives as maintaining and enhancing to his self. Therefore, those element of ‘education’ that are not perceived as self-related are of little or no significance probably not ‘learned at all’ within Rogers’ definition of learning.
The following statements summarise some of the fundamental ideas of his educational theory:
- One person cannot teach another person how to teach.
- Anything that can be ‘taught’ to another is inconsequential.
- The only learning that significantly influences behaviour is that which is self-discovered and self-appropriated.
- Such self-discovered ‘truth’ cannot be directed communicated to another.
- With effort, one may, on occasion, succeed in ‘teaching’ another something, but if this happens it is damaging, not helpful. The person who has been ‘taught’ begins to distrust his own experience. If one’s own experience is not trusted, ‘significant’ learning is stifled.
The researcher finds that Carl Rogers sees education in terms of individual exploration and discovery, individual understanding, individually significant meaning and learning. He further writes: “By significant learning, I mean learning which is more than an accumulation of facts; it is learning which makes a difference in the individual’s behaviour, in the action he chooses in the future, in his attitudes and in his personality.” (Rogers, On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy, 1989, p. 280)
The kinds of changes Rogers believes results from this kind of learning are:
- The person comes to see himself differently.
- He accepts himself and his feelings more fully.
- He becomes more self-confident and self-directing.
- He becomes more the person he would like to be.
- He becomes more flexible, less rigid, in his perceptions.
- He adopts more realistic goals for himself.
- He behaves in a more matures fashion.
- He changes his maladjusted behaviours, even such a long established one as chronic alcoholism.
- He becomes more acceptant of others.
- He becomes more open to the evidence, both to what is going on outside of himself and to what is going on inside of himself.
- He changes in his basic personality characteristics, in constructive ways.
These are the results which Rogers trusts his hypothesis infers:
- Such experience would infer that we get rid of instructing. Individuals would get together on the off chance that they wished to learn.
- We would get rid of examinations. They measure just the immaterial kind of learning.
- The suggestion would be that we would get rid of evaluations and credits for the same reason.
- We would get rid of degree as a measure of fitness incompletely for the same reason. Another reason is that a degree, denote an end or a decision of something, and a learner is just intrigued by the proceeding with procedure of learning.
- It would infer getting rid of the article of conclusions, for we understand that nobody gains essentially from conclusion.
Title: The Impact of David Ausubel and Carl Rogers in Developing One Orientation to Humanistic Education; Implication for Staff Development
Investigator: Libby Zinman Schwartz
University: Temple University Graduate Board
Degree: Doctor of Education
Method: 1) Content Analysis
2) Library Work
The Impact of David Ausubel and Carl Rogers in Developing One Orientation to Humanistic Education; Implication for Staff Development
Libby Zinman Schwartz has done The Impact of David Ausubel and Carl Rogers In developing one Orientation to Humanistic Education; Implication for Staff Development.
The main objectives of the study were to describe the major proposition of Ausubel and Rogers as they related to humanistic education and to derive implication for Staff Development.
The researcher has selected this research problem by considering three major reason of his time.
First: The researcher has selected this research problem because during his time of research American Educational System was influenced by Humanistic education or effective education and Benjamin Bloom’s recent work, Human Characteristics and School Learning (Bloom, 1976)which provided policymakers with a research base for early education and head staff development. Carl Rogers is the pioneers of humanistic education therefore here investigator attempted to clarify the concept of humanistic education as well as Rogerian therapy and Carl Rogers concept of healthy human personality. The researcher has selected works of Ausubel for the development of psychological aspects of Curriculum theory.
The researcher has concluded his research work by following implications.
Orientation to Humanistic Education
- If the logic and psychological meaning are dependent on adequacy of cognitive structure, then growth in personal knowledge is central to humanistic education.
- If growth in personal knowledge is to be adequate and functional, then actual and potential meanings must meet the requirement of being not only propositional but amenable to risk taking.
- If cognitive structure is the link between the learners knows and what he need to know, then risk-taking is a requirement of humanistic education.
- If growth in personal knowledge is a condition of meaningful learning, then falsification and/or conformability of logical and psychological meanings are central to humanistic education.
- If exploration of personal parameters is central to humanistic education, then all exploration of potentially meaningful subject matter must meet the condition of reliability within situational contexts.
- If logical and psychological meanings are derived from exploration of personal and situational contexts, then growth in personal knowledge is demonstrated incongruent behaviour.
- If schooling is constrained by congruent behaviour, then schooling finds it’s basic in the reality of actual and potential meanings.
- If congruent behaviour in schooling is constrained by logical meanings, then the development of a personal evaluative ethic is central to humanistic education.
- If growth in personal knowledge is dependent on confirming or falsifying propositional contexts, then consistent staff development is central to humanistic education.
Implication for staff Development
- One implication for staff development is that personal knowledge cannot develop without adequate cognitive structure.
- A second implication for staff is to determine what substantive content should be selected which can contribute to personal knowledge. Before staff can select substantive content areas from which an inner core of personal meaning can be derived, the staff must first describe the logical and psychological ‘meanings’ that can contribute to personal growth.
- Third implication for staff development is that once identified, the subject matter that impacts on personal that impact on personal growth must be converted into situations conveying actual and potential meaning.
- Once the content is identified, it must be converted into actual and potentially meaningful situation.
- Staff must examine the diverse subject matters in an attempt to identify the particular subject matter most amenable to developing a sense of the world of self-identity and an understanding of others.
- One implication for staff development is to examine the means to confirm or deny propositional content. Teacher must then be able to interact with students so logical and psychological ‘meanings’ may be verified, if cognitive structure is to be adequate and facilitate growth in personal knowledge.
- Another implication for staff development is to select the interpersonal and information skills in which teachers may receive instruction, so they may become efficient in applying the skills to situational contexts which can be translated into the problematic.
- Seven interpersonal and educational abilities must be created. (Informing, Inquiry, Intensive tuning in, Self-divulgence, Accepting, Clarifying, Asserting)
- The learner must have the capacity to assess his self-awareness, inside of the limitations of the coherent implications which are given in school programs.
- Staff improvement is focused to an introduction to humanistic instruction which requires comparability of propositional substance and relatability in the middle of sensible and mental “implications” in circumstances which are agreeable to hazard taking.
- Finally, the learner who will realise that the genuine and potential ‘implications’ he has procured have added to his feeling of the world, his self-character and his comprehension of others.
Title: Actualization In Theory and Therapy: Rogers’ Way of Being Versus Jung’s Way
Investigator: Vincent f. Copp
University: The Chicago School of Professional Psychology
Degree: Doctor of Psychology
Method: 1) Content Analysis
2) LIBRARY WORK
Actualization In Theory And Therapy: Rogers’ Way of Being Versus Jung’s Way
Vincent F. Copp analysed the issue of mental development based upon the work of Carl Rogers’ and Carl Jung. This examination of mental development centres upon Rogers’ idea of the completing propensity inside of the individual and Jung’s idea of the individuation process which people follow in endeavouring to achieve a condition of self-acknowledgment: The agent starts with the suspicions fundamental each of the two ideas of mental development ,the researcher further continues to analyse how Rogers’ and Jung, consolidated their ideas of mental development into their speculations of identity, into their ways to deal with treatment and the significant types of confirmation both the men created in backing of their work. The researcher has dissected that Jung’s way to deal with mental development speaks to a way or way by using the conventional techniques therapy, for example, the translation of dreams and the transference relationship, while Roger’s way to deal with mental development is based upon the advisors singular method for being in the dispositions of validity, unrestricted positive respect and sympathetic comprehension. The present study acquired light that Jung’s hypothesis has given way or way toward brain science development, a route based upon a fanciful and profound viewpoint rather than logical. Rogers’ hypothesis then again depicts people’s close to home subjective methods for being amid the procedure of realising their inclinations methods for being which he displayed in a way that was comprised with his experimental point of view. The researcher has finished up his work by inspecting the suggestion that both the methodologies have for the mental development of customer and additionally for the mental development of the advisor especially then starting advisor.
Title: Rogers’ Concept Of The Fully Functioning Person: An Adequate Portrayal Of Human Freedom?
Investigator: Lina Di Blasio
University: THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA
Degree: MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION
Method: 1) Content Analysis (philosophical analysis)
2) LIBRARY WORK
Lina Di Blasio dissected Rogers’ idea of the completely using so as to work individual substance examination strategy. The significant target of the present exploration work is to contemplate Rogerian perspective of human flexibility as it is communicated in the idea of the completely working individual, sufficiently builds up the particular contrast between persons as a free subjects and the decided objects of common sciences. The researcher has inspected and examined Carl Rogers’ perspectives and discover that According to Carl Rogers’ test technique is insufficient for the human sciences. Rogers’ contends that when investigative technique and methodology connected to investigation of individual persons are dehumanised: that is, persons are diminished to protests bound by common laws of circumstances and end results and subsequently neglect to uncover urgent parts of people, for overcoming logical strategy. Roger planned another hypothesis – exploration of the individual – the idea of completely working individual. The agent has discovered the characteristics of completely working individual: Existential living. Openness to Experience, Creativity, a Sense of Freedom and Organismic Trust. The completely working individual is a person who is interested in her experience, lives existentially in the present and feels free top receive and change creatively. He is a man who has viable figured out how to learn. The researcher has closed by instructive ramifications that educator and advisor must study the people at enthusiastic, intellectual, and mental level, they should spurred the inventiveness of learners, they energised independent intuition among learners and liberating them inflexible worth framework.
Title: An Analysis of the Concept of Self in Selected Writings of Carl Rogers and Reinhold Niebuhr
Investigator: Steven Eugene Wilkerson
University: The Florida State University
Degree: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
Method: 1) Content Analysis (philosophical analysis)
2) LIBRARY WORK
Steven Eugene Wilkerson investigated the idea of self in chose compositions of Carl Rogers and Reinhold Niebuhr. Present exploration work concentrated on the idea of self as that idea was utilised inside of the hypothetical models of human instinct of Carl Rogers, clinician and Reinhold Niebuhr, scholar and ethicist. The examiner has broken down the models of human instinct of Carl Rogers and Reinhold Niebuhr for taking after reasons:
- Both utilised the idea of self to depict an elite capacity inside of the individual which arranges recognition and conduct.
- Both contended that a radical change in the capacity of the self is required for human conduct to approach their individual regulating thoughts of wellbeing.
- Both models were impact on a wide assortment of callings and teaches especially peaceful advising.
- Finally, their models were chosen in light of the proceeding with significance of the idea of self in contemporary contemplated human instinct.
The research scholar finds a critical contrasts in their conceptualizations of self. The properties related by Rogers with the idea of ‘self’ in the chosen compositions were the constituent components of the photo or gestalt that one has of oneself in connection to the rest of experience. That ‘self’ idea incorporates the introjected states of worth which serve as the perceptual strainers through which experience is deciphered and frequently contorted, prompting mental maladjustment. The properties related by Reinhold Niebuhr with the idea of ‘self’ were qualities of a guaranteed profound component in human instinct. The ‘self’ is human-centrally portrayed as a power of resolution and amazing quality incomprehensibly typified in regular presence and restlessly enticed to escape oddity and anxiety by the will to power or arousing quality which underlie the essential articulations of human bad conduct. Examination likewise uncovered fundamental contrasts between supernatural, epistemological, and axiological suspicions supporting their particular models of human instinct. The significance of procedural investigation of different models of human instinct and conduct that guide advising practice. The issue of surplus implications often connected with the idea of self in directing and psychotherapeutic writing and research. Some suggestion for peaceful advising.
Title: Revelation And Self-Understanding: A Comparative Study of Gabriel Moren and Carl Rogers
Investigator: Sr. Maureena P. Fritz
University: The University Of Ottawa
Degree: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
Method: 1) Content Analysis (philosophical analysis)
2) LIBRARY WORK
The researcher has concentrated on the relationship between man’s comprehension of disclosure and his self-comprehension by contrasting the religious philosophy of disclosure in the composition of Gabriel Moran with the mental perspective of man in the considered Carl Rogers. The significant target of present exploration work is to look at the relationship in the middle of disclosure and man’s ‘self’ comprehension. The researcher starts by exploring the spot of Moran’s compositions on disclosure as a major aspect of an inversion occurring in catholic religious philosophy furthermore look at the connection in the middle of nature and the heavenly. This examination uncovers an improvement far from a static, cyclic thought of disclosure towards a dynamic procedure, idea in which limits isolating the frightened from the mainstream are broken, and a development towards an accentuation upon human experience as the locus of the genuine. As per the writer feels Moran is an authentic dialogue in the middle of God and the person inside of a trusting group. Disclosure is an individual union in learning in the middle of talks related to God and partaking subject in the disclosure history of a group. The researcher likewise discovered comparable improvement from a static to a procedure model, in the mental pictures of man from Rogers’s hypotheses. Rogers say that man is a being in procedure with an inward pushed toward self-completion and independence. He is vital social and needing others to give that interpersonal relationship which is fundamental for human development with security, warm worry with legitimate fellowship and individual vicinity. He is permitted and welcomed to wind up who he fundamentally and possibly is an individual. By contrasting with authors, agent uncovers a converging of religious philosophy and brain science in progress of these two journalists. Man’s powerful development does not run parallel to his characteristic development but rather one with it. Development towards self-comprehension is development in disclosure and then again, development in appreciation of the awesome human experience is development towards more prominent self-comprehension. The examiner discovered normal for solid man from Rogers works and recommended that training ought to add to these quality among people; self-assurance, self-bearing, openness to experience, imagination, flexibility and trust in the life form. The author recommended more experience, group, and recognition based training for making solid society and sound people. The part of instructors, advisors and educationists were to give favourable atmosphere, atmosphere of wellbeing for full development and advancements of a person. Internal nature of man is frail and effectively changed by propensity, society weight and wrong states of mind so the part of educators or advisors were to control the tired and horrible motivations of a man.
Title: Core Conditions in Student-Centered Learning Environments
Investigator: Margaret Ann Hartford
University: THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT-EI PASO
Degree: MASTER OF ARTS
Method: 1) ethnomethodological design
2) LIBRARY WORK
Margaret Ann Hartford investigated centre conditions in student focused instructive settings by using an ethnomethodologically configuration to analyse the encounters of self-chose teachers all through the United States. Through overviews and subsequent meetings, instructors reported their expert encounters with respect to the centre conditions in student focused learning as laid out via Carl Rogers. The essential goals of this exploration looked to find what a few instructors and students might be making in the classroom setting, especially in relationship to the educators’ usage of the centre conditions, their impression of how making a learner-focused environment identifies with the students’ learning process, and what the instructors have found as to using sympathy, positive respect, and validity. The examiner locate our four key conditions for learning and key centre conditions for making helpful atmosphere for learning they are: 1) Objectivity, 2) Respect for the individual, 3) Understanding for the Self and 4) Psychological Knowledge, meeting, acknowledgement, and sympathy. The researchers has remarking so as to close that only scholarly assessment must be dodged yet assess people as entire individual with human traits, for example, social abilities, sense of pride, innovativeness, and so on ,make shows preparing all the more intriguing rather than pointless gatherings, papers works.
Title: An Analysis of the Differential Effect of Carl Rogers’ Teaching Principles on Cognitive Growth in Second Language
Investigator: William Crossan
University: THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA, CANADA
Degree: Doctor of Philosophy
Method: 1) Quasi-experimental design
2) Multiple Covariance analysis
William Crossan examined an investigation of the differential impact of Carl Rogers’ Teaching standards on psychological development in second dialect. The motivation behind this study was to test a hypothesis that is picking up acknowledgement in the region of second dialect instructing specifically that showing adequacy is connected with a theory and philosophy that is humanistic in introduction. Agent has characterized humanism as being predictable with the instructive hypothesis and strategy of carl rogers and educators were classified as high humanistic (HH) and low humanistic (LH) on a self-report instrument taking into account Rogers’ theory.it was conjectured that there would be no distinction in the adequacy of HH and LH instructors in the regions of French dialect abilities, science, understanding and definition when viability was resolved on the premise of students accomplishment at the evaluation one, grade two and grade three levels. The study outline was an adjusted pre-test and post-test plan with investigation of covariance as the measurable method. Both gatherings were thought about on the last post-test measures, factual technique gave a redress to the introductory imbalance of the gatherings. The examiner assess that the evaluation one level showed that humanistic educators (HH) were all in all more viable than (LH) instructors, at evaluation two-level the outcome were blended, while at the evaluation three-level the LH educators were more successful when adequacy was resolved on the premise of students accomplishment. The result of the examination demonstrate that the educator viability is not a unidimensional variable but rather is influenced by the double measurements of the instructor’s methodology and the capacity to be performed. Where the capacity is undertaking focused, then instructors who are order towards a particular objective have all the earmarks of being more successful than educators who embrace an extensively based showing technique with humanistic principles. The best educators give off an impression of being the individuals who have the adaptability to change conduct design as per the circumstance and educational programs objectives. Assessment of the examination does not give bolster that a humanistic methodology as characterised via Carl Rogers is the best way to deal with second dialect educating. (Make educational implication brief, short and combine all modify)
- The part of training is to create people potential inside of his own worth structure.
- The part of training is to give a boulevard to the acknowledgement of man’s self-completion.
- Education should fundamentally be the acknowledgement of man’s potential and the support of distinction, contrast and inventiveness.
- The instructor ought to give a wide assortment of encounters and empower open doors for choice, thereby improving the youngster’s development towards self-realization.
- The classroom must turn into a lab where the atmosphere is helpful for the development and improvement of a positive mental self-view.
- The distinction of the kid must be perceived and his extraordinary characters created.
- The school can improve the development of a positive self-idea through such instructive examples as the individualization of guideline and software engineers that oblige people needs.
- Pupil instructor communication ought to be create inside of a helping relationship.
- The instructor as being warm and delicate to the students need.
- Ideal normal for an educator laid out by Rogers – 1. Realness or harmoniousness, 2. Prizing, acknowledgment and test, 3. Empathic comprehension.
- Teachers ought to be strong, delicate, agreed and build up compatibility, certainty and security in the class as opposed to being dictator order and meddlesome.
- Language ought to be taught through social interaction of dialect.
- Rogers firmly trusts that the starting off learning rests not upon the showing attitudes of the pioneer, his insightful information of the field, his educational programs arranging, his utilization of varying media helps, his addresses, presentations and plenitude of books yet the assistance of huge learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exists in the individual relationship between the facilitator and the learner.
- Lesson’s from the reviews and characteristic of this research and Summary:
‘On Becoming a Person’ is an accumulation of addresses and compositions drafted via Carl Rogers in the vicinity of 1951 and 1961. The book is profoundly smart and practically thoughtful in its clarification of how Rogers touched base at his individual focused way to deal with psychotherapy. Real to life individual disclosures of Roger’s involvement and experiences on human connections are given, just like an investigation of psychotherapy as a helping ‘relationship’ between the specialist and customer.
I was particularly hit with Rogers’ idea of compatibility, which was examined finally. A man is harmonious when they carry on as per what they really feel – in the event that they feel miserable, then it is correct that they shed tears. At the point when a man is incongruent with their actual emotions they wear a veil and are in this manner expelled from and ‘unacceptant’ of their actual self. To the degree that somebody is ‘unacceptant’ of their actual self, they can’t be ‘acceptant’ of others. As indicated by Rogers, coinciding is required of all specialists – being really acceptant of themselves liberates them to be acceptant of customers.
The message that stays with me in the wake of perusing the book is Rogers’ thought that ‘turning into a man’ means being a work in advance. We tend to consider identity characterized by particular attributes, qualities, and practices. Rogers places that we are the whole of our encounters, which stream in time; consequently, our identity is not unbending but rather streaming too – we are ceaselessly and logically turning into the individual we craving to be. It is the point at which we can’t turn into our optimal self that mental pain is experienced.
Rogers represents the impacts of being ‘unacceptant’ of oneself as wearing a cover and building a divider. At the point when a man is ‘unacceptant’ of themselves they stay uninformed of their actual self (their sentiments, recognitions, and viewpoints). As a result, they accept the identity qualities expected of them by their condition or culture. I could relate this to my client work, showing exactly how pertinent the book is to my developing learning base.
Rogers clarifies that individuals wear a ‘cover’ before others as they dread others may see the genuine individual under the veil and reject them. In this way, individuals can wind up wearing a remotely forced cover keeping in mind the end goal to avoid erosion with noteworthy. By experience, when wears the veil, noteworthy others regard, love, acknowledge and even respect the cover, which bolsters their conviction that the genuine them would not be acknowledged.
Living along these lines, a man manufactures an invulnerable divider that shrouds who they really are – even from themselves. The need to go similarly as concealing the ‘self’ from themselves originates from the dread of finding the profundities of their feelings and losing control of them. Once more, I can relate this to some of my customers, and to myself. Pondering this has given me a more noteworthy comprehension of the mental misery experienced by the individuals who shroud their actual ‘self’ – it takes the majority of their quality and imagination to keep the veil and the divider set up. Rogers trusts that in a bona fide, acceptant and empathic restorative relationship the customer will feel sufficiently safe to gradually evacuate the cover and disassemble the divider until they are OK with and ‘acceptant’ of themselves. This is Rogers’ meaning of ‘effective’ treatment.
The tone and selection of words in the book are recognizable, and its advancement of thoughts misleadingly straightforward. Without a doubt, Rogers demonstrates that the book was composed basically for ‘standard’ individuals. It is in this way in ‘plain English’, with any convoluted ideas portrayed in straightforward terms. Roger’s additionally utilizes representations and selections of meetings to delineate his perceptions.
Learning picked up from checking on the book will encourage me with my directing practice. Specifically, on the off chance that I acknowledge that I have an obligation to build up an association with my customers, then I can likewise acknowledge that my association with customers must be portrayed by validity (i.e. the capacity to be completely forthright, open and harmonious in self-revelation), acknowledgment (i.e. an unequivocal positive respect of the customer), and compassion (i.e. the capacity to genuinely tune in and comprehend the customers perceptual world rather than just naming their expressions). These three conditions empower the helpful relationship to illuminate and improve the restorative procedure.
All over a significant time span connections from which I determine delight and enthusiastic development are those involving validity, acknowledgment and compassion. In the event that individual connections of this kind can impel me to statures of individual development and development, how likewise an honest to goodness, acceptant and empathic association with a specialist can drive a customer to end up noticeably a completely working individual who knows about their sentiments and encounters and enabled to address their own incongruence. Over all, Roger’s exceptional content – ‘On Becoming a Person’ – has highlighted to me the significance of the connection amongst guide and customer inside the individual focused approach.
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