1.3 Aims and Objectives
The overall aim of the project is to managing project communication in IPD process by selection of team which include owner, architecture, builder and management of project through tools and techniques.
To analyse how project manager with different cultural back ground and have managed communication on integrated project delivery process in off-site construction projects.
The objectives of the project are:
- To develop an overview of integrated project delivery using effective communication.
- To enhance project inter-relationships by effective selection of team members
- To review the contractual agreements in IPD process to improve the standard communication between single to multi-party contracts.
- To identify key factors that improve project communication in integrated project delivery process.
The increasing global nature of manufactured construction projects has highlighted the importance of communication and the new challenges it brings to project execution. This paper explores the ability of project managers in UK and India in communicating effectively on integrated project delivery process (IPD) in off-site construction projects. This study examines the factors that influence communication and explores how communication can be made effective in integrated project delivery environments. Using data from 5 interviews in and UK and India, analysing the results shows that communications within off-site construction project environments can be effective when project managers demonstrate an awareness of traditional variation. Participants further highlighted that, one of the critical components of integrated project delivery process is the creation and development of effective collectivism, trust, communication and empathy in leadership. The study underscores an urgent need for future research to investigate effective guidelines or strategies for effective communication in IPD project teams.
This study presents a balance between the experiences of project managers from a UK and India. The study aimed to explore how project managers with different cultural background have managed communications In Integrated project delivery process in off-site construction projects. Specifically, the study was designed to explore the efficiency of communications strategies in off-site construction engineering projects.
The scope of the research must be carefully designed and controlled so that meaningful and manageable data can be collected, thus research tends to be focused on one particular event or one aspect of communication. This research provides advice on how communication can be improved in integrated project delivery process in off-site construction. Improvements in communication should result in an increase in the quality of the build and a reduction in the level of defect occurrence.
The successful completion of the project depends on the accuracy and timing of communication exchange between the project team. The inefficiency of the current communication practice has become a barrier to the innovation in off-site construction processes. Research efforts and direction in the industry, however, have since changed. Several research studies are now focusing on integration of the construction and communication processes through standardization of data, taking advantage of evolving computer technologies.
Why in uk and rest of the world?
Layout of the Project:-
Chapter 2:-Literature review:-
This chapter includes all the literatures based on previous journals to improve communication In Integrated project delivery process, and using different tools like BIM
Chapter 3:- Theoretical background:-
This chapter includes all the required theories & research for present study like change in Project Communication levels, response analysis for project communication in off-site construction.
In this chapter, a force response analysis is carried out by considering communication and also by adding integrated project delivery possibility of identification of communication by using BIM is exploded.
Chapter 5:- Conclusion:-
This chapter concludes the results, observations and future work required of the project.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This Chapter is the overall content of the literature review carried out and analysed by the author. This gives the overall understanding of the dissertation. Initially, the place of research (UK and India) is given a brief introduction, which helps the international readers to get a geographical idea of the location. The major to improve the communication in integrated project delivery (IPD) process development initiatives and the roles played are discussed thoroughly. The overall content of the dissertation can be described as the combined result of analysis, comparison and criticism on existing IPD practices in the UK and India. The final conclusion is given with the collective results of the overall study.
2.2 Introduction of integrated project delivery process in UK
2.3 Introduction of integrated project delivery process in India
For over 150 years, members of the American Institute of Architects have worked with them and their communities to create more valuable, healthy, safe and sustainable buildings and cityscapes. By using sustainable design practices, materials and techniques, AIA architects are uniquely poised to provide leadership and guidance needed to provide solutions to address climate change. AIA architects walk the walk on sustainable design. Visit www.aia.org / walkthewalk.
In 2007 the American Institute of Architects (AIA) National and AIA California Council published the Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) Guide. The Guide defines IPD as a project delivery approach that â€œintegrates people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and constructionâ€?.
The AIA Guide aims to provide a general guidance for owners, designers and contractors to use integrated models to improved design, construction, and operation processes. Practitioners may apply the principles and techniques described in the Guide to any model on any project to achieve a more integrated project. However, certain characteristics of a particular delivery model or project may influence the level of integration that can be achieved.
Selection of Primary Team Members (PTM) (i.e., owner, architect, and builder) who can make strategic decisions for the project and has the most valuable input for the rest of the collaboration team members. The research uses PTMs to be distinguished from other subcontractors and suppliers.
American Institute of Architects (AIA) National and AIA California Council also explain how to select the initial project team with the six case studies in the report includes Autodesk inc, ACE solutions division headquarters in waltham, MA, sutter health Fairfield medical office building in Fairfield, California, expansion cardinal Glennon childrenâ€™s hospital in St Louis, MO, Santa Clara Health centre Fenton, MO,Surrounding Ambulatory Health Centre in Appleton, WAS, and the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism, Arizona State University in Phoenix.
All participants were selected based on their compliance with the criteria of IPD, including
Mutual trust and respect among participants
Enhanced early planning
Open communication in the project team
Building Information Modelling (BIM)
Support the principles of design, construction and operations
Co-location of equipment
Autodesk spent years trying different types of relationships with other design professionals and contractors to find a more effective project delivery process. Ultimately, they developed a relational contracting approach they called Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). By using a relational partnering agreement, IPD aligns the interests of all the PTMs into a common goal. By using the risk/reward sharing mechanism IPD fosters full collaboration and teamwork between the PTMs so that they can work as an integrated team.
Typically the IPD team consists of several independent companies for temporary bidding and performing of construction projects. It includes an architect, a general contractor (GC), a mechanical contractor, an electrical contractor, a plumbing contractor, and a mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) engineer. These companies are also referred to as PTMs to be distinguished from other subcontractors and suppliers. PTMs in IPD projects may vary from project to project.
Baiden et al., (2010) defined that Communication is essential for the efficient performance of any team especially in construction projects due to skill requirements. The challenge is to ensure that the right information reaches the right person at the right time. Other challenges within the construction project team environment including the alignment of attitudes conflicting with that of the project team and the acceptance more than the compliance of members to share a common vision with the leadership, which is often, imposed by the terms the contract, especially in the early stages of the project. Author also explains that Team integration should be an objective because it leads to efficiency of the delivery process and cost effectiveness through elimination of waste. Competitiveness and profitability are increased which enable firms to deliver better value for money and meet clientsâ€™ needs. In the long-term, integration leads to competiveness as a result of increased ability to deliver value for money and better returns on investments in a competitive environment
Emmitt and Gorse (2007) have shown that, for factual data transfer, a number of communication problems have been addressed due to the development of rapid global information systems and telecommunications, however, when it comes to off-site projects many issues remain unresolved. For example, the loss of face-to-face communication can lead to misunderstanding and the loss of non-verbal signals such as eye contact and body language. This can subsequently lead to difficulty in achieving mutual trust and confidence within off-site construction project. It is also difficult to manage or supervise off-site projects without face-to-face contact or to confer or develop relationships (Weatherley, 2006).
4.E.G. Ochieng a,, A.D.F. Price b. (2010). Managing cross-cultural communication in multicultural construction project teams: The case of Kenya and UK.Â International Journal of Project Management. 28 (1), 449-460.
E.G. Ochieng a et al defined the ability of project managers in Kenya and the UK in communicating effectively on multicultural projects. The study examines the cultural factors that influence communication and explores how communication can be made effective in multicultural project environments. Using data from interviews in Kenya and UK , the results show that communications within multicultural project environments can be effective when project managers demonstrate an awareness of cultural variation. Participants further highlighted that, one of the critical components of building multicultural project teams is the creation and development of effective cross cultural collectivism, trust, communication and empathy in leadership. The study underscores an urgent need for future research to investigate effective guidelines or strategies for effective collectivism and communication in off-site construction industry.
Turner,2003) defined as Projects are uncertain and so the process for their delivery often cannot be precisely determined from the start. The project manager needs to be empowered to adapt the process as the project develops (Huemann et al., 2004). Also, the purpose of organizing a project should be to create a cooperative, collaborative context for the parties to work in. Levitt and March (1995) say about organizing anything, routine operation or project:
Buntrock (2001) introduced 4 models of design development typically found on projects in Japan based on: (1) project participants that are responsible or provide input for each design phase, (2) influence of construction considerations on design development, (3) aesthetic innovation found in components, and (4) performance innovation found in components or systems. Table 4 lists project participant involvement during each design phase to provide a comparative measure for the degree of coordination and collaboration found in our case studies. In particular, Model 4 involving architect, fabricator, and contractor input during all phases of design seems most promising in terms of facilitating innovation inWorkStructuring.
Buntrock, D. (2001). Japanese Architecture as a Collaborative Process: Opportunities in
a Flexible Construction Culture. Spon Press, New York, 182 pp.
Dawood.N et al describes a collaborative research study being undertaken between the University of Teesside and an international contracting organisation based in the UK. The goal of the research is to develop a methodology and a system that will ease and improve communication and exchange of data and information between the construction project team. The author describes reports on an IT-based tool for site document management as a first phase of the storage and distribution of project documents between the construction project team. The structure and development of the system are described with reports of its implementation and performance on the site. This result shows how the available IT facilities can be exploited to improve communication within the whole of the construction supply chain. Optimum utilisation of already available IT can clearly improve the construction processes with accrued benefits.
Dawood.N,Akinsola.A,Hobbs.B.(2002).Development of automated communication of system for managing site information using internet technology. Automation in Construction. 11 (3), 552-572.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction to the Chapter
This chapter explains the research process and approach towards the project. It also highlights the data generation method, risks and limitations of the dissertation. The research done in this dissertation is similar to research process done by Thomas, Nelson and Silverman (2005).
Primary source of data ?
The information referenced in this literature review, has been taken from different books, published papers .The most of the published papers in journals which have been mentioned in this chapter were taken from two electronic databases Emerald Full text and Business Source Premier (EBSCO). The access to these databases has been through the website of the Salford University Library. The keywords used during this research were communication in integrated project delivery process, project management, multifunctional team communication, project oriented tools like BIM in construction industry, contractors, contract, type of contracts, payment terms for contractors,
Secondary source of data ?
Why Interview ?
Why not questionnaire?
The main form of data collection comprised semi-structured interviews with project managers in UK and India the companies involved have construction and professional expertise and experience. The results were particularly important in this study as the participants were selected from a different organisations and project environments. The sample was designed to achieve both UK and Indian companies involved have construction and professional experience of project communication in off-site construction projects. In order to investigate the factors that influenced project communication it was necessary to have a range of organisations in terms of status, size, and projects managed. The five organisations that were selected, where 5 of the participants interviewed, operated in the construction sector.
The selected organisations were well balanced in terms of projects managed. In general terms there was a link between the existence of project work and the type of projects undertaken. The five participants were selected on the basis of their project management experience, with each having long-standing familiarity in managing large and complex projects over a period of many years. Each participant provided information regarding the heavy engineering projects they had managed outside UK and India construction industry.
Interviewee variety is essential to the quality of data obtained in qualitative research. In this study, the aim of interviewee variety was to explore a diverse proportion of expert views from successful senior project managers on project communication within the UK and india heavy construction industry.
The main advantage of this model is that each participant had worked on projects in developing countries. This allowed me to focus in depth on the experiences of each participant. This was particularly important because the research subject data available in worldwide construction and the UK. The participants worked in various types of organisation formations and project arrangements. All participants had a practical understanding of management
Interviews were conducted in research to understand the intervieweeâ€™s perspective so that our selection becomes a role in the richness and depth of information obtained.Â In this research, interviews sought to harness the expertise and the selection of interviewees was done to reduce biasness and controversy as the definition of a successful project manager continues to generate considerable debate and controversy.Â Traditional criteria of success have also been argued as being too simplistic in today’s context complex construction project environment (Dainty et al.2003).
Dainty, A.R.J., Cheng, M.-I., Moore, D.R., 2003. Redefining performance measures for construction project managers: an empirical evaluation. Construction Management and Economics 21 (2), 209â€“218.
An approach to semi-structured interview was used to allowÂ flow depth and without information from respondents.Â The flexible nature also encouraged respondents to participateÂ full and complete (Fellows and Liu,Â 2003 Patton, 2002; Schensul et al., 1999).Â
A combinationÂ strategy was adopted during the interview increasedÂ wealth of data collected.Â The strategy followsÂ presentation by Patton (2002) that the interview three mainÂ approaches:
Standardized open-ended and not mutually exclusive.Â
An interview guide was adopted to ensure that all issuesÂ be explored were covered during the interviewsÂ lasted between 45 min and 90 min.Â The guide also encouragedÂ preparation by the respondents and ensured that allÂ five directors focused on similar topics.Â TheÂ restriction imposed on an interview guide was used,Â however, removed to allow respondents to more elaborateÂ on issues that were relevant and important to the performanceÂ Team project implementation through informal conversationÂ and open questions.Â This combinationÂ even more flexible approach of the interviews andÂ allowed for data relevant to the practicesÂ team integration and collaborative practices metÂ in a relaxed atmosphere.
Case studies were employed to validate the findings. This yielded a better consistency of the findings since it allowed a systematic comparison of different organisations by exploring different management features and examining different levels of behavioural variables involved. Employing various data collection methods provided a complete picture of the issue under investigation. There was a logical progression to the order of the parent codes. This was an attempt to ensure that the main objectives of the study were met. Once this phase was complete, we took each topic in turn and inserted the relevant interview extracts. The analysis continued until data had been reduced amply to enable conclusions to be drawn from the coded data. The findings are presented below, where appropriate illustrative quotations drawn from the interview transcripts have been used to convey participants view.
Key dimensions of differences on communication behaviours drawn from participants in Worldwide and UK were used to collate the main attributes deemed to be the most important for 0ff-site construction projects. The reported results present generalised findings based on the 5interviews. The results are presented below under headings drawn from the analysis.
Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Results
4.1 Introduction to the chapter
In this study we analyse that communication is viewed as a professional practice where suitable tools and regulations can be applied in order to improve the utility of the data communicated, and is a social process of interaction between individuals.
4.2 Results and Analysis
The Results and analysis of this project are arranged as the following questionnaire and the relevant answers from different people through interviews are as follows.
Selection of team
Teams are used in organisations in most sectors and industries due to the recognition that they are able to outperform individuals acting alone, especially when performance requires multiple skills and judgements
Integrated project delivery is a response to the extensive cooperation necessary for 21st century complex projects to be influenced by multiple levels of people organizations. Since it is new, there is a tendency to adjust the focus with each new project. But overall, it works the companies selected for the key project of forming a group that includes the Owner, the AE, MC and may include other key consultants or builders. Usually a single sign, multiparty contract with the owner to form one or more committees of management. The core team establishes a set of project goals, cost, time and quality. Typically, there is emphasis on BIM continuous improvement. IPD is a powerful concept, but it makes more sense when a high degree of cooperation we want, when the importance of the project will capture the attention of major business leaders and when the owner is a leader capable of project delivery processes.
IPD selection processes usually start traditional. Unless the Owner has ongoing relationships, the owner invites organizations present their qualifications, the list restricted to a small group and then have interviews. The tradition may end there. In general, interviews are not the typical Wood, PowerPoint show, and repeats followed by Q & A-surface where the profits of the show. It’s more like a workshop. The signature (s) under consideration may submit qualifications for a few minutes, but the rest of the time is spent without accessories. Discussion turned to the project and how to do it. Other topics of discussion, the companies are asked to evaluate the program and the initial plans. One of the objectives is to use the process to evaluate a company’s inclination to work together innovative processes.
Unless the teams are previously assembled, it is common affecting Principals in later selections. Whoever is selected in the first place, AE MC or its representative participates in the selection of others. Then both participate in the election code and Sub consultantâ€™s subcontractors. Public Owner may not be able to include people who are not government employees as voting members of a selection committee but can make them feel in the process and provide feedback. In a collaborative environment that produces the same result.
Project specifications and requirements
This language is not common in recent IPD contracts. However, the contract usually defines clear project objectives with metrics to measure their achievement. The goals may include classic cost, schedule and quality, but other security objectives, sustainability, participation of small businesses, including minority employment. Some of the objectives (goals often very important) and the spirit of collaboration or the relationship between the relationships might not be measurable. As a result, some owners subjectively assess these issues.
Management of teams and task division (multi-party contract)
Management of Project team integration can be defined as where different disciplines or organisations with different goals, needs and cultures merge into a single cohesive and mutually supporting unit with collaborative alignment of processes and cultures (Baiden et al., 2010)
The management of teams to manage current activities, problem solving, work planning, and anticipating the future challenges. The management teams include the owner and the top executives of each of the majors. Types of teams
There may be several multi function teams.
Senior Management Team (SMT):-
Senior Management Team (SMT) may deal with global issues such as project delivery strategy, reallocation of equipment, changes of address or greater problems.
A Committee of Operations or Project Management Team (PMT):-
A Committee of Operations or Project Management Team (PMT) can deal with the coordination of everyday design, a major milestone IPD leadership comprising the sequence of decisions and passes the baton to the right person at the right time. Schedule, budget, compliance requirements and quality control, minor change orders.
The Coordinating Committee on the Land or Project Implementation Team (PIT) adds Construction Superintendents Project managers and subcontractors active short-range management schedules, presentations, and RFIs.
IPD In some projects, the owner reimburses each company at a cost. The companies can work within a guaranteed maximum. Management committee may adjust the distribution of labour within the warranty maximum. All feet are in the hands of a fire. A single group money is funding the entire project is divided into categories to costs, benefits and bonuses to the majors. Some owners have taken this concept and work for a “EMC” (estimated maximum cost). They argue that the EMC increases transparency and the concept of collaboration. And because central computer no longer under warranty, the owner no longer has the a hidden contingency costs inherent in that is a guarantee.8 useful concept for the convenience of the Owner with full confidence that, as team member he or she has a proper control to manage cost. Staff for personnel, bronze brass an important function of the management fee is the head conflicts. In traditional systems, when a problem project staff, driven by job security and human nature, see problem as the fault of the other organization. They explain their for middle managers. Oppose both climbing stories management organizations and polarize. Soon the leaders, led biased point of view, are angry at each other. A project of IPD usually involving organizations at multiple levels. If there is a problem at the operational level, middle management is together to hear both sides of the story and, if necessary, intensified higher levels of the organization. If the management committees not include the company’s leaders are empowered to make decisions, IPD meets. Some companies, especially large firms avoid projects that require the participation of metals. If they do not fully delegate authority to the project team can not be suitable for a project of IPD. By contrast, many large companies
A project delivery team include those who are key participants and involved in providing solutions that will meet the clientâ€™s requirements in the delivery process. The team, therefore, requires members to harness the potential of the processes associated with delivery efficiency
Team integration requires a spirit of cooperation to overcome traditional adversarial attitudes and barriers. This requirement means that its members may have to cross traditional departmental or professional boundaries to share their ideas while negotiating conflict at work. The team also requires a competent leader with the ability to drive the overall optimum achievement of initial team goals
Shared risk and reward
A fully integrated project delivery team, as considered within this thesis, has a single project focus and objectives boundaries between individuals are diminished and team members work towards mutually beneficial outcomes through the free sharing of information. A new team identity is thus formed by the fully integrated team and achievements, failures and successes are collectively shared (Baiden et al., 2010)
Division of project requirements between the teams
Selection of techniques and tools
Apply of tools and techniques
Resolve technical issues
Integrate the product
In off-site construction, integration often refers to collaborative working practices, methods and behaviours that promote an environment where information is freely exchanged among the various parties. Within an integrated team environment various skills and knowledge are seen as shared, and traditional barriers separating the design process from construction activities are removed or marginalised to improve project (Baiden et al., 2010)
Integration has been suggested as providing a demonstrable means of improving the effectiveness of teamwork and project delivery team performance (Baiden et al., 2010)
Baiden,a. Bernard,K. Andrew D,F. Price b. (2010). The effect of integration on project delivery team effectiveness. International Journal of Project Management. 3 (2), 1-8.
Quality checks and engineering works
Deliver quality product
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