Leadership and Management Styles in an Organisation
Info: 10001 words (40 pages) Dissertation
Published: 16th Dec 2019
1.1 Describe characteristics of effective leaders
A strong leader is worthy of their role if they have effective characteristics and leadership skills which not only impacts their work-ethic, but also helps to improve their team members and their workplace.
One characteristic of an effective leader is someone who teaches and empowers others. Leaders who can teach or empower their team members, help to train others in their personal and professional development within the workplace and for their career paths. Empowering leaders may help their team members acknowledge areas which they can improve, in order to work to succeed and strengthen their skills. Though an empowering leader may praise and encourage their team members’ skills and ideas, these leaders may sometimes have to take risks and responsibility in order to grow and develop. A leader must be optimistic within these risks as they are only actioned upon for the greater good of an organisation. Likewise, an empowering leader will also correct any failure by embracing it for progression.
Furthermore, another characteristic for an effective leader is someone who is balanced. This is when a leader takes care of their work life and personal life by not allowing their life at home, to impact their performance at work. Although, this leader may try and grow their own personal skills so they can develop healthy social skills and interaction for the workplace.
Similarly, a leader must also have a strong team-ethic as they need to have a healthy communication with their team. This can be done if the leader participates in their team as a team member but also positions themselves in the lead role. If this is done effectively, members of the team may feel more motivated to work and may also appreciate that their leader takes the individual and their work into consideration.
Moreover, another characteristic of an effective leader is someone who is visionary and dedicated to their team goals and workplace. A Visionary leader can think ahead about the future of their company when evaluating its progress, however, they do not exclude their team when creating new ideas and other projects. It is the leader’s responsibility to elucidate a successful business to their team members, by using their strong communication skills to share their vision and goals with their team members. With dedication, the leader has to convey his/her commitment to a clear purpose and cause, which is essential as they have to translate their vision into reality, therefore their vision must remain clear and achievable.
Last but not least, an effective leader must be nurtured and grown into a leader before they become a leader, this could be through education and practice. It is important that an effective leader tries to stay calm in difficult situations so they can think of a solution carefully and so that their team members also remain calm and focused.
1.2 Describe different leadership styles
Different leaders may have different styles/approaches to lead their company in what way seems most effective to them. There are many leadership styles which are adopted by team leaders to ensure that they are able to achieve any goals or commitments put in place.
One of many types of styles a leader may embrace is an, Authoritative Leader. This leadership style concentrates on end goals set by a company and directs the team towards a common vision. An authoritative leader is enthusiastic about achieving goals and has an entrepreneurial mindset, fixated on the success of his/her team. Nevertheless, this leadership style also considers guidelines, procedures and policies as part of the natural base to work upon. Additionally, this leadership style is similar to a bureaucratic leadership style as this type of leader complies to rules rigorously and ensures that their employees/team members submit to procedures accordingly. For example, an authoritative/bureaucratic leader may be commonly found in workplaces which involve heavy machinery or toxic substances.
Furthermore, another style a leader may choose to be is a, Democratic Leader. A democratic leader values and takes team member ideas and opinions into consideration, but also owns the responsibility of making the final agreement which he/she sees as the best choice. When a team is led by a democratic leader, there may be a strong sense of team morale as employees can contribute to any decisions or changes made to an organisation.
Moreover, an alternative style a leader may become is an Afflictive Leader. An afflictive leader tries to prioritises his/her team members and works to create an emotional bond with them, which may create a sense of belonging to individual team members and therefore, the organisation. Additionally, this style of leadership does not require unprofessionalism or inappropriateness with team members, as not only is this inappropriate for a workplace, but this will potentially make team members feel more free and lazy. Being an afflictive leader is most effective in stressful situations or when a team’s trust in the company needs to be comforted.
1.3 Describe ways in which leaders can motivate their teams
Motivating team members may be a challenge which repetitively deviates within different circumstances. Due to this, team leaders may have to use different initiatives to preserve or improve productivity and also keep their team members motivated and fixated.
One way in which leaders can motivate their team is to be positive in situations and towards their team members. This is because a negative attitude will not only discourage team members from committing to their work, but it will also result in the suffering of work-efficiency. For a leader to remain positive in a situation, they can try and adjust to a difficult circumstance. For example, they can change a deadline as long as it does not impact work negatively and gives them enough time to accomplish positively.
In coherence, a leader can praise/correct his/her employees in order to motivate them. When a leader is able to praise their employees in their effort or the work they have done, it will have a significant impact over morale and their motivation. This also motivates team members to work to the best of their abilities and embrace the standard which they are praised for. Additionally, when a leader is correcting a team member and providing guidance in order to help them improve, they should do so, in private, which preserves a worker’s self-worth and also reduces the chance of embarrassment in front of their peers. Adding on, this also allows the leader to provide individual focus and guidance without the distraction of others. For example, at Dixon City Academy, the manager of our department carries out ‘1-1’ sessions with individual employees, in which they discuss achievements, setting goals for each half-term and also gives the employee time and privacy to complain or ask for help if they require any.
1.4 Explain the benefits of effective leadership for organisations
The most influential and critical role of a business is leadership, as being a leader requires a specific skill-set to inspire and impact a team which will inevitably benefit an organisation in progress and success. It is important that a leader must understand motifs, plans and goals of an organisation and to lead team members into acknowledging them – if an effective leader is able to do this, then the leader and employee are able to work together coherently in the process of development of success and sustainability of the company.
A motivational leader constitutes one of the most influential benefits of good leadership, which ultimately benefits an organisation. An employee’s potential in their skills and performance is only useful when it is applied in their work, therefore this may only take place if they have been guided well and have been provided with the motivation to accomplish more.
Furthermore, if a leader is confident in themselves and his/her team members, it can allow employees to perform more efficiently which will benefit their organisation. A confident leader should be firm in their beliefs about the workplace, because this will also allow the employees to become confident as they will trust the leader and acknowledge that choices and changes which may be made, are for the greater good of an organisation and its employees. In addition, a confident leader should also try to be available to their employees, in time and the way the communicate with them. This creates confidence in the employee as they are ensured that they have support to strengthen them at work.
Moreover, another constituting factor of an effective leader which may benefit an organisation, is the skill to harmonise and balance the goals of an organisation with the goals and interests of the individual employee – resolving any potential conflicts. Likewise, a leader and his/her team should work together coherently as building a bond between people within a business, will ultimately build the organisation itself. Therefore, if a leader is not able to harmonise or balance any situations or aspect, this will reflect on the business and not benefit its development and success.
2.1 Explain the purpose of different types of teams
Different types of teams prepare an organisation and support its functioning, for different purposes. Diverse teams within an organisation are significant as they all work in different aspects of the organisation, however all are working towards a common goal. Those who are working within these teams, share skills which correspond to their roles and are also coherent with others in the same team or different teams.
One example of a team which is found in most organisations, is a management team. This team includes different types of managers which direct a company and come together in order to create solutions for any issues which are impacting their organisation. When managers from diverse departments are coming together, diverse perspectives from different departments also come together. Therefore, this may be an effective approach for actioning ideas and solutions. For example, most schools have different departments, such as, Humanities, Maths, Science and English etc. Managers of these departments have the ability to see what achievements their students are capable of and can estimate or predict potential exam results. This also allows these managers to work together and see how the can improve, and also how they can help their individual teams improve. Consequently, management teams are able to update one another on progress and set new goals for the benefit of their organisation.
Adding on, problem -solving teams may not always be one specific kind of team but can be multiple other teams coming together as one, to solve a problem(s). The purpose of a problem-solving team is to meet regularly to discuss methods of improvement and efficiency within the organisation. This may be done by sharing ideas and creating a final solution together. As an illustration, at Dixon City Academy, when our desktop displays faults or our system has come to an error, we can call Helpdesk on their extension number. Helpdesk will look at the problem after we have explained it to them and will try and fix it for us so we can use it again. This indicates that both the Admin and Helpdesk team can work together; the Helpdesk team is also a problem-solving team in itself which works together to solve any technical issues, in order for the organisation to run smoothly.
In addition, a self-managed team is also another example of a group of people with a purpose to benefit their organisation. The purpose of a self-managed team is to take responsibility and control of the productivity at their workplace. This may be done by each member of the team evaluating others’ performance within their team, therefore resulting in an increase of importance of roles which are working to impact productivity.
2.2 Describe the stages of team development and behaviour
Formation of a team requires stages of development, when team members learn to become a united group with shared goals. These stages of development may be challenging when a group of individuals are striving to work together cohesively in order for an organisation to succeed. The formation of a team is the first stage of team development and behaviour as their initial success will be dependent on their familiarity with each other’s work style, past team experience and clarification of their set goals.
Moreover, when a team is formed together, the next step for development must be creating, sharing and analysing ideas. When a team is formed, it is best for them to implicate their perspective and ideas on situations and topic so they can negotiate with other team members to see how they can expand on it. Agreements and improvement on ideas, subject’s individuals to unconsciously conform to group norms as they become able to function together. Adding on, in this stage of team development and behaviour, it is likely that there may be some disagreements about targets, visions or problem-solving etc. This is a common struggle between new teams, however, this is the stage where team members can learn from each other and also learn to accept or come to an agreement with aspects which they are not comfortable with. Learning about one another’s differences and point of view, will most likely benefit the organisation in the future.
In addition, when a team is provided with tasks to work on, each member’s effectiveness in working on their roles within the team, synchronise together for a smooth function. When a team is performing together, they are developing their team-strength and initiative. This also allows each team member to acknowledge what role they are most great at and also allows them to learn about their team members and the skills they bring to the team and job. Likewise, throughout performing, teams begin to transform and progress into stronger and more effective teams, as they may learn how to work together coherently; team members also become more comfortable with each other’s behaviour and way of work; allowing them to work together at future tasks or other everyday work.
2.3 Explain the concept of team role theory
The ‘Team Role Theory’ is a concept by, Meredith Belbin in which Belbin identified specific team roles which are included in most groups, whilst he studied management teams. Belbin recognised that when a team is functioning well together and successfully achieving their tasks, each member of the team has a clear responsibility to uphold. To this degree, Belbin believed that every role which was needed to achieve the team’s goals, were being performed to their best potential.
The first role which Belbin identified was those who took the role as Shapers. He suggested that Shapers were those who challenged their team for improvement and evaluated the best options for approaching any problems. Shapers worked within a team to help its members to overcome any obstacles which occur within a task, therefore they have the job to encourage others to work harder and overcome any issues which impact the team’s productivity.
Adding on, Belbin also acknowledged that a healthy team also consisted of an Implementer. This team member(s) develops ideas and concepts, provided by the team, into plans or practical action. An Implementer is well-organised and is able to use their initiative in order to work efficiently and systematically; they will support their team to accomplish their goals and fulfil them. It is also notable that this role is similar to that of a managerial role.
Similarly, Belbin also identified individual’s in a team who he named the, Completer-Finisher’s. Those who partake in this role, ensure that no errors are being made in their team’s work, therefore evaluating all the details before they are finished with their final result. Nevertheless, Completer-Finisher’s also have to take deadlines and the limitation of time, into consideration. Consequently, this implicates them to be conscientious of work productivity and push their team to work thoroughly before the work is due.
Furthermore, a Coordinator is also found in most effective teams, in which Belbin described this character to uptake a traditional team-leader role. As the coordinator of a team, it is a duty in which they must direct the team in what they believe are the best ideas or objectives; Coordinators always negotiate with the team before making any decisions and hence, are flexible and perceptive in their job. Additionally, a strong Coordinator is also able to identify the value of each team members and knows how to benefit the team from it – the team-leader will provide support to all those who need it, to ensure that their team is working together coherently and effectively.
Moreover, Belbin also recognised another role in a team which he named, the Resource Investigator. This team member(s) has a slight optimistic character, who is innovative and open to new ideas. They support the team through analysing potential options for the team to choose from, link any contacts which may be helpful or needed by the team, and also convey any resources needed on behalf of their team. Belbin also suggested that Resource Investigators were spontaneous and extroverted to a certain extent, thus other team members are able to negotiate any ideas with them.
Conversely, the Plant is another role which Belbin accredited when analysing teams. This role is given to a team member who is innovative and creates new ideas and approaches for the team to work on. However, Belbin also recognised that this role can be put to use by other members of the team with different roles, as team members who have this role only, are more likely to be poor communicators, introvert and may ignore any criticism or constraints provided by the rest of the team.
Nonetheless, the final role which Belbin acknowledges was the Specialist. A Specialist in a team is someone who is familiar or an expert in the area the team is working on and therefore, demonstrates their dedication to their field of skills and experience. Simultaneously, because Specialists have the valuable knowledge and skills a team needs to accomplish any goals, they are needed in order for the team’s chances to increase in the success of their mission. Notable, Belbin also illustrated that Specialist’s may pride themselves in their abilities and knowledge, ensuring that they work to maintain their professional status amongst the team.
In conclusion, the Team Role Theory is a concept provided by Meredith Belbin, to identify the key roles which are needed and common in teams who thrive to succeed in any challenges, missions or goals. Each role in unique to its own extent and is able to work cohesively with team members of other roles, for the team’s best intention and potential.
2.4 Explain how the principle of team role theory is used in team building and leadership
The ‘Team Role Theory’ is a concept by, Meredith Belbin in which Belbin identified specific team roles which are included in most groups, whilst he studied management teams. To this degree, Belbin believed that every role which was needed to achieve the team’s goals, were being performed to the best potential. Likewise, each role may enable team-building and can be used in leadership, if used well and effectively.
The first role which Belbin identified was those who took the role as Shapers. He suggested that Shapers were those who challenged their team for improvement and evaluated the best options for approaching any problems. This role may be effective in the building of a team as it may encourage team members to think spontaneously and use their initiative together, so they can create an idea which has all the team’s support. The role of the Shaper can also be used by a team leader or any other leadership role as leaders commonly evaluate any given options and ensure that their team members are working to their best potential, regarding any signs of improvement.
Adding on, Belbin also acknowledged that a healthy team also consists of an Implementer. This team member(s) develops ideas and concepts, provided by the team, into plans or practical action. An implementer is well-organised and is able to use their initiative in order to work efficiently and systematically; they will support their team to accomplish their goals and fulfil them. In consideration, this role supports team-building as it requires teams to put their ideas together and create methods of approaching their targets. This may allow teams to identify each other’s roles and analyse how they can work together to allow their unique skills to impact the team’s mission, effectively. Subsequently, the character of an Implementer may also be used in Leadership as a team leader may negotiate the plans and ideas with their team but will have to support and encourage their team to also action upon them. Not all ideas are accomplishable, so a leader may only keep ideas which are achievable and support their team in fulfilling them.
Similarly, Belbin also identified individual’s in a team who he named the, Completer-Finisher’s. Those who partake in this role, ensure that no errors are being made in their team’s work, therefore evaluating all the details before they are finished with their final result. Nevertheless, Completer-Finisher’s also have to take deadlines and the limitation of time, into consideration. To build a strong and healthy team, this role may be needed as team members will have to work together in order to complete their work within restricted time periods, as sometimes working together, allows more time than working individually. Likewise, this role is needed by successful leaders as they also need to evaluate their options and the final product of their teamwork as they have to minimise any flaws in their work. Nevertheless, leaders have to also be cautious of deadlines and time, therefore the skill of critical-thinking and time-management in a Completer-Finisher is also required by a Leader – if a team can be guided by their leader effectively, it is less likely that they will miss a deadline or productivity will be below target.
Furthermore, a Coordinator is also found in most effective teams, in which Belbin described this character to uptake a traditional team-leader role. As the coordinator of a team, it is a duty in which they must direct the team in what they believe is best. A strong Coordinator is also able to identify the value of each team member and knows how to benefit the team from it. The team-leader will provide support to all those who need it, to ensure that their team is working together coherently and effectively; this allows the Coordinator to excel in team leadership. Coordination in Leadership is needed in all teams, for team-building and guidance. An effective coordinator will not only communicate with the group and encourage their team to familiarise with each other but will also provide support and guidance for individual team members, so they can excel and succeed as a whole team.
Moreover, Belbin also recognised another role in a team which he named, the Resource Investigator. This team member(s) enthuses the team through analysing potential options for the team to choose from, link any external contacts which may be helpful or needed by the team, and also convey any resources needed on behalf of their team. This role may be useful for team-building as Resource Investigators are useful for reporting back on any ideas created by the team and also provide development ideas which may lead to subsequent negotiation. The team may build on these factors as Resource Investigators provide support to their team members and are always optimistic in team work and ensuring that their team is happy with one another and their personal work. Similarly, this role is useful in leadership as leader may also create bonds with external teams for the benefit of both organisations, and symmetrically to Resource Investigators, leaders may also look at alternative approaches to a mission and provide all the support their team members may need.
Conversely, the Plant is another role which Belbin accredited when analysing teams. This role is given to a team member who is innovative and creates new ideas and approaches for the team to work on. However, Belbin also recognised that this role can lead to poor communication, introversion and ignorance of criticism and constraints provided by the rest of the team. Regardless, basic characteristics of a Plant team member can be used in team building as individual team members may brainstorm ideas and options of their team, although discuss and evaluate together for the final decision. This may be a strong contributing factor for healthy communication across the team and also form the embodiment of the team, through the understanding of one another’s perspectives and skillset. On the other hand, the role of a Plant may be used less in leadership as leaders are most likely to negotiate ideas and changes with their team members rather than personally. Leader’s also take other opinions and ideas into consideration when making decisions, however someone who is the Plant of the team, is less likely to adjust their ideas if they are being criticised.
Nonetheless, the final role which Belbin acknowledges was the Specialist. A Specialist in a team is someone who is familiar or an expert in the area the team is working on and therefore puts it into demonstration. Simultaneously, because Specialists have the valuable knowledge and skills a team needs to accomplish any goals, they are needed in order for the team’s chances to increase in the success of their mission. In addition, a specialist may be needed for team building as team members can acknowledge that they have support if they may find difficulty in their work and they may also learn more about the subject of their mission from the knowledge of the Specialist. Cohesively, a leader is most likely to be aware and have superior knowledge of the aspects their team is working on, as it is their job to provide guidance to their team members. A leader must know all the information about what his/her team is working towards and the aspects they are working on; a leader must have enough confidence to share his/her knowledge with the team when it is needed and before they approach the mission. Therefore, this allows the team to build on trust and progress, strongly.
2.5 Explain typical sources of conflict within a team and how they could be managed
Conflict within a team may escalate as team members may have different ideas or viewpoint which may not be symmetrical to the perspective of others. However, conflict is not always bad because it can be healthy and may also display that the team is a high-functioning team. Each team members may have a diverse set of knowledge, experience and skills to bring to the group, and therefore should be open in their ideas and share their opinions with the team, so the conflict can be discussed and resolved. Likewise, it is important to be respectful when hearing or discussing other team member’s ideas and to also be patient when speaking and listening.
Before conflict can be resolved or managed, it should be acknowledged. Discussion between the team about the issue is not only healthy for the team’s communication and increase of knowledge, but it is also a way to identify and clarify the issue within the team, preparing for it to be resolved.
Moreover, it is also important that those who are involved in the issue or the team, agree to fully cooperate to fix the issue. This implies that team members may have to set aside their differences in opinion in order for this conflict to be solved, as needing to be better than other team members rather than resolving the issue, may damage the process of the solution and it may also damage the bond between team members.
Similarly, it may also be helpful to manage any conflict if team members agree to communicate and update one another, when possible. This is because throughout the resolution process, it is important that everyone communicated openly by involving one another in team-discussions and also actively listening to each other’s ideas and opinions. Additionally, team members cannot disguise their real thoughts from other team members as this is be untruthful and it may also lead to future issues within the team and between its members. For example, if one member does not like the final idea chosen by the rest of the team, he/she may lack in productivity in the future or develop antagonistic relations with his/her team members – inevitable causing the function of the team to damage. Therefore, it is best for them to be extrovert in team discussions. Nonetheless, after an effective discussion between the team, all the ideas and solution will lead to a final agreement made by the team, which the members can work towards, together.
3.1 Explain the factors to be taken into account when setting targets
Multiple factors must be taken into account when creating and setting targets for a team to accomplish. It is important to note that, all goals must begin with ideas or a vision, therefore it is important for a leader of a team to clearly visualise the goal and what is needed to accomplish it, and then share this vision with their team members.
One of the factors which must be taken into consideration when setting targets is, measurement. Not only does a goal need to be realistic, the progress time needed and the work efficiency needed must also be measured – questions such as “how much time will it take to accomplish this?” Or “how will this be accomplished” may be taken into account, in order to set goals surrounding this main target/vision. For instance, a book publisher will have to consider all aspects before investing in the publishing of a book. The publisher may think wisely about the books targeted audience and what the estimated profit of sales there will be. This will also allow him/her to decide whether they want to publish the book or make amendments to its publishing as realistic goals can sometimes be negative and may need time or adjustment.
Consequently, another contributing factor to setting targets is that your target must be something a leader or team is confident about and wants to do. The success of the goals set, relies on the passion of the team and their leader. When trying to accomplish the goals, if there are any negative aspects which become obstacles surrounding the target, it is the passion and commitment of the team and their leader which may overcome it and remain positive about the target they have set. In stark contrast, if the leader or the team is not absolute about the set target, they are likely to become unsuccessful when there are later developed issues. Likewise, when setting goals, the team individually and as a whole, must be prepared to work towards this goal as disorganisation and lack of confidence can damage the foundations which uphold the goal. Likewise, attitudes amongst team members must be passionate and motivated, if this is not obvious amongst the team, goals may need to be changed or discharged for the time being. In similarity, before any agreements are made, ideas must be clearly discussed and analysed.
3.2 Describe a range of techniques to monitor the flow of work of a team
One technique to monitor the flow of work of a team may be observation. This implicates that the manager watches their team whilst they are working, therefore observing specific behaviours of their team that they have labelled as performance objectives. For instance, if a manager has agreed with the team that their main objective is to contribute more to team meetings, the manager must then observe team meeting to analyse which team members are contributing and which team members are lacking involvement.
Furthermore, another method of monitoring the flow of work of a team can be reporting back. This is where staff members report back to their manager on the work performance. This method is useful as the team members are responsible for providing evidence of the performance they have claimed to do and to also prove that they are meeting the agreed objectives set between them and their manager. For example, if a job requires a certain number of plus hours to be done by team members and it has been mentioned in the contract and signed, then these will need to be done and approved by the manager. Hence, this is one way of observing the work flow of a team.
Similarly, the manager can request and receive feedback from his/her team members and also other individuals such as customers or another department(s). This feedback can be about the work as a whole and different aspects within the work environment. As an example, at Dixons City Academy, we have a team briefing every Monday morning to provide individual updates and also share any information the team should be aware of. Not only does this provide a chance of healthy communication between the team, this also allows the manager to note down the productivity levels from looking at the feedback of how much work has been done and is yet to be done. In accordance to this, individual departments at, Dixon City Academy also have ‘1-1’ sessions every term. This is a meeting between an individual team member and the leader/manager of the team. This provided time for discussion on personal goals and also for the manager to monitor the productivity level of the individual team ember and will also enable the creation of new objectives, if needed.
Last but not least, there are many organisations which have built in CCTV in and outside their building(s). This is usually used to discourage unprofessionalism and to ensure that employees are productive and not violating any business policies. Likewise, this techniques of monitoring the work flow of team members, may provide evidence on misconduct in any conflicting scenario and may also motivate team members to behave diligently. In contrast, it is important to consider all the positives and negatives of video surveillance as some employees may feel that they are not trusted within the organisation, which may lead to a decline in morale.
3.3 Describe techniques to identify and solve problems within a team
Problems within an organisation may commonly occur, however they may also provide opportunities for progress in the work system and also within the relationship between team members. It is important that the issue is identified by the team and their leader, and that each team member’s viewpoint on the issue has been shared and considered.
One of many techniques to identify and solve problems within a team, is to list possible solutions to the issue. This will include clarifying what the issue is and its impact, and then asking each member of the team about their perspectives on the issue and then noting this down. Moreover, when this has been done, the team can evaluate the ideas/options provided and try to select a final idea which all the team agree on and will be the best to use – this may elucidate that positives and negatives of each idea may have to be held into consideration.
Moreover, the leader may need to uptake the responsibility of physically noting down the agreement made by the whole team, as learning it by memory is not safe and will be sensitive to any alterations made to it in confusion. For illustration, at Dixon City Academy, all admin staff have a shared Drive on our computers which gives us access to our Standard Operational Procedures. This allows us to read information about how to handle different tasks within our job – this information has been agreed by all team members before being added and edited in the file. This can then also be edited in the future, when more agreements have also, been discussed and made within the team.
4.1 Describe typical reasons for organisational change
Organisational change can be an ongoing process as society continues to grow and develop, therefore if an organisation wants to survive these changes and progress in their success, they must also adapt to the new situations. Changes within an organisation may result from changes in the internal environment or the external environment. This is because the internal work environment may not only be changed by the organisation’s management policies, styles and procedures, but may also be impacted by outside changes.
One typical reason for organisational change is the development and increase use of technology. Most company’s use technology in order to function throughout every day tasks, therefore if technology is improving, then the technology which an organisation may be currently using will have to also be updated/replaced. However, technology is not the only thing which must be changed, therefore members of the organisation also need to be aware of these changes and learn the skills needed for the technology to work. For example, if a company wants to introduce a new online desktop with its members, this means that the monitors will have to be recycled/disposed of and that the members of the organisation will have to learn the skills needed to use the new desktop successfully. This change may have been needed as the desktop may be more sufficient and give more space in the work environment, when compared to the original monitor.
Adding on, changes made in government regulations can also be one of the typical reasons for organisational change. If there is a new government in order, this inevitably implicates in a new agenda, therefore if there are new rules which have been put in place, organisations may also have to adapt to the change if it impacts the business. For example, newly mandated safety procedures will typically force factories to change its production process in order to create a safer environment and for the organisation to oblige to under these legal rules.
Furthermore, another typical reason for organisational change may be performance gaps. This change may be due because the objectives of the organisation are not being met or that some needs of the organisation are not upholding satisfactory standards. Hence, changes are required to close these gaps after goals and productivity can be evaluated. For instance, at Dixon City Academy, Data Collection Sheets were usually given out to all year groups once a year at a mass, however keeping track of these was difficult or confidential information had the chance of going missing, if not handled responsibly. This resulted in a change needed to be made, therefore, now Student Reception send out Data Collection Sheets for a single year group each term. This allows Student Reception to track and outstanding Data Collection Sheets at a productive pace and store them safely without misplacing any.
4.2 Explain the importance of accepting change positively.
In most circumstances, change to an organisation is put forward for the benefit of the organisation and its team members. A negative reaction to change or refusal of its acceptance may lead to unemployment or an incoherent work style. Some team members may feel a sense of fear when hearing about change, as this may be fear of the unknown outcome of it, therefore, all team members should be motivated and comforted in order to help manage their concerns and look for methods to modify to change and embrace the new environment.
To try and accept change positively, an individual may take time to acknowledge the change and the reasons which support it and how it may be the ultimate benefit for the organisation. To embrace positivity, an employee may even want to take support from their manager/leader, this could be done by arranging a meeting and being introduced to the change individually rather than as a team. Accepting change negatively, may not only damage an individual’s work performance but it may also impact other team members, emotionally or in their productivity too. To overcome change, organisations may try different methods, for example, an organisation may trial the change for a couple of weeks or three months to see if it has a positive impact. Not only do team members get to experience the change beforehand, this may also change their acceptance from negative to positive, if the trial is successful.
In addition, an individual may also find it useful to communicate and participate in the evolvement of this new change, which may make them more comfortable to the new environment. Allowing change to overtake your workplace and not knowing what it involves will not only cause future issue such as not being up-dated on certain information but will also make you more uncomfortable to the idea of change itself. One way a team member may be able to participate in the change is by going to meetings where the change will be discussed, for example, team briefing or an assembly. This way, individual team members get to know more about the change with the support of their peers, which may lead to positive acceptance by the team as a whole.
4.3 Explain the potential impact on a team of negative responses to change
When team members resist a change taking place at work, they may feel less optimistic and confident about their professional future with the company. This may be common if there is a lack of communication regarding the change taking place. Among other negative impacts of resistance to change, lowered morale can affect all team members, which may create issues with both hiring and firing of team members.
When a team members’ focus on resisting change is greater than their focus on their everyday job, this causes a negative impact on the productivity of their work. If some team members are becoming less productive and focused on their tasks, this may damage the change taking place as the change may be for the intention of increasing productivity and a team’s efficiency. If there are many negative responses to change, the team’s daily productivity may decline a as whole, which negatively contributes to the success of the team.Thus, changes may be lead to be re-considered.
An additional potential impact on a team which negative responses may have, is the sudden outburst and commotion it may cause in a working environment; this may also lead to antagonistic attitude to management within the team. If other team members are disturbed by the ongoing irritation of their team members in their environment, this may spread some negativity amongst them as well. This may encourage them to behave in a similar manner, as the change has caused negativity to impact them through another team member’s behaviour. Consequently, this may cause greater unrest among team members and team efficiency.
4.4 Explain how to implement change within a team
There may be multiple methods in order to mitigate the negative impact of resistance to change within a team. It is critical that management displays support for any change and implicates that support in their interaction with their team members. Simultaneously, it is significant that a leader is confident and positive about a change that is planned to be carried out. If the leader notices that the change is risky and indicates clear sign of failure or damage, it is best for the leader or a managerial team to prevent actioning upon it or further discussing it.
Moreover, one way to implement change within a team is to create or highlight a reason for change. A reason for change can be achieved from different sources of information, such as a result of data collected from a customer satisfaction survey, employee satisfaction survey or budget constraints etc. Using legal/statistical data is a general method to identify and rationalise why there is a need for improvement.
Another method to implement change within a team may be to involve team members to some extent, in meeting or interactions which discuss change. Whether the change is large or small, it must be explained and communicated to team members as it may affect how employees perform their jobs. Team members are those who are most likely to be impacted by change, therefore it is crucial that they are given time to understand the reason behind change and participate in developing it. Poor communication may lead to the creation of rumors of change, therefore this may cause resistance to the change as team members feel disheartened that they have not been informed about it. Hence, being proactive in communication within the team, may reduce the chances of team members resisting as they are more likely to feel more part of the process. This can be done through methods such as team assemblies, where the change is explained and discussed by the team leader and questions are also answered at the end of it.
Furthermore, change can be implemented within a team through organization of a timeline for the process of the change to be carried out. This timeline or systematic way of organizing the change should deal with team members and other aspects of the organisation which may be impacted by the change – this is because, sometimes a team may need to adjust to the change before it actually takes place, as this will increase the chance of success of the change and the reaction of the team. For instance, if an organisation is upgrading its software program, employees must be trained on how to use it before the program is installed – therefore an effective timeline may lay out training sessions needed before the change takes place. An example of this, at Dixon City Academy, we introduced a new method of receiving the goods that we purchase. Before this new method had been actioned upon, multiple training sessions and a staff briefing was taken place, in order for all the staff who purchase goods to be prepared and confident with the new process method. The afterschool briefing, lasting 45 minutes, was full of useful information and practical examples on how we can goods receipt our order.
In conclusion, when a change has been made, it is useful for an organisation to assess the impact of the change and if it is effective as it was intended to be. This may be done by a survey, meetings with individual departments and even a review between managers/leaders.
5.1 Explain the meaning of the term ‘motivation’
The term ‘motivation’ describes a reason(s) which stimulates someone/something to behave in a specific way. These reasons may encourage positive behaviour and negative behaviour, depending on what situation the individual is in. Motivation can be used in any circumstances, whether it be a personal aspect or a public aspect. For example, if an individual wants to become healthier, they may research all the health benefits of different foods which will then motivate them to go out and buy different foods which help different parts of their body.
When it comes to motivation within an organisation, motivation is the concentration of desire which an employee feels like they should perform, therefore if it is positive motivation, the employee will ultimately perform ton their best potential and productivity levels will be high, however if it is negative motivation, the productivity levels and effort will be low. Without motivation, productivity levels within an organisation begins to suffer, which can lead the team to fail their goals and objectives. Consequently, high and positive motivation allows employees, managers and the company to run smoothly and increases any chance of success.
Motivation in an organisation or within a team usually stems from the manager/leader, as they have the responsibility in their role to encourage productivity and highlight the need for commitment and dedication. if the manager is confident, considerate and motivational, then this will reflect on the team members. In order to keep their team members motivated, managers need to ensure that their team members are aware and feel that they work they do has an importance, therefore the manager may demonstrate this in many ways such as displaying a bar chart to indicate how healthy performance has impacted the organisation.
Moreover, another example of motivation within an organisation is when team members feel that they are treated fairly. This conveys that managers must not treat individual employees as inferior or superior to together when it comes to manners of communication and kindness, as this may cause jealousy or pain other employees in doubting their self-worth or appreciation within the workforce. Thus, this inevitably decreases any motivational factors. Similarly, a manger may also put in the extra effort to reward good and efficient work, this could be done through things such as a bonus, staff treat, trip or appraisal. Rewarding team members may increase motivation as the team members may feel appreciated and they will also acknowledge that all their effort is noticed by their team leader and will be rewarded when due. For further example, at Dixons City Academy, the admin manager treated her department to a Christmas breakfast, in a method to show appreciation and a thank you for all the hard work done throughout the school terms. This illustrated that all the hard work and effort staff had put in, was recognised and appreciated, therefore this may motivate the staff to continue working at a string and healthy productivity level.
5.2 Explain factors that affect the level of motivation of team members
A motivated and successful team has a leader which creates a vision and common team goals to maintain the motivation of their team members over a long period of time. Team managers must demonstrate the growth, success, future goals to the team as this is not only informative to team members but may also motivate them in their strife for success. Therefore, this suggests that frequent communication and team-involvement is essential and that spending quality time with team members will increase their understanding and enables them to increase in motivation as they feel more involved in projects.
Furthermore, change is one of many constituting factors which may affect the level of motivation of team members. Organisational change can be an ongoing process as society continues to grow and develop, therefore if an organisation wants to survive these changes and progress in their success, they must also adapt to the new situations. When change occurs within an organisation, negative or positive motivation may vary depending on how many team members are in content with the new change taking place. To try and stimulate positive motivation between team members, managers may decide to trial the change or train staff to work under the change before it officially takes place. This may allow staff to become more comfortable with the changing environment and therefore also manage to comprehend the need of this change, consequently being motivated to embrace ti and use the change in the best and effective way they can.
Nonetheless, in some scenarios, political or ethical issues within the external environment may also impact motivation levels in the internal environment of the organisation. For example, if taxes are increasing or interest because there is a new government or a new law which reiterates this, members of an organisation may not be happy with this and therefore, this may reflect in their productivity when working. As an additional illustration, if a manufacturing company decides to change shift times to times which are inconvenient for most workers, these worker may also lack further motivation as they feel like they have been treated unfairly; some employees may even decide to seek another job which is better suited for them. This suggests that if change is negative, then this results in the decrease of motivation, however if change can be for positive reasons, team member’s may become motivated to work more efficiently and help the growth of the company’s success.
Moreover, communication is also a strong contributing factor to the level of motivation of team members. This is because if there is a healthy communication between team members and their leader(s), then team members are updated with any changes or information they need to know; they also may feel more involved with the organisation and create healthier bonds with those that they work with. This conveys that inadequate and ineffective communication decreases motivation levels or may even turn to negative motivation, hence, leading to a fall in productivity. Consistent communication plays a significant role in decision-making as team members can discuss issues, changes or developments before making any final decisions and agreements. Additionally, communication is also beneficial to personal and career development as team members may learn additional interaction skills which may introduce them to further opportunities. Thus, healthy communication is suggested to lead to healthy motivation as it plays a pivotal role in encouraging team members.
5.3 Describe techniques that can be used to motivate team members
Motivational techniques can be used fruitfully for encouraging team members to make positive contributions to their workplace, so they are able to achieve organizational objectives
One technique which can be used to motivate team members can be assessment. If the leader creates a specific termly date to have a meeting with individual members of his/her team, this may lead to the team member’s motivation. Praising individual team leaders on their current work may motivate them to keep up the good standard or even try to excel in their skills and strategies. Within these meetings, a team leader can also make comments of improvement of a team member, this can be said in a understanding and polite manner but should also be encouraging. It is likely that the individual will want to prove him/herself worthy of their role so will try their best to work better and progress. Likewise, these team reviews do not need to be carried out individually all the time as they can also be done as an overall team review; during assembly or staff briefing. This technique can bring about the awareness of what a team or its member is doing well in and if they can improve, both facets which may help motivate team members.
Likewise, team leaders may also analyse organisational goals and progress during meetings. This technique can be used to demonstrate how team member’s effort and productivity has helped the company and the success they may have surpassed –this can be done by looking at rates of feedback or graphs etc. During these meetings, the leader may also describe and vision the potential future success of the company if team members can exceed expectation or continue working at the current exceptional levels. Discussing future possibilities and goals can lead to team motivation, as team members may want to try their best to achieve it when reviewing what success, it may bring. Similarly, when discussing progress rates, team leaders may also explain the consequences the organisation may face if productivity levels are low. This negative review may become positive motivation for team members as they will try not to succumb to the failure of the organisation, although, any future consequences must not be explained to team members in an unrealistic manner, therefore it should be statistical or a logical/possible idea. This is because team members will only be motivated if future issue seem realistic and possible, on the other hand, if team members acknowledge that the threats the organisation may face in the future is unrealistic and exaggerative, motivation and trust will be lost.
5.4 Explain how having motivated staff affects an organisation
Employee motivation is integral; therefore, the more motivated staff are, the higher their work performance will be. This is because when staff feel dedicated to their role in a workplace or have been positively influenced by their leader/manager, they may want to perform to the best of their ability, demonstrating the skills they bring to the organisation. Additionally, when staff members are motivated, they can help improve a company’s performance which can lead to positive comments about the organisation and more customers (depending on what kind of company it is). In contrast, if staff members of a company are not motivated, this implicates multiple negative impacts on an organisation as they may portray a negative attitude and their work performance will ultimately be poor.
When all the staff of an organisation are motivated, they also work well together as they may display positive attitude to one another. When the bond between team members/staff is strong, healthy and effective, it suggests that the foundations of the organisation are also very similar, therefore the organisation is more likely to succeed in their objectives and future goals. In stark contrast, if staff do not work together coherently, the foundation and function is weak, less-productive and holds the chance of failure. This elucidates that having motivated staff affects an organisation positively as staff will want to work well together to achieve success, however if they are not motivated, the productivity of the organisation is lacking and holds the potential to damage business.
In stark contrast, when an organisation encourages employee motivation, the company must also make sure that the motivation they are promoting is suitable for the company and can be controlled. This may implicate that a organisation may not want to encourage motivation too much on their team members. This is because, if an employee works to exceed in the expectations they are told to meet, they may achieve these and more, therefore self-esteem can sometimes lead to high levels, where employees feel like the organisation is not able to provide further training or opportunities to meet their standards. Consequently, this may lead to an ego amongst other workers or the employee leaving work to find a job which better suits their skills and potential – this impact the organisation negatively as they will need to try and retrieve a new employee which may take valuable time.
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