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Organization Theory and Motivation Theory in Schools of Management

Info: 9173 words (37 pages) Dissertation
Published: 11th Dec 2019

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Tags: Management

Task 1

Organization Theory

 

There are three main school thoughts in organizational theory and management theory. These are scientific theory, administrative theory and bureaucratic theory. Scientist is an approach within classical management theory emphasizing the scientific study of working methods to improve workers’ efficiency. Representatives of this approach are Fredrick Winslow Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gillbreth and Henry Gantt. Taylor is called the father of scientific management. Born in a relatively wealthy Philadelphia family, Taylor was an apprentice pattern maker and machinist for a local firm before moving to Midvale Steel.

The strengths of this theory are that Taylor supported the use of wage incentive schemes. He argued that workers should be paid from 30 to 100 percent more for using scientifically developed methods of working and reaching daily standards. A Taylor study on the steel of Bethlehem focused on Palear. Until it introduced scientific management, workers used their own tools at work. Taylor saw that workers could use the same shovel for both iron and ashes, although the relative weight of the materials was 9.5 kilograms. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

In addition, due to Taylor’s approach, productivity increased. To remedy the situation, he proposed using the movement studied to expedite the masonry process. Frank designed special scaffolds for different types of work, designing a precise direction for the consistency of the mortar. On the basis of these ideas increased productivity.

The weakness of this theory is that scientific management because of its explicit aim of obtaining more production of workers. Because the incentive system would dehumanize the workplace and reduce the workers to little more than drones. Later theorists recognized that Taylor’s views on employee motivation were inadequate and narrow. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

The managerial approach focused on the main that managers should use to coordinate the internal activities of the organization. The main contributors are Henri Fayol and Chester Barnard, both executives of large companies. The theory of general responsibilities of a clear division of labor delegation of power requires a philosophy of government within the system that is relevant to their managers. This Fayol the view that to increase efficiency and improve management of education processes and can say it is more important than the top down. He stressed the importance of forecasting and planning practice in order to improve productivity in the workplace training in the management of Fayol.

The strengths of this theory are that Fayol in relation to the management and management of human factors and behavior. Fayol emphasized, first, that a more-down view of the above, and then focused on employee education and management in improving moving processes. It is believed to increase the efficiency of the organization to focus on Fayol management practices to minimize misunderstandings. Labor division of the ground chain, command, centralization and unity for the future of the researchers elaborated in terms of basic understanding of the affected space, such as Fayol, and gave them also. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

The weakness of this theory is that Fayol certainly woke up to feed and organizational behavior. It had all the organizational conditions that can be identified from the concept of universal principles that were applicable; It focused on the formal structure of the organization and were the only organizations; Management and paternalistic. Fayol, both desire and idea reinforce the needs of individuals and groups; As a result of their rational approach is suitable for individuals and groups lack the structures and properties of people; therefore, the table established in the 14 universal principles of organic did not have to adapt to the organization. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

Bureaucratic administration, which considered the need for an organization to operate rationally rather than relying on arbitrary proprietary and managerial whims. The bureaucratic approach is based mainly on the work of German sociologist Max Weber. Weber was born into an affluent family with strong political and social connection. He worked as a consultant, teacher and author. Among his most important management contributions are his ideas about the need for organizations to operate more rationally.

The strengths of this theory are the study and rules and procedures for employee behavior, which leads to workers. Employees are required to follow the rules of the management process, etc. becomes easy. The selection process of the promotion is based on merit and experience procedures. This will help put the right people in the right jobs. There is maximum utilization of human resources. It allows you to grow into organized cantered care systems in large and complex organizations with clear formalized goals.

The weakness of the theory is that not the employees of the organization to develop and membership. They are proven, like machines, not people. There they neglect the human factor. Employees will resist any changes in the system so that they become the activities of the new techniques, introduction. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

Now I will compare divisional structure and hybrid structure. The divisional structure is a type of departmentalization with positions grouped by products, services or market similarity. In a divisional structure, each division has important functional resources to pursue its own objective without relying on another division. For example, the structure of the seven telephone divisions of Bell Atlantic Corporation, a regional operating company that provides local telephone service to customers in several states of the United States. If the division is organized functionally, all the telephone operators would be grouped in a central operations department. Instead, with a divisional structure, telephone operators and repair personnel are assigned to the division so that each one operates fairly independently. In this case, the divisions operate as separate companies. The divisional structures are called autonomous structure since each division generally contains the whole principal function.

                              Chief executive Officer

 

President New jersey bell

President Diamond state telephone

President C&P of Maryland

President C&P OF telephone

Wash.D.C

President C&P West Virginia

President C&P Virginia

President

Bell of

Pennsylvania

The hybrid structure is a form of departmentalization with elements of functional and divisional structure at the same management level. It incorporates the advantages of both structures. Many organizations, especially large ones, are created to benefit from resource use efficiencies, economies of scale, or in-depth experience. At IBM, functional departments manage areas such as communication, finance, human resources and research areas where in-depth expertise is important and resources are most effectively used in a functional arrangement. IBM decided not to give each division sales and group service. Instead, IBM centralized the sales and services function in a separate division organized by geography. Functional department in a hybrid design are called corporate department, since they usually have personal authority in relation to the division department, and departmental division division helps to align division and corporate goals. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

IBM’s Hybrid Structure

               Board of

               Director

 

Management Committee

  1. Chairman of the Board
  2. President

Two senior vice president (C) AND (D)

Functional departments

      A

     A

      A

      D

       C

      A

  • Communications
  • Marketing & services
  • Quality
  • Information & telecommunications system

Senior vice president, Personnel

Vice president, Science & Technology

Vice president & General Counsel

Vice president, law & external relations

  • Controller
  • Economics
  • Real estate & construction
  • Secretary & organisation
  • Strategy & business develop
  • Treasurer

Research division 

  • Manufacturing
  • System & programming

       B

       D

IBM Credit Corporation

      B

       C

     C

      C

Senior Vice president & general manager, IBM United State

Senior vice president &president, IBM World Trade Europe Middle East/ Africa Corporation

Vice president & group executive, IBM World Trade America’s Group

Vice president & group executive, IBM World Trade Asia/Pacific Group

(Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

The comparison between the divisional structure and the hybrid structure is that divisional structure is likely in fairly large organizations with substantial differences across products, services, geographic areas or served clients. Considering that a hybrid structure is used in the organization against considerable environmental uncertainty that are best met with a divisional structure but require functional experience and / or efficiency. On the other hand, a divisional structure is not feasible to organize into autonomous units if the nature of the organization requires sharing common resources, such as costly manufacturing equipment on the other hand a hybrid structure the approach is reserved for medium or large organizations with sufficient resources to Justify the division and some functional departmentalization.

The formal position of energy companies usually has an organizational chart that lists the location of the relationship within the ranks of the company. The table has the official power structure of the company and details the authority of the various positions in the power structure of the line. Formal power of the corporate ladder, can refer to the structure of the company or function, even if the job. For example, the main decision-making power of the company in many areas, when it comes to revenue generation, the sales function to keep the team working on formal powers. Even if a small business does not exist in a formal organizational chart, jobs within the company, employees can easily formalities, activities and recognize the interdepartmental. (Formal and Informal Power, 2012)

The manager is not necessarily the most powerful person in your department. Instead, the most influential person can take a special task to perform with others to achieve a goal, and enjoy the power of that position. Informal power is to lead an organization led by an official referred to in the title, or the ability to achieve it. Derived from building relationships with each employee. The informal power of individuals experienced in a particular area of ​​notions of personality traits may be known, because it shows the most informed or respected. For example, to approve a change in your unit with a stricter worker advantage, or reject it, there is a team that respects loyalty, or because that person may be able to reach your team. Formal power is necessary to achieve the goals of the strategic initiatives of the company, to use the power of the official and unofficial leadership of the organization to identify the objectives of more informal roles, especially in power, or its equivalent. (Formal and Informal, 2012)

Resources – money, knowledge, skills and materials. For example, organizations can decide what issues will be the basis of resources on a regional basis. Elected or appointed position – for example, a City Council member cannot vote on decisions that affect the importance of urban policy. There is a backing of well-respected youth and community support or representative – example of the organizing group, will be able to mobilize hundreds of young people to talk about a problem.

Other or the opinions of others, affects the behavior of the activities, and the act or process of producing. Some of the effects of the following sources: Ask about the source of this influence – personal motivation. Individuals who take personal satisfaction in doing the necessary work? That is, how did people treat the vital nature of self? If not, how can people (yourself or others, you) current, you get to do things that you find boring and embarrassing or painful? The capacity of the individual – the influence of the nature of the study and the need to practice is centered on the source. It is a deliberate pace, as well as developing more than by the ability to control their emotions, increases the risk of becoming more important habits and behaviors significantly. No resource is more powerful and accessible Social motivation – our social network, it is not necessarily people. Attempts to ask for change and sometimes change are widely shared standards. Help from friends and social ability- we can be a force greater than the sum of our individual efforts to use correctly. Reward Motivation- Structural change in punishment Jebel. First, trust is in personal and social motivators. Structural capacity – focuses on personal dominance and the ultimate source of influence is moving to improve social and environmental capital. Human behavior has a profound impact on the world. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

It is the command to perform, or to the right. In some ways, it allows the incumbent to act as the designated activities to influence others by direct orders. It allows you to allocate the resources of the organization to achieve the objectives of the organization and its owner. There are three types of organization to determine how much authority. Line and staff of the Functional Authority. The responsibility of each type exists only to enable it to carry out different types of individuals. Line, the existing organization that is the most basic right to the Higher Authority, reflects subordinate relationships. This includes the right to order the production of decisions and subordinates, regarding the nature of sales or finances. People in these areas, the organization behind the line of delegated authority to help them in their regular activities. The staff advises the authority or the power, as well as the helpline that includes the right to ask the officials and the rest of the staff. The staff trains the authority responsible for improving the effectiveness of other officials according to their needs. It does not exist – this includes the right to provide a functional segment of non-standard orders for the organization of this power, which is power. This power is usually assigned to the line or in person by the appropriate personnel. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

It can be said that it can affect the organization of positive and negative electricity. It is about fostering the positive power of productivity in an organization. The strong performance of other assigned employees to supervise staff and employees to perform strongly in the power to make decisions that reward employees. Build confidence in the positive power of employees and the perception of the effectiveness of employee movements. This translates into higher level positions of power through gaining the respect of your employees. When employees have higher retention rates for employees than concerns they have received the right to work in an organization together. If you do not respect negative power – you are the leaders of an employee organization under the power of a negative. The negative effect of this type of leader is to motivate employees to perform other punishments that threaten them with the loss of more than one job, rather than recognizing the hard work of employees or employees with respect to certain individuals. A decrease in the quality of work produced under this type of power not only leads to high turnover rates within an organization. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

The influence of ability is to convince others that their actions can attract a person’s concerns. It is linked to awareness of the influence of the organization. In addition, the influence of the key is decision making, the influence of others on power, which in the organization is related to the organizational structure of the person who has it. Therefore, the consequences of this approach leads to stakeholders should be more strategic. It pursues the objectives of the general impact of the organization on the productivity of employees and motivates the work of the staff in making a success, effective in terms of organizational structure.

Basically, it is able to establish new territory rules, or the decision can be changed at any time by a decision to separate. The impact of authority is more motivating and demotivating. For example, the company director of the company will change some of the procedures, so to adapt to the slow changes in motivation and direction of staff and manager, however, is basically demotivate where the Procedure for the latest changes They are there with them and motivate to fit with the help of their, and how to order, to help, and they are just the last change, instead of bothering to train the employees I know, do not bother in provide. The effectiveness of a particular person is the right person to do something, as some people know when and what to do in the right way for the productivity of the company. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

In traditional delegation perspectives, Managers can use to delegate tasks to their employees. Therefore, it can be said that the string has a direct command directly. On the other hand now, as it is identified in the informal power, the leaders of the employees are the tasks, reason why can be said that it is being reduced to the rank of managers in this way. In general, members of the poles should be representative of the different managers. Despite reducing the workload for employees and managers as leaders and helping to delegate the task, managers remain the leaders of the need not to overlook the right path. The traditional perspective of participation in the early days as well as delegated the completion of the mission of the mash is not involved in the very heart of the organization and design of employees. This was the level of participation of the previous and more, but now in a perspective of current participation, we say, of senior management and other employees in their part of the organization’s productivity. There are far fewer benefits for the organization’s employees. Employees also have incentives given to encourage them to do the thinking and productive in their work. Decision-making in traditional perspectives will look over the traditional style of decision that you are using in your organization. With the change of time, collective decision-making concepts are based on the use of data and situations, however, have changed. Investigate and analyze data and manage well to make any decision. All ideas are analyzed and used all their business, like, for example. Points are taken to decide whether to move forward. This used to be more of a democratic style. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003)

The principles of vertical coordination is an up and coordination of the performance hierarchy of power to individuals and groups. The president of the company or CEO is at the top, and then the middle management division and supervisors who are responsible for manufacturing a number of different departments. It is often referred to as a high organization. Considering the possibility of a vertical structural organization of cooperation between employees and management. After the decisions you have to go through the organizational chart of the meetings and cooperation between employees and managers of the company processes or issues occurring in a highly structured environment that includes constant monitoring.

The principles of horizontal coordination are along the levels with their actions. Line and authority of staff and functional authority – There are two key principles. Operational decisions are largely a horizontal structure of staff, without a single day of middle management is allowed to have their own day. Often large groups of employees report not only a manager. Also called a flat organization. Horizontal organizations are empowering employees to consult with employees to promote the big issues of managing operational decisions every day. The company staff and leads in the production of a set of objectives, there must be some company security policies and the legal reason. Because of a horizontal organization and a staff of their own decisions, cooperation tends to occur more organically. Employees are available to create more open and cooperative solutions in contact with each other. Communication in the organization to move in a horizontal and more organic flow easily from one job to the next group. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003).

The past contribution of vertical coordination had to work late, which led to more disciplined employees with a clear chain is basically a command of coordination and organization, that the organization was made on the basis of the specialization of practice and Work for large organizations, for example, in the past was more than that. But on the other hand in its current contribution it can be said that it remains the largest, followed by the decisions of the bodies still currently carried out by management, which basically helps the smooth running of a company is clearly the result of the Have a successful chain. In my opinion, I think they are more formalized than in the past. In the past horizontal coordination and practice in small groups so that they are not employees of the decision making that make them more motivated and specialized work, as all types of all employees had their opinion. While in the current relevance to the management would make them demonstrate that decisions can be much better, so that people still follow the results of a small group organization, which influence the feel of your organization. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003).

 

 

 

Task 2

Motivational Theory

There are two content thinking schools in motivation which are Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Theory of Assumption X and Y. The hierarchy of needs theory is developed by Abraham Maslow and popular during the early 1960s. He argues that individual needs form a hierarchy of five levels. According to the hierarchy, our first need is survival, so we focus on the basic physiological needs, such as food, water and shelter, until we are sure that they are covered. Next we worry about security needs, or the desire to feel safe, secure and free from threats. Once we feel safe and secure, we turn to the relationship with others to meet our membership needs, which imply a desire to unite and be accepted by others. With this support, we focus on the needs of esteem, which are a double desire to have a positive image of you and to have our contributions valued and appreciated. Finally, we reach the highest level, the needs of self-actualization or the development of our capabilities and reach our full potential. Maslow organized the needs according to their importance in the life of the human being. (Class Notes, 2017).

The increasingly global economy means that managers must realize that people from different countries may differ in the needs they try to satisfy through work. Research has made some difference, as people in Greece and Japan are more motivated by security needs than those in Sweden, Norway and Denmark due to membership needs. The relevance of Maslow’s theory is what kind of people have in addition to their demands, helps us, and helps us find a priority for them. If the loss of your security needs will help you by providing that kind of assistance and support, we will go through the rest of what you need to meet the specific needs of each employee derived from the manager a priority. (Class Notes, 2017)

The next school of content thinking is the theory of the assumption of management X and Y. This theory was developed on the basis of some assumption given by Douglar MC Gregor. Assumptions are about employees and there are two types of employees. Managers can choose and adopt any assumption (a) Theory X and (b) Theory Y. Theory X is the management approach of the domain store. It is assumed that average employees do not like work and avoid it if possible. Because of this most employees need control, direction and correction and threaten the punishment to work effectively. The revenge employees want to be directed, avoid responsibility, have less ambition and want more security. The Y theory is an alternative set of assumptions opposed to theory X. These include employees such as work. External control and direction are not important. People will have self-direction and self-control and show their commitment. They accept and seek responsibility and such employees develop methods of solving innovation problems. In most organizations, employee capacity is used in part. Douglar MC Gregor has advised that the organization should apply theory Y in practice. This will give employees more motivation.

The relevance of the theory X and Y helps to find the figure of how to deal with two different human natures. The manager can take corrective measures accordingly ex-employee will have to really meet their nature, the need for a high level. (Class Notes, 2017)

Process theories address issues related to the operation of the process and are maintained over time; The process can include the degree of effort, concentration and modification of the efforts. The two most important process theories of motivation are the theory of hope and the theory of equity. The concept of expectancy theory is based on the concept that people are motivated by how much they want and the probability that they think they can achieve it. It emphasizes the involvement of the active process and the user’s options in the process.

High performance and desired outcome

Task

Efforts

Leaving the situation or low desired outcome

 Matches

 Not Matches

The valence of the result means attractive or unattractive and the result is being individual. Jones, Georges and Hill point out that assignment abroad, despite their stress, may have a particularly high value for managers because of the high levels of autonomy and the learning opportunities they provide. (Class Notes, 2017)

The next theory of the process of motivation is the theory of equity. It is based on the desire of people to perceive equity and avoid inequity. The meaning of this theory is that people in organizations want to be treated equally.

Motivation to maintain present situation

Equity

Comparison of self with others

Motivation to reduce inequity:

  • Change inputs
  • Change efforts
  • Change self after comparison
  • Leave situation

Inequity

The main difference between the theory of equity and expectation is that the theory of equity suggests that people get satisfaction at work by comparing their reward and effort relationship with others, but according to the theory of worker expectation Perform an action in exchange for rewards that is based on your conscious expectations. (Class Notes, 2017)

The first managerial approach is the traditional approach. In the past (1500-1950) most of the employees used to work at a lower load than they used to change their load at a lower level and basically the work of working at high pressure and at a busy schedule the main reason behind employees Of this strategy were to make money. Management policies were to treat your staff as the closest and trying to make your work schedule very hard and the salary of employees is based on your work result. The contribution in the traditional approach, most companies focused on the prospect of explicit coordination outside of demanding and short-term, problem solving and attention to intangible resources were the organization that has contributed to the organization to manage the business. And pay wages to employees after seeing their work. If the employees are good for the body they gave them prizes for the increase in the future. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2003)

The second managerial approach is the contemporary approach. The contemporary approach is based on reinforcement theory. Reinforcement theory is the theory in which the relationship between the employees and the employee were very good the employees usually motivate their employee for the best result and for this work environment theory becomes very friendly and the level of comfort become On the other hand if some Employee are not doing well then employees give them verbal or written warnings in some cases they can also shoot. The contribution of this theory if we see the time today people as their work because they receive money and get rewards for success. If one does not do well, then the administration has full right to punish. Lately, people do not work well, because they have not been paid compared to work, and none are right. Today all workers are entitled to share their ideas with management and work well in their responsibilities. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2003)

The two management styles are autocratic style and Democrat style. In autocratic style there is less participation in the decision-making of others; leaders generally make decisions based on their own ideas, experience, judgments and beliefs. This style of management very handy in the tasks at hand, it is rarely purposeful and transparent that only group leader passes over the goals or purpose of the organization’s team. In the democratic style, the administrator allows other employees to participate in decision making; the decision is made according to the majority. The conversation of both leadership leaders to employee and vice versa is extensive. Democratic style is very useful when you have to make complicated decisions that need a range of specialized skills.

X Theory and Y Theory: These theories are based on the management and human motivation that was introduced by Douglas McGregor in the sixties. Both theories describe two contrasting models of motivation in the workplace that are applied by leaders in organizational communication, organizational behavior and human resource management, and organizational development. In addition, it states that the worker needs to be motivated or motivated.

X Manager Expectations: X manager assumes that his employees are lazy doing their work and lack interest in the work therefore worker must be handle closely and give punishment to motivate them. This theory ends that management style must be autocratic because in the long run there will be lack of motivation. It is short-term approach so style management is negative motivator. On the other hand, it creates fear in workers and workers begin to think about their personal feelings and needs that are not considered meaningful to their managers. What results the worker begins to ignore the goal of the company or the given task. What leads a negative working people have no idea has the right to work and less flexibility. As more and more people their duty to do, for fear that it would be, but in the long run this theory in practice as incentive motivation factor lack. And manager believes that their workers are motivated and function properly and want to be successful in business. In addition, he said that punishment for motivation is not a good idea. He says that human work is to practice creativity so that Y manager is democratic.

This theory briefly explains the motivators of Maslow and Herzberg in great capacity. The management style is used to be a positive stimulus in the short and long term. In decision-making, they compel human beings to participate and give their ideas. This plays a crucial role in the business incentive to increase your responsibilities and motivation. Therefore, the participation of people in decision making leads to good thinking, ideas and positive way to the workforce.

Managers must design their work very deliberately. The first characteristic of the manager is the simplification of the work. Job design is a technique in which jobs become easier to break in many parts with the intention of increasing human productivity by minimizing the mental and physical efforts they need to complete a complex job. On the other hand this technique also motivate the workers because it is simple to do but doing the same continuously every day worker begins to get bored of a particular job so repetition should be done in the workplace. The second characteristic of the manager is the rotation of the job. Rotation of jobs means the rotation of workers’ tasks so that a daily operation of the organization cannot be effected if any employee is on sick leave or any employee is leaving his or her job. In addition, this technique also makes the worker an expert in all fields of the organization.

The motivational effects of simplifying work is very beneficial to the manger because in this job are made easy to do manager can easily provide new workers and it will also be simple for the worker to learn his tasks and soon be ready to perform in Daily operations. Rotation of work is also very useful for not only for managers is useful for the organization because with this technique the workers get the expert in each filed which helps the manager to handle the sick leaves of workers because the workers are experts in each field So he can adjust between them and can easily complete their daily operations. (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2003)

The motivational effects of the personal result of work will be easy to do therefore the person will not feel tired. Personally expert is in all fields of an organization and the result of the work is very beneficial to the organization as it helps to increase production. Workers will be trained in different positions.

Social influence is defined as the change in attitudes, feelings, thoughts or human behaviors that results from interaction with another group or individual. Social influence is evident by authority, power and conformity. Individualism: Refers to those in which the human being thinks only of them, never care about any social or social issue. They just want their work and jobs done. Collectivism: In this human does not think only of them think for society, in addition they care about issues of society and behave very familiarly to each other. In this way they help and prepare themselves to face any problem of collectivism. (Class Notes, 2017)

Individuals who consider themselves self-directed and self-empowered belong to the individualistic culture; we cannot say that they are good team workers because they are less familiar with other people and struggle with themselves. In addition, they use to take self-decision. People who depend on others and have a common place with society belong to collectivism. They are subject to each other, as they are working on an inflation of individuals. They are always prepared in the longing for any support that can help them in their work.

Task 3

Three Profile Leadership study Analysis

Leadership is the exercise of power. However, it is not necessarily what people do in high positions. Leadership is the process of directing and coordinating the activities of a group towards some achievement of collective tasks. Leaders play an important role in: defining and clarifying group goals, making individuals accept collective goals, and selecting and disrupting means of achieving goals. Early leadership theories took a trait approach. The investigations attempted to develop a list of personality and behavior traits that would distinguish leaders from non-leaders. The situational approach to leadership extends the perimeter of the trainees to focus on the situation. Another belief is that there is no leadership style that is optimal for all situations. The most appropriate style depends on the characteristics of the subordinates, the leaders and the situation.

(Graham, 1975)

Management and Leadership

Microsoft’s success is the true example of Bill Gates’ entrepreneurial skills. The success of Bill Gates is very motivating for all future entrepreneurs. His effort, dedication and self-confidence – if _him_ helped him gain everything he has. He is a simple person and slightly conservative with respect to money. It is one of the richest in the world. Young people can be inspired by the life of Bill Gates. One can therefore finish Bill Gates is one of the ideal personalities in the world to truly contribute to total success. (Leadership, direction, 2012)

LEADERSHIP ROLES MANAGEMENT ROLES
  • People oriented process.
  • Leader have follower in the organization.
  • A person leading the peoples for achieving the goals of organization.
  • Look and help to solution of the problems in devices.
  • Task oriented.
  • Focus on managing the work.
  • Managers have subordinates in the organization.
  • There are different strategies and policy in the organization for smooth operating.

Anita Roddick is the founder of “The Body Shop” and known as a transformation leader. Your leadership skills are based on the following principles. Principles of Leadership Anita Roddick followed a basic principle as leader and it was the combination of masculine and feminine values for sustainable development. These qualities have focused on competence, linear and rational thinking on the one hand and cooperation, holistic and intuitive thinking on the other. By instituting these principles, Anita Roddick has found that a mix of economic and social value creation is what gives success. (Burlingham, 1990)

LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT
  • People oriented
  • Achievements
  • Leading people
  • Risk-taking
  • Charisma and influence
  • Leaders have followers
  • Task-oriented
  • Results
  • Managing works
  • Risk-averse
  • Formal authority and position
  • Manager have subordinates

Traditional management and leadership

In my opinion, I think it’s important for a change in thinking. Utilities threaten the traditional business model, because it proves that new approaches needed to ensure any future success. For example, if you use the traditional method of marketing because it is not very effective for many years and has a large market for products and services for customers to choose, it is therefore a need to consider a new method. It is Organizations (word of mouth) and builds a relationship with them to continue operating in the future so that customers understand the value of it is that it is very important. Keep customers informed and up-to-date email and newsletters to their customers, as they are part of the company’s products and services, as recommended by others, which will help the organization’s success.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has provided a new dimension to philanthropy in addressing global issues: malaria, cancer, AIDS. Feeling good while doing well may seem outdated, but it may still be the best way to combat diseases that kill or maim millions of people each year. With his legendary girlfriend and investor Warren Buffet, who also joined, formed a formidable combination. Bill Gates has shown a remarkable degree of consistency in both his business goals and his philanthropic goals – he is a global citizen. (Leadership, direction, 2012)

The key to Anita Roddick’s success and leadership was to focus on her cause of social responsibility. He has expressed support for causes such as Greenpeace, Amnesty International, Saving Tropical Forests and Prohibiting Animal Testing. This created a loyal clientele of consumers who bought products because they felt good about the cause. Instead of high-powered advertising and high-pressure sales, Roddick offered product information as a means to run his business. (Burlingham, 1990)

Leadership Styles

Bill Gates has two different styles of leadership, the first is autocratic style and the second is delegated style.

Autocratic style

Control is fundamental to the nature and administrative practice of Gate. He has an obsession with detail and verification. Exp. Used to sign the expenses of his right-hand man – STEVE BALLMER. It tries to monopolize the software market of the World Wide Web and has had legal problems with the Department of Justice. Microsoft has restricted the ability of its Internet partners to deal with their rivals. Also, he does not like complaints.

Democratic Style

Gates has paid special attention to hiring and retaining the best talent in the software industry. He felt recruiting talented software engineers was one of the most critical elements of the software industry. Gates was looking for many attributes in the recruits. These include the ability to quickly capture new knowledge, the ability to ask survey questions, and an in-depth knowledge of programming structures. Although a large number of potential recruits applied to jobs at Microsoft, Gates assumed that the best talent would never be applied directly. As a result, Microsoft HR managers had to find the best talent and offer them a job. It gives its manager autonomy; his delegates authorize managers to manage their independent departments. (Leadership, direction, 2012)

STYLE STRENGTHS WEAKNESS
AUTOCRATIC
  •  Decisions quickly and efficient- unprofessional choices, the work gets done.
  • It is very easy to approach the creation of an authority when it comes to the information. –
  • Subordinates when there is an absence of uncertain-. After all, there is no basis; there is no reason to challenge the given direction.
  • Made the resentment of people being treated in this way. The high staff turnover often leads to high absenteeism.
  •  The power of a beginning, it is necessary to form formal bureaucracy’s substances, such as a standard function. They are small, entrepreneurial organizations do not tend to do very well. Organizational cultures that foster innovation and continuous prosperity of the team, and they tend to
DEMOCRATIC
  • Team members have high job satisfaction are more productive as they are involved in decision-making. Suggested Staff engaged in creativity.
  •  When dealing with employees of the decision-making process, they may be inclined to feel obligated to make sure it works. Therefore, for those who may be less likely to refuse to work under a democratic leader of a number of changes? It can be a good option, and brought the best out of a team, with all the circumstances, rather than just the best dish, and the best idea from a single soul and ideas.
  • Can slow decision -making. Where it is necessary to speed or efficiency of the circumstances of the prayer. Team members have expertise in order to provide high- quality input.
  • Leader of the democratic struggle in difficult times when you need to quickly make decisions, or at the time of the employees that is not available to comment. Directed by the team members has a weak point when it comes to the best way forward options.

Anita Roddick has two leadership styles that are style of transaction and style of transformation.

Transaction Leaders: This style of leadership needs hard lines between the follower and the leaders. Anita Roddick focuses on subordinate transactions or profit sharing. They believe that workers are motivated by punishment and rewards. The promise of reward from the transactional leader drives workers to their full potential.

Transforming Leaders: Anita Roddick sees herself as social engineers. Anita Roddick seeks to make improvements and changes in the social system and in individuals. Transformational leader enjoys evaluating the weaknesses and strengths of workers or followers and with the help of that information that followers do to achieve their best. These leaders also identify with followers and are inspired by communication with subordinates. (Burlingham, 1990)

Transactional

STRENGTH WEAKNESS
  • Structure is clear
  • Reward and incentives
  • Short term goal
  • Control  rewards
  • More concerned about their jobs.
  • Motivates workers only on base level
  • Lack of higher thinking skills
  • Sometime worker don’t get satisfied with their task and what they get.
  • Never gives a chance to worker for new arrivals.

Transformational

STRENGTH WEAKNESS
  • Structure is clear
  • Reward and incentives
  • Short term goal
  • Control  rewards
  • More concerned about their jobs.
  • Motivates workers only on base level
  • Lack of higher thinking skills
  • Sometime worker don’t get satisfied with their task and what they get.
  • Never gives a chance to worker for new arrivals.

Reference

Bartol, K., Tein, M., Matthews, G., Martin, D., (2003). Management A Pacific RIM Focus. Mc Grew-Hill Australia.

Bartol, K., Tein, M., Matthews, G., Martin, D., (2003). Management A Pacific RIM Focus. Mc Grew-Hill Australia.

Bartol, K., Tein, M., Matthews, G., Martin, D., (2003). Management A Pacific RIM Focus. Mc Grew-Hill Australia.

Burlingham, 1990 this women changed the business forever. Retrieved from https://www.inc.com/magazine/19900601/5201.html

Burlingham, 1990 this women changed the business forever. Retrieved from https://www.inc.com/magazine/19900601/5201.html

Graham, G.-H.(1975). Management- The Individual, the Organisation, the Process.Wadsworth publishing Company Belmont California.

2012 Formal and Informal, http://smallbusiness.chorn.com/difference-between-formal-informal- power.html  

Olytor, 2012 leadership and management. http://olytor.blogspot.co.nz/2012/09/v-behaviorurldefaultvmlo.html

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