National Policies and Initiatives for the 14-19 Year Old Education
Info: 10194 words (41 pages) Dissertation
Published: 10th Dec 2019
Tagged: EducationSocial Policy
The education system set up for the 14 – 19 age range has been pieced together to create a positive stepping stone for learners of all backgrounds while trying to be inclusive of the choices that the learners may make for their future in a globalised economy. The tools given to aid them when deciding a path for their future requires the support of schools, college sand even employers.
The policy’s goals are to close the gap of achievement, giving an equal opportunity to all learners irrespective of their background, disability, race or gender. It is emphasised that developing a range of transferable skills is a key factor when measuring the success of the policy. Allowing learners to be able to study diplomas, NVQs and or VRQs, gives not only options but also flexibility and incentive needed to keep learners over 16 to stay in education. By applying importance on the having a range of curriculum options also gives a wider possibility of a learner leaving education with a qualification. The past has shown that there is clear evidence that many of qualification routes appeal to only a percentage of 14-19 age range learners.
Widening Participation. In relating widening participation to the education of 14-19 age range it will be relevant to understand what is meant by widening participation in the area of education and training and how it is used by my organisation in the education and training of learners within the 14-19 age range. Widening participation is of great significance and forms a key component of the UK and Europe education policy. This policy encourages the increase of learners going to higher education and also promotes the increase in the proportion of those learners from under- represented groups like learners who are from a poor background or disadvantaged background, learners living in areas of economic and social deprivation, learners with disabilities and also those from the ethnic minorities (Danielson, 2010). The concept of widening participation helps the government and many schools as an organisation to address and promote equality and diversity amongst learners. Widening participation helps to address the issues surrounding inequality and treating all learners within the 14- 19 age range with total fairness by giving them equal opportunity to achieve to their highest potential. As an organisation, widening participation has also helped to address the issue of inequalities in participation between learners from different social classes (Danielson, 2010)
Widening Participation is a philosophical position taken by the recent government to re-structure Higher Education and is based upon notions of equality. The aim of this agenda is to offer opportunities to groups within the population, who are under-represented in Higher Education, notably those from socio economic groups such as ethnic minorities and people with disabilities.
The government has targeted these groups in an attempt to increase their presence in the higher education sector. It aims to get 50% of school leavers into higher education. Students from lower socio-economic groups have always found it very difficult to enter and succeed in HE so the government believes extra support should be offered to these students to help them stay on their courses and complete them successfully. Universities are collaborating with schools by offering industry placement schemes and raising the aspirations of people within this group. Academic support and counseling are very important because students from these backgrounds will not be familiar with university culture and they may find it a challenging experience.
In our organisation, we are aware that learners within the age group 14-19 range even though may see themselves as young adults , still need the support of the teacher who have the duty of care and also act as mentors while they are choosing their path way. As a teacher, I ensure that I give them adequate advice, guidance, information and support to my learners and guardians within this age range to allow them to make the most appropriate decisions for the future. The school is very aware that without proper support and guidance given to learners at this stage, wrong decisions could be made which will have impact on them as individuals and also the society as a whole (Snook, 2003).
Within my college, we try to work closely with a wide range of organisations such as educational institutions, businesses, charities, employers and local authorities so that good referrals can be made when necessary for our 14 -19 age group and also to support widening participation while promoting equality and diversity in the organisation. In my organisation, we recognise the importance of good practice and guidance so all teachers are well trained and fully up to date with developments in higher education and related sectors depending on the path way of the learner.
Regardless of the decision made by learner within the 14 – 19 age range either to go in the higher education path way or to go for vocational studies by gaining experience through apprenticeship it is always of significant value that they are taught the skills for life that will be useful to them all through their life time (Roberts, 2006).
Regardless of the decision made by learners within the 14 – 19 age range either to go in the higher education path way or to go for vocational studies by gaining experience through apprenticeship it is always of significant value that they are taught the skills for life that will be useful to them all through their life time (Roberts, 2006).
Every child /learner matters: The pace of change in the modern society is so fast paced that schools need to find a way of adapting to these changes in order to raise children’s/ learner’s achievements and also to improve their general well-being. In the teaching of the 14 -19 age range teachers need to be well equipped by having sufficient training in order to meet the demand of an inclusive education ( Knowles, 2009) The government made a conscious effort to identify that Every child matters agenda that the achievement of well- being in children and learners later in life is predominantly based on five outcomes which borders on children /learners are healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution, achieve economic and social well-being. These five outcomes form the goals for Every Child Matters agenda and all related services that are concerned for the education and welfare of children and learners. As a teacher of the 14- 19 age range it is important under Every Child/ learner matters that I ensure the all provisions made are personalised to meet the needs of my individual learners and that of their families (Cheminais, 2013). It will be of importance that I am able to give adequate information especially in the area of progression to these age range and their families by working closely with a wide range of extended and multi- agency services. Learners at this age would have formed their own personalities and individuals it is important that there is always inclusive practice and promotion of equality and diversity in order to safe guard learners from bullying and other forms of discrimination that may occur in the learning environment. As part of the Every Child Matters agenda being practiced in the school, as a teacher I promote a healthy life style amongst my learners and also allow my learners to have a voice through class room discussions, collaborative work and also allow my learners to have representatives who will act as the voice of the class during meetings relating to the learners (Riesen and Morgan, 2016). As a school, following every Child/ learners Matters Agenda has helped us to nurture and educate our 14-19 years age range as whole child by not focusing on the academics alone but other aspects as earlier discussed to make our learners independent and valuable citizens of the society regardless of the choice of progression.
National curriculum in schools:The national curriculum is usually used for teaching learners in most institutions in the UK. It is a common programme used in school to ensure that there is uniformity in the teaching and the content of lesson that are being taught to learners nationwide. It forms a guide line which all teachers must follow to teach learners to enable them to meet the expected National standard. The national curriculum is structured in different parts which are called the key stages (KS). Lessons are delivered according to the key stage of learners and at the end of each key stage there is a summative assessment done to test students if they meet the national standards. For those the 14 – 19 age range who are expected to be in their key stage 4. As a teacher I always ensure that we follow the national curriculum strictly in order to prepare my learners for their national qualification which is GCSE. Good preparation and support will increase their ability to pass their compulsory national curriculum subjects which are Maths, English, Science and foundation subjects such as ICT, physical education and citizenship. A s a learning organisation as part of catering for the 14-19, age range we encourage learners interest in at least one of these subject areas such as Arts, Designs and Technology, Humanity and Modern Foreign Languages ( Cumming, 2011).
Foundation Learning can be described as a government reform of education for the 14 -19 age range which was formulated to ensure that those learners or individual within this age range are able to cope and survives in today’s precipitously change economy (Wellington, 2002). The foundation learning giving to the 14-19 age range is to ensure that all the people within this age range regardless of their path way are equipped with the necessary basic skills to enable them to thrive in the society. The foundation learning was designed for learners in the key stage 4 and for those who wish to continue in the education path way post 16 and the reform focuses largely on the learners within these age range in the achievement of personal and social skills and also functional skills such as English, Maths and literacy. The foundation learning does not stop learners from achieving other qualifications such as GCSE at level 2 but rather encourages and support them to reach their highest potential to enable them to integrate into the fast pacing society without any itch.
Equality and Diversity ensures removal of all the barriers in the way of accessing to services, learning, achievements and accomplishments. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. Thus, equality is a way to create a fairer society, where an individual can utilize his/her potential to achieve full what he/she aims for. It is also the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment. It is all about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual. It is required by law to make sure that all the learners regardless of their individual circumstances and above-mentioned categories (age, gender etc.) have equal access to the learning session. Therefore, Equality and Diversity Act 2010 is to be complied with in every educational institution.
Equality and diversity can be simply defined to mean equal opportunity for all citizens regardless of their age, gender, sexual orientation, marital status, race, religion, disability, gender reassignment, pregnancy and maternity. In the learning environment especially when teaching learners of the 14 – 19 age range, It is used in to advocate for equality, diversity and human rights as defining values for the society. It encourages all individuals and learners in and outside the learning environment to be treated fairly with equal opportunity to use the resources available to them to achieve their full potential without discrimination or prejudice. Equality of opportunity is a concept underpinned by legislation to provide relevant and appropriate access for the participation, development and advancement of all individuals and group which also relates to the teaching of the 14-19 age range ( Gravels and Simpson 2012). As a teacher, following the key legislation and legal frame work in the area of equality and diversity encourages the full support to be given to all learners regardless of their differences in order for them to reach their full potential regardless of the pathway they have chosen to follow. The promotion of equality and diversity amongst learners in the 14 – 19 age range is essential as to prepare them for the outside world and make them appreciate and celebrate differences (Acas, 2016). It makes the learners aware of the significance of oppression and discrimination and how it can negatively impact on the lives of people affected. In the practice of equality and diversity, it will be relevant to discuss the Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful to discriminate against employees, jobseekers and trainees because of their differences which could come in any form (Peart 2014).Teachers are to educate and promote equality and diversity while teaching their learners as to remove all the barriers that could distort the learning process.
Equality Act 2010 in the UK covers the individuals that are categorized as protected characteristics.
The Equality Act 2010 legally protects people from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society.
Protected characteristics of Equality includes; age; disability; gender reassignment; marriage and civil partnership; pregnancy and maternity; race; religion or belief; sex; sexual orientation. As a teacher, teaching the 14 – 19 age range, one has to be aware of all the protected characteristics as stated in the Equality Act 2010 so that professional boundaries are not crossed, bullying and discrimination are curbed (Thompson, 2011).
All the categorised characteristics may not affect or apply to learners within the 14 – 19 age range but there are some that are important and relevant to discuss for the purpose of this essay.
Sexual Orientation: Sexual orientation can be described to be the preference in the choice of physical and emotional attraction. As a teacher teaching the 14- 19 age range, one should be aware that learners within that age range may be facing self-discovery in area of sexual orientation. Different people have their different sexual orientation which can change over time as there is no set or specified age that an individual can discover his sexual and emotional attraction (Levis, 2007). Some people discover their sexual attraction at a young age while others discover at an older age. Examples are gay people who be attracted to the same sex as them, Lesbian is also used as a word to describe gay women and bisexual are those who are attracted to both men and women. The Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful to discriminate against employees, jobseekers and trainees because of their sexual orientation or preference (Peart 2014).
Religion or Belief: Religion or belief is not a thing that can be enforced on an individual regardless of their age. Teachers should be aware that learners within the age range of 14-19 would have formed their own religious belief and therefore should not be discriminated against for having a religion that is not popular with other learners. The focus should be on their academic achievements not in their choice of religion and belief. It is against the law for a person to be bullied or discriminated against because of his/ her religion or religious belief. Religion is a protected characteristic under the Equality Act 2010 (Kumara and Manfredi, 2012). Section 10 defines Religion to be any religious or philosophical belief and reference to the belief and this also includes a lack of belief and a reference to the person who share a protected characteristic. The Equality Act 2010 also covers those individuals without any form of religious belief which includes the atheists, agnostic and humanists (Prescott, 2016).
Sex: Sex or Gender discrimination in the learning environment is against the law. All learners regardless of their sex in the 14 -19 age range should be given equal opportunity to follow the path way of their choice. Sex discrimination Act1975is one of the acts that was developed against sex discrimination in employment and the provision of goods and services which also includes the learning environment (Levi’s, 2007; Slim and Mokre, 2013). There should equal opportunities for men and women to prove they are capable of performing task given to them. An individual sex should never stand as a barrier. Equal opportunity is a concept that is underpinned by legislation which is important for all teachers to adhere to in order to provide relevant and appropriate access for the participation, development and advancement of all individuals. It is not restricted to any gender or particular sets of individuals (Prescott 2016).
Inclusive practice: As a teacher of the 14-19 age range I am quite aware that one of my responsibilities is to ensure that all my learners are well supported and given the chance to be a part of the decision making in their education. Taking this as a guideline, I would try to include all learners in a session in a way that whatever is delivered, is accessed by all regardless of their disability, gender, culture, age, sexuality, marital status and pregnancy. A facilitator is expected to conduct a session, which contributes to the learning of all the learners equally. It is to ensure that no learner feels excluded at any point. I have in my mind the individual need of all the learners while delivering a session so that all learners have access to my lesson and get equal benefits.
As a teacher, I will give loads of activity so that they will do preparation work before their final exam, for instant I will tell them to do past paper from 2012 till date so that all my learners achieve A grade in their subject
As a teacher of the 14-19 age range it is very paramount that my learners are able to achieve and make the right decisions in the choice of their path way. As a teacher i want to sign students and group contract by allowing students time to brainstorm problems that they face in class and at school. This can be done individually, with small groups, or through a classroom survey. For example, students may state that they suffer from bullying, classroom disruptions, or disrespectful behaviour. Once the problem is outlined I want to discuss all issues by meeting with individual student to work collaborate with students to solve these problems.
As a teacher, I want to make sure that all my learners should provide equality of opportunity to avoid discrimination between learners on grounds of race, sex, disability, sexual orientation, gender reassignment, pregnancy and maternity, and religion or belief. So, as a teacher I have to make sure that I am catering to their educational needs also if one or more need some special help due to any health problems.
As a teacher I must involve the learners in research, community projects, case study etc. and also using projects to increase motivation like puzzles and games. Each learner has their own way to learn, some are very fast, others are slower, and I need good skills to deal with this differentiation so that I can cope with all students. Classifying the learners according to their level of ability, assess the progress of individual learners and to take any required steps and motivate learners to attend classes regularly.
As a teacher, my approach should be flexible so that my learner gets involved in my lesson for that I have to read about the theory of teaching but at the end of the day to be a good coach and give good instruction I must have my own way of teaching and learning (‘theory-in-use). For Example, If I want to work on the basis of Maslow’s theory Of motivation I have to read the theory but I would like to provide additional resources and only develop effective ‘theory-in-use’ because students begin to make up their own ‘story’ of what the topics they learn and they will give me different answers than what Maslow ‘s students gave and I can use a student’s work as a window into their current understanding and improve my own way of equality and diversity.
Drawing on your research, write a reflective journal on your own role and responsibilities in relation to working with the 14–19 age range and evaluate the impact on your own practice of the legislation relating to working with the 14–19 age range
As a teacher, there are different roles and responsibilities that are expected of me to work effectively with the 14 – 19 age range. Some of these includes; working within organisation policies and procedures, meeting requirements of compulsory sector, acting in loco parentis, promoting inclusive practice and student inclusion, challenging inappropriate behaviours, celebrating successes, encouraging self- and peer assessment, encouraging reflective practice, enabling opportunities for building study skills and functional skills. However, I will be discussing four of the rolesand responsibilities.
Promoting inclusive practice and student inclusion
As a teacher, I have made it very important in my lesson delivery to ensure that I promote inclusive practice and also encourage student inclusion. Inclusive practice is one of the key ingredients in my teaching to enable my learners to achieve. This is because it gave all my learners a sense of belonging and every one strived harder to achieve their academic goals. The impact of the promotion of inclusive practise is that it has helped to eliminate the issue of discrimination hence there was good promotion of equality and diversity in the learning environment (Petty, 2004)
As a teacher of the 14-19 age range I am quite aware that one of my responsibilities is to ensure that all my learners are well supported and given the chance to be a part of the decision making in their education. This was always done by ensuring that there was student inclusion and involvement regarding matters that concerned them. There are times that class representatives are chosen for the student’s voice to be heard in the management meetings. As a teacher of the 14-19 age range it is very paramount that my learners are able to achieve and make the right decisions in the choice of their path way. I made sure there was inclusive practice by doing collaborative work with all learners. Collaborative work was one of the teaching methods I devised in the teaching of my 14-19 age range learners. I engaged them in group activities so that they did not only work with their friends but also other learners in the class. Ideas and brainstorming on topic taught are done and shared amongst group members. As an inclusive teacher working with the 14-19 age range I recognise that my learners have their individual differences, lessons so were planned to meet the needs of my individual learners I also made necessary educational interventions to ensure that my learners achieved their goals. I made referrals for my learners who had additional needs (dyslexia, financial, behavioural issues) going through the organisation procedures. To make my class very inclusive I ensured that there was always dialogue between my learners and me by having an open-door policy which allowed my learners to be able to come to me whenever they had any pressing issues to discuss (Gravells, 2011) Challenging inappropriate behaviour is one of my responsibilities as a teacher working and teaching the 14-19 age range. I totally discouraged segregation and bullying amongst my learners by ensuring my learners understood the meaning and also practices of Equality and diversity. I ensured all learners are given equal opportunities to exhale and differences are always celebrated ( Thompson 2011) Offensive use of words are discouraged amongst learners and also interrupting other learners while lessons are being delivered in the class are not allowed. I ensured that I made the ground rules clear to my learners before the delivery of my lessons. Learners who constantly disturbed the class by receiving phones calls are made to stay out of the class (Brierley, 2011). I ensured that learners take permission of absence when they need to stay out of class for any reason. Being late to class was also totally discouraged as this may impact on the level of achievement and also disturb other learners. The entire above mentioned are all stated in the ground rules but when learners over step their boundaries by not following the ground rules, I made sure that I followed organisation procedures in dealing with such issues. There were cases I had to request for a meeting to be held with learner’s parents in order to challenge and curb inappropriate behaviour so that other learners do not follow suit. In other cases where it was unnecessary for the parents to be notified I ensured that I had a one to one discussion to find out the reasons the unacceptable behaviour with learners exhibiting inappropriate behaviour in class (Thompson, 2012)
Celebrating successes of my learners is another responsibility I do not take for granted as a teacher of the 14-19 age range. As a teacher I ensured that I encouraged my learners to become high achievers by celebrating their success. I made sure that all individual and group achievements were recognised by giving them one-to-one and open praises in the class (Gravells, 2011). By so doing, I noticed that others learners strived more to achieve. I am aware that my learners are at an impressionable age and they liked to be praised for their achievements. To encourage good attendance and punctuality I also gave my learners open praises gave out tiny gifts for those who achieved 100% attendance. The celebration of successes amongst my learners has impacted on my practice by the increase in the attendance of my learners. I realised as a teacher that celebrating my learner’s successes not only aids motivation but also helps learner’s progression (Spencer, 2009)
Encouraging self and peer assessment amongst my learners of the 14-19 age range is another responsibility I do not take for granted as a teacher. As self and peer assessment is another way that inclusive practice is done with my learners. This allows learners to take ownership of their learning and gives learners the opportunity to use their analytical skills effectively (Gravells, 2011) Doing a peer assessment has also encouraged collaborative work amongst my learners as they are able to work in groups without any sort of discrimination or segregation. During the peer assessment they are able to bond and share different ideas. The self-assessment that was done by my learners was by the use of a reflective journal. Doing their own individual or self- assessment enabled them to self- evaluate themselves and also do an action plan for areas of improvement and strategies to achieve better ( Gravells and Simpson2012)
Write a sentence here to say how you will now talk about the impact of legal requirements on your practice.
The legal requirements on my practice as a teacher through Self and peer assessment is more likely to impact on student outcomes when there is a move from a dependent to an interdependent relationship between me and students which enables me to adjust my teaching in response to student feedback.
Establishing relevant guidelines and codes of practice: As a teacher of the 14-19 age range, I ensured that all relevant guidelines are followed and also the code of practice that applies to the teaching of the 14-19 age range are always abided to when working with this age range. The guidelines can be said to be the rules and procedure to follow to work as teaching professional, while the code of conduct is the one that states and specifies the standard of professional knowledge, skills, Competence and conduct that are expected of me to have to practice as a professional teacher (Deher, 2012). As a teacher, there are some core values that I am expected to have which are respect, duty of care, integrity and trust and also to reflect the complexity of teaching. When teaching my 14-19 age range students I ensured that I acted with honesty to be able to build their trust in me. I am aware that these age range are very sensitive and for them to relate with me as a teacher and mentor they needed to trust me. I ensued that I dealt with all my learners as individuals and treated their cases with confidentiality. All information gathered from the course of working with the 14-19 age range are never disclosed expect there are some specific disclosures that are required by law if there is any threat to the wellbeing of any of my learners (Gravells, 2011) To ensure there is mutual respect shared between my learners, I usually set boundaries that learners are not allowed to cross like passing unnecessary comments or being rude to me as a teacher when given instructions. I ensured that there were no conflicts between my professional work and private life. Haven said this, I always follow my organisation guidelines to practice as a teacher of the 14-19 age range (Snook, 2003)
Sector- specific CRB checks
Can say in this section that it is now known as DBS
My organisation always ensures that there is a CRB check done before any teacher can be employed to teach their learners. A CRB/DBS Check (or Disclosure as they are now called), is a document containing information held by the police and Government departments. It can be used by employers and voluntary organisations to make safer recruitment decisions. Disclosures are provided by the Disclosure and Barring Service (formerly the Criminal Records Bureau), an executive agency of the Home Office. The sector specific CRB check is done to safe guard all learners and also the school management. It is always important that learners are taught in a very safe and conducive environment to ensure learning takes place. All teachers are charged by law that all those work with children, learners, vulnerable people who have the duty of trust should to have an enhanced disclosure CRB before they are allowed to work (Snook, 2003). This includes teachers, including all the staff in the learning environment. The CRB check is highly recommended for all staff in the learning environment because it brings to the open all the information such as past convictions and any other relevant information that are held by the police or other enforcement agencies that needs to be known before a person gains employment. As a teacher of the 14-19 age range, my records are kept clean even after the CRB check had been done because the teaching profession of a lot of trust and honesty. I am made aware that my organisation encourages widening participation, the 14-19 age range come from different walks of life with different kinds of backgrounds, some from poor background, and some from dysfunctional families. It is important not to damage this group of learners either physically or emotionally because they are at a
point in their lives when they need a clear head to make good and right decisions in relation to their progression (Kumra and Manfredi, 2012)
Up-dating personal and professional skills when dealing with young people. This forms a very essential aspect of teaching. It is always good as a teacher to be well informed and updated about new methods, skills, approaches and curriculum in the teaching of the 14-19 age range (Gravells, 2011). It will be however of significant value as a teacher to always do some continuous professional development (CPD) or Personal Development Planning (PDP) in order to be relevant and confident in the teaching profession (Gravells and Simpson, 2012). The continuous professional development is a way that I am able to track and document the skills and knowledge I have developed as a teacher which can be formal or informal. It serves as a record of what I have learnt, experienced as a teacher and how I how I apply the knowledge I have gained into my teaching practice (Rogers, 2003). The CPDs I had done in the past helped me to be develop new skills, methods and strategies in teaching my learners of the 14-19 age range especially in the area of behavioural problems when a learner just blatantly refused to follow the ground rules and disturbed other learners from concentrating in the class. The CPD’s I had attended also gave me a better leg to stand as a teacher and mentor in the area of giving advice to my learners in the area of academic progression. My personal development plan helped me to become more self-aware as a teacher and to be able to critically think and make concrete plans for the future as a teaching professional. PDP has encouraged me to be more self-reflective in the areas of my achievements in meeting the learning goals of my 14-19 age range learners if I have been able to guide them in a positive way in the choices of their path way (Snook, 2003).I have learnt to capitalise on my strengths as a teacher based on the achievements of my learners, I was able to able to identify new skills in my teaching practice and also able to set new goals for myself as a teacher.
Task 2: Analyse the relationship between schools and other providers of learning for the 14–19 age range
To analyze the relationship between schools and other providers of learning for the 14-19 age range, you have to realize that the school cannot work in isolation when it comes to training and development of learners in the 14 -19 age range. They work with other providers of learning that are applicable to the 14-19age range when it comes to choosing their path way. The school and colleges must therefore establish and form a relationship with other providers of learning and employment in order to support their 14-19 age range learners to make a successful transition post 14, post 16 into Further, Higher Education or employment (Willis, 2009 ; Roberts, 2006).
As a learning organization it is important to understand that young learners at the 14-19 age range differ in their choices. It is however always important benefit to be able to give adequate support to learners irrespective of the choice of progression they make (Pike, 1989).The school, teachers and also guidance professional are expected to be knowledgeable and adaptable to alternative choices that are available for the learners and adequate referrals should be made when necessary to get the best advice. This should be done to widen the choices that are available to learners of the 14-19 age range (Golden and O’Donnel, 2006). The change in the curriculum in recent years gives young people of the 14-19 age range the opportunity to be able to make decision across four path ways which includes GCSEs and A levels, Diplomas, Apprenticeships and the Foundation Learning they are also able to choose the specific subjects they will study and also the location for the choice of their stud (Wilkinson, McNutt and Friedman,2003). As a teacher who practices equality and diversity, it is always essential to give good support to the 14-19 age learners even though they do not follow the more established pathway which is GCSEs and A levels. For those that do not want to take the educational pathway, the school should be able to liaise with employers that could take the learners up for apprenticeship to gain experience. A specially designed vocational taster programs or apprenticeship in potential employer’s premises can help in widening choices for the 14-19 age range (Golden and O’ Donald, 2006) At no point should any learner be forced to choose a path way that he /she is not willing to take or does not have interest in because learners are different with different characteristics and area of interest. Different areas of interest regarding pathways should always be supported to encourage widening choices (Watson, Beswick and Brown, 2012).
Developing links to Industries
In order to increase the choices that are available to learners of the 14 -19 age range as they chose their various pathways, it will be important for the school to build good relationships with different employers in order to be able to create links to industries for learners who do not want to go the educational pathway. This can be achieved by making referrals for the 14-19 age range for vocational education that will help to prepare them for future employment ( Wellington,2002) Vocational education in preparation for employment can be achieved through apprenticeship, internship and also work based learning that will enable learners to see the nature of work they have chosen and are still able to make amendments if they are not convinced with the choice of work will be appropriate for them (Maier and Warren, 2000)
Increasing Flexibility of Provision
It will be of enormous benefit for the school if they are not too rigid with provision and choice in the curriculum so that the individual needs of the 14-19 age range learners can be met. The increase in flexibility of provision provided for the 14-19 age learners will allow them to reach their full potential and also encourage them to fulfil their individual dreams and aspirations (Crowne, 2009). The provision for increased flexibility in schools is a response to the ‘status zero’ problem as pinpointed by Instance and William (1996). They identified that the 14-19 years range that were grouped under the status zero were those learners within this age range who disappeared each year from the official statistics both local and national level and did not pursue any career in both education and vocational studies ( Duggal, 2005). Increasing flexibility of provision can be related to curriculum flexibility which simply implies the strategies schools and local authorities utilize when creating curriculum that will take into account the local circumstances, the needs of their individual learners within the 14-19 age range, that will meet the demands of the stakeholders and the society in general, that will also encourage the 14-19 age range learners to become achievers and make good progression (Cheminais, 2006). It will beneficial for schools to increase their flexibility in the provision for the 14-19 age range because this will give a better chance for achievement and highest quality of quality of education amongst this age range. Increasing flexibility of provision will also help in developing talents amongst the 14-19 age range as their will be better interest in the choice of progression if they are not being forced to a pathway that is not of any interest to them. Crown (2009) expressed that interest is always a key aspect of learning.
Task 3: Analyse teaching, learning and assessment approaches for use with 14–19 learners
In order to analyse teaching, learning and assessment approaches for use with 14-19 learners, it is important to carefully choose the use of systems, methods and approaches that will be suitable for this age range. As a teacher, it will be wrong not to constantly review and also assess the effectiveness of the method and approaches being used from time to time in order to allow learning to take place (Mackeracher, 2014).
Analysis for Teaching and learning using Kolb’s experiential learning
The process of teaching and learning has been described by Kolb (1984). He explains it as “a process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience.” The internal cognitive processes Kolb’s theory discusses works on two levels, both a four-stage process; a cycle of learning and separate learning styles. The cycle consists of the concrete experience, taking you to a reflective observation, then abstract conceptualization and finally an active experimentation. Kolb’s explains that the learner must touch all bases of this learning cycle.
He believes that experiential learning is a singularly powerful approach to teaching and learning that is established on the fact that people learn best through experience and the motivation for the development of new concepts is provided by new experiences (Kolb, 2014). The bulk of Kolb’s theory is more centred on learner’s internal cognitive processes. Kolb further explained in his theory that learning takes place when knowledge is created by the transformation of experience (Kolb, 2014).
Explain how you use Kolb’s theory in your practice.
Kolb is of the opinion that learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. He believes that experiential learning is a singularly powerful approach to teaching and learning that is established on the fact that people learn best through experience and the motivation for the development of new concepts is provided by new experiences (Kolb, 2014).The bulk of Kolb’s theory is more centred on learner’s internal cognitive processes. Kolb further explained in his theory that learning takes place when knowledge is created by the transformation of experience (Kolb, 2014). As a teacher I ensure that all my learners should experience different style of assessment and would get better grade in their studies. So that I want to always set a mock test as their initial assessment to improve pupils cognitive abilities
Information and learning technology (ILT)
Information and Learning Technology (ILT) can be described as a way of using technology to enhance the learning experience in the teaching of the 14-19 age range. The use of information and learning technology is another way of making learning inclusive for the 14-19 age range. Learners are encouraged to improve their ICT skills by searching the internet for key words and topics that taught in the classroom. Providing information and technology forms an integral part of the learning experience in the preparation of the 14 -19 age range for their progression either in academics or vocational work (Roberts, 2006). ILT allows the teacher to give a wide range of support for different individual needs of the 14-19 age range learners as different learners with different needs are well catered for including learners with hearing impairment (the use of public address system), sight impairment (increase in font sizes of printed handouts and presentation slides), information can also be brought to the table of learners with mobility issues with the use of ILT (Morden, 2013).
Workshop for practice of skills
Kolb’s experiential learning theory is a singularly powerful approach to teaching and learning that is based on the fact that people learn best through experience (Kolb, 2014). Further to this the four learning styles are: diverging (feeling and watching), assimilating (watching and thinking), converging (doing and thinking) and accommodating (doing and feeling). Kolb’s theory explains that all four stages has an effect on the students learning. But accepting and understanding that everyone not only interprets things differently but also people do things differently, Kolbs has taken his theory as a stepping stool in describing how a teacher should carry out their lessons and develop further appropriate learning objectives. By applying the tasks and activities to the way the student learns they will strengthen their skills and knowledge. This will be applicable to the teaching of the 14 -19 age range by encouraging this range of learners in project based learning to improve their wider skills such as problem solving, analytical skills and their critical thinking ability. Doing this will prepare the 14-19 age range in their progression. The experiential learning when it comes to relating it to the 14-19 age range in regards to workshop for practice of skills can also be useful when in the area of embedding the minimum core in the teaching of the 14-19 age range which will enable them to function independently as they follow their different pathways (Javis, 2010 ).
The initial Assessment conducted for the 14 – 19 age range involved giving them a test on functional skills which are numeracy, literacy and ICT. For the 14 – 19 age range the Initial assessment forms an important part of their learning journey. It provides the information needed to decide a learner’s starting point and also the area of progression and how support can be given for this age range to achieve their goals. The initial assessment is a kind of benchmark from which learners’ progress and achievement can be measured (Willis, 2009). For the 14 – 19 age range learners, I used the initial assessment as a teacher help to establish the choice of my learner’s path way. The initial assessment assisted to create a starting point in decision in such a way that the learners can see how much he or she had achieved during the course of study and helped to foster a more reflective approach to learning( Avis and Thompson, 2014) On the other hand , the initial assessment done for the 14-19 age range of learners will enable the teachers to effectively plan to meet the individual needs of the 14-19 age range learners, review learners needs and progress and achievement which will enable the teacher to give adequate advice and support in the choices made by the 14-19age range learners ( Davis, 2008 ). The initial assessment for the 14-19 age range when relating it to Kolb’s theory can be referred to as the concrete experience through which the progress of the learner can be measured (Snook, 2003). The initial assessment is carried out can also helped in identifying the target, goals and learning styles of learners within the 14-19 age range ( Davis, 2008 ) . Kolb identified four types of learning styles in his theory which he described as the conditions which learners can learn better. He described some learners as assimilators, who learn better when presented with sound logical theories to consider, and the second ones as the convergers who are better learners when they are provided with practical applications of concepts and theories , while the third are the accommodators, who are the group of learns who learn better when provided with “hands-on” experiences and the fourth group of learners as the divergers who learn better when they are allowed to observe and collect a wide range of information (Kolb,2014).
The formative assessment
This is one of the assessment methods used when teaching the 14-19 age range in order to encourage learning for this age range. The formative assessment is a continuous process that takes place during the learning process which helps to provide and identify the areas of improvement for the 14-19 age range before their summative assessment while considering their area of progression. The formative assessment can allow learners and teachers to work collaboratively to draw an action plan on the basis of evidence report of the formative assessment (Thompson, 2011).The formative assessment provides learners with quick feed on their performance and allows room for reflection in terms of how performance can be improved.
Diagnostic assessment is more specific assessment that is focused to a subject area unlike the initial assessment which focuses generally on functional skills like maths, English and ICT. Diagnostic assessment is an essential device in a teacher’s “tool kit” in the teaching of the 14 -19 age range. It can be used to diagnose strengths and areas of need of learners in this age range as they prepare for their different pathways. Diagnostic assessment involves the gathering and careful evaluation of detailed data using students’ knowledge and skills in a given learning area (Keller,2011).The data collected will assist the teachers to plan for appropriate support and enable targeted learning to more effectively scaffold the learning needs of the 14-19 age range.
On line testing
There are many ways to improve a student’s learning and I found online testing to be one of those techniques. As all students learn differently, some students also prefer to be tested differently. This helps with those who may have a writing disability. Having students conduct a test online gives the teacher the ability to assess and evaluate different ways in which students learn and test.
The on-line testing is used as another way of testing the knowledge and understanding of the 14 – 19 age range learners also. It allows the learners to familiarise themselves with the use of information technology. On line testing is designed in a way that learners can get an instant feedback which can allow the teacher to give all the adequate support in the areas where the learners fall short (Danielson, 2010).
I have found one of the best tools to not only build confidence in the student but to encourage students to build a positive peer rapport is through the use of peer-assessment. When students are able to see what other learners are doing, how well they do or don’t do; I have found it creates a personal reflection on themselves and their own areas of improvement. Students are also able to gain ideas from their peers and use them to positively create their own learning steps. This works well for the teacher as well as you can see students working well together to help each other improve. This positive atmosphere within the class encourages learning.
The use of pair assessment with the teaching of the 14-19 age range is to encourage deep learning and also to improve self-evaluation skills. Peer assessment is achieved by learners of the 14-19 age range conducting assessment on each other to identify their strengths, weaknesses and areas of improvement (Willis, 2009). For a proper assessment to take place amongst peers, students need to have a good understanding of the assessment criteria and the assignment task, both of which promote a deeper approach to learning (Gravells and Simpson, 2012). My college encourage peer assessment because it enhances students’ active engagement with their studies and increase the amount of feedback students receive. As a teacher, I encouraged peer assessment amongst my 14-19 years old learners because it helped them to do a peer review by way of providing feedback to their peers. Encouraging peer assessment amongst the 14-19 age learners is another way of preparing them for the future where they may face criticism in higher education or the work place in which ever pathway they may choose. In Kolb’s theory this can be referred to as an active experimentation (Kolb, 2014) which can be applied to real life scenarios.
Another tool that I have found works well is self- assessment. I use this to build the learners confidence. When reflecting on what they think they did well with as well as evaluating their areas of concern or improvement, the student themselves is accepting and assessing their needs. I have found that giving the students the control to assess where they think they need to improve encourages the idea that making mistakes is acceptable as a solution can be found. If there is a particular area of concern for them, then it may result in them wanting make the necessary adjustments to be able to succeed. The 14 – 19 age range of learners are encouraged to do a self-assessment as a sort of reflective practice which In Kolb’s theory can be described as abstract conceptualisation. Kolb in his theory of experiential learning describes abstract conceptualisation as a way of generating, modifying new ideas to an existing concept through reflection (Kolb, 2014). The 14-19 age range learners are encouraged to perform experiments after a topic in the science laboratory. This helped them to be self-reflective to critically analyse their own strengths and weakness and also set achievable goals for themselves with action plans for improvement. The use of self-assessment enabled the 14-19 age learners to set individual SMART target which included long and short-term goal. This enabled me as a teacher and mentor to help my 14-19 age range learners to actualise their goals by giving the adequate support and also giving them necessary recommendations (Roberts, 2006).
Please add 1 point to consider here – Summative Assessment to measure achievement
The goal of summative assessment is to measure the level of success or proficiency that has been obtained at the end of an instructional unit, by comparing it against some standard or benchmark. For example
- Assigning a grade to a final exam
- Critique of a Senior recital
- University Faculty Course Evaluations
The outcome of a summative assessment can be used formatively, however, when
students or faculty take the results and use them to guide their efforts and activities in subsequent courses.
Project based to allow building of understandingof the 14-19 age range was an essential part of the teaching of this age range. Capraro and Morgan (2003) described project based learning as an integral approach to encourage learners to actively explore real world problems and challenges and also acquire deeper knowledge. Project based learning was done in the teaching of the 14-19 age range in my institution in order to bring practicality to the lesson that had been delivered in the class room. As a teacher, to achieve project based learning to build better understanding amongst my 14-19 age range learners, collaborative work was done by sharing learners into groups based on their area of progression for project based task. Case studies were given to learners as a form of group activities and to encourage critical thinking in preparation for their progression after which peer assessment was initiated for constructive criticism (Keller, 2011). In Kolb’s learning theory, project based learning to build understanding can be used to describe what Kolb referred to as ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION which is where learners are trying to plan how to test a model or theory or plan for a forthcoming experience (Kolb, 2014).
(3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2)
Task 4. Plan, deliver and assess learning sessions for 14–19 learners, taking account of:
•own analysis of teaching, learning and assessment approaches for use with 14–19 learners
•individual learner needs
Lesson Plan, Self-evaluation and Assessor’s Observation of my teaching practice attached.
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