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The Sustainable Adaptive Reuse of Riddel’s Warehouse

Info: 6870 words (27 pages) Dissertation
Published: 16th Dec 2019

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Tagged: Sustainability


As time changes, the need for various types of architectural space changes and in some cases diminishes. These buildings, whose original function is no longer required, more than likely become the subject of abandonment. In many situations the type of buildings that are most likely to be forgotten include: political buildings, community buildings and industrial buildings. A possible lifeline for these buildings is the act of adaptive reuse. By reusing a building, it avoids the need of changing the identity of a village, town, city or place by creating something completely new and usually out of context, it further removes the need for one more building to be added to the urban fabric which could cause more of an impact on the environment. By using an existing building, we can change our abandoned buildings into something more appropriate with today’s society whilst still holding onto the buildings’ past.

When adaptive reuse is carried out on a building a combination of uses may occur. If the adaptive reuse of a building is done correctly the building will be functional whilst still remaining true to its original purpose and its integrity.

It is always helpful to understand why buildings’ fail as this will enable us to make it possible to stop buildings from becoming abandoned. The act of adaptive reuse can give a building a new lease of life through renovation, restoration, retrofitting or simply just reuse. Of course, there are many solutions as to how to deal with abandoned buildings. Despite this observation adaptive reuse seems to be the most popular option due to the many different positives it produces.

With adaptive reuse it also gives the architect a chance to make an impact on the environment in a positive way. Where many abandoned buildings may have been constructed in an age where the environment wasn’t a top priority, in today’s society sustainability, low carbon and zero carbon buildings are top of the agenda in the built environment in order to protect the environment.

The following research revealed: 

“Much is at stake when working with old buildings. Once lost, fabric, history and character can never be replaced and, if there is a failure to respect the old, the overall design solution is likely to be satisfactory. Introducing good design in the historic context relies on understanding, respect, good manners and skill.”

– Roger Hunt and Iain Boyd, New Design for Old Buildings


Chapter 1



1.1 Introduction and Theme 

The number of buildings that are being abandoned due to their incapability to meet today’s need to specific use is increasing rapidly. In many situations, the type of buildings that are most likely to become abandoned are political, community and industrial buildings and alternatively can become the subjects of adaptive reuse. The process of adaptive reuse is seen as part of a solution to reduce the need for new buildings making our villages, towns and cities bigger but also it is seen as a way of reducing the impact we have on the environment by reducing the need for new-builds and using what we already have. Through adaptive reuse old, derelict and unoccupied buildings can become suitable sites for many different uses. Adapting a building can be a sustainable, time saving and inexpensive process if done right. It can also help preserve the identity of a place whilst also accommodating the needs of the community. The reuse of a space also provides adaptive reuse with unique and innovative ideas which may not necessarily work within a new build, it is also a solution which celebrated the character of the existing building whilst not compromising on its functionality and integrity.


1.2 Aim of the Study


This dissertation aims to understand why certain buildings fall into disrepair and a look at how this can be stopped in order to reutilise a building before it can no longer be saved rather than just building new. Through this dissertation there will be several typologies investigated to form a better understanding of adaptive reuse. Following this the focus will then fall to Riddel’s Warehouse of Anne Street in Belfast where there will be an analysis of how the former industrial warehouse can be revived from its current state to serve the community and run as a low-carbon building. The following are some aims of the dissertation:

  1. Investigate techniques for adaptive reuse.
  2. Explore how adaptive reuse can help keep the urban identity of a village, town, city or place.
  3. Enhance the understanding of how effective adaptive reuse is with regards to an increased building lifespan.
  4. Advance the knowledge of adaptive reuse by analysing Castelvecchio by Carlo Scarpa as a complete adaptive reuse case study.
  5. In doing so the dissertation aims to establish what works and what doesn’t work when it comes to adaptive reuse and apply this to Riddel’s Warehouse.

1.3 Organisation and Structure of Research and Dissertation

Chapter One: Introduction

Introduction and Theme

Aim of Study

Organisation and Structure of Research and Dissertation

Objective One

What is adaptive reuse within the confines of this research?

– Understanding Adaptive Reuse


Chapter Two: Literature Review

Understanding Adaptive Reuse

Type of Buildings Abandoned

Positives of Adaptive Reuse

The Financial Site of Adaptive Reuse

The Process of Adaptive Reuse

Criteria of Adaptive Reuse

Challenges Faced

Sustainability and Adaptive Reuse

Objective Two

What methods does Scarpa apply with regards to adaptive reuse?

Objective Three

How can we apply Scarpa’s methods to Riddel’s Warehouse?

Chapter Three


Chapter Four

Case Study – Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa

Chapter Five

Case Study – Riddles Warehouse

Chapter Six



Areas for Further Research



Chapter 2

Adaptive Reuse


2.1 Understanding Adaptive Reuse


All buildings once completed and handed over from builder to client have three potential fates: they may remain unchanged, altered or demolished. If the building remains unchanged this may result is eventual loss of occupation. The threat of altering a building may result in the order of the building being changed to a state of disorder and the promise of demolition may result in a new building.[1]

As times change the need for existing buildings change. Due to industrialization and urban decay, some existing building’s start to become abandoned. Buildings that were abandoned but built not too long ago were seen as modern ruins. These buildings deteriorated and crumbled, or they became a place for undesirables. The structure began asking for attention and care. People who viewed the poorly kept buildings as opportunities began converting them into structures with a new function, at this time it was called gentrification. Today this is now better known as ‘adaptive reuse’.

Adaptive reuse broadly refers to the act of reusing and old building or site for a purpose other than what it was originally built or designed for. Sometimes it is viewed as an ‘in-between’ or compromise between historic preservation and demolition. The process of reusing a building allows not only historical buildings to be redeveloped but also cultural buildings as well instead of the using the process of demolition. Through adaptive reuse, the internal and external of a structure can be adapted so that the old influences the format of the new.[2]

By reusing an existing structure, the energy used to create the space/s is lessened. The amount of material waste is also reduced that is created from demolishing an existing building and building a new one.

Adaptive reuse deals with the issues of heritage and conservation and their policies. As old buildings become unsuitable for todays requirements and with the process of technology, politics and economics changing faster than the building environment, the act of adaptive reuse comes in as a suitable option for the reclamation of buildings in disrepair.

2.2 Types of Buildings Abandoned References


Historic buildings give their urban context an identity and at the same time provide a connection with the past, however their history and their urban context are often ignored and sometimes not honoured as part of the cultural heritage in that city. As cities grow more, the thought of using abandoned buildings becomes more and more appealing to the community. These buildings are normally centrally located in large cities and often have main transportation routes which are surrounded by neighbourhoods that have grown around them. Abandoned buildings once thriving with business and community in their hay day have created a knock-on effect with further dilapidation of surrounding structures, some of which are formally commercial, industrial and residential.

In many scenarios the three types of buildings that are most likely to become subjects of abandonment are: industrial buildings – where cities become improved and building that manufacture move away from the city, community buildings – for example schools and churches where the use has changed over time and the third being political buildings – buildings which cannot support current and future visitors of the site.

With the increase in car use and the construction of major roads and infrastructure in the mid-twentieth century this made it easier for people to commute to and from places of work and live in the city suburbs. As the suburbs grew and industries moved out of the city this left the commercial and industrial site in the city empty and eventually abandoned.

In Belfast there is has been a rapid increase of properties ideally suited for adaptation in existing industrial and commercial buildings within the city centre including Riddel’s Warehouse on Ann Street and the old Bank of Ireland Building on Royal Avenue. These buildings have become redundant as manufacturing and commercial space have been relocated. These kinds of structures such as warehouses are often perfect for alternative uses as they are robustly built and grand in scale.

As governments change and more countries become independent, the buildings used for political uses don’t accommodate the increasing number of people that become involved in the building, therefore the political agenda gets moved to a more suitable structure and the older structure is no longer used. The character of the building slowly fades into the city fabric until a new use for the building is realised.

Though community buildings are built for a specific purpose they are easily adapted to suit the community. The familiarity that the communities have with community buildings ensures the reuse of the building through various functions which can be incorporated within its structure.

2.3 Positives of Adaptive Reuse


Projects that are the most successful in terms of adaptively reusing are those that retain as much as the building’s heritage significance as possible but also add a contemporary sense that is appealing for the future. Derelict or abandoned buildings have so much to offer including their location and character and should be viewed more as opportunities rather than ugly pieces of architecture that have just been left to rot. In many situations, retaining older buildings, especially those which have historical character which can help strengthen the identity of the city and the local community. With the adaption of abandoned and derelict buildings to useable spaces in the city and the improvement of infrastructure the lifestyle of the local community and surrounding areas are also improved. The act of adaptive reuse contributes to the liveability and sustainability of future communities.

There are very few more wasteful processes than tearing down an existing structure and replacing it with a fresh new build. New builds often forget the memory of the surrounding area and the identity of the city is lost as it is the building’s character that comes from age and use is no longer there.

In some cases, the process of adaptive reuse is the only way a building’s structure can be property cared for, revealed or interpreted whilst also making better use of the building itself. Where the building can no longer function to its original use a new use may be established through adaption to the structure as it may be the only way to preserve its heritage significance.

Adaptive reuse of existing buildings can provide some advantages:

  • Sustainable: Using an existing building contributes to sustainability as they are often situated in areas where there is an established growth with population density. In developed areas using an existing building can help support the surrounding neighbourhoods. Often, materials used for existing structures are of high quality and have many years of life left. Materials such as stone, brick copper concrete and slate can all endure a long lifespan.[3]
  • Economic: The saving associated with using an existing building can be quite significant. Reusing an existing building saves on demolition costs and the cost output for new materials and labour. It is generally much cheaper to adapt an existing building that to demolish it and build new. The process of adaptation is generally much quicker that building new. The infrastructure is already there e.g. foundations and services as well as the superstructure. The borrow costs for adaptation is generally much cheaper than that of a new build and it is for this reason that when interest rates are high the proportion of adaptive reuse projects tends to increase in comparison to new-build projects.[4]
  • Environmental: The enhanced appearance of a building can be achieved with an adapted building. If the work has been approached in a sensitive and careful manner then the building should look better than before and also has a knock-on effect with surrounding buildings. Adapted buildings also are said to be more energy efficient. Energy is conserved by reclaiming existing structures, using the existing materials and embodied energy as well as using existing infrastructure surrounding the site.[5]
  • Innovation: Changes to existing structures have allowed us to experiment with original building structures and have given innovative solutions. Around Belfast there are plenty of derelict structure which are just waiting for innovative ideas. These empty building may not support several uses compared to before where the original structure may have only been constructed for one use.
  • Investment: Reusing an existing building can encourage more investment and development which can lead to employment opportunities.
  • Monetary Value of Building: The overall value of the existing building may increase by preserving the aesthetic features and architectural elements that show the charter of the building. Materials that were used in the construction of the original structure are also not often economically possible to reproduce today.
  • Time Saving: Using an existing structure can save construction time as the building and surrounding infrastructure is already in place.
  • Identity: The reuse of an existing site also retains the character of the building within the community and area. Reusing an existing building contains historic resources and a sense of identity which provides renewed life to historic structures economically. Building reuse can also keep the connection that it has with the surrounding community and its history, present and future whist also adapting to changes in today’s building use.[6]

2.4 The Financial Side of Adaptive Reuse


One of the most important factors when considering adaptive reuse is cost. Whether the building owner is private or public, cost and budget are always important. Unless the project is an historic restoration of a treasured landmark, which is when restoration will cost more than a new building, then the form of adaptive reuse may be the more cost-effective options.

There are many advantages to reusing an existing structure with regards to cost. There is very little, if not, no demolition required, land acquisition if often the less expensive route and most often the utilities required in the existing building are already connected. Materials and construction costs are also not a large overall factor as those costs have already been included in the overall purchase price of the existing structure.[7]

2.5 The Process of Adaptive Reuse


Adapting an existing building to suit contemporary needs requires an in-depth thought-through approach to the issues that may arise when taking on such a project. Such issues and restrictions may be determined by the dimensions and materials associated with the building as well as its condition. It should be understood what is possible to save and what needs to be overhauled in order to ensure the structure is secure and the building will be able to meet current building regulations for health and safety, accessibility and sustainability.

Some of the most innovative solutions to come from architecture is when an architect attempts to renew a building whilst also retaining the original footprint and as many architectural features as possible. In this situation it is necessary to fit space inside the existing walls or create a new space in addition to what is already there. In some scenarios the damage to the existing structure can be so serious that the building is no longer functional and beyond the form of restoration. If this is the case it may still be worth retaining some original features in order to help the building keep within its original character and stay within its context especially with surrounding buildings. It may be possible to construct a new shell within the existing walls in order to give the space a new purpose whilst also keeping the original existing structure.

The first of the process involves the preparation of an architectural design scheme which is possible with the potentials offered and the constraints given in the existing structure. Alterations and/or conversions that do take place are more often that not, within the boundaries of the existing structure, in some cases the process of adaptive reuse may exceed the boundaries of the existing structure.

2.6 Criteria for Adaptive Reuse


There are three types of obsolesce in the built form; physical, economical and functional. Even though building dereliction can be the result of a variety of factors it can be generalised that they are the natural outcome of the changing modes of production and consumption that triggers the consequences of technological transformations. The least risky among the three types of obsolesce is the physical side as it can easily be fixed and put back to its original state as long as the funds are available.

Economical and functional obsolesces are more often than not, occur in tandem and are the main causes of a building becoming derelict or demolished. It most cases there are criteria for deciding whether a building should be kept and reused or demolished. Some determining factors include:

  • Historical Importance: The site may be of historical importance with regards to both the street-scape and the surrounding area. It also may hold some importance with its role in the community and its past.
  • Reuse Potential: The potential reuse of the building determined by the physical damage of the existing site and its support of future use.
  • Ecological Conditions: Determining whether the site is suitable climatically or can support the proposed environmental work that is needed in the site.
  • Social Value: The building’s importance within the community and its use by the local community.

2.7 Challenges Faced


Of course, there are many challenges faced with adaptive reuse such as:

  • Physical Limitations: Some buildings may have structural constraints associated with the building, architectural or historical features may make changing the existing building into a new use challenging as well as spatial challenges. In some cases there may not be the room for adaption or extension.
  • Environmental Constraints: These can be issues such as asbestos in the existing building meaning this will take time to remove in order to continue the adaptive reuse process.[8]
  • Building Regulations: Existing structures may pre-date the building regulations we have in force today. Therefore, there may be limitations when going through the adaptive reuse process. For example, in today’s world the construction of a building has a certain degree of fire and emergency exit standards whereas back before the 21st century that may not have been a factor when building. This is the same scenario for sustainable construction. Today, construction and sustainability is a big issue and this is highlighted in the building regulations, new builds and spaces will need a certain degree of sustainable requirements, whereas pre-21st century this would not have been an issue.[9]
  • Financial Capabilities: For the local community adaptively reuse maybe the best way to keep an existing structure within the surrounding context and avoid impairing the surrounding area with new buildings that disrupt the identity of the city, however sometimes adaptively reusing can be more expensive with demolition of the building being the easier and cheaper option.[10]
  • Maintenance Issues: There may be some maintenance issues with regards to the existing building. High cost maintenance and repairs may creep up due to physical deterioration and defects.
  • Lack of Available Materials and Tradesmen: In some cases, the incompatibility of some new materials with old as well as the shortage of local skilled works may have an impact on the reuse of an existing building.


Chapter 3



This chapter provides an outline of the research methods used to answer the research question, research approach, and a description of the primary and secondary data collection for an understanding of adaptive reuse as well as use for forming interview questions, data collection and analysis techniques and an outline of limitations of the adopted research method/s.


3.1 Research Outline


To clarify, the theme of the dissertation is adaptive reuse with particular focus on Riddel’s Warehouse of Anne Street, Belfast as an ongoing case study. The dissertation is designed to set up an understanding of adaptive reuse and the sub discussions around it, for example, it must be clear at first exactly what adaptive reuse is and other sub discussions which relate. Some of these discussions are included in this dissertation and are relevant to the case study of Castelvecchio by Carlo Scarpa.


3.2 Research Design & Data Collection


The research has been split up into three parts. The first part is focusing on adaptive reuse as a whole and any sub discussions relevant to its understanding, this will be secondary research from books, articles and papers. These will form the sub chapters which are in chapter two. Of course, there is a mix of philosophical and factual research, from Fred Scott’s ‘On Altering Architecture’ to James Douglas’ ‘Building Adaptation,’ all relevant in understanding adaptive reuse from both a philosophical and factual point of view. However, for the purpose of this dissertation only sub discussions relevant to Carlo Scarpa’s Castelvecchio and Riddel’s Warehouse as case studies will be highlighted.

The second part of my research will focus on a short case study on Carlo Scarpa’s Castelvecchio which will help with the understanding of adaptive reuse as a finished piece and the journey taken by Scarpa to achieve the reuse of the building and how it works today. This will be based on secondary research from books, articles and papers.

The third part of my research and the main focus of my dissertation will be on Riddel’s Warehouse which will act as a live research project. This part of my research will involve both primary and secondary research. The secondary research will come from books, articles and papers including literature such as Belfast: An Historical Gazetteer by Marcus Patton and Belfast: an illustrated architectural guide by Paul Larmour and will help me gather historical and contextual information. Primary research involves photographs, buildings surveys and interview/s with Marcus Patton from Hearth and Paul Larmour. Marcus Patton has been working closely with Riddel’s Warehouse for a number of years. Interviews with Marcus and Paul gives a professional insight and recommendations for Riddel’s Warehouse. A look at Riddel’s Warehouse helps with the understanding of a structure before adaptive reuse and what is to be considered for Riddel’s Warehouse before adaptation.

3.3 Data Analysis


Chapter not yet completed.


Lastly, in the perspective of the research, what implications the data has? Whether the outcomes reach some conclusion? Do not forget to include what kind of data (primary or secondary data, quantitative or qualitative) has been worked upon, and how any of the variables affect the research outcomes.

3.4 Conclusion


Chapter not yet completed.













Chapter 4

Case Study – Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa

4.1 Castelvecchio


Castelvecchio dates back to the 14th Century and was originally constructed on the banks of the Adige river by the Lord of Verona Cangrande II della Scala in 1354. Its main purpose was to defend Verona’s people whilst also being a possible escape-route northward where his Austrian relatives lived.[11] Later it was transformed into military barracks and then a museum.

In traditional cultures, our environments are “never torn down, never erased; instead they are always embellished, modified, enlarged, reduced and improved.”

– James Marston Fitch

Carlo Scarpa’s work at the Castelvecchio Museum is the result of fifty years’ worth of progressively studied interventions by the architect.[12] Castelvecchio must be understood as a whole along with the experience gained by Scarpa in the same years his museum designs in Venice and Palermo came to light. Castelvecchio museum had a particularly complex and fertile situation which is what made it so different. At first, art critic and museum director Licisco Magagnato called on Scarpa to discuss the renovation of “From Altichiero to Pisanello,” an exhibition for Castelvecchio. It was understood the Venetian architect was only going to make a general rearrangement of the room for the exhibition, on the principals Luca Beltrami and Malaguzzi-Valeri used in the Sforzesco castle in Milan.[13] However as work commenced, Scarpa’s project developed into an example model in restoration for an entire element of the city’s urban fabric, effectively provoking a profound reflection on the relationship between the ancient and modern and their existence alongside each other.[14]

The ideas surrounding the decision to restore Castelvecchio was developed in three important stages: linking the castle’s two main blocks, the gallery and the palace, by a passage under the city street that leads to the Scaligero bridge, the positioning of the equestrian statue of Cangrande della Scala in the main pivot between the two wings, and the arrangement of the entrance courtyard which gave the museum its definitive aspect.[15] Work carried out between 1957 and 1964 focused on rebuilding the complex and designing new exhibiting solutions and routes throughout the museum. The work includes new plastering, the installation of new ceilings as well as paving and a new lighting system. The second-floor connection between the Reggia and the Torre del Mastio was demolished and replaced. After the art gallery was laid out on the first floor of the Reggia, Carlo Scarpa looked to the west wing of the museum, here there was the sculpture gallery which had been temporarily set up since 1959. The seven large rooms from the Napoleonic era, connected by the vaulted passages underwent a radical change in appearance. The space was lightened up with neutral colours and the false frescos were removed, however Scarpa’s real innovation was the definition of an ordered sequence of spaces.[16] Scarpa’s ideas for the area where the large statue of Cangrande was to be placed resulted in the most intense elements of the whole design for Castelvecchio. The final decision was to place the statue on the border between the Gallery to the east and the Reggia to the west. This meant that the monument was totally visible at every angle and was a central point in terms of the overall conformation of the complex. It was placed in a semi-open space, which in turn became a natural continuation for visitors through the museum. The presence of the Cangrande della Scala, on a protruding platform with a concrete base symbolically marked the massing of the different building layers which revealed their importance in the development of the architectural design of Castelvecchio whilst Cangrande’s face also established a direct relationship with the visitor.[17] The placing of Cangrande della Scala was a fine example of Scarpa’s museological work: the inseparable nature of the architecture and staging within Castelvecchio.[18]

When the museum reopened in 1964, the large courtyard and the main entrance to the museum had also been rearranged. In 1968-69 a library was added and in 1973-75 the last exhibition space ‘the Avena room’ was opened. The final stages of the museum concerned the eastern corner of the building. Carlo Scarpa distinguished this by making a cut between the body of the northeast tower and the wall alongside the Adige River.

The museum today is one of the best preserved and documented pieces of work by Scarpa. A sense of the design conceived by the architect is still intact in all its museological construction detail.

Scarpa was familiar in using certain techniques and approaches in the design of adaptive reuse projects. These techniques and approaches are important to discuss in the world of adaptive reuse.


4.2 Scarpa’s Attention to Detail


Scarpa saw craft, construction techniques and on-site invention as the “ultimate creative acts in architecture.”[19] He believed that design focused around the essentials in buildings, such as the walls, joints, windows, doors and stairs. He saw the importance of working with craftsmen instead of opening up a catalogue in order to produce something new, unthought of and unique. Within his work, sketching played a vital part. He liked to explore materials in detail and see the results.

Scarpa believed that the dialogue in his projects was “never with the past, but with the presence of the past in the present time.”[20] He saw importance in adapting rather than trying to create something new, and revolutionizing the built environment, trying to find a way to express ideas of time using the materials, craft and tradition already there. This niche is exactly where he achieved the key to his success. As todays architects cope with the aging of the existing built environment, Scarpa’s belief in the ability to absorb and to accommodate a vernacular form with contemporary suggestions will certainly be viewed as a significant step forward in using what is there rather than creating new.[21] His work simply has respect and empathy for what already existed.

In his thought process Scarpa did not separate the details of a building from its plans. He carefully studied the entire building before the design process began and continued designing until construction had finished. Understanding the building as a whole, not just focusing on the reconstruction work has many benefits. Because of this Scarpa was able to establish a connection between old and new and in turn able to take and understand fully how to change historic buildings into design whilst maintaining the originally structures identity.

4.3 Layering, the Process of Covering Up


Castelvecchio is an architectural example of the layering technique used to communicate the evolution of a structure and the story behind it. In this case not only is adaptive reuse necessary for the building or a space to be continually used but it also creates a sense of connection with its history and place. Castelvecchio tells a story and adapts to its time as well as preserving its past through commemoration and memory.

Addressing the concept of layering must be discussed in one form or another when referring to adaptive reuse. By integrating old and new, some form of layering or interlocking new and old building components is necessary. The concept of layering can be applied to various components of the building adaption process. “There isn’t such a thing as a building. A building properly conceived is several layers of longevity of built components.”[22]




4.4 Influences


4.5 Expressing Buildings as an act of Art





[1] Fred Scott, On Altering Architecture, (Routledge, 2008), 1.

[2] James Douglas, Building Adaptation, 2nd ed.(Elsevier Ltd, 2006), 1.

[3] Christopher Gorse and David Highfield, Refurbishment and Upgrading of Buildings, 2nd ed. (Spon Press, 2009), 19.

[4] James Douglas, Building Adaptation, 2nd ed. (Elsevier Ltd, 2006), 15-16.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Christopher Gorse and David Highfield, Refurbishment and Upgrading of Buildings, 2nd ed. (Spon Press, 2009), 18.

[7] Christopher Gorse and David Highfield, Refurbishment and Upgrading of Buildings, 2nd ed. (Spon Press, 2009), 9-13.

[8] James Douglas, Building Adaptation, 2nd. ed. (Elsevier Ltd, 2006), 72.

[9] James Douglas, Building Adaptation, 2nd. ed. (Elsevier Ltd, 2006), 70.

[10] James Douglas, Building Adaptation, 2nd. ed. (Elsevier Ltd, 2006), 72.

[11] Tourism Verona. “Castelvecchio & Museum.” Accessed October 11th, 2018. http://www.tourism.verona.it/en/enjoy-verona/art-and-culture/monuments-and-sights/castelvecchio-museum

[12] Guido Beltramini et al, Carlo Scarpa. Architectural Atlas, (Milan, Marsillo, 2006), 144.

[13] Francesco Dal Co and Giuseppe Mazzariol, Carlo Scarpa: the complete works, (Electa Editrice, 1984), 159.

[14] Guido Beltramini et al, Carlo Scarpa. Architectural Atlas, (Milan, Marsillo, 2006), 144.

[15] Francesco Dal Co and Giuseppe Mazzariol, Carlo Scarpa: the complete works, (Electa Editrice, 1984), 159.

[16] Guido Beltramini et al, Carlo Scarpa. Architectural Atlas, (Milan, Marsillo, 2006), 144.

[17] Guido Beltramini et al, Carlo Scarpa. Architectural Atlas, (Milan, Marsillo, 2006), 144.

[18] Francesco Dal Co and Giuseppe Mazzariol, Carlo Scarpa: the complete works, (Electa Editrice, 1984), 160.

[19] Nicholas Olsberg, Carlo Scarpa, Architect: Intervening with History, (The Monacelli Press, 1999), 40.

[20] Nicholas Olsberg, Carlo Scarpa, Architect: Intervening with History, (The Monacelli Press, 1999), 15.

[21] Nicholas Olsberg, Carlo Scarpa, Architect: Intervening with History, (The Monaceilli Press, 1992), 240.

[22] Stewart Brand, How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built, (Penguin Books, 1995), 12.

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