Development of Wireless Gesture Control Robot

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13th Dec 2019 Dissertation Reference this

Tags: TechnologyArtificial Intelligence

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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

In recent years, robotics is a current emerging technology in the field of science. A number of universities in the world are developing new things in this field. Robotics is the new booming field, which will be of great use to society in the coming years. Though robots can be a replacement to humans, they still need to be controlled by humans itself. Robots can be wired or wireless, both having a controller device. Both have pros and cons associated with them. Beyond controlling the robotic system through physical devices, recent method of gesture control has become very popular. The main purpose of using gestures is that it provides a more natural way of controlling and provides a rich and intuitive form of interaction with the robotic system. These days many types of wireless robots are being developed and are put to varied applications and uses. Human hand gestures are natural and with the help of wireless communication, it is easier to interact with the robot in a friendly way. The robot moves depending on the gesture made by your hand and from a distance. The objective of this paper is to build a wireless gesture control robot using Arduino, accelerometer, RF transmitter and receiver module. The Arduino Uno microcontroller reads the analog output values i.e., x-axis and y-axis values of the accelerometer and converts that analog value to respective digital value. The digital values are processed by the Arduino Uno microcontroller and according to the tilt of the accelerometer sensor mounted on hand, it sends the commands to the RF transmitter which is received by the transmitter and is processed at the receiver end which drives the motor to a particular direction. The robot moves forward, backward, right and left when we tilt our palm to forward, backward, right and left respectively. The robot stops when it is parallel to the ground.

 

1.1 ROBOT

A robot is typically an electro-mechanical machine that can perform assignments naturally. A few robots require some level of direction, which might be done utilizing a remote control or with a PC interface. Robots can be independent, semi-self-ruling or remotely controlled. Robots have developed so much and are fit for emulating people that they appear to have their very own psyche.

1.2 HUMAN MACHINE INTERACTION

An imperative part of a fruitful automated framework is the Human-Machine collaboration. In the early years the best way to speak with a robot was to program which required broad diligent work. With the advancement in science and mechanical technology, signal based acknowledgment came into life. Signals start from any substantial movement or state yet ordinarily begin from the face or hand. Signal acknowledgment can be considered as a route for PC to comprehend human non-verbal communication. This has limited the requirement for content interfaces and GUIs (Graphical User Interface)

1.3 GESTURE

A signal is an activity that must be seen by another person and needs to pass on some snippet of data. Motion is normally considered as a development of part of the body, esp. a hand or the head, to express a thought or significance.

1.4 MOTIVATION FOR PROJECT

Our inspiration to take a shot at this venture originated from a handicapped individual who was driving his wheel seat by hand with a considerable amount of trouble. So we needed to make a gadget which would help such individuals drive their seats without wanting to touch the wheels of their seats.

1.5 OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT

Our goal is to make this gadget straightforward and also modest with the goal that it could be mass created and can be utilized for various purposes.

Chapter 2: LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT

Signal acknowledgment advances are substantially more youthful in the realm of today. As of now there is much dynamic research in the field and little in the method for openly accessible usage. A few methodologies have been created for detecting motions and controlling robots. Glove based system is a notable methods for perceiving hand motions. It uses a sensor joined to a glove that specifically measures hand developments.

A Gesture Controlled robot is a sort of robot which can be controlled by hand motions and not the way out forefathers would have done it by utilizing catches. The client simply needs to wear a little transmitting gadget on his hand which incorporates a sensor which is an accelerometer for our situation. Development of the turn in a particular bearing will transmit a summon to the robot which will then move in a particular heading. The transmitting gadget incorporates an aurdino for appointing legitimate levels to the info voltages from the accelerometer and an Encoder IC which is utilized to encode the four piece information and afterward it will be transmitted by a RF Transmitter module.

At the less than desirable end a RF Receiver module will get the encoded information and translate it by utilizing a decoder IC and passed onto an engine driver to turn the engines in an exceptional arrangement to make the robot move in an indistinguishable heading from that of the hand.

Utilizing Teach box for Programming and control of a robot is a tedious and tedious assignment that requires specialized learning. Thusly, the approach is to have new and more natural routes for programming and control of robot. In the mechanical autonomy field, a few research endeavors have been made to make easy to understand show pendants, executing UIs, for example, shading touch screens, a 3D joystick. Be that as it may, these methods are not effective to control the robot as they don’t give precise outcomes and give moderate reaction time. In the previous years the producers of robot have tried endeavors for making “Human Machine Interfacing Device”. Using signal acknowledgment idea, it is conceivable to move a robot in like manner. Accelerometers are the primary advances utilized for human machine cooperation which offer exceptionally sensible movement affectability in various applications. Movement innovation makes simple for people to interface with machines normally with no mediations brought about by the downsides of mechanical gadgets. Accelerometer-based signal acknowledgment has turned out to be progressively prevalent in the course of the most recent decade contrasted with vision based system. The variables that make it a successful instrument to identify and perceive the human signals are its low-direct cost and relative little size of the accelerometers.

2.2 APPLICATIONS

i. Through the utilization of signal acknowledgment, remote control with the influx of a hand of different gadgets is conceivable.

ii. Gesture controlling is extremely useful for crippled and physically impaired individuals to accomplish certain undertakings, for example, driving a vehicle.

iii. Gestures can be utilized to control associations for excitement purposes, for example, gaming to make the amusement player’s experience more intuitive or immersive.

CHAPTER3: HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

Our gesture controlled robot works on the principle of accelerometer which records hand movements and sends that data to the comparator which assigns proper voltage levels to the recorded movements. That information is then transferred to a encoder which makes it ready for RF transmission. On the receiving end, the information is received wirelessly via RF, decoded and then passed onto the microcontroller which takes various decisions based on the received information. These decisions are passed to the motor driver ic which triggers the motors in different configurations to make the robot move in a specific direction. The following block diagram helps to understand the working of the robot:

Figure 3.1  Block Diagram

We divided our task into two parts to make the task easy and simple and to avoid complexity and make it error free. The first is the transmitting section which includes the following components:

• Accelerometer

• Encoder IC

• Arduino Uno

• RF Transmitter Module

The second is the less than desirable end which includes taking after primary segments:

• RF Receiver Module

• Decoder IC

• Motor Driver IC

• DC Geared Motors

3.1 ACCELEROMETER (ADXL335)

An Accelerometer is an electromechanical device that measures acceleration forces. These forces may be static, like the constant force of gravity pulling at your feet, or they could be dynamic – caused by moving or vibrating the accelerometer. It is a sort of sensor which record quickening and gives a simple information while moving in X,Y,Z heading or might be X,Y bearing just depending upon the kind of the sensor.

Figure 3.2 ADXL335 Accelerometer

Stick DESCRIPTION

Stick NO. SYMBOL FUNCTION

1 ST Sets the affectability of the accelerometer

2 Z Records simple information for Z bearing

3 Y Records simple information for Y bearing

4 X Records simple information for X bearing

5 GND Connected to ground for biasing

6 VCC +3.3 volt is connected

Table 3-1 Pin portrayal for Accelerometer

3.2 ARDUINO UNO

Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. It’s an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board.

Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can be communicating with software running on your computer. The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled; the open-source IDE can be downloaded for free. The Arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring, a similar physical computing platform, which is based on the Processing multimedia programming environment.

What is Arduino?

Arduino is an open source gadgets stage went with an equipment and programming to configuration, create and test complex hardware models and items. The equipment comprises of a microcontroller with other electronic parts which can be modified utilizing the product to do any errand. The straightforwardness of the Arduino dialect makes it simple for nearly everybody who has an enthusiasm for gadgets to compose programs without the comprehension of complex calculations or codes.

Arduino is expected for a craftsman, tinker, fashioner or anybody, inspired by playing with gadgets without the ability of complex hardware and programming aptitudes. Arduino is a fabulous planned open source stage. It has uncommonly outlined sheets which can be modified utilizing the Arduino Programming Language (APL).

The nearness of Arduino is spreading between specialists, as well as extended its underlying foundations in businesses and utilized by specialists for making models of business items. Arduino removes the endeavors required in complex coding and planning equipment.

The open source nature of Arduino has been the fundamental explanation behind its fast even development. Since it is an Open Source extend, every one of the documents identified with equipment and programming is accessible for individual or business utilize. The improvement cost of the equipment is little as against the expensive comparative exclusive items by the mechanical mammoths. The open source nature doesn’t require any licenses to create, utilize, redistribute or even offer the item. Be that as it may, the Arduino name is exchange check secured (Arduino™) i.e., you are allowed to offer the Arduino board under some other name however with a specific end goal to offer it under the name “Arduino” you have to take authorization from the organizers and take after their quality terms.

The Software documents which incorporates all the source code library are additionally publicly released. A client can alter them to make the venture more flexible and enhance its abilities. This gives a solid online group bolster.

Idea of Arduino:

The base of Arduino dives deep down to the advancement of Processing Language by MIT scientists. Preparing dialect is an open source dialect intended to present the product advancement condition for the imaginative individuals without the need of profound information of programming of calculations. Preparing depends on java.

In early year of 21st century, planning a hardware device was almost inconceivable for a typical man. The prerequisite of particular ability set and robust costs of programming and equipment made a full stop in the way of their inventiveness.

In year 2003 Hernando Barragan, a developer built up an open source hardware advancement stage with programming IDE, where anybody with a little learning in gadgets and programming could utilize his venture to offer wings to their inventiveness. His concentration was to decrease the weight of many-sided quality in planning gadgets equipment and programming. The venture was named as Wiring. The product IDE of the Wiring utilized handling dialect to compose the codes.

As the program written in CC++ is named as Project, similarly the code sent in Wiring (even in Processing and Arduino) is named as Sketch. The name draw gives a well-known search for a craftsman.

The standard thought behind Wiring is that one can make the portray of their thought on Wiring programming and execute it utilizing exceptionally planned Wiring board. You have to compose a couple lines of codes on the product IDE and after that download the program to the locally available microcontroller to see the yield.

Wiring has predefined libraries to make the programming dialect simple. Arduino utilizes these libraries. The predefined libraries are composed in C and C++. One can even compose his product in CC++ and utilize them on wiring sheets. The distinction between composing a program in C/C++ and Wiring is that the Wiring Application Programmable Interface (API) has rearranged programming style and the client doesn’t require itemized information of the ideas like classes, articles, pointers, and so forth. While drawing equipment you have to call the predefined capacities and rest will be taken care of by the Wiring programming.

The essential distinction between the Processing and the Wiring is that the Processing is use to compose the program which can be utilized on different PCs while Wiring system is utilized on microcontrollers.

History:

Wiring is the forerunner of Arduino. Arduino was produced in lvrea, Italy by Massimo Banzi and David Cuartielles in year 2005. The Project was named after Arduin of lvrea (King of Italy). The venture Arduino utilizes the Wiring dialect. The idea of Wiring Language was made by Hernando Barragan, and under his watch Massimo Banzi and David Cuartielles built up the Project Arduino.

Open Source License

Arduino is an open source extend which is most likely the main driver purpose behind its ubiquity. Arduino equipment configuration is an Open Source Hardware, disseminated under Creative Common Attribution Share-Alike permit. Imaginative Common, a non-productive association has discharged a few copyleft-licenses as for nothing out of pocket, so that the inventiveness/information can be shared to whatever remains of the world while having the copyright to the approved individual. The initially composed records, similar to design and schematics of Arduino items are accessible as Eagle CAD documents.

The source code for its IDE and libraries are additionally accessible and discharged under GUN General Public License (known as GPL). The GPL is the main copyleft permit for general utilize. The permit is conceded for the product to guarantee the copyleft opportunity.

Atmel Atmega328P:

The ATmega328P chip is utilized as a part of this venture as the microcontroller. The hugeness of the initial two digits is to stipulate that the AVR center comprises of assortment of guideline set with 32 universally useful working registers which are associated specifically to the Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU), enduring two autonomous registers to be recovered in one single direction executed in one clock cycle. The ensuing engineering is more programmable productive while achieving information exchange rates up to ten times snappier than other CISC microcontrollers. The last digit is to demonstrate the 8 bit bi-directional port. It is positively the leader of the framework which is controlling the different modules. The AVR is a changed Harvard design 8-bit RISC single chip microcontroller which was produced by Atmel in 1996. The AVR was one of the main microcontroller families to use on-chip streak memory for program stockpiling, instead of one-time programmable ROM, EPROM, or EEPROM utilized by different microcontrollers at the time.

The Arduino equipment was skillfully intended to lessen the complexities emerging in the hardware. It has an In System Programmer (ISP), which permits clients to exchange the product inside the microcontroller without expelling it from the circuit. The essential model of an Arduino board comprises of a 8-bit AVR microcontroller alongside some other important segments like a 5 volt straight controller IC, a 16 MHZ precious stone, artistic resonator, yield connectors, coordinate connector input, and so forth.

The IO ports on sheets are situated in a way that it can be effortlessly appended with the compatible extra modules, known as shields. Shields are girl sheets that can be remotely connected/stopped with the Arduino sheets to degree the board’s abilities. For instance a xbee shield can be appended with the Arduino board to set up a remote correspondence. An engine control shield can be connected on the highest point of Arduino board to run the engines or to give a straightforwardness to control the speed of engines. The Arduino Board can without much of a stretch interface with outer sensors, circuits or different peripherals.

Arduino equipment is accessible in different plans and arrangements relying upon the utilization. The diverse setups utilize distinctive AVR chips, Atmega8/168/328/1280/2560. Each board has its own extra element, as Arduino UNO comprises of ATmega328 which imparts to PC by means of USB utilizing FTDI chip. extremely agreeable for connecting shields. On the other Arduino NANO utilizes Atmega168/328 which likewise utilizes FTDI chip yet is much agreeable to utilize it on breadboard.

Some non-ATmegaArduino sheets are additionally accessible. These sheets don’t contain Atmel’s ATmega controller yet are perfect with Arduino shield. These microcontrollers can’t be customized by the standard Arduino IDE yet producers do give some different forms of Arduino IDE which incorporates the vital libraries identified with the controller. For instance Leaflabs Maple in view of 32bit arm processor or chip KIT UNO32 in light of PIC smaller scale controllers.

The prior rendition of the Arduino board had controller with bootloader which spoke with the Arduino IDE generally by means of a Serial port. Later a FTDI chip was presented on the Arduino board which is a USB to serial converter to permit the correspondence with the USB port. What’s more, today the Arduino sheets are accessible with Atmel’s microcontroller which have inbuilt ability to speak with the USB port.

The superior Atmel Pico Power 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller consolidates 32KB ISP streak memory with read-while-compose capacities, 1024B EEPROM, 2KB SRAM, 23 broadly useful I/O lines, 32 universally useful working registers, three adaptable clock/counters with analyze modes, interior and outer intrudes on, serial programmable USART, a byte-arranged 2-wire serial interface, SPI serial port, a 6-channel 10-bit A/D converter (8-diverts in TQFP and QFN/MLF bundles), programmable guard dog clock with inner oscillator, and five programming selectable power sparing modes. The gadget works between 1.8-5.5 volts. By executing intense guidelines in a solitary clock cycle, the gadget accomplishes throughputs moving toward 1 MIPS for every MHz, adjusting power utilization and handling speed (Atmel Corporation).

Arduino UNO:

To program the ATmega328P Microcontroller a Serial communicator is required. Serial correspondence is most far reaching interface amongst microcontroller and PC. UART is one of the serial interfaces which are generally utilized. A Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) is a bit of PC equipment that interprets information amongst parallel and serial structures. Traditionally, most serial interface from microcontroller to PC is done through serial port (DB9). Be that as it may, since PC serial port utilized RS232 convention and microcontroller utilized TTL UART, a level shifter is required between these interfaces. There are a few level shifters accessible in the market, some of which backings USB fitting and play.

In any case, in a large portion of the circumstances the level shifter are shaky to use because of its outline and more than one programming is required to change over the programming on C to hex or machine dialect and possibly another product to interface between the Microcontroller and PC.

Arduino UNO is an other option to this arrangement, the inner leading body of Arduino comprises of all the vital ICs for correspondence. It is additionally incorporate conservative with a PCB which has connectors for quick and simple prototyping.

Summary:

• Microcontroller ATmega328

• Operating Voltage 5V

• Input Voltage (prescribed) 7-12V

• Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V

• Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 give PWM yield)

• Analog Input Pins 6

• DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA

• DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA

• Flash Memory 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB utilized by bootloader

• SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328)

• EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328)

• Clock Speed 16 MHz

Pin Configuration:

The Arduino Uno can be fueled by means of the USB association or with an outside power supply. The power source is chosen naturally.

Outside (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC connector (divider wart) or battery. The connector can be associated by stopping a 2.1mm focus positive connect to the board’s energy jack. Leads from a battery can be embedded in the Gnd and Vin stick headers of the POWER connector.

The board can work on an outer supply of 6 to 20 volts. On the off chance that provided with under 7V, be that as it may, the 5V stick may supply under five volts and the board might be unsteady. In the event that utilizing more than 12V, the voltage controller may overheat and harm the board. The prescribed range is 7 to 12 volts.

The power pins are as per the following:

VIN: The info voltage to the Arduino board when it’s utilizing an outside power source (as

Contradicted to 5 volts from the USB association or other controlled power source). You can supply voltage through this stick, or, if providing voltage by means of the power jack, get to it through this stick.

5V: This stick yields a controlled 5V from the controller on the board. The board can be provided with power either from the DC control jack (7 – 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN stick of the board (7-12V). Providing voltage by means of the 5V or 3.3V pins sidesteps the controller, and can harm your board.

3V3: A 3.3 volt supply produced by the on-board controller. Most extreme current draw is 50 mA.

GND: Ground pins.

IOREF: This stick on the Arduino board gives the voltage reference which the microcontroller works. A legitimately arranged shield can read the IOREF stick voltage and select the suitable power source or empower voltage interpreters on the yields for working with the 5V or 3.3V.

Memory:

The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0.5 KB utilized for the boot loader). It additionally has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM.

Input and Output:

Each of the 14 advanced sticks on the Uno can be utilized as an information or yield, utilizing pinMode(), computerized Write( ), and computerized Read( ) capacities. They work at 5 volts. Each stick can give or get a most extreme of 40 mA and has an inside draw up resistor (separated as a matter of course) of 20-50 kohms. Also, a few pins have specific capacities:

Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to get (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial information.

These pins are associated with the relating pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip.

Outer Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be arranged to trigger a hinder on a low esteem, a rising or falling edge, or an adjustment in esteem. See the attachInterrupt() work for subtle elements.

PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Give 8-bit PWM yield with the analogWrite() work.

SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins bolster SPI correspondence utilizing the SPI library.

Driven: 13. There is an implicit LED associated with advanced stick 13. At the point when the stick is HIGH esteem, the LED is on, when the stick is LOW, it’s off.

The Uno has 6 simple information sources, named A0 through A5, each of which give 10 bits of determination (i.e. 1024 distinct qualities). Of course they measure from ground to 5 volts, however is it conceivable to change the upper end of their range utilizing the AREF stick and the simple Reference() work. Moreover, a few pins have particular usefulness:

TWI: A4 or SDA stick and A5 or SCL stick. Bolster TWI correspondence utilizing the Wire library.

There are two or three different sticks on the board:

AREF.Reference voltage for the simple information sources. Utilized with analogReference().

Reset. Convey this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Commonly used to add a reset catch to shields which obstruct the one on the board.

Communication:

Microcontrollers rely on upon a host PC for creating and aggregating programs. The product utilized on the host PC is known as a coordinated advancement condition, or IDE. For the Arduino, the advancement condition depends on the open source Processing stage (www.processing.org) which is depicted by its makers as a “programming dialect and condition for individuals who need to program pictures, activity, and cooperations.

The Arduino programming dialect use an open source extend known as Wiring (wiring.org.co). The Arduino dialect depends on great antiquated C. In the event that you are new to this dialect, don’t stress; it’s not hard to learn, and the Arduino IDE gives some criticism when you commit errors in your projects.

The Arduino Uno has various offices for speaking with a PC, another Arduino or different microcontrollers. The ATmega328 gives UART TTL (5V) serial correspondence, which is accessible on advanced pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An ATmega16U2 on the board channels this serial correspondence over USB and shows up as a virtual com port to programming on the PC. The ’16U2 firmware utilizes the standard USB COM drivers, and no outer driver is required. Be that as it may, on Windows, a data document is required. The Arduino programming incorporates a serial screen which permits basic printed information to be sent to and from the Arduino board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will streak when information is being transmitted by means of the USB-to-serial chip and USB association with the PC (however not for serial correspondence on pins 0 and 1).

A Software Serial library takes into consideration serial correspondence on any of the Uno’s advanced pins. The ATmega328 additionally bolsters I2C (TWI) and SPI correspondence. The Arduino programming incorporates a Wire library to improve utilization of the I2C transport; see the documentation for points of interest. For SPI correspondence, utilize the SPI library.

As you experience the rundown of programming explanations accessible in the Arduino IDE (pick Help->Reference), you may think there isn’t much power for doing things like running servos, working stepper engines, perusing potentiometers, or showing content on a LCD. Like most any dialect in view of C, the Arduino underpins the idea of “libraries” code storehouses that augment center programming usefulness. Libraries let you re-utilize code without having to physically duplicate and glue it into every one of your projects.

3.3 ENCODER IC (HT12E)

HT12E is an encoder coordinated circuit of 212 arrangement of encoders. They are combined with 212 arrangement of decoders for use in remote control framework applications. It is chiefly utilized as a part of interfacing RF and infrared circuits. The picked match of encoder/decoder ought to have same number of locations and information arrange.

Stick DIAGRAM

Figure 3.6HT12E IC

Stick DESCRIPTION

Stick NO. SYMBOL FUNCTION

1-8 A0-A7 Address pins

9 Vss Ground stick

13-10 D0-D3 Output pins

14 TE Enables the transmission

15-16 Osc1-Osc2 Rosc of 470K ohm is associated

17 Dout Output for transmission

18 Vcc 5V supply voltage

Table 3.2 Pin portrayal for HT12E

Basically, HT12E changes over the parallel contributions to serial yield. It encodes the 12 bit parallel information into serial for transmission through a RF transmitter. These 12 bits are partitioned into 8 address bits and 4 information bits.

HT12E has a transmission empower stick which is dynamic low. At the point when a trigger flag is gotten on TE stick, the modified locations/information are transmitted together with the header bits by means of a RF or an infrared transmission medium.

HT12E starts a 4-word transmission endless supply of a transmission empower. This cycle is rehashed the length of TE is kept low. When TE comes back to high, the encoder yield finishes its last cycle and afterward stops.

3.4 RF MODULE (Rx/Tx)

Radio recurrence (RF) is a rate of wavering in the scope of around 3 KHz to 300 GHz, which relates to the recurrence of radio waves, and the substituting streams which convey radio signs.

Albeit radio recurrence is a rate of wavering, the expression “radio recurrence” or its condensing “RF” are additionally utilized as an equivalent word for radio – i.e. to portray the utilization of remote correspondence, rather than correspondence by means of electric wires

The RF module is taking a shot at the recurrence of 315 MHz and has a scope of 50-80 meters.

Figure 3.7 RF Transmitter

Stick Number Function Name

1 Ground (0V) GND

2 Serial Data Input Pin DATA

3 Supply Voltage (5V) VCC

4 Antenna Output Pin ANT

Table 3.3 RF Transmitter

Figure 3.8 RF Receiver

Stick Number Function Name

1 Ground (0V) GND

2 Serial Data Output Pin DATA

3 Linear Output Pin; Not Connected NC

4 Supply Voltage (5V) VCC

5 Supply Voltage (5V) VCC

6 Ground (0V) GND

7 Ground (0V) GND

8 Antenna Input Pin ANT

Table 3.4 RF Receiver

3.5 DECODER IC (HT12D)

HT12D IC originates from HolTek Company. HT12D is a decoder coordinated circuit that has a place with 212 arrangement of decoders. This arrangement of decoders are predominantly utilized for remote control framework applications, similar to criminal caution, auto entryway controller, security framework and so forth. It is for the most part given to interface RF and infrared circuits. They are combined with 212 arrangement of encoders. The picked combine of encoder/decoder ought to have same number of locations and information arrange.

In basic terms, HT12D changes over the serial contribution to parallel yields. It disentangles the serial locations and information got by, say, a RF beneficiary, into parallel information and sends them to yield information pins. The serial info information is contrasted and the residential locations times constantly. The information code is decoded when no blunder or unmatched codes are found. A substantial transmission in showed by a high flag at VT stick.

HT12D is equipped for disentangling 12 bits, of which 8 are address bits and 4 are information bits. The information on 4 bit hook sort yield pins stay unaltered until new is gotten.

Stick DIAGRAM

Figure 3.9HT12D IC

Stick DESCRIPTION

Stick NO. SYMBOL FUNCTION

1-8 A0-A7 Address pins

9 Vss Ground stick

13-10 D0-D3 Output pins

14 Din Input from RF

15-16 Osc1-Osc2 Rosc of 470K ohm is associated

17 VT Indicates legitimate transmission

18 Vcc 5V supply voltage

Table 3.5 Pin portrayal for HT12D

3.6 MOTOR DRIVER IC (L293D)

It is otherwise called H-Bridge or Actuator IC. Actuators are those gadgets which really gives the development to do an undertaking like that of an engine. In this present reality there are diverse sorts of engines accessible which chip away at various voltages. So we require an engine driver for running them through the controller.

The yield from the microcontroller is a low current flag. The engine driver opens up that ebb and flow which can control and drive an engine. By and large, a transistor can go about as a switch and play out this undertaking which drives the engine in a solitary heading.

Figure 3.10 L293D IC

Killing an engine ON and requires just a single change to control a solitary engine in a solitary course. We can switch the bearing of the engine by just turning around its extremity. This can be accomplished by utilizing four switches that are orchestrated in a canny way with the end goal that the circuit drives the engine, as well as controls its bearing. Out of numerous, a standout amongst the most widely recognized and cunning plan is a H-connect circuit where transistors are orchestrated in a shape that takes after the English letters in order “H”.

As found in the picture, the circuit has four switches A, B, C and D. Killing these switches ON and can drive an engine in various ways.

Figure 3.11 H-Bridge

• When switches An and D are on, engine turns clockwise.

• When B and C are on, the engine turns against clockwise.

• When An andB are on, the engine will stop.

• Turning off all the switches gives the engine a free wheel drive.

• Turning on A&C in the meantime or B&D in the meantime shorts the whole circuit. In this way, never attempt to do it.

3.7 DC MOTORS

A machine that believers DC control into mechanical power is known as a DC engine. Its operation depends on the rule that when a current conveying conductor is put in an attractive field, the conductor encounters a mechanical constrain.

DC engines have a spinning armature twisting yet non-rotating armature attractive field and a stationary field winding or changeless magnet. Distinctive associations of the field and armature winding give diverse speed/torque direction highlights. The speed of a DC engine can be controlled by changing the voltage connected to the armature or by changing the field current.

Figure 3.12 DC Motor

3.7.1 DC GEAR MOTOR

An adapted DC Motor has a rigging gathering dedicated to the engine. The speed of engine is tallied regarding pivots of the pole every moment and is named as RPM .The apparatus gathering helps in expanding the torque and dropping the speed. Utilizing the right course of action of riggings in an apparatus engine, its speed can be lessened to any required figure. This idea of decreasing the speed with the assistance of riggings and expanding the torque is known as apparatus diminishment.

Diminishing the speed put out by the engine while expanding the amount of connected torque is a critical component of the decrease equip trains found in an apparatus engine. The decline in speed is conversely in respect to the expansion in torque. This affiliation implies that, in this kind of gadget, if the torque were to twofold, the speed would diminish by one half. Little electric engines, for example, the apparatus engine, can move and stand substantial burdens due to these lessening gear trains. While the speed and capacity of bigger engines is more noteworthy, little electric engines are adequate to hold up under these heaps.

Figure 3.13 DC Gear Motor

Chapter 4:SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION

4.1 AURDINO IDE

The Arduino incorporated improvement condition (IDE) is a cross-stage application written in Java, and is gotten from the IDE for the Processing programming dialect and the Wiring ventures. It incorporates a code supervisor which is fit for ordering and transferring projects to the board with a solitary snap. A program or code composed for Arduino is known as an “outline”.

Taking after are the means included:

• Open Arduino IDE as demonstrated as follows

Figure 3.5.1Arduino IDE

Arduino projects are composed in C or C++. The Arduino IDE accompanies a product library called “Wiring” from the first Wiring venture, which makes numerous normal information/yield operations much effective. Clients just need characterize two capacities to make a runnable cyclic official program:

setup(): a capacity run once toward the begin of a program that can introduce settings

circle(): a capacity called more than once until the board controls off

Select the COM Port from devices

Figure 3.5.2Arduino IDE

Select the required Arduino board from Tools

Figure 3.5.3Arduino IDE

Compose the draw in Arduino IDE

Figure 3.5.4Arduino IDE

Gather and transfer the Sketch to Arduino board

Figure 3.5.5Arduino IDE

4.2 FLOWCHART

Part 5: DESIGN AND WORKING PRINCIPLE

5.1 CIRCUIT DESIGN OF HAND GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT

TRANSMITTER SECTION

The transmitter area of the robot comprises of Arduino Uno board, 3-Axis Accelerometer Sensor, HT-12E Encoder and a RF Transmitter.

As it is a basic robot moving in various headings, information from just 2 of the 3 pivot is being caught. The Accelerometer sensor has 6 pins viz. Vcc, Gnd, Xout, Yout, Zout and ST.

Xout, Yout and Zout are the simple yields of the 3-pivot accelerometer relating to X-hub, Y-hub and Z-hub separately.

ST is the affectability conforming pin. Vcc and Gnd are associated with power rails. Zout and ST are left open. The Xout and Yout pins are associated with the simple in pins of the Arduino (A0 and A1).

HT-12E is an encoder IC frequently connected with RF Transmitter module. It changes over the 12-bit parallel information to serial information.

The 12-bit information is separated into address and information bits. A0 to A7 (Pin 1 to Pin8) are the address bits and they are utilized for secure transmission of the information.

These pins can be either left open or associated with ground (Vss). In this circuit, Pin 1 to Pin 9 (A0 – A7 and Vss) of HT-12E are associated with ground.

Pins 10 to 13 (AD8, AD9, AD10 and AD11) are the information pins of HT-12E. They get the 4 word parallel information from outer source like a microcontroller (Arduino in this case).They are associated with the pins 3, 5, 7 and 8 of Arduino individually. TE’ is the transmission empower stick and it is a dynamic low stick. The information is transmitted the length of the TE’ is low.

Henceforth, Pin 14 (TE’) is likewise associated with ground. The encoder IC has an inward oscillator circuit between the pins 16 and 15 (OSC1 and OSC2).A 1MΩ resistor is associated between these pins to empower the oscillator. Dout (Pin 17) is the serial information out stick. It is associated with the information in stick of the RF Transmitter.

Figure 5.1 Schematic Diagram of Transmitter Section

Beneficiary SECTION

The beneficiary segment of the robot comprises of a RF Receiver, HT-12D Decoder IC, L293D Motor Driver IC and a robot body with two engines associated with wheels.

HT-12D is the decoder IC frequently connected with RF Receiver. It changes over the serial information got by the RF connect into parallel information.

A0 to A7 (Pin 1 to Pin 8) are the address sticks and should be coordinated with the address pins of the encoder.

Since the address pins of encoder (HT-12E) are grounded, the address pins of decoder should likewise be grounded. Thus, pins 1 to 9 (A0 – A7 and Vss) are associated with ground. Pins 10 to 13 (D8, D9, D10 and D11) are the parallel information out pins.

They are associated with the information pins of the L293D engine driver IC (Pins 2, 7, 10 and 15 separately). The serial information from the RF Receiver is given to Din (Pin 14) of the decoder IC.

HT-12D has an interior oscillator and an outer resistor of 51K is associated amongst OSC1 and OSC2 (Pins 16 and 15).

Stick 17 (VT) demonstrates a substantial transmission of information and this stick will be high when a legitimate information is available on the information pins. A LED in arrangement with a resistor is associated with this stick to show a substantial information transmission.

L293D engine driver IC is utilized to give the essential ebb and flow (for both forward and switch bearings) to the engines. Pins 1 and 9 are the empower sticks and are associated with Vcc. Pins 3 – 6 and 11 – 14 are the yields and are associated with the engines.

The beneficiary segment of the robot comprises of a RF Receiver, HT-12D Decoder IC, L293D Motor Driver IC and a robot skeleton with two engines associated with wheels.

Figure 5.2 Schematic Diagram of Receiver Section

5.2 WORKING OF HAND GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT

In this venture, a versatile robot that is controlled by the motions made by the hand is composed. The working of the robot is clarified here.

As specified before, the signal controlled robot is a remote worked robot and has two sections: Transmitter and Receiver.

At the point when the robot is controlled on, the transmitter part, which comprises of Arduino, Accelerometer, Encoder and RF Transmitter, will persistently screen the accelerometer sensor.

This information is caught by the Arduino, which transmits fitting information to the Encoder, in view of the introduction of the Accelerometer.The parallel information got by the encoder is changed over into serial information and this serial information is transmitted by the RF Transmitter.

At the collector area, the RF Receiver gets the serial information and transmits to Decoder IC.

The Decoder will change over the serial information to parallel information and this parallel information is given to the engine driver IC. In view of the information, the development of the engines, and thus the development of the robot is characterized.

The transmitter model is continued the palm and the beneficiary model ( i.e robot) moves as per the palm development. This paper clarifies about the 5 diverse signal position of the hand i.e stop condition, forward development, in reverse development, moves towards right and moves towards left.

Part 5: DESIGN AND WORKING PRINCIPLE

5.1 CIRCUIT DESIGN OF HAND GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT

TRANSMITTER SECTION

The transmitter area of the robot comprises of Arduino Uno board, 3-Axis Accelerometer Sensor, HT-12E Encoder and a RF Transmitter.

As it is a basic robot moving in various headings, information from just 2 of the 3 pivot is being caught. The Accelerometer sensor has 6 pins viz. Vcc, Gnd, Xout, Yout, Zout and ST.

Xout, Yout and Zout are the simple yields of the 3-pivot accelerometer relating to X-hub, Y-hub and Z-hub separately.

ST is the affectability conforming pin. Vcc and Gnd are associated with power rails. Zout and ST are left open. The Xout and Yout pins are associated with the simple in pins of the Arduino (A0 and A1).

HT-12E is an encoder IC frequently connected with RF Transmitter module. It changes over the 12-bit parallel information to serial information.

The 12-bit information is separated into address and information bits. A0 to A7 (Pin 1 to Pin8) are the address bits and they are utilized for secure transmission of the information.

These pins can be either left open or associated with ground (Vss). In this circuit, Pin 1 to Pin 9 (A0 – A7 and Vss) of HT-12E are associated with ground.

Pins 10 to 13 (AD8, AD9, AD10 and AD11) are the information pins of HT-12E. They get the 4 word parallel information from outer source like a microcontroller (Arduino in this case).They are associated with the pins 3, 5, 7 and 8 of Arduino individually. TE’ is the transmission empower stick and it is a dynamic low stick. The information is transmitted the length of the TE’ is low.

Henceforth, Pin 14 (TE’) is likewise associated with ground. The encoder IC has an inward oscillator circuit between the pins 16 and 15 (OSC1 and OSC2).A 1MΩ resistor is associated between these pins to empower the oscillator. Dout (Pin 17) is the serial information out stick. It is associated with the information in stick of the RF Transmitter.

Figure 5.1 Schematic Diagram of Transmitter Section

Beneficiary SECTION

The beneficiary segment of the robot comprises of a RF Receiver, HT-12D Decoder IC, L293D Motor Driver IC and a robot body with two engines associated with wheels.

HT-12D is the decoder IC frequently connected with RF Receiver. It changes over the serial information got by the RF connect into parallel information.

A0 to A7 (Pin 1 to Pin 8) are the address sticks and should be coordinated with the address pins of the encoder.

Since the address pins of encoder (HT-12E) are grounded, the address pins of decoder should likewise be grounded. Thus, pins 1 to 9 (A0 – A7 and Vss) are associated with ground. Pins 10 to 13 (D8, D9, D10 and D11) are the parallel information out pins.

They are associated with the information pins of the L293D engine driver IC (Pins 2, 7, 10 and 15 separately). The serial information from the RF Receiver is given to Din (Pin 14) of the decoder IC.

HT-12D has an interior oscillator and an outer resistor of 51K is associated amongst OSC1 and OSC2 (Pins 16 and 15).

Stick 17 (VT) demonstrates a substantial transmission of information and this stick will be high when a legitimate information is available on the information pins. A LED in arrangement with a resistor is associated with this stick to show a substantial information transmission.

L293D engine driver IC is utilized to give the essential ebb and flow (for both forward and switch bearings) to the engines. Pins 1 and 9 are the empower sticks and are associated with Vcc. Pins 3 – 6 and 11 – 14 are the yields and are associated with the engines.

The beneficiary segment of the robot comprises of a RF Receiver, HT-12D Decoder IC, L293D Motor Driver IC and a robot skeleton with two engines associated with wheels.

Figure 5.2 Schematic Diagram of Receiver Section

5.2 WORKING OF HAND GESTURE CONTROLLED ROBOT

In this venture, a versatile robot that is controlled by the motions made by the hand is composed. The working of the robot is clarified here.

As specified before, the signal controlled robot is a remote worked robot and has two sections: Transmitter and Receiver.

At the point when the robot is controlled on, the transmitter part, which comprises of Arduino, Accelerometer, Encoder and RF Transmitter, will persistently screen the accelerometer sensor.

This information is caught by the Arduino, which transmits fitting information to the Encoder, in view of the introduction of the Accelerometer.The parallel information got by the encoder is changed over into serial information and this serial information is transmitted by the RF Transmitter.

At the collector area, the RF Receiver gets the serial information and transmits to Decoder IC.

The Decoder will change over the serial information to parallel information and this parallel information is given to the engine driver IC. In view of the information, the development of the engines, and thus the development of the robot is characterized.

The transmitter model is continued the palm and the beneficiary model ( i.e robot) moves as per the palm development. This paper clarifies about the 5 diverse signal position of the hand i.e stop condition, forward development, in reverse development, moves towards right and moves towards left.

Chapter 7: FEASIBILITY OF PROJECT

7.1 CONCLUSION

Hand Gesture Control turns into a case of fellowship amongst man and machine in the race of man versus Machine additionally improving the innovation to the following level from Speech acknowledgments and wired associations with remote hand signal control innovation. There is a fast development on application improvement considering signal acknowledgment framework. So in this paper, we propose a model of a robot in view of “Human Gesture Recognition” using hand motions to speak with the robot. The 3-hub accelerometer chose to be the info gadget of this framework catches the human motions. At the point when contrasted and the other info gadgets accelerometer is simpler to work and offers the likelihood to control a robot by remote means. The low cost and short set-up time are different focal points of the framework yet a critical impediment to consider is the unwavering quality of the framework Physical hardship to the client is maintained a strategic distance from using accelerometer as with the touch of the hand, the client gets the capacity and flexibility to transform the robot into the coveted course.

7.2 FUTURE WORK

Future work will build upon the improvement of the correctly recognized the gestures. One approach might be the implementation of a gyroscope into the system, in order to separate the acceleration due to gravity from the inertial acceleration and second approach can be that we can install a GPS in the system to track the position of robot. The utilization of more accelerometers appended to the arms is another possibility.

An on-board camera can be introduced for observing the robot from faraway spots. All we need is a remote camera which will communicate and a collector module which will give live gushing.

7.4 LIMITATIONS

The On-board batteries possess a considerable measure of space and are additionally very substantial. We either utilize some other power hotspot for the batteries or supplant the present DC Motors with ones which require less power.

As we are utilizing for wirelsss transmission , the range is very restricted ; about 50-80m. This issue can be explained by using a GSM module for remote transmission. The GSM framework is introduced everywhere throughout the world. GSM won’t just give remote availability additionally a significant expansive range.

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