Job satisfaction is one of most important fields of study in the subject of human resource management. This important role of job satisfaction function leads the way in assuring high level of job satisfaction among the employees. Job satisfaction function of any HR vertical of an organization is primarily responsible for productivity of employees and the employee turnover. Since these two aspects can make or break the organizations performance in all areas, it requires attention from top management. (Lovelace & Rosen, 2006) Job satisfaction function generally is part of the HR vertical with a clear mandate of motivating employee and continuously striving for higher employee job satisfaction through introduction of new policies and frameworks. The topic forms an integral part of organizational effectiveness and that has instigated me to choose this topic of job satisfaction. I shall try to study the existing literature on job satisfaction and will choose multinational companies to study their varied job satisfaction strategies and make analysis. (Parkes et al, 2001)
Job satisfaction function is a vast topic and cannot be completely covered in this dissertation. Various researchers have already published their research articles on this subject. I shall be developing on it through understanding the different strategies used by MNC’s in today’s business environment for maintaining better levels of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction as stated earlier is a complex topic and hence I will try to break it down to simpler and more realistic frameworks to understand the thought process of an organization to ensuring better job satisfaction amongst its employees. (Gruneberg, 2009)
According to Wood (2003), “job satisfaction is the condition of contentment with one’s work and its environment, denoting a positive attitude.” Locke (2006) stated that, “job satisfaction could be viewed as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.”
In other words, it can also be stated that, “job satisfaction was simply a function of the degree to which a job provided the worker with positively values outcomes.” Wanous (2000) said that, “job satisfaction was a match between a person’s need and the reinforcement received from work performed in an organization.”
The HR vertical of any organization shall try to achieve higher levels of job satisfaction through various techniques like awards program, job rotation, internal promotion scheme, family tours and training processes. (Rounds et al, 2007) There is no destination to achieving job satisfaction but the journey is perpetual in nature. Continuous improvement is the name of the game in achieving relatively good job satisfaction amongst the employees. The measure of job satisfaction can only be achieved through comparison in similar industries and through the employee turnover and productivity data. (Jackson et al., 2001)
Job satisfaction is one of the most widely discussed and enthusiastically studied constructs. However, job satisfaction is among the most difficult constructs to define. A review of literature shows that constituted definitions of the construct vary from one researcher to the next. Wood (2003) describes the job satisfaction as “the condition of contentment with one’s work and it’s in my mind, denoting a positive attitude” (p.8.). Locke (2006) stated that job satisfaction could be viewed as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.” (p.1300)
There are several reasons for studying job satisfaction. “Organizations major job satisfaction primarily because of its presumed direct relationship to the short-term goals of cost reduction through increased individual productivity and reduced absences, errors, and turnover.” (Cranny et al, 2002). Levels of job dissatisfaction have been found to be related to job turnover, absences, and tardiness.
Turnover rates have been the most consistent major associated with job satisfaction. The potential negative consequences of employee turnover in terms of the impact of organizations. Negative effects of job turnover can include: increased costs to recruit, select and train new employer; demoralization of remaining employees; decreased social relationships among employees; negative public relations; disruption of a hi-fi and two-day activities; and decreased organizational possibilities to pursue growth strategies. In fact, several researchers reported a significant relationship between absenteeism and job satisfaction.
According to Lawler (2007), “the research evidence clearly shows that employee’s decisions about whether they will go to work on any given day and whether they will quit as affected by their feelings of job satisfaction. All the literature reviews on the subject have reached the same conclusion. The fact that present satisfaction influences future absenteeism and turnover clearly indicates that the commercial direction is from satisfaction to behavior.”
The literature also reveals that there is a correlation between job satisfaction and variables such as achievement, recognition, the word itself, responsibility, advancement, policy and administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations, working conditions, age, Tenure, educational level, job activities, and gender.
The Purpose of the Study
The purpose to choose this topic is to analyze the importance of job satisfaction in Multi National Companies (MNCs). The reason to go for MNCs is the increase in the shift over of the employees for future growth. The shifting, thus, includes the satisfaction in the given job role. Through my research, I will try to analyze the causes and effect relationship between the employee and the factors behind job satisfaction in a given MNC.
Aim of the Study
The main aim of the study is to investigate the remains leading to negative and positive job satisfaction in a MNC.
The Objectives of the Study
The key objectives of the chosen topic are:
- Estimating the causes of employee attitudes.
- Adjudging the results of positive or negative job satisfaction
- Measuring the employee attitude
- To assess facet-specific levels of job satisfaction
- To measure general job satisfaction,
There are several reasons for studying job satisfaction. “Organizations measure job satisfaction primarily because of its presumed direct relationship to the short-term goals of cost reduction through increased individual productivity and reduced absenteeism, errors, and dissatisfaction has been found to be related to job turnover, absenteeism and tardiness.” (Glisson & Durick, 2008)
Turnover rates have been the most constraints measure associated with job satisfaction (Atchison & Lofferts, 2002; Brayfield & Crockett, 2005, Dawis & Lofquist, 2001). Mowday (2004) recapitulate the probable pessimistic significance of employee turnover in terms of the impact on organizations. There are various impacts of pessimism in job satisfaction on the turnover of the company such as:
- Increase in the recruitment cost.
- Recruiting new employees and then training them as well.
- It can lead to reduced social relations ships among employees.
- No or only few public relations.
- Reduction in company’s prospects which can hamper the growth.
According to Lawler (2005), “the research evidence clearly shows that employees’ decisions about whether they will get to work on any given day and whether they will quit are effected by their feelings of job satisfaction. The fact that present satisfaction influences future absenteeism and turnover clearly indicates the causal direction is from satisfaction to behavior”.
There is a correlation between job satisfaction and variables such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, policy and administration, working conditions, supervision, job activities and gender.
Saunders et al (2005) “Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure”.
The research to be followed is a step-by-step process. This makes the entire research process systematic. Only primary research shall be used to draw inferences. (Ryan, 2009) The sources used shall be of international repute and will be trustworthy. The main source will be case study and also some books, journals, articles and publications including Internet sources.
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