Literature Review on Carl Rogers’ Theories

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CHAPTER – I

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

  1. INTRODUCTION:

Carl Rogers’ personal life

Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was a commanding American psychologist and among the originators of the humanistic methodology (or client focused methodology) of psychology. Rogers is generally thought to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was regarded for his spearheading research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1956.

The Person-Centered approach, his own particular exceptional way to deal with comprehension of identity and human connections, with application in different areas, for example, psychotherapy and guiding (Client-Centered therapy), training (learning focused learning), associations, and other gathering situations. For his expert work, he was given the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Psychology by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1972. In a study by Haggbloom  (Haggbloom, et al., 2002) utilising six criteria, for example, references and acknowledgement, Rogers was observed to be the 6th most prominent analyst of the twentieth century and second, among psychologists, just to Sigmund Freud.

Rogers set up a guiding focus associated with the college and there led studies to decide the viability of his strategies. His discoveries and hypotheses showed up in Client-Centered Therapy (1951) and Psychotherapy and Personality Change (1954). One of his graduate student learning at the University of Chicago, Thomas Gordon, built up the Parent Effectiveness Training (P.E.T.) development. In 1956, Rogers became the President of the American Academy of Psychotherapists. He taught psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (1957–63), amid which time he composed one of his best-known books, On Becoming a Person (1961). Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (1908–70) spearheaded a development theory called ‘humanistic psychology’ which achieved its top in the 1960s. In 1961, he was chosen a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Carl Rogers was additionally one of the general population who scrutinised the ascent of McCarthyism in the 1950s. Through articles, he scrutinised society of its retrogressive looking affinities.

The following two years he exited the theological school to go to Teachers College, Columbia University, getting an MA in 1928 and a PhD in 1931. While finishing his doctoral work, he was occupied with child study. In 1930, Rogers served as chief of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Rochester, New York. From 1935 to 1940 he addressed at the University of Rochester and composed The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child (1939), taking into account his involvement in working with disturbed youngsters. He was emphatically impacted in developing his Person-centred methodology by the post-Freudian psychotherapeutic routine of Otto Rank (Kramer, 1995). In 1940 Rogers became an educator of clinical psychology at Ohio State University, where he composed his second book, Counselling and Psychotherapy (1942). In it, Rogers recommended that the client, by setting up an association with an understanding, tolerating specialist, can resolve troubles and pick up the knowledge important to rebuild their life.

In 1945, he was welcome to set up a guiding and research focus centre at the University of Chicago. In 1947 he was chosen President of the American Psychological Association (APA). While a Professor of psychology at the University of Chicago (1945–57), Rogers set up a guiding focus associated with the college and there led studies to decide the adequacy of his techniques. His discoveries and speculations showed up in Client-Centered Therapy (1951) and Psychotherapy and Personality Change (1954). In 1961, he was chosen a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Carl Rogers was likewise one of the general people who scrutinised the ascent of McCarthyism in the 1950s. Through articles, he condemned society of its regressive looking affinities.

Rogers taught at University of Wisconsin until 1963, when he turned into a resident at the new Western Behavioral Sciences Institute (WBSI) in La Jolla, California. Rogers left the WBSI to help found the Center for Studies of the Person in 1968. His later books incorporate Carl Rogers on Personal Power (1977) and Freedom to Learn for the 80’s (1983). He remained a Resident of La Jolla for the rest of his life, doing treatment, giving discourses and composing until his sudden passing in 1987. In 1987, Rogers endured a fall that brought about a cracked pelvis: he had life alarm and could contact paramedics. He had an effective operation, yet his pancreas fizzled the following night and he passed away a couple of days after the fact.

Rogers’ last years were dedicated to applying his hypotheses in circumstances of political abuse and national social class, making a trip worldwide to do as such. In Belfast, Northern Ireland, he united persuasive Protestants and Catholics; in South Africa, blacks and whites; in Brazil individuals rising up out of autocracy to majority rule government in the United States, shoppers and suppliers in the wellbeing field. His last outing, at age 85, was to the Soviet Union, where he addressed and encouraged escalated experiential workshops cultivating correspondence and imagination. He was amazed at the quantities of Russians who knew of his work.

Together with his little girl, Natalie Rogers, and therapists Maria Bowen, Maureen O’Hara, and John K. Wood, somewhere around 1974 and 1984, Rogers met a progression of private projects in the US, Europe, Brazil and Japan, the Person-Centered Approach Workshops, which concentrated on diverse correspondences, self-improvement, self-strengthening, and learning for social change.

Applications of Carl Rogers’ ‘Person-Centered therapy’ and ‘Student-Centered learning’:

Rogers initially built up his hypothesis to be the establishment of an arrangement of treatment. He at first called this “non-directive therapy” however later supplanted the expression “non-directive” with the expression “Client-Centered” and after that later utilised the expression “Person-Centered”. Indeed, even before the dissemination of Client-Centered Therapy in 1951, Rogers trusted that the standards he was portraying could be connected in an assortment of settings and not simply in the treatment circumstance. Accordingly, he began to utilise the term Person-Centered approach later in his life to depicting his general hypothesis. Person-Centered therapy is the utilisation of the Person-Centered way to deal with the treatment circumstance. Different applications incorporate a hypothesis of identity, interpersonal relations, training, nursing, culturally diverse relations and other “helping” callings and circumstances. Rogers co-wrote Advising with Returned Servicemen (1946), with John L. Wallen (the maker of the behavioural model known as The Interpersonal Gap), reporting the utilisation of Person-Centered way to deal with directing military faculty coming back from the Second World War.

The principal exact proof of the adequacy of the client focused methodology was distributed in 1941 at the Ohio State University by Elias Porter, utilising the recordings of remedial sessions between Carl Rogers and his clients. Doorman utilised Rogers’ transcripts and devised a framework to gauge the level of directiveness or non-directiveness a guide utilised. The state of mind and introduction of the guide were shown to be instrumental in the choices made by the client.

Learner-Centered teaching

The application of training has an expansive powerful research custom like that of treatment with studies having started in the late 1930s and proceeding with today (Cornelius-White, 2007). Rogers portrayed the way to deal with instruction in Client-Centered Therapy and composed Freedom to Learn committed only to the subject in 1969. Opportunity to Learn was reconsidered two times. The new Learner-Centered Model is comparable in numerous respects to this traditional Person-Centered way to deal with instruction. Rogers and Harold Lyon started a book preceding Rogers death, entitled On Becoming an Effective Teacher – Person-focused Teaching, Psychology, Philosophy, and Dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon, which was finished by Lyon and Reinhard Tausch and distributed in 2013 containing Rogers ongoing unpublished works on Person-Centered teaching. Rogers had the accompanying five speculations with respect to learner-focused instruction:

“A man can’t instruct someone else specifically; a man can just encourage another’s learning” (Rogers, 1951). This is an after-effect of his identity hypothesis, which expresses that everybody exists and always show signs of change in a universe of involvement in which he or she is in the middle. Every individual responds and reacts in light of discernment and experience. The conviction is that what the learning does is more critical than what the educator does. The emphasis is on the learning (Rogers, 1951). Along with these lines, the foundation and encounters of the learner are fundamental to how and what is found out. Every learning will handle what he or she realises diversely relying upon what he or she conveys to the classroom.

“A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self.” (Rogers, 1951). In this manner, the importance of learning is the key to learning.

“Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organisation of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism” (Rogers, 1951). The research scholar finds in the works of Carl Rogers is that in the event that the substance or presentation of a course is conflicting with biased data, the learning will take on the off chance that he or she is interested in differing ideas. Being interested in considering ideas that fluctuate from one’s own is basic to learning. Subsequently, tenderly reassuring liberality is useful in connecting with the theory of learning. Additionally, it is imperative, therefore, that new data be pertinent and identified with existing knowledge.

“The structure and organisation of self-appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat.” (Rogers, 1951). In Rogers’ works we see on the off chance that learners trust that ideas are being constrained by them, they may get to be uncomfortable and dreadful. A hindrance is made by a manner of risk in the classroom. Along with these lines, an open, cordial environment in which trust is produced is the key in the classroom. The trepidation of requital for not concurring with an idea ought to be disposed of. A classroom tone of bolster reduces fears and urges learning to have the mettle to investigate ideas and convictions that shift from those they convey to the classroom. Additionally, new data may debilitate the learner’s idea of him or herself; in this way, the less helpless the learner feels, the more probable he or she will have the capacity to open up to the learning process.

“The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated.” (Knowles, HoltonIII, & Swanson, 1998). The researcher sees that educator ought to be interested in gaining from the learner and furthermore attempting to interface the learning of the topic. Incessant connection with the learner will accomplish this objective. The educator’s acknowledgement of being a coach who directs as opposed to the master who advises is instrumental to learner focused, non-threatening, and unforced learning.

Rogerian logical approach

In 1970, Richard Young, Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth Pike distributed Rhetoric: Discovery and Change, a generally powerful school compose course book that utilised a Rogerian way to deal with correspondence to update the customary Aristotelian structure for a teaching and learning process. The Rogerian technique for argument includes every side restating the other’s position as per the general inclination of the other. In a paper, it can be communicated via painstakingly recognising and understanding the restriction, instead of rejecting them.

Diverse relations

The application of ‘diverse relations’ has included workshops in very unpleasant circumstances and worldwide areas incorporating clashes and challenges in South Africa, Central America, and Ireland. Along with Alberto Zucconi and Charles Devonshire, he helped to establish the Istituto dell’Approccio Centrato Sulla Persona (Person-Centered Approach Institute) in Rome, Italy.

His worldwide work for peace finished in the Rust Peace Workshop which occurred in November 1985 in Rust, Austria. Pioneers from 17 countries assembled to talk about the subject “The Central America Challenge”. The meeting was striking for a few reasons: it united national figures as individuals (not as their positions), it was a private occasion and was a mind-boggling constructive experience where individuals heard each other and set up genuine individual ties, instead of solidly formal and directed discretionary meetings.

Carl Rogers served on the leading group of the Human Ecology Fund from the late 50s into the 60s, which was a CIA subsidised association that gave awards to scientists investigating identity. He got cash also. Also, “he and other people in the field of personality and psychotherapy were given a lot of information about Khrushchev. ‘We were asked to figure out what we thought of him and what would be the best ‘way of dealing with him. And that seemed to be an entirely principled and legitimate aspect. I don’t think we contributed very much, but, anyway, we tried (Greenfield, 1977).’”

Hypothesis:

Rogers’ hypothesis and theory of the self are thought to be humanistic, existential, and phenomenological. His hypothesis is constructed straightforwardly in light of the “phenomenal field” identity hypothesis of (Boeree, 1998). Rogers’ elaboration of his own hypothesis is broad. He composed 16 books and numerous more diary articles portraying it. Prochaska and Norcross (2003) states Rogers “consistently stood for an empirical evaluation of psychotherapy. He and his followers have demonstrated a humanistic approach to conducting therapy and a scientific approach to evaluating therapy need not be incompatible.” (Wilson, 2011)

Nineteen suggestions

His hypothesis (starting 1951) depended on 19 propositions:

1. All people (life forms) exist in a constantly changing universe of experience (amazing field) of which they are the inside.

2. The life form responds to the field as it is experienced and saw. This perceptual field is “reality” for the person.

3. The life form responds as a sorted out entire to this remarkable field.

4. A part of the aggregate perceptual field bit by bit gets to be separated as the self.

5. As an aftereffect of connection with nature, and especially as a consequence of evolutional cooperation with others, the structure of the self is framed – a composed, a liquid yet predictable calculated example of an impression of qualities and connections of the “I” or the “me”, together with qualities appended to these ideas.

6. The creature has one essential inclination and endeavouring – to complete, keep up and upgrade the encountering life form.

7. The best vantage point for comprehension conduct is from the inward edge of reference of the person.

8. Behaviour is fundamentally the objective guided endeavour of the living being to fulfil its needs as experienced, in the field as saw.

9. Emotion goes with, and when all is said in done encourages, such objective coordinated conduct, the sort of feeling being identified with the apparent hugeness of the conduct for the upkeep and upgrade of the living being.

10. The qualities appended to encounters, and the qualities that are a part of the self-structure, on a few occasions, are qualities experienced specifically by the life form, and in a few examples are qualities introjected or assumed control from others, yet saw in a twisted manner, as though they had been experienced straightforwardly.

11. As encounters happen in the life of the individual, they are either, a) symbolized, saw and composed into some connection to the self, b) overlooked in light of the fact that there is no apparent relationship to the self-structure, c) denied symbolization or given misshaped symbolization in light of the fact that the experience is conflicting with the structure of the self.

12. Most of the methods for carrying on that are embraced by the creature are those that are predictable with the idea of self.

13. In a few cases, conduct might be achieved by natural encounters and needs which have not been symbolised. Such conduct might be conflicting with the structure of the self yet in such examples the conduct is not “claimed” by the person.

14. Psychological conformity exists when the idea of the self is such that all the tactile and instinctive encounters of the life form are, or might be, absorbed on a typical level into a reliable association with the idea of self.

15. Psychological maladjustment exists when the living being precludes mindfulness from claiming huge tangible and instinctive encounters, which therefore are not symbolised and composed into the gestalt of the self-structure. At the point when this circumstance exists, there is an essential or potential mental pressure.

16. Any experience which is conflicting with the association of the structure of the self might be seen as a risk, and a greater amount of these observations there are, the all the more unbendingly the self-structure is sorted out to look after itself.

17. Under certain conditions, including essentially finish nonattendance of danger to the self-structure, encounters which are conflicting with it might be seen and inspected, and the structure of self-updated to absorb and incorporate such encounters.

18. When the individual sees and acknowledges into one steady and incorporated framework all his tangible and instinctive encounters, then he is essentially additionally comprehension of others and is all the more tolerating of others as isolated people.

19. As the individual sees and acknowledges into his self-structure a greater amount of his natural encounters, he finds that he is supplanting his present worth framework – construct widely in light of introjections which have been distortedly symbolised – with a proceeding with the organismic esteeming process.

Also, Rogers is known for rehearsing “unequivocal constructive respect,” which is characterised as tolerating a man “without negative judgment of …. [a person’s] essential worth.” (Barry, 2002)

Development of the Personality:

As for improvement, Rogers depicted standards instead of stages. The principle issue is the advancement of a self-idea and the advancement from an undifferentiated self to being completely separated.

Self-Concept

… the organised consistent conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of ‘I’ or ‘me’ and the perceptions of the relationships of the ‘I’ or ‘me’ to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values attached to these perceptions. It is a gestalt which is available to awareness though not necessarily in awareness. It is a fluid and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given moment it is a specific entity.(Rogers, 1959)

In the advancement of the self-idea, he saw contingent and unequivocal positive view as ‘key’. Those brought up in a domain of definite positive respect have the chance to completely realise themselves. Those brought up in a situation of restrictive positive respect feel commendable just in the event that they coordinate conditions (what Rogers depicts as conditions of worth) that have been set down for them by others.

Fully functioning person:

“Optimal development, referred to below in proposition 14, results in a certain process rather than static state. Rogers describes this as the good life, where the organism continually aims to fulfil its full potential.” (Pyc15)

He listed the characteristics of a fully functioning person as follows:

1. A developing openness to encounter – they move far from protectiveness and have no requirement for subception (a perceptual guard that includes unwittingly applying techniques to keep an alarming jolt from entering cognizance).

2. A progressively existential way of life – living every minute completely – not misshaping the minute to fit identity or self-idea, however, permitting identity and self-idea to exude from the experience. This outcome in fervour, brave, versatility, resistance, suddenness and an absence of inflexibility and proposes an establishment of trust. “To open one’s spirit to what is going on now, and discover in that present process whatever structure it appears to have”. (Rogers, 1961, p. 189)

3. Increasing organismic trust – they believe their own judgment and their capacity to pick conduct that is fitting for every minute. They don’t depend on existing codes and social standards yet assume that as they are interested in encounters they will have the capacity to believe their own feeling of good and bad.

4. Freedom of decision – not being shackled by the confinements that impact an incongruent individual, they can settle on a more extensive scope of decisions all the more easily. They trust that they assume a part in deciding their own particular conduct thus feel in charge of their own conduct.

5. Creativity – it takes after that they will feel all the more liberated to be imaginative. They will likewise be more innovative in the way they adjust to their own particular circumstances without feeling a need to accommodate.

6. Reliability and productivity – they can be trusted to act valuably. A person who is interested in everything their needs will have the capacity to keep up a harmony between them. Indeed, even forceful needs will be coordinated and adjusted by inherent goodness incompatible people.

7. A rich full life – he depicts the life of the completely working individual as rich, full and energising and proposes that they encounter euphoria and agony, adoration and shock, trepidation and bravery all the more seriously. Rogers’ depiction of the great life:

This process of the good life is not, I am convinced, a life for the faint-hearted. It involves the stretching and growing of becoming more and more of one’s potentialities. It involves the courage to be. It means launching oneself fully into the stream of life. (Rogers, 1961, p. 420)

Incongruence

Rogers distinguished the “genuine self” as the part of one’s being that is established in the completing inclination, takes after organismic esteeming, needs and gets positive respect and self-respect. Then again, to the degree that our general public is out of sync with the completing inclination, and we are compelled to live with states of worth that are out of a venture with organismic esteeming, and get just restrictive positive respect and self-respect, we create rather a ‘perfect self’. By perfect, Rogers is proposing something not genuine, something that is constantly out of our achieve, the standard we can’t meet. This crevice between the genuine self and the perfect self, the ‘I am’ and the ‘I ought to’ is called confusion.

Psychopathology

Rogers portrayed the ideas of coinciding and incongruence as imperative thoughts in his hypothesis. In suggestion number 6, he alludes to the completing inclination. In the meantime, he perceived the requirement for positive respect. In a completely consistent individual understanding, their potential is not to the detriment of encountering positive respect. They can lead experience that is valid and real. Incongruent people, in their quest for constructive respect, a lead experience that incorporates falseness and doesn’t understand their potential. Conditions put on them by people around them make it vital for them to do without their veritable, genuine lives to meet with the endorsement of others. They lead experience that is not consistent with themselves, to who they are on the back to front.

The researcher finds that Rogers recommended the incongruent person, who is dependable on the edge and can’t be interested in all encounters, who is not working preferably and might even be failing. They buckle down at keeping up/ensuring their self-idea. Since their lives are not true this is a troublesome assignment and they are under steady risk. They send barrier components to accomplish this. He portrays two systems: contortion and dissent. Contortion or Bending happens when the individual sees a risk to their self-idea. They misshape the recognition until it fits their self-idea.

This cautious conduct decreases the awareness of the risk yet not the danger itself. Thus as the dangers mount, the work of ensuring the self-idea turns out to be more troublesome and the individual turns out to be more protective and unbending in their self-structure. In the event that the incongruence is extreme, this procedure might lead the person to a state that would normally be depicted as a hypochondriac. Their working becomes shaky and they become mentally defenceless. On the off chance that the circumstance compounds it is conceivable that the guards stop to capacity out and the individual gets to be mindful of the incongruence of their circumstance. Their identity becomes muddled and odd; silly conduct, connected with prior precluded viewpoints from claiming self, might surface wildly.

  1.          Problem Selection: A Rationale in Brief

The researcher has discovered the examination issue from the investigation of past Research regarding Instructor and Learner with ‘learning’ at the centre of the research. In the wake of considering the examination which was done previously, the researcher found that instruction is a key idea for the famous educationists and social reformers, their reasoning acquires change the entire arrangement of training in light of the fact that reasoning has its own particular force and perception.

“The organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism.” (Rogers, 1951, p. 487)

There is a decent arrangement of examination done in the past on instructive scholar Rogers, in which the researcher has inspected their points, system, educational program, part of the instructor, part of learning and their contemporary importance. Yet, there is very little research work done in the field of ‘instructive psychology’ and an ‘individual therapist’.

In the present study, the researcher has considered this matter and chose Carl Rogers’ judiciously and thoroughly considering some of his works. Carl Rogers was a prominent American therapist. In the present exploration work.

  1.          STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

The title of this study is:

SEARCHING FOR EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVES FROM THE ANALYSIS OF CARL ROGERS’ SELECTED WORKS

  1.          Defining the Problem

The Researcher has selected three books of Carl R. Rogers:

  1. On Becoming a Person (1961/1995 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York, )
  2. A Way of being (1985  Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston / New York,)
  3. Freedom to Learn (1986 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York,)

In the present research work, Researcher tried to study Carl Rogers’ selected works and derive its educational messages at four broad levels. – Psychological, Philosophical, Sociological and Counselling level (Guiding Level or Instruction Level).

  1.            Definition of the terms

It is essential and necessary to define certain key words used in the problem because in Education, Educational Psychology, Sociology as well as Philosophy the same word can be defined or viewed in different ways. So by defining the terms, we specify its meaning in the present research work.

SEARCHING: -Adjective

Try to discover something by looking painstakingly and completely.

  • Examine (something) altogether with a specific end goal to discover something or somebody.
  • Investigating profoundly.
  • Diligent and careful in request or examination.
  • Having astuteness and forcefulness and entrance in thought, expression, or keenness.
  • Try to find or spend time attempting to discover.
  • Inquire into the subject to a search.
  • Examining precisely or all together.
  • Acutely perceptive or infiltrating.
  • To go or look through (a spot, range, research and so on.) painstakingly with a specific end goal to discover something missing or lost or Discovering New.
  • To take a gander at or analyse deliberately keeping in mind the end goal to discover something disguised.
  • To investigate or analyse to find.
  • To take a gander at, read, or look at (a record, composition, collection, repository, and so forth.) for data.
  • To take a gander at or underneath the shallow parts of to find intention, response, feeling, essential truth, and so forth.
  • To ask, examine, look at, or look for; behaviour an examination, exploration or examination.
  • An act or occasion of seeking; cautious examination or examination.
  • Exploring altogether.
  • To investigate; look at; to find.
  • An operation that figures out if one or to a greater degree an arrangement of things has a specified property.
  • The examination of option speculations.
  • Try to find or find.
  • To investigate or over painstakingly or completely with an end goal to discover or find something new.
  • To uncover, discover, or come to know by request.

Here, in this examination “Looking” means precisely and altogether examination of Carl Rogers’ chosen works.

EDUCATIONAL – Adjective

  • Connected with education.
  • Providing knowledge education.
  • Relating to the process of education.
  • Relating to schooling or learning especially at an advanced level.
  • The act or process of educating or being educated.
  • The field of study that is concerned with the pedagogy of teaching and learning.
  • An instructive or enlightening experience.
  • The act or process of acquiring knowledge.

Here, in this research – the word educational is connected with the field of education at a philosophical, sociological, psychological and counselling level for deriving messages from selected works.

PERSPECTIVES: Noun

  • Having or showing Insight.
  • A particular attitude toward something.
  • Viewpoints.
  • Try to see the issue from a different perspectives or angles.
  • The ability to think about problems and taking decisions in a reasonable way without exaggerating their importance.
  • A view especially one in which person can see far into the distance.
  • A way of looking at or thinking about something.
  • All that can be seen from a certain point of view.
  • A visible scene, especially one extending to a distance.
  • The state of existing in space before the eye.
  • The state of one’s ideas, the facts known to one, etc.
  •  A mental view or outlook.
  • The relationship of aspects of a subject to each other and to a whole.
  • Subjective evaluation of relative significance; a point of view.
  • The ability to perceive things in their actual interrelations or comparative importance.
  • The technique of representing three-dimensional objects and depth relationships on a two-dimensional surface.
  • The proper or accurate point of view or the ability to see it.
  • A view over some distance in space or time; vista; prospect.
  • A way of regarding situations or topics etc.
  • A comprehensive view of the world and human life.
  • The appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer.
  • Outward or visible aspect of a person or thing.

Here, in this research – (philosophical, sociological, psychological and counselling) four educational perspectives are taken into account for deriving educational messages.

ANALYSIS: Noun

  • An investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole.
  • A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analysed.
  • The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations.
  • A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analysed.
  •  The separation of an intellectual or material whole into its constituent parts for individual study.
  • The method of proof in which a known truth is sought as a consequence of a series of deductions from that which is the thing to be proved.
  • The process of separating a whole into its parts to discover their function, relationship, etc.
  •  A minute and critical analysis.
  • The analysis of complex things into simpler constituents.
  • Analysis of all aspects of a project along with ways to collect information about the operation of its parts.
  • A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analysed.
  • An examination of a complex, its elements, and their relations.
  • A method in the philosophy of resolving complex expressions into simpler or more basic ones.
  • The separating of any material or abstract entity into its constituent elements.
  • The process or a method of studying the nature of something or of determining its essential features and their relations.
  • An investigation based on the properties of numbers.
  • The separation of a substance into its constituent elements, usually by chemical means, for the study and identification of each component.  The qualitative analysis determines what substances are present in a compound.  The quantitative analysis determines how much of each substance is present in a compound.
  • A branch of mathematics concerned with limits and convergence and principally involving differential calculus, integral calculus, sequences, and series.
  • A detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view.
  • The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations
  • Analysis – a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders; based on different theories.

Here, in this research, the selected books of Carl Rogers’s analysed through qualitative method.

Carl Ransom Rogers (Personal Life)

Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was an American psychologist and the founder of the Humanistic Approach to Psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honoured for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished scientific contributions by the American Psychological Association in 1956.

Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children.  His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. His education started in the second grade because he could already read before kindergarten.

When Carl was 12, his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence.  With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to become rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined.

He went on to study at the University of Wisconsin for an agriculture major. Later, he switched to religion to study for the ministry. During this time, he was selected as one of ten students to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for six months.  He tells us that his new experiences so broadened his thinking that he began to doubt some of his basic religious views.

After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. While there, he took a student organised seminar called “Why am I entering the ministry?  I might as well tell you that, unless you want to change your career, never take a class with such a title!  He tells us that most of the participants thought their way right out of religious work.” (Boeree D. C., 2006)

Religion’s loss was, of course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program at Columbia University and received his PhD in 1931.  He had already begun his clinical work at the Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.  At this clinic, he learned about Otto Rank’s theory and therapy techniques, which started him on the road to developing his own approach.

He was offered a full professorship at Ohio State in 1940.  In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counselling and Psychotherapy.  Then, in 1945, he was invited to set up a counselling centre at the University of Chicago.  It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centred Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory.

In 1957, he returned to teach at his alma mater, the University of Wisconsin.  Unfortunately, it was a time of conflict within their psychology department, and Rogers became very disillusioned with higher education.  In 1964, he was happy to accept a research position in La Jolla, California.  He provided therapy, gave speeches, and wrote, until his death in 1987.

Carl R. Rogers’ selected works

1. On Becoming a Person (1961/1995 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York), On Becoming a Person, in which Carl Rogers claimed that people have their own resources for healing and personal growth. Rogers introduced the concepts of congruence, empathic understanding, acceptance, and unconditional positive regard into the therapeutic environment to enhance the outcome for clients. He encouraged counsellors to demonstrate each of these aspects in order to help the client gain insight, recognise feelings, express self-concept, and achieve self-acceptance and self-actualization. (Goodtherapy.org, 2013)

2.  A Way of Being (1985 Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston / New York)      A Way of Being was written in the early 1980s, near the end of Carl Rogers’ career, and serves as a coda to his classic On Becoming a Person. More philosophical than his earlier writings, it traces his professional and personal development and ends with a prophetic call for a more humane future.

  1. Freedom to Learn (1986 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York)   This text focuses on issues of importance in learning: learning from children who love school; researching person-centred issues; developing the administrator’s role as a facilitator; building discipline and classroom management with the learner; and person-centred views of transforming schools.

The researcher has selected above mentioned three works of Carl Rogers for investigation. The researcher has derived educational messages (from three works) from selected works of Carl Rogers by following a particular method or approach.

  1.            Objectives of the Study
  • To study Carl Rogers’ view on experiential learning.
  • To study the role of true facilitator.
  • To Study Carl Rogers’ view on ‘Healthy Person’
  • To develop criteria for a fully functioning person.
  • To study the various stages of human development and derive messages of Education.
  • To study the factors which influence Human Development.
  • To study the salient features of a helping relationship.
  • To study Carl Rogers’ views on person’s learning.
  • To study Carl Rogers’ views on facilitated learning.
  • To explore the process of becoming a person and to derive message about education.
  • To study Rogers’ views on teaching and learning and to derive message to education.
  • To study the significance of learning in education and in Therapy.
  • To study the student-centred teaching approach and to derive educational messages.
  • To investigate client centred Therapy and to derive educational messages.
  • To study Carl Rogers views on creativity and its educational implication.
  • To explore Carl Rogers’ ideas on the human potential for growth and to derive messages for education.
  • To study the concept of humanistic education and to derive message for education.
  • To study Rogers’ concept of freedom to learn and its educational implication.
  • To study the concept of self-directed learning and to derive message to education.
  • To study Rogers’ concept of incongruity and to derive message for education.
  • To develop optional climates for human development and learning.
    1.            Questions of the Study
  • How does Carl Rogers view experiential learning?
  • What is the role of true facilitator in teaching learning process?
  • How does Carl Rogers’ view a ‘Healthy Person’?
  • What are the features of a fully functioning person?
  • Which are the stages of human development and what are their impacts on education at different levels?
  • How does a person learn?
  • How can important learning be facilitated?
  • Which are the factors influencing human development and how they affect an individual and his education?
  • How can Carl Rogers view the helping relationship?
  • What does it mean to become a person?
  • How does Carl Rogers view the teaching-learning process?
  • What is the significance of learning at various stages of human life?
  • What is the student centred approach and what is its impact on education?
  • What is the client centred therapy and what is its impact on education?
  • How does Carl Rogers view creativity in terms of education?
  • What is Rogers’ concept of human’s potential for growth?
  • What is the concept of humanistic education?
  • What is Carl Rogers’ concept in Freedom to Learn?
  • What is the concept of self-directed Learning?
  • How can we generate or develop more facilitative leaders?
    1.            Scope of the Study
  • This research work is based on analysis of the book: On Becoming a Person, A Way of being and Freedom to Learn, written by Carl Rogers.
  • This research work covers the Ideas, Principles, Events and Theories from the selected books of Carl Rogers.
  • These books are analysed thoroughly through qualitative analysis method.
  • The characteristics of a fully functioning person talking into account.
  • The philosophical, sociological, psychological and counselling aspect taking into account.
    1.            Significance of the Study
  • The present study is an attempt to discover psychological, philosophical, sociological and counselling aspect in Carl Rogers’ selected works.
  • The present study is an attempt to discover the concept of an integrated person.
  • The present study is an attempt to discover the holistic wellbeing of a human being (fully functioning person).
  • To study the educational aspect as depicted in selected works of Carl Rogers for bringing changes in the present system of education.
  • To study the role of parents for up brings their children.
  • To study the role of educational Institution for preventing mal- adjustment.
  • To study the role of society in creating holistic youths (fully functioning person).
  • To study Carl Rogers’ view on an integrated person, his up brings and his education.
    1.            Scheme of Chapterization

In this report, there are total six chapters. Planning of the same is as follows:

  • The First chapter is concerned with an introduction, defining the problem, definitions of difficult terms, questions of the study, objectives of the study and scope of the study and significance of the study.
  • The Second chapter describes theoretical foundations of the research works.
  • The Third chapter is about the reviews of the related literature.
  • The Fourth chapter is about research design. It discusses the research method, content analysis.
  • The Fifth chapter gives data collection, analysis and interpretation.
  • The Sixth chapter comprises the summary, educational implications and Suggestions for the future studies.
    1.        Summary

The introductory chapter serves to give an idea of ‘why’ aspect of this research. The rationale, definition of the terms, objectives, research questions, the scope of the study, and significance of the study has been placed in this chapter.

The next chapter will deal with the theoretical foundations of the study.

Bibliography

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(2013, 8 21). Retrieved from Goodtherapy.org: http://www.goodtherapy.org/famous-psychologists/carl-rogers.html

Barry, P. D. (2002). MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL ILLNESS (7 ed.). New York: Lippincott.

Boeree, C. G. (1998). Donald Snygg Arthur W. Combs, web. Retrieved November 22, 2015, from Personality Theories: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/snygg&combs.html

Boeree, D. C. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved November 15, 2014, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html

Greenfield, P. (1977, December 1). CIA’s Behavior Caper. (The American Psychological Association) Retrieved December 13, 2015, from Namebase: http://www.namebase.org/campus/behavior.html

Haggbloom, S., Warnick, R., Warnick, J. E., Jones, V. K., Yarbrough, G. L., Russell, T. M., . . . Monte, E. (2002). 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. Review of general Psychology, 6, 139-152.

Knowles, M., HoltonIII, E., & Swanson, R. A. (1998). The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development (6 ed.). London: Elsevier. Retrieved January 15, 2016, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=IWtfaqC0LEoC&pg=PA50&lpg=PA50&dq=The+structure+and+organization+of+self+appears+to+become+more+rigid+under+threats+and+to+relax+its+boundaries+when+completely+free+from+threat&source=bl&ots=AowVjJW9P0&sig=uzHKo41k8pK1MU

Kramer, R. (1995). The Birth of Client-Centered Therapy : Carl Rogers, Otto Rank, and ‘The Beyond. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 54-110. Retrieved December 11, 2015

Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. London: Constable.

Rogers, C. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable. Retrieved June 12, 2015

Rogers, C. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality, and Interpersonal Relationships: As Developed in the Client-centered Framework. In S. Koch, & S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A Study of a Science (Vol. 3, pp. 184-256). New York: McGraw Hill. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3a1o9R47kWNeGtXemhGbXAxM3c/edit

Rogers, C. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapists’ View Of Psychotherapy. London: Constable. Retrieved January 13, 2016

Wilson, A. (2011). How to be a Parent Champion and add magic to your family. Rochester: Develop Your Child CIC. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=v4FferbqGFIC&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=%22to+conducting+therapy+and+a+scientific+approach+to+evaluating%22&source=bl&ots=H5i_qk9Hqr&sig=91f4b51i_DDlDGBMrGk1CpMFxOk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwia8f_W1MDLAhUKm5QKHROMCwQQ6AEIHDAA#v=on

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