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Literature Review on the Effect of Exercise on Oxygen Rates in the Human Body

Info: 8784 words (35 pages) Example Literature Review
Published: 19th Mar 2021

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Tagged: BiologySciences

Demonstration of Knowledge and Evidence

DKE #1 (Group 1): Knowledge of the heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, blood pressure, and oxygen consumption responses during sub-maximal and maximal exercise.

Keywords: heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, submaximal exercise, and maximal exercise

Kinetics of Cardiac Output at the Onset of Exercise in Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is a research article from the Biomed Research International. This study consisted of fifteen participants; five pulmonary hypertension participants and ten healthy controls that performed a submaximal exercise in a supine position on a cycle ergometer. The hypothesis is that the ‘beat-by-beat description of CO kinetics upon exercise onset in precapillary PH would be slower than those of healthy subjects but no study has been conducted to observe maximal exercises responses.

To begin with, Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension is a hemodynamic condition that is caused by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right ventricular failure. PVR is associated with patients who have a tolerant exercise capability to handle an increase in workload. With that happening, this can be due to the compression of the left ventral that is dilated by the right ventricle (RV), causing limited physiological functions in the increase of stroke volume before exercise, therefore, altering the response of cardiac output (CO). One way to assess cardiac output is thermodilution (TD), which determines the steady-state parameter. TD is non-invasive and is an accurate measure of CO on the arterial pulse pressure wave, for patients with pulmonary hypertension and healthy patients.

The study consisted of five patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (four with pulmonary arterial hypertension, and 1 with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) and ten healthy control patients were collected. Throughout the study, patients provided an informed consent form. Patients with pulmonary hypertension proceeded with a right heart catheterization (RHC) to measure the pulmonary artery mean pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, COPD, and systemic vascular resistance as a mean arterial pressure. Cardiac output is measured by the Thermodilution and Modelflow. In which COPD and COMF were determined by the 10ml injection of ice-cold sterile, isotonic glucosamine solution through the catheter’s lumen following a noninvasive procedure recording of the arterial pulse pressure by the Portapres system. The mean values were calculated using beat-by-beat numerical values over a 1-minute steady-state, rest, and after a 2-minute exercise. Before exercise, the hemodynamic testing patients were set to place their feet on the ergometers pedals causing a five-minute delay in hemodynamic stabilization from a new set steady state. Participants with pulmonary hypertension began the exercise starting by peddling at 60 RPM at 20 watts, and the healthy controls peddled with 50 watts for five minutes. The workload performed by the two groups was later determined by the mean increase in heart rate reserve (HRR) obtained from the steady pulse. Furthermore, pulmonary hypertension patients that performed the exercise displayed a decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output onset of exercise between 20 to 30 seconds.

Results show that patients in the healthy group displayed an increase at the beginning of exercise reaching a new steady state, whereas pulmonary hypertension patients cardiac output decreased between three to five beats, stabilizing 20 seconds during the exercise thus, reaching a new steady state level. The healthy control group displayed a decrease in heart rate on the onset of exercise but the change was not seen in pulmponary hypertension participants. Also, assessing cardiac output in pulmonary hypertension patients using beat-by-beat kinetics displaced a decrease in response at a supine position on the cycle ergometer, making the hypothesis statistically significant. Before the decrease in cardiac output on the onset of exercise, there was a drop in stroke volume. This study assessed five patients with pulmonary hypertension, concluding that there was no significant increase in stroke volume because the increase in cardiac output during exercise triggered specific heart rate parameters. Heart rate kinetics responses were seen to be slower in the healthy group rather than the pulmonary hypertension group. Additionally, these changes were also seen on set exercises within individuals with the pulmonary vascular disease, heart failure, and healthy subjects. The researchers stated that there are no studies that show decreases in cardiac output on the onset of exercise. With a sudden drop in cardiac output, this means that the decline in stroke volume illustrates that the hemodynamic changes in the residual volume do not accept enough venous return causing impairment in pulmonary hypertension patients.

Overall, the researchers have concluded that since there was a limited number of participants in the study, the submaximal work results between pulmonary hypertension patients and the healthy group may have triggered the measurement of kinetics, heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output parameters. If patients performed maximal test during this study this would allow a direct measure of oxygen consumption, max heart rate, and the amount of carbon dioxide during the test. This is the first study conducted using beat-by-beat kinetics, indicating that heart rate, stroke, volume, and cardiac output were slower in patients with pulmonary hypertension compared to the healthy control group. Lastly, there was a decrease in stroke volume onset of exercise, while cardiac output increased the metabolic demand, presumably due to changes in heart rate during exercise, leading the researchers to conclude, that they will use a larger population size in future studies to monitor such changes.

This study has allowed me to utilize my knowledge of Kinesiology 380 Exercise Physiology of Sport and Exercise, and Kinesiology 483 Clinical Management and Special Populations. Distinguishing between submaximal and maximal exercise allows me to determine which is more applicable for a patient who has experienced COPD, varying fitness levels, as well as those who suffer from cardiovascular disease. The submaximal test would be more applicable to people who suffer from cardiovascular disease, those who are not exposed to exercise that often, or individuals whose goal is to measure baseline endurance. An individual can use a treadmill test to increase the elevation, or a bike test to increase resistance in such instances of submaximal testing. To measure speed, on the other hand, remains consistent throughout the duration of the test and heart rate is continually monitored after every incremental increase of three minutes.  Submaximal tests stop when the heart rate reaches 85 percent of the max heart rate and or individuals feel like they can no longer continue. Whereas, a maximal test would be used to measure the direct oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate and the amount of carbon dioxide you expend during the test. Also, your heart rate and blood pressure are being monitored by a technician or by an exercise physiologist, and sometimes a physician to supervise. One disadvantage to this test that it is the high cost of each test, time-consuming, and is used correctly to measure aerobic power in athletes.


DKE #2 (Group 1): Knowledge of oxygen consumption responses during submaximal and maximal exercises.

Key Words: Oxygen Consumption, Submaximal, and Maximal Exercise

The Effects of 5-Hour ENERGY Shot on Oxygen Consumption, Heart Rate, and Substrate Utilization During Submaximal and Maximal Exercise was conducted at the University of Tennesee at Chattanooga in the Depart of Health and Human Performance. The study consisted of twenty-three male participants that are recreationally active athletes with a BMI of 25.6. Researchers aimed to examine the effects of the 5 Hour energy shot on aerobic performance.

In taking the use of caffeine is a prevalent ergogenic aid used by athletes to contribute to their athletic performance during fitness workouts. College students, for one drink energy, drink daily to improve their endurance, strength, reaction time, fat oxidation, and reduction throughout their workout. Caffeine is considered a doping agent used by over 75% of athletes according to the World Anti-Doping Agency. 5 Hour Energy, Red Bull, and Rockstar have Taurine as an ingredient, which improves brain function and skeletal muscle, they act as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators signaling the brain to enhance aerobic performance.

Researchers collected Twenty-three recreationally college aged male athletes. For them to begin, they had to reach the requirements of exercising daily and not competing in any collegiate sports such an intermural and or any other competitive activities, no chronic or acute health conditions other than a high BMI, and no consumption of 5 Hour Energy or other caffeinated supplements onset to testing. Each participant was made sure to understand the procedures, requirements, risks, and benefits, and were asked to fill out a consent form by the ethics committee of the University of Tennessee Research Board. The study was a crossover and comprehensively randomized double blind test. Each one of the participants was randomly assigned to receive some placebo or a 5 Hour Energy shot after completing a maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2 max) on a treadmill. The participants body mass and height were collected to compute BMI divided by the height, following a 3-hour fasting state without ingesting alcohol, caffeine, and strenuous exercise. A heart rate monitor used came from a variety of three brands, Polar Electro, Kempele, and Finland which was attached to each participant’s body before testing. Before testing, the participants were required to familiarize themselves with each aerobic exercise test, and schedule a test at two separate time’s, each one that is a week apart. Lastly, they were instructed to get a sufficient amount of sleep and eat an adequate amount of food for the test to be as standardized as much as possible. Additionally, before testing on both visits participants were required to wait for 30 minutes’ post consumptions of any supplements before assessing submaximal and maximal tests. All tests were taken at the University of Tennessee Exercise Physiology Laboratory.

5 Hour Energy shots contain 100mg of caffeine per shot with Taurine added as an energy blend. The Placebo shots were in a large pitcher with 3.8L of water, 226.8g of Splenda, and 13g of Grape Kool-Aid. The participants were unable to look or smell the supplements while in taking the supplements, and on test days the participants either received a placebo shot or a 5-hour Energy Shot. After the study had been completed, the participants were unable to identify which caffeine shot they ingested since the taste and smell were very similar.

Maximal and Submaximal tests were conducted using a metabolic CART which was calibrated before each test using a portable indirect calorimetry system connected to the cart using a mouthpiece of a Hans Rudolph T-Shape non-breathing valve. Participants wore a Polar heart rate monitor, for heart rate to be collected each minute. Baseline resting heart rate, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake, and respiratory exchange ratio were obtained before the submaximal incremental running Protocol. The maximal test was obtained using a treadmill following the Bruce Protocol until the participants felt volitional exhaustion. There were two conditions that needed to be met before exercise, it consisted of a 3-minute warm up and if the members did not reach a heart rate > 95% of age predicted; RPE > 18, or if there was a plateau in HR or VO2 in increasing workload. Minute ventilation, RER, and HR were measured the final 30 seconds of each stage.

Data analysis was used using an SPSS program and a Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. The peak values of VO2, HR, VE, and RER were regularly distributed, and a sample of t-tests was used to indicate significant differences in cardiopulmonary parameters after ingesting 5 Hour Energy and were reported as the mean and standard deviation.

After the study, the participants mean age values were 21.7, body mass of 82.5, and height of 1.8 meters. There was no significant difference between the VO2 max values and the 5 Hour Energy shots and placebo. Additionally, there was no significant difference in peak HR between 5 Hour Energy Shot and the placebo. The 5 Hour Energy shot did not change the RER when comparing to the placebo. There was also no significant difference in minute ventilation, and an intake in supplementation did not significantly improve running to volitional exhaustion for either the 5 Hour Energy Shot or the placebo.

To conclude this study, the researcher’s purpose was to determine to see if the effects of 5 Hour Energy had an effect on submaximal and maximal performance in Twenty-three recreationally active athletes. Researchers have concluded that there is no evidence on the consequences of energy shots as ergogenic aids. Therefore, there was no significant effect on aerobic performance between the placebo and the 5 Hour Energy Shot.

This article has allowed me to use my knowledge from Exercise Physiology, it is important to understand that oxygen consumption is utilized by the uptake of oxygen in the body per minute. Oxygen travels through the lungs and is transports by the cardiovascular system in order for ATP production to occur in the mitochondria of the cells. Since most of the energy is expressed aerobically, the maximal oxygen uptake is determined to how much energy an individual is expending, it can be expressed in absolute (l/min) or relative (ml/kg/min) terms. Oxygen Consumption can be measured in two ways: a closed circuit and an open circuit. The opened circuit is more commonly used in exercise testing laboratories, this allows the participant to inhale and exhale through a tube that is connected to a metabolic cart to asses’ minute ventilation, forced expiratory reserve volume, heart rate, expired carbon dioxide, and expired oxygen.

DKE #3 (Group 3): Knowledge of common nutritional ergogenic aids, the purported mechanism of action, and any risk and/or benefits (e.g., carbohydrates, protein/amino acids, vitamins, minerals, herbal products, creatine, steroids, caffeine). (Select 2: Carbohydrates & Caffeine)

Keywords: Carbohydrates, Caffeine, risks, benefits, nutritional, ergogenic aids, action.

The effects of carbohydrate, caffeine, and combined rinses on cycling performance in female athletes was conducted at the Department of Exercise Science at East Stroudsburg University. Seven participants ages 21 completed four trials on the cycle ergometer. The first trial was a VO2 max test and Wordloadmax test until the participants experienced volitional fatigue; the second trial consisted an of a five-minute warm-up at 40% workload Max following a set load of 0.6 times the workload max times 3600. As each participant completes the workload at 12.5%, the subject would ring their mouth for 5 seconds with 25ml of either 1.2% caffeine, 6% carbohydrate or a sugar solution. The study hypothesized whether or not caffeine rinses would improve endurance cycling performance in recreationally active college-aged female athletes.

Studies have shown that endurance athletes will consume carbohydrates that are liquid, gel, and or solids to improve their performance during an event preventing hypoglycemia and allowing blood glucose to activate at peak exercise. If a participant performs an exercise for less than an hour hypoglycemia will not take place and as well has glycogen depletion, this can mean that carbohydrates play a significant role in the central nervous system. A study by Carter indicated that rinsing with a 6.4% maltodextrin solution relates to motivation and reward when the body senses sight, smell, taste, and response to food. Caffeine on the other note is an ergogenic aid allowing an increase of fatty acid availability such as epinephrine secretion resulting in glycogen sparing. Caffeine binds to adenosine receptors that are commonly found in most tissues but does not need to be ingested to be absorbed into the blood stream because it is neutral in nature and comes in contact with the buccal cavity increasing plasma caffeine. Although ingestion of carbohydrates and caffeine are beneficial to male and female athletes, some have athletes have avoided them, this is because many have complained about gastrointestinal discomfort and increased caloric intake.

The study collected college-aged female athletes recreationally by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), as they underwent a written consent form to participate and other personal information was collected and remained confidential onset and after the study. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at East Stroudsburg University. Each participant took a familiarization trial test to familiarize themselves with the cycle ergometers, metabolic equipment, and Borg rate of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. Before the first trial, each participant was asked to log in their food intake 24 hours and have been invited to replicate their meals following trails two and three; this included drinks as well. Although the record for the food intake was low, it was discontinued from the study because it did not reach the dietary compliant and were asked to attend the laboratory two hours post-absorptive state. Also, each participant was asked to refrain from exhaustive exercises 24 hours before their experimental trials, as well as ingestion of medications, foods, and beverages for three days.

This study was a double-blind, randomized test that consisted of four tests that were carried out on a cycle ergometer. On the first visit, participants participated in an incremental exercise test to exhaustion measuring their VO2 max and their workload max. The workload was 50 watts and increased by 25 watts every minute until hitting volitional fatigue or when the participant dropped below 50 RPMS. Their ventilation and oxygen uptake were recorded continuously using the metabolic cart; heart rate was measured using a Polar T-31 HR monitor, blood lactate was measured using a lactate Pro analyzer. Borg RPE and blood lactate were taken every minute during the trial. On the second through the fourth visit, stimulated experiments were conducted, and the participants had to complete a set amount of work at the shortest time possible without ingesting any caffeine, alcohol, tobacco, or strenuous exercise 24 hours’ onset of the trial. A collection of urine samples were taken, analysis using an Atago URC-NE Hand Refractometer. The cycle ergometer was connected to the computer calculating the amount of work performed; it was set in a linear mode at 60% workload max for each participant to set their preferred cadence using a maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2 max). Each 12.5% completed, they were given a mouth rinse for five seconds they were given randomly where one of the three mouth rinses, 6% carbohydrate solution, 1.2% caffeine solution or carbohydrate-caffeine 6%. CHO was available in a fruit punch flavor, available using Gatorade, PepsiCo, USA. The caffeine powder was mixed with powder using Nutrabio, Middlesex, NJ with a non-caloric lemon flavored powder available using Crystal Light, Kraft Foods, and the USA. Moreover, lastly, the carbohydrate-caffeine solution was a sports drink that is mixed with caffeine powder. With all these possible rinses, they were mixed with the same amount of consistency when rinsed with five-second intervals. Once five seconds was up they were each asked how much work they were performing using an RPE scale, HR, and lactate was recorded.

Data Analysis was collected using a Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This program displayed the individuals mean, standard deviations, and standard errors. Any repeated measures were used using an ANOVA program to test for any significant differences in time of completion, RPE, peak RPMS, power output, mean cadence, and heart rate. Two-way measured the difference between the power output and split times throughout each 12.5% in work rate of the time trial complete.

Results show that the recreationally active college-aged female athletes were 21 years old and weighed 65/4- kg and had a body mass index of 23.80. Their VO2max displayed as 37.99 ml/kg/min, and workload max was 210.71 watts and mean pedaling cadence was 67.94 rpm. Urine levels of intake mouth rinsing either CHO, CAF, and or CAF-CHPO was 1.013, 1.019, and 1.018; there were no signs of differences in hydration status before or after the trials. There was no significant difference in the timely completion, mean power output and pedaling cadence, heart rate, blood lactate, and RPE. There was a statistically significant difference with power outputs at 12.5% of the distance completed in figure 3 between the CHO, CAF, and CAF-CHO.

One study by Doering was to see the Effect of a Caffeinated Mouth-Rinse on Endurance Cycling Time-Trial Performance used a 35mg anhydrous caffeine dissolve in non-caffeinated, decarbonated diet soda (Doering, T. M., Fell, J. W., Leveritt, M. D., Desbrow, B., and Shing, C. M. (2014). Doering concluded that the mouth rinse needs to have a longer duration than 5 seconds for the caffeine to take effect in the buccal cavity. A second study by Ryan observed The Effects of Caffeine Gum and Cycling Performance: A Timing Study (Ryan, E. J., Chul-Ho, K., Fickes, E. J., Williamson, M., Muller, M. D., Barkley, J. E., et al. (2013)). By chewing the gum at the onset, and peak performance of exercise will increase the performance and plasma caffeine levels since it has been absorbed in the buccal cavity having more of a systemic effect rather than central.

Overall, the purpose of this study was to see the effects of carbohydrate, caffeine, mouth rinses on a cycling time trial with recreationally college-aged female athletes, and there was no statistical significance between CHO, CAF, and CHO-CAF rinses between trials to improve the endurance cycling performance.

This article has allowed me to distinguish the difference between caffeine and carbohydrates at the onset of exercise training. Athletes use caffeine and carbohydrates as one of the most reliable endurance boosters out of all other supplements to improve performance.  There are two forms of carbohydrates, simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides meaning one sugar molecule and disaccharides are two sugar molecules, complex carbohydrates are multiple sugar molecules that are linked together. Carbohydrates are broken down into smaller forms of sugar such as glucose, fructose, and galactose converting to a source of energy. If glucose is not being used, it will go straight into the muscles and livers as a form of glycogen, and as glycogen fills up it is stored as fat. Glycogen is used the most during exercise regardless of what level an individual is performing. As the exercise duration becomes longer, fat will come into play to help fuel activity. Protein on the other hand are the building blocks for muscle, skin, hair, bones this helps maintain the structure. If there is not enough protein, this will cause the kidneys to work at a higher rate by eliminating byproducts of the breakdown of protein.

DKE #4 (Group 1): Ability to describe normal heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and blood pressure responses to static and dynamic exercise.

Keywords: heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, blood pressure, static, and dynamic exercise

Cardiovascular Response to Exercise: Static v/s Dynamic was conducted at the Department of Physiology at M.M. Medical College and Hospital. The aim of this study was to compare the response rates of static and dynamic exercise in the older population of adults to determine the inclusion of resistance training as part of the fitness program that is designed for healthy participants. This study includes eighty healthy normotensive participants that volunteered within the age group of 40 to 60 year’s old, performing an isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise. Therefore, this study compares the acute cardiovascular responses to static and dynamic exercise whether or not the physical activity is associated with female and males.

The study included 80 volunteers between the ages of 40 to 60 years old that were recruited from the Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana. Each participant was asked whether or not they would like to participate. Certain requirements needed to be met before testing, the participants had to be in-between the ages of 40 and 60 years old, have a heart rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute, and a blood pressure < 120/80 mmHg. Volunteers were excluded if they had diabetes, hyper-intensive. Smokers, alcoholic, and if they participated in any form of exercise training within one month from the study.  Before testing, two measurements of blood pressure and heart rate were measured and within the one-minute time frame of completing an exercise at resting state. Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg and is recorded using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer, and heart rate are determined by the ventricles that are contracting within one minute and is registered using a lead II of Cardiofax Electrocardiograph (ECG). Once these requirements have been completed, blood pressure was collected on the non-dominant arm of each participant, at rest, peak, and within the one-minute time frame of completing the set of exercise. Normotensive patients were labeled if the resting BP was below 120/80. Therefore the systolic blood pressure had to be collected using a kortokoff phase I and diastolic pressure was obtained using a kortokoff phase V. To add on; each participant familiarized themselves with the handgrip dynamometer before starting the isometric exercise by maintaining a firm grip of 40% of their maximum voluntary contraction. This was measured with their non-dominant hand exerting max effort for 2 seconds. Each 3-minute rest, a max exertion was recorded as MVC. With the participant’s dominant hand, they were asked to exert 40% of their MVC for 2 minutes until fatigue. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured upon completion of the IHG exercise, and participants were asked to come back again in two weeks to perform the exercise once more. Blood pressure and heart rate were collected at resting state. The participants sat on a cycle ergometer and pedaled at 60 revolutions per minute, and the intensity of the cycle increased up to 3 minutes. Heart rate was recorded using a the kortokoff phase I and diastolic was collected using korotkoff phase V. Statistical analysis variables were mean, and the standard deviation was used using a Stata 10 program to compute the mean differences between groups before and after exercise.

Results show that there was a statistically significant increase in the mean values of systolic blood pressure (p=0.000), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.000), and HR (p=0.000) after completing the handgrip exercise. Secondly, there was a statistically significant increase in mean values (p=0.000) and heart rate (p=0.000) after performing a dynamic exercise, but there was no statistical significance in the rise of the diastolic blood pressure. Thirdly, there was a statistical significance in an increase of mean values of systolic blood pressure (p=0.001) and heart rate (p=0.000) after performing a dynamic exercise, but there is no statistical significance with an increase in diastolic blood pressure after static exercise.

To conclude the study’s findings, researchers determined whether or not acute cardiovascular responses to static and dynamic exercise in eighty older adults and if physical activity is associated with female and males. Researchers have confirmed that the study shows not a significant difference in both responses. Performing a static exercise can increase an individuals heart rate, due to metabolic demands of the exercising muscle, heart rate on the other hand contracts the skeletal muscle by stretching afferent fibers increasing the cellular level of activity along with plasma catecholamines and a decreased parasympathetic. Performing a dynamic exercise, there was a significant increase in oxygen consumption and the heart rate, which is the rise in the load of the myocardium. The increase in stroke volume and means that it comes from the venous return, which then increases the end-diastolic volume. The Frank-Starling mechanism, there is an increase in preload which stretches the myocardium causing more of a forceful contraction that is augmented by the sympathetic nervous system. There is an increase in the end-diastolic volume leading to a decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic volume of the heart when performing light to moderate exercise. The cardiac output, on the other hand, is brought by an increase in systolic pressure, where the diastolic levels are remained constant due to the peripheral vasodilation, that allows blood flow to move into the working muscles. The cardiovascular response is a major factor when prescribing exercise to a participant; this will reduce the risks of muscle loss, gait, balance, flexibility, chronic disease, and improve the quality of life for all age groups, therefore increasing their freedom.

This article has allowed me to further understand the effects of static and dynamic exercise on heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and blood pressure. During static exercise, there is a greater sympathetic stimulation while performing the upper body and lower body exercise. Stroke volume is less during upper body than during lower body because of the absence of the skeletal muscle pump augmenting venous return from the legs.

Stroke volume potentially can increase via the Frank-Starling mechanism. This is because contracting skeletal muscles tend to squeeze blood in their veins back to the central veins via muscle pumping. Cardiac output thus plays an important role in meeting the oxygen demands for the work of static, steady-state, maximal exercises, and other various work. As the rate of exercise increases, the cardiac output increases in a nearly linear manner to meet the increasing oxygen demand, but only up to the point where it reaches its maximal capacity. Systolic is brought by the increase in cardiac output. Systolic would be even higher if not for the fact that resistance decreases, thereby partially offsetting the increase in cardiac output. When blood pressure (BP) is measured intra-arterially, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) does not change. When it is measured by auscultation it either does not change or may go down slightly.

Diastolic blood pressure is only likely to decrease when the exercise is performed in a warm and hot environment; within these conditions the epidermal layer becomes dilated and therefore the resistance in the blood flow decreases. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) typically remains relatively constant or changes so little it has no physiological significance. Diastolic blood pressure remains relatively constant because of the balance of vasodilation in the vasculature of the active muscle and vasoconstriction in other vascular beds.


DKE #5 (Group 2): Knowledge of and ability to describe the unique adaptations to exercise training in children, adolescents, and older participants with regard to strength, functional capacity, and motor skills.

Keywords: Exercise training, children, adolescents, older participants, strength, functional capacity, and motor skills.


Children’s Age-Related Speed-Accuracy Strategies Intercepting Moving Targets in Two Dimensions was conducted at Pennsylvania State University. This study’s purpose was to find if age-related tasks of children, adolescents, and adults in performing a rapid striking task will allow the person to self-select an interception in a two-dimensional direction. The goal of this study is the motor task in striking the target as it travels in a long distance of spatial constraints. A total of 40 participants were recruited, children’s ages of 7 to 8 years, adolescents 11 o 16 years, and adults 19 and above were selected to participate in this study to examine the age-related responses and characteristics on the interception and striking on developmental skill adaptation.

This study included a total of 40 participants, 7 boys and 3 girls in the 7 to 8-year-old group; 6 males and 4 females in the 11 to 12-year-old group; 4 males and 6 females in the 15 to 16-year-old group; and lastly, 5 men and 5 women were in the 19 to 20 years old group.  Both genders had the characteristics of having a right or left-hand dominance, normal 20/20 vision, and no history of a seizure. These participants were collected from an approved section in a newspaper and social media, providing researchers an informed consent form for the universities institutional review board. A Wacom Cintiq 21UX digital tablet was used for digital graphics. A custom computer software was used similarly to American baseball to determine the level of arousal of the participants. The software has a polygon that represents the home plate, and the mass of the stylus determined the maximal effect velocity at the time of movement of the stylus exceeding 2cm/s. The Participants completed a total of 12 trials of the gravity – velocity conditions. Researchers advised the participants to reduce the practice effects on the analysis, the gravity and velocity conditions were included totaling 96 trials for each participant that lasted one hour each. The participants were in a seated position where they were sitting in the most comfortable position so they can move their arm and hands on the Wacom Cintiq 21UX tablet. Researchers noted to the participants to hold the stylus at the polygon home plate for 1 to 2 seconds, and a target will soon appear moving in all directions, and the objective of the study is to hit the target, so the moving object goes as far as possible. A Chi-square analysis was used to determine the number of hits, touches, and misses as it varied from each age group, gravity, and velocity. A Cramer V and Pearson was used in determining the strength and nature of the variables. An ANOVA program was used to analyze the performance scores of the latency and movement time responses between the horizontal and vertical displacement of the effector and the horizontal and vertical effector of time at the contact of the target. Lastly, the effect size was taken into consideration, and the Turkey posthoc tests were determined using the variables of age, gravity, and velocity effects.

Once the study has finished, there was a significant difference in the interceptions, the number of hits that the participants aimed for had a positive correlation with the mean score, touches, and misses in each age group. The age group of 19 and 20-year-olds was eliminated due to a statistical error. The ANOVA software displayed the distance of scores and in figure 2. It shows the interaction of gravity and age of the range performed. The post hoc analysis shows that the 15 and 16-year-old group had a statistically significant distance compared to the other age groups. The 11 to 12-year-olds for one, had a greater range than the 19 and 20-year-olds. The distance was significantly greater for the gravity times the 0.5 condition compared with the gravity times 1.5 condition. The ANOVA results displayed the response for latency between the age group and gravity interaction. These included trials that involved touching or hitting the target; there was a significant difference in age group, gravity, and velocity. Post-hoc analysis showed a significant difference in longer response times than latencies for 7 to 8 year old compared to the other age groups. The latency Responses were significantly longer than the gravity response times. The horizontal and vertical effector velocity was included in the trials that involved touching and hitting, and there was a significant change in age F= 125.256. Post hoc analysis displayed that the 11 to 12-year-old’s and 15 to 16-year-olds had a statistically significant higher effector velocity during the time of contact, whereas the 7 to 8-year-old and 19 to 20-year-old did not. The 7 to 8-year-old age group had the lowest compared to the other age groups. Therefore, all these trials were included the touch and hit analysis. Researchers predicted that the spatial interception in position placement during the current task led the 7 to 8-year-olds less aware of the target trajectory. If the children were closer to the mark, there is a possibility the task would be more consistent. Information processing for children take much of longer than adolescents and adults; children are more focused on the future end points than the movement of the trajectory.

Overall, the study aimed to determine whether age influences the motor task when striking in a spatial direction. The results show that there was an improved interception performance as children mature when performing a single-handed catch or two-handed catching, kicking, and striking. One of the factors taken into consideration is timing, which takes the time to develop during childhood development, children do not focus too much on timing, speed, and control than other children. Researchers predicted that there might be a possibility that the children were waiting for the target to come to them, but if that even occurred, there would be a plethora of trials that interception would occur.

This article has allowed me utilize my knowledge from Kinesiology 324 Physical Activity and Lifespan. Child development and the ability to adapt to fine motor skills is important to gain more experience and exposure to their surroundings, foods, toys, and even materials. These types of manipulation skills will allow children to learn more ability to perform the task more efficiently and carry on as they mature.

DKE #6 (Group 3): Knowledge of the role of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins as fuels for aerobic exercise.

Keywords: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and aerobic exercise

Acute dietary carbohydrate intake alters substrate utilization in inactive; healthy females was conducted at the Department of Exercise Science and Sports Studies at Springfield College. This study included eight physically active premenopausal women and aimed to compare the metabolic responses between a single low carbohydrate and low carb meal following an aerobic exercise. The method of design study was to test whether the low postprandial insulin, glucose, TG, and FFA’s levels would be different if the participant followed a low-carbohydrate intake and low-fat meal diet in moderately active adult females. Also, researchers added one 30-minute exercise bout to determine if it would alter metabolic responses to the macronutrient distribution.

The methodology included four testing sessions that included eight premenopausal females between the ages of 20 and 45 years old. Premenopausal women are defined to have missed 2 or more menstrual cycles in a year. Women recruited were moderately active and exercised 3 to 4 days a week for the last six months before testing. Also, these women recorded stated no medications have been taken to affect metabolism, did not smoke, no known metabolic disease, and are not trying to lose weight within the past six months. Each participant was tested using a follicular phase of the menstrual cycle on days 5 through 13 and recorded on taking contraceptives the past six months. These participants were recruited from local colleges and recreational facilities and were required to fill out an informed consent, medical history, and demographic information, perform a VO2 peak test, body fat analysis, and explanation of the 3-day food journal. Body composition was assessed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Springfield College before testing.

Measuring substrate utilization at rest and the onset of exercise was determined using the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), to determine the rate of carbon dioxide that is produced by the oxygen consumed on the metabolic cart using the Physiodyne Max-II Metabolic Cart each exercise training session. After completing 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, blood was collected using a venipuncture analysis of insulin, glucose, FFAs, and triglycerides at rest and 55 minutes after consuming a meal. The blood samples were centrifuged at 1,500g for 15 min at 4 Degrees Celsius with a resultant serum divided into aliquots. The glucose and FFA samples were analyzed using an enzymatic assay kit as well with TG. The levels of insult were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Lastly, the absorbance values on the ELISA was read on a Revelation MRX Microplate Absorbance Reader, values as shown: 4.26%, 9.49%, 6.28%, and 16.71% following the TG, insulin, glucose, and FFA.

The experimental protocol consisted of three training sessions, before testing the BIA guidelines contacted each of the female participants that before testing, they must fast for a total of 12 hours, refrain from alcohol and diuretics for a 48 hour period. The maximal VO2 peak test was performed using a Modified McConnel running protocol, and this test was quickly terminated when the participant did not show a heart rate to increase the workload, an RER that is greater than 1.5, and or a 17 on the rate of perceived exertion on the BORG scale. Treatments were given randomly, and before each test, the participants would complete the 3-day food journal. To assess the dietary analysis, researchers used the Food Processor software that determined if the participants fasted for 12 hours. When arriving at the laboratory, the participants sat down for 10 minutes with a mouthpiece to determine the gas exchange measurements on the metabolic cart for 20 minutes and averaged that amount in the final 10 minutes of the fasting period. Each participant consumed a low-fat meal or low-carbohydrate meal as their last meal, and during the 55 minutes postprandial resting period, measurements were taken the first 25 minutes and the final at 30 minutes. The onset of exercise participants was given a 5-minute walk break and could consume water at ad libitum. Measurements of gas exchanged were continuously taken throughout the 30-minute training period on the treadmill at 60 to 65% intensity depending on the subjects VO2 peak results from the initial testing on the first visit. To determine exercise testing intensity was determined on the calibrated treadmill on the low-fat and low-carbohydrate participants. Blood collection of venous occurred during the final 10 minutes and again onset of exercise, serum was used to determine the levels of insulin, glucose, TG, and FFAs. The last testing session is the same as the second test.

Statistical analysis was used using an ANOVA software to measure the 2 x 4 measures of factorial analysis of variance during the fasting, postprandial, and exercise time periods for the respiratory exchange ratio. There is a 2 x 3 measure of factorial ANOVA to determine the data for fasting, postprandial, exercise time, and all other variables. Low-fat and low-carbohydrate foods are independent variables, RER, insulin, glucose, FFA, and TG are dependent variables. Fasting periods for respiratory exchange ratios are as follow: postprandial 0 to 25 minutes, postprandial 25 to 55 minutes, and post-exercise. Glucose, Insulin, TG, and FFA time periods as follows: fasting, postprandial, and post-exercise. Data collection was obtained for fasting, postprandial, and post exercise RER, glucose, insulin, FFA, and TG for all participants except participant number 2 because there was a technical error with FFA.

Results show that all data were presented as mean. The eight moderately active females mean age was 33 years old, weight – 74.7 kg, BMI – 26.8, Body fat % – 30.9%, VO2 peak – 41.8% ml/kg/min, and activity level – 4.3. Each participant habituated to the 3-day food journal between the second and third testing sessions, but before the first two sessions, the diet was not statistically significant regarding the absolute fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Before the low-carbohydrate diet took place, the macronutrient values were 36% fat, 45% carbohydrate. Moreover, 17% protein. The average values for low-fat were 33% fat, 48% carbohydrate, and 15% protein. Exercise data displayed a 68.5% mean percentage of the VO2 peak during the low-carbohydrate diet intake, whereas 62.4% of the VO2peak was during the low-fat diet intake. During both exercises, each of the participants performed the same exercise protocol, but there was a statistically significant difference in low-carbohydrate diet intake p < 0.05 then the low-fat diet intake. The amount of oxygen consumption was significantly greater during the low-carbohydrate diet than the low-fat diet that was stated in absolute terms. There was higher energy expenditure during the low-carbohydrate test than a low-fat session. This is determined by the total amount of carbohydrate during exercise which was significantly greater in the low-fat session than the low-carbohydrate. The fat utilized during the low-carbohydrate session was greater used than low-fat, and energy was significantly greater. Researchers have shown that the number of grams of fat was more oxidized during exercise than the LC session when compared to activity during the low-fat session. Metabolic data showed no significant difference between the dependent variables of meals for fasting values of RER, glucose, insulin, TG, and FFA. However, there was a significant difference at the time of exercise for glucose, but glucose displayed not differences in fasting and postprandial time periods. Glucose overall demonstrated greater significance in exercise than postprandial values for both low-fat and low-carbohydrate meals. Lastly, there was a significant difference between meal and time, insulin levels increased during low-carbohydrate and low-fat intake, but during postprandial, the insulin levels were lower after following the two diets. There were no signs of insulin values between the test meals and after exercise. The mean serum values were at baseline, and 55 minutes postprandial, and post exercise, and the individual subject was determined by the absolute change in insulin concentrations following the two meals. There was no significant difference in FFA between the two meals, but during post-exercise FFA displayed a statistically significant value p < 0.05 following the LC meal. On the same note, there was no significant difference for postprandial between both meals, but TG values were significantly lower than the intake of low-fat and low-carbohydrate meals. The postprandial values of respiratory exchange ration from 0 to 25 minutes displayed a significant difference following the ingestion of the low-fat meal compared to the low carbohydrate meal. Between 25 to 55 minutes it also demonstrated a significant difference following the low-fat meal. During exercise at 30 minutes, the RER values were greater in low-fat meals than the low carbohydrate meals.

To conclude this study, the findings were that the respiratory exchange ratio was lower at resting state at 25 minutes and 55 minutes after ingesting a low carbohydrate meal in moderately active females. There was more of a lipid oxidation when RER is lower and has a higher indicator of carbohydrate oxidation after consuming a low-carbohydrate meal. Consuming a low-fat meal led to increased levels of insulin. There was a similar response to performing the same aerobic exercise protocol for 30 minutes between the low-carbohydrate and low-fat meals, displaying a possible effect of preventing chronic disease and cardiovascular disease.

This article is beneficial in understanding what carbohydrates, proteins, and fats act as during aerobic exercise. At the onset of exercise, carbohydrates are converted into fuel as an immediate energy source. Second, fats are converted to fuel when there is an adequate amount of oxygen in an individual’s body. As a person continues to exercise and perform aerobic activity, the body will convert fat into fuel and allow workouts to be for a longer duration. This benefits in weight loss, and reducing the risks of falls, and cardiovascular disease. Proteins are the repair, maintain, and grow mechanism. It allows rebuilding muscle tissue from strength and aerobic training. The structural damage that is done to the tissues sends the body a signal to build and repair muscle tissue to take on longer duration of exercises.

Appendix A








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