Mental health problems are increasingly BECOMING a severe public health issue both globally and in the United Kingdom due to the impact on mortality, disability and suicide rates (WHO, 2001). According to Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (2003), mental illness will affect about one in four people each year in the UK (SCMH, 2003). There are common mental health problems; such as depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder, and severe mental illness such as schizophrenia and Bipolar disorders (NICE, 2011). Therefore, different ethnic groups in London have different rates and experiences of mental health issues. These groups are associated with a similar problem from service providers, who tends to lack understanding of their culture and socio-economic background with regards to patient’s treatment (MHF, 2018). Furthermore, it has also been stated that these groups experienced poor treatment outcomes within the UK and London in particular. Brown et al., (2010) reported that a high proportion of these individuals would respond to initial treatment with an antipsychotic, while about 80% would relapse within five years of the first treatment episode due to discontinuation of engagement and therapy as a result of stigma, discrimination and subsequently health inequalities. Therefore, service provider has a higher rate of patient’s disengagement and discontinues from traditional mental health services (Ibid). In addition, there is the notion that young people with mental health symptoms are violent and dangerous (Goldberg and Huxley 1992).
Moreover, it has been reported that around one-fifth of premature deaths among young people resulted from suicidal deaths (Goldberg and Huxley 1992). While other factors such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), HIV, hepatitis C, and alcohol can also contribute to physiological abnormalities (Leucht et al., 2007). Nice (2009) reported that some individuals with mental illnesses are not seeking help, because they are reluctant to ask for help due to some health professional’s negative attitude towards young people with mental illness. Furthermore, the role of the media in portraying young people with mental illness as violent and dangerous (Brown et al., 2010). These had a profound effect on young people with the mental disorders (Giddens, 2016).
According to The king’s fund (2012), stated that people with mental health condition can experienced multiple health disadvantages and health inequalities, including poor physical health conditions. They also claimed that there are interactions between co-morbidities, deprivation and social determinants. Furthermore, stated that people with mental health condition can also experience multiple health disadvantages and health inequalities, including poor physical health condition (Ibid). They are also regarded as social outcasts, discriminated against by family and friends, professionals and their communities. Some media reports have raised public concerns, fears and lack of trust of young people with mental illness (SCMH, 2003).
The participant will be self-selective with pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaire on the day, alongside non-malfeasance practices, including making sure every participant is aware of health and safety procedure. The leaflet will be designed around the aims such as:
- Identifying six health risk associated with drug use
- Name five sources where an individual can seek advice on mental health
- Identify the hazardous impact of drug and mental
- To be able to discuss mental health conditions
- This project aims to explore the risk factors associated with developing mental health conditions, including the uptake of treatments among young people in London.
- Evaluate if the current government policy and strategy on mental health particularly young male in London is a success or failure
- Identify challenges of implementation of government policy and strategy on mental health conditions among young man between the ages of (16-26) in London
- Explore the effect of government policy and procedure regarding changing of attitude and behaviour towards young people with mental health conditions.
The American Psychiatric Association has argued that mental health problems have led to considerable morbidity and high mortality rates among youth (APA, 2000). Besides, the World Health Organization has reported that if mental health is not treated for a long time, this could have significant effects on the well-being of the person, his family, the community and the country. in general (WHO, 2001). The risk of death among young people (10 to 20 years) is higher than that of the general population, and women are between 10 and 15 years younger (Wahlbeck et al., 2011). About one-fifth of premature deaths among young people result from suicide deaths and accidents (ibid.), While other factors are due to physiological abnormalities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), infectious disease; such as HIV, hepatitis C, and alcoholism (Leucht et al., 2007).
NICE (2009) reported that some individuals with mental illnesses are not seeking help, because they are reluctant to ask for help due to some health professional’s negative attitude towards mental illness. Moreover, it has been reported that around one-fifth of premature deaths among young people resulted from suicidal deaths (Goldberg and Huxley 1992).
To write an accurate and up-to-date account, information will be collected from journal articles, using the necessary books and books of desires of different authors, including e-books and several sources of websites. At the same time, an extensive electronic database in the electronic database, such as Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, OAISTER, PubMed, Epson, as well as the Cochrane Library, British and London provides documentary resources, Medline, WHOSIS, Foundation Joseph Rowntree, Mental Health Conditions Concern, British Medical Association (BMA), Department of Health, and National Health Service (NHS) websites. BNI-The British Nursing Index includes nursing journals published in English and in PsycINFO, which covers many areas in the fields of psychology and related fields.
The search will be performed using all combinations of the search term, using the Google Scholar search engine with keywords. Besides, he will study research that has already been done in English; and then look at this study. The inclusion parameter consists of a literature search published on this issue over the last five to ten years, followed by the desired conclusion and recommendations. Exclusion criteria will include unpublished articles in English, too, where the full text is not available from any source and those that require payment that I cannot access through the library catalogue. Aveyard (2010) stated that inclusion and exclusion criteria are being created to select research essential to the research question. Greenhalgh and Peacock (2005) argue that computer searches are not always 100% accurate. Therefore, another research approach, such as manual search in essential journals and the search for reference lists of essential journals that will be useful, will be used.
Some of the publications reviewed show that young people are more likely than other groups in the population to develop mental health problems (BMA, 2008). The risk factors for psychosis and schizophrenia and the acceptability of interventions vary across ethnic groups; mainly African and Caribbean populations are the most exposed (Warner, 1994). Several socioeconomic factors may also influence the causes of psychosis and schizophrenia. For example, in developed countries, it is well established that psychosis and schizophrenia are more common in lower socioeconomic groups (WHO, 2001). World Health Organization has pointed out that if mental health is not treated for a long time, it could have significant effects on the well being of the person, his family, the community and the country in general (ibid.). NICE (2009) reported that some individuals with mental illnesses are not seeking help because they are hesitant to ask for help due to some health professional’s negative attitude.
Some media reports have raised public fears about young people with mental illness This has had a profound effect on young people with the disorders (Giddens, 2016). Mental illnesses within the NHS account for more than 12% of the total budget. According to the King’s Fund (2014), in England mental health and related illnesses cost the government about £22.5 billion a year, as well as consequences for the criminal justice system and lost productivity. There is a high proportion of people with mental disorders are often excluded from society and associated with a negative perception of the community. Another study also found that among several families living in London, the government or professionals received no support.
The moral problem that I will address in this health intervention is AUTONOMY: the participation will be done voluntarily through self-selection. Participants will receive information on the nature of the response; A consent form will be provided to all participants specifying the benefits and risks. Another ethical consideration that I will consider is JUSTICE; Beware of BENEFICENCE: (Goes well) by promoting the health benefits of higher than recommended intake for mental health problems. Finally, NON-MALFEASANCE: (do not harm) and the consent letter of the participant will be Appendix 2)
Mental illness can have significant effects on family dynamics, such as the creation of tensions, uncertainties, emotional disturbances and substantial changes in the lives of young people. Many forms of mental illness occur when the person is in their late teens or early twenties.
I learned the differences between common and severe mental health disorders. Some of the causes of mental illness among young people living in London. The impact of drugs, the environment, and biological effects. The link between mental state and child abuse, trauma or neglect, stress, grief, long-term physical health status, unemployment, homelessness, severe head trauma or neurological diseases, including lack of sleep. Also, medications used to treat mental health problems, including antipsychotics and antidepressants.
According to King’s Fund (2016), in England, mental health and related illnesses cost the government about £ 22.5 billion a year, as well as consequences for the criminal justice system and lost productivity. Negative coverage by some media has raised public fears, and mistrust of young people with mental disorders has a profound impact on young people with these disorders. Also, the judgmental attitude of some members of the people and the perception of young people with mental illness. These factors, along with other factors combined, created a significant problem for people seeking help early in the disease. Mental illnesses within the NHS account for more than 12% of the total budget.
I learned how people can be detained against their will and consent under the MHA Act of 1983, which is the law in force in England and Wales, updated in 2007 I also learned that more than half of psychiatric inpatients are detained without their consent, which means losing certain rights, including the right to leave the hospital freely. He can be forcibly treated and take medication if the patient does not cooperate with his treatment. The individual can be placed in isolation, if necessary. However, a large proportion of those receiving treatment in hospital services has agreed to go to the hospital as an informal or voluntary patient.
I learned how, in some cultures, mental illness is considered a “taboo.” Young people are reluctant to report the disease and seek help. Fear of being labelled, stigmatized or shunned by their community, family and friends, professionals and inequities in health. Early intervention is essential to ensure the necessary treatment and a favourable prognosis. Black, Asian and ethnic minority (BAME) youth groups face problems and challenges in housing, education, employment, and family breakdown.
I learned that young black men are three to five times more likely than any other group to be diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, admitted and detained under the Mental Health Act. Also, they are more likely to enter mental health services through the courts or arrests of police officers instead of going through the primary care circuit. They are also overrepresented in high and medium security units and prisons. Black men are at higher risk of disengaging from traditional mental health services, which can lead to social exclusion and a deterioration of their mental state.
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