Consumption of pulse dishes by the Canadian population: Analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey (Nutrition) 2004 and 2015
Rationale and Objectives
This research aims to describe pulse consumption by the Canadian population from two national cross-sectional surveys 2004 and 2015.
Specific objectives are:
- To determine the association of consumption of pulses in different cuisines and food sources at the national level for different ages, BMI, ethnicities, gender, health and other available socio-demographic variables in adults ≥ 19 years.
- To find out the common characteristics of pulse eating behavior of the Canadian population in terms of eating occasions, types of pulses and food dishes consumed.
- To examine major trends for pulses consumed between 2004 and 2015 to estimate whether Canadians are increasing, decreasing or changing sources of pulse consumption
- Based on findings from Objectives 1-3, complete cluster or profile analysis to identify subgroups in the population for targeted marketing and promotion material for producers, processors and health care professionals.
Over the past 25 years, Canadian adults have become heavier and increasingly inactive, leading to an increase in related chronic illnesses. Health Canada estimates from 1978/1979 showed that 14 percent of Canadian adults aged 18 and over were considered obese (1) . The majority (61%) of Canadian adults are now overweight, 24% are obese and 20% suffer from metabolic syndrome (hypertension, dyslipidemia, Type 2 diabetes)(2). Diet quality/eating pattern is one contributing factor.
It is widely assumed that the Canadian diet has contributed to the increase in obesity, even though mechanisms are uncertain (3). The Canadian diet is highly processed, with large portions and emphasis on pre-prepared and processed foods. No one nutrient or food can be blamed, but it is generally acknowledged that portion sizes are too large and the diet is calorically dense. The rapid onset of obesity in the population suggests it can be reversed. To reverse current trends multiple approaches are needed, both in the population and with individuals, to decrease caloric density and promote more plant-based food sources ,fruits and vegetables.
Among plant-based foods, the main protein sources in the diet are legumes, specifically pulses (dried beans, peas and lentils). This proposal focuses on pulses because of the results of our recent lifestyle study in 293 middle-aged adults (4). Diet counselling by registered dietitians promoted a Mediterranean diet pattern, not weight loss, and diet quality was measured 2 ways. Only a modest shift in legume consumption was achieved; from 7% of participants eating ≥ 3 servings of legumes (including pulses) per week to 15% over the one-year program. In contrast, participants increased fruit and vegetable intake by one serving per day and substantially decreased sweets and baked goods(4). More targeted work on pulse promotion is needed to identify and test strategies for increasing consumption.
To inform possible interventions, there is a need to better understand who consumes pulses, when and how they consume pulses and what kinds of dishes they are consuming. One approach is to assess recent consumption patterns among Canadians from population-based surveys using validated diet assessment methods. Based on the purpose of study, the dietary assessment tool would be chosen. Eating behaviors, nutrients measurement or quality of diet are the main purpose. Many different methods ( including detailed individual weighed records collected over a period of 7 days or more to food frequency questionnaires, national survey methods and simple food lists )are exits in order to achieve the purpose of assessing dietary intake . Each has advantages, related errors and applied difficulties to be considered when choosing one method above another. National surveys may be required to produce statistics for every city in the country. A sample survey could provide national statistics with small sampling error when adjusted for sampling. The researcher can also use information from a community sample of individuals to make inferences about the wider population, but these samples may be biased. In a geographically large country with multiethnic makeup like Canada, population-based surveys are more likely to yield representative data.
The only two such national surveys were done as part of the Canadian Community Health Surveys(CCHS) in 2004 and 2015, using 24-hour recall methods. Our review of previous research on pulse consumption indicates that despite increasing attention to analyses of food consumption, no systematic research has been done to examine pulse consumption by food sources or ethnic background differences among consumers. One previous study of legume consumers was completed on the 2004 data(5). Respondents (N = 20,156) were divided into groups based on pulse consumption and levels of intake and the association between nutrient intakes and pulse consumption was examined. Analysis revealed that 13% of Canadians consumed pulses on any given day, and individuals with higher pulse intakes had higher intakes of macronutrients as well as enhanced micronutrient intake (5).
Better information on consumption patterns is needed as a baseline to any future efforts to increase pulse intake. We will begin to address these gaps by assessing the socio-demographic characteristics, nutrient and food group intakes and other characteristics of consumers and non-consumers of legumes from the 24-hour dietary recall data in both 2004 and 2015.
Analysis of these national nutrition surveys will provide a different approach to identifying key factors to consider in promoting pulses, providing a more complete picture that complements other marketing research (6).
Definition of Pulses
Dietary pulses, the edible non-oil seeds of plants in the legume family, such as beans, lentils, chickpeas and dry peas, are well positioned to aid in dietary prevention of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular conditions, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome because they possess many positive nutritional qualities as well as being low in saturated fat (7).
Pulses are excellent sources of proteins as well as fibre. The bioactive compounds that pulse contain such as resistant starch, α galactoside oligosaccharides, phytate, polyphenols and saponins may act as potential physiological modulators of metabolism, given that they inhibit the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and exhibit prebiotic effects, as well as antioxidant and bile acid-binding properties (8), thus showing promising potential as functional ingredients.
Furthermore, different compounds produce by pulse crops that feed soil microbes and benefit soil health(9). The ability of pulses to feed the soil different compounds has the effect of increasing the number and diversity of soil microbes. Pulses are a source of protein with a very low water requirement (10). The amounts of water for producing meat products including beef, pork and chicken are 18,11 and 5 times respectively higher than water requirement of pulses. .(10)
Pulses in health
Some observational studies have assessed the association between dietary pulse consumption and Metabolic syndrome (Mets) (11, 12). The WHO has also suggested the consumption of pulse to help reduce risks of Mets and obesity(13).
A meta-analysis has been done in order to assess the pulse consumption on body weight. It was consist of 21 randomized controlled trials (n = 940 participants ) .The results confirmed that pulses in a diet may have a beneficial effects on losing weight even when diets are not planned to be calorically restricted. The results showed a significant weight reduction −0.34 kg (95% CI: −0.63, −0.04 kg; P = 0.03) in diets containing dietary pulses compared with diets without a dietary pulse intervention over a median duration of 6 wk. Based on the results from 6 included trials, dietary pulse consumption may reduce body fat percentage also suggested that (14).
Health Canada, in its publication, “Canada’s Food Guide” recommends that Canadians consume pulses often with three-quarter of a cup being considered one serving.
Canada’s Food Guide promotes legumes by recommending meat alternatives such as beans, lentils and tofu often. The Meat and Alternatives group provides important nutrients such as iron, zinc, magnesium, B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12), protein and fat. Diabetes Canada has also suggested regular intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and plant-based sources of protein, including legumes. A legume rich diet, either alone or as part of a low GI or high fiber diet, can lower fasting blood glucose and/or hemoglobin A1C, in people with and without diabetes.
The American Diabetes Association, however, has made no specific recommendations to consume pulses, recommending instead various dietary patterns that may be high in dietary pulses (i.e., Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), vegetarian, and vegan).
Similarly, heart-healthy guidelines from the American Heart Association encourage intake of pulses as part of a diet aimed at reducing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)(15),whereas the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the European guidelines for CVD prevention have not made any specific recommendations for the intake of dietary pulses. Obesity prevention is not a focus of any of these guidelines, while weight loss is often mentioned.
Pulse dishes are traditional components of the food cultures in Mediterranean, Latin American, East Indian, East Asian and Middle Eastern countries. This has largely been due to the traditional high cost and limited availability of meat in these countries. In Canadapalatableness and healthiness are the main reasons of pulse consumption. However, lack of preparation skills, inconvenience and not liking pulses are the fundamental causes of not eating pulses.(6).
Pulses are not totally excluded from northern countries’ diets. The example of Canada reveals the presence of pulses in developed countries food regimen.
In a marketing study commissioned by Alberta Agriculture, Ipsos Reid has analyzed the factors influencing pulse consumption in Canada .Five groups of consumers identified by segmentation analysis including ;Informed Champions, Disinterested Unreachables, Unexposed Reachables, Forgetful Proponents and Health Driven Persuadables .They were based on the consumers attitude to pulse ,food and health.(6).
Current levels of dietary pulse consumption remain low in Canada (16). Knowledge of consumption is based on disappearance data and reports from some surveys (6). It was reported that only 13% of Canadians and 7.9% of Americans consume pulses on any given day, based on national 24-h recalls (5). The average intakes ranged from 13 to 294 g/day among Canadian consumers, and 23 to 277 g/day among American consumers (approximately less than 0.25–1.75 cups/day or less than 0.5– 2.5 servings/day of cooked pulses based on Health Canada’s Food Guide serving size)(5). European data show a similar pattern of low consumption (17, 18).
Among Canadians, It is estimated that 1.3 cups of cooked pulse is average weekly consumption. However, the estimated average consumption is among people who consumed pulses in the past six months. When all Canadians are considered ,this number drops to an average of 1.0 cups(5)In order to understand current and future consumption of pulses, it is vital to understand the associations of consumption and other factors, such as attitudes and socioeconomic background. Understanding of relationship between many different factors, such as attitudes and socioeconomic circumstances and pulse consumption are essential .It would help to realized current and future consumption. In this regards, there are many studies that have explored the motives to eat or not to eat plant proteins. A qualitative study showed that in spite of health benefits of soy ,tastiness, convenience and cost were the main obstacles of soy consumption (19). Having adversely unattractive image is the major barrier to soy consumption (19). Ethnicity and cultural background are the factors could effect on pulse consumption. In a study those factors were comparing among French and Vietnamese consumers. It showed that in France soy was unfavorable product, whereas in Vietnam it was a product of memories, sensation and desire (20). In the UK and the Netherlands, users of meat-substitutes were highly educated. In the UK, heavy users were women and younger age groups. This study confirmed that socioeconomic background and gender are associated with the consumption of plant proteins (21) .A Canadian study displayed that pulse consumption associated with education . Moreover, heavy pulse users were generally young (6).
In the present study, we will investigate pulse consumer in a large population sample, from two population-based surveys (CCHS 2004 and 2015) with a specific focus on socio-demographic and health characteristics of pulse consumers and non-consumers; and analysis of the composition of the meals that feature pulses and analysis of any changes between the surveys. We are particularly interested in the meals/snacks of younger consumers who do not identify as vegan or from traditional ethnic backgrounds that consume pulses.
In addition, we will investigate to what extent the identified segments differed regarding their demographical variables, consumption of a number of pulse foods, and liking and health perception of certain foods (variable list).
Basic descriptive approaches and exploration of factors associated with consumption are common methods. Studies on the segmentation of consumers based on their food or nutrition consumption of information are still very rare (22). In developing targeted communication materials to stimulate healthy eating, it would be very helpful to know more about the characteristics of consumers, and what they are eating as context for developing new interventions. This line of thinking follows from the advisor’s previous work on vegetable consumption, and has not been applied to pulse consumption. Therefore, the segmentation work will be exploratory.
Canadian Community Health Survey
The CCHS consists of a series of cross-sectional surveys that was initiated in the year 2000. The main purpose of the CCHS was to provide timely information on health determinants, health status and health system utilization. It was based on collaborations of the Health Canada, the Canadian Institute for Health Information, and Statistics Canada. The CCHS consists of two distinct surveys through two years data collection cycle. The first year (cycle X.1) is a general health survey that including130,000 Canadian subjects, which is large enough to allow data to be presented at the level of health regions within each province. The second year (cycle X.2) approximately has a total sample of 35,000 Canadian subjects allows provincial-level estimates as it focuses on a specific content area.
The 2004 and 2015 CCHS consists of both a nutritional as well as general health component. According to Health Canada, the nutrition component estimated the distribution of usual dietary intake based on foods, food groups, dietary supplements, nutrients and eating patterns among a representative sample of Canadians at national and provincial levels using a 24-hour dietary recall. Two 24-hour recalls have been done in subsets to estimate day-to-day variances. It also measured the prevalence of household food insecurity among a variety of Canadian population groups, collected anthropometric measurements (body height and weight) as well as information on physical activity, selected health conditions and socio-demographic characteristics. What follows is a brief overview of the CCHS 2.2. The survey methods were intentionally kept similar to allow for comparison. Further details on the methods used in the CCHS 2.2 and CCHS 2015 are available on the Statistics Canada Website.
The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) (version 24; a subsidiary of IBM, based in Chicago, Illinois) and the Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) (version 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) will be used for statistical anlaysis. An initial descriptive analysis of data will be performed to determine the prevalence of specific pulse consumption in food dishes. Pulse consumers will be defined as respondents who consume pulses or a pulse-containing product for dietary intakes. Consumers will be further divided into different segments based on analysis by food sources or ethnic background.
Currently, for accounting the complex multistage survey design in estimation of variances and Confidence Intervals (CI) bootstrap balanced repeated replication (BBR) method will be used (23, 24). Bootstrapping is an approach to estimate distribution from a sample’s statistics. It also can be defined as ‘sampling within a sample’ and involves the selection of random samples known as replicates, and the calculation of the variation in the estimates from replicate to replicate(23, 24) .
All analyses will be adjusted for the complex sampling design using appropriate sample weights based on respondent classes with similar socio-demographic characteristics, to maintain a nationally representative sample. Due to the representative nature of the data, the analysis will utilize the weights included in the CCHS. The weighting strategy considers the area and telephone sampling frames independently to determine separate household-level weights for each of the frames; those weights are integrated and further adjusted to become the final person-level weight. The territories are weighted differently than the provinces due to different sampling methods.. Group comparison with Tukey post-hoc adjustment will be used to evaluate the characteristics of participants classified within categories (ex. Age categories).Statisitical consultation will be sought as needed from an analyst familiar with the surveys.
Cross-tabulations and tests will be used to compare the proportions of consumers and non-consumers based on sex, age categories, and other categorical variables. Logistic regression will be used to determine whether any demographic variables (sex, age, culture, ethnicity, province of residence, BMI, health conditions, food security, household size, rural/urban, working out of home, income adequacy and education level) increased the likelihood of being classified as a pulse consumer and Odds Ratio will be calculated. We will aim to identify key variables for higher consumption of pulse foods. The significance level will be set at α=0·05 and results with a two-tailed p-value < 0.05 will be considered statistically significant.
Depending on results of the basic analyses, segmentation latent class analysis (LCA) technique will applied will be applied to identify consumer segments.
The National Survey like CCHS provides a rich source of data. However, the nonresponse rates might be high. To handle the missing data a variety of methods exist such as pairwise deletion, listwise deletion , and multiple imputation. Based on type of missing data we will decide on the method for handling the missing.Data Requirements
I am requesting access to the confidential Master Data File for the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). I will analyze both the 2004 and 2015 CCHS national diet surveys for associations with socio-demographic factors and other variables as outlined
The primary objective of the study is to examine consumption of pulses by the Canadian population. I aim to conduct a cross-sectional analysis. I will consult with the staff at the University of Guelph and University of Waterloo RDC .They will confirm that acceptable sample sizes can be derived from each variable and that appropriate weighting and bootstrapping procedures are applied to the data. Data from the CCHS 2.2 (2004) and 2015 master files will be used for this analysis. Data are housed in a secure satellite center at the library of the University of Guelph. Access will be gained by following Statistics Canada’s application process and guidelines including the submission of this project proposal, completion of an online application as well as the security screening process. Access to the confidential data is needed as the censoring of sensitive data in the public files will affect the validity of the regression models. Variables such as NSP_Q01, MSH_R1 and MSW_R1 are not included in the public data and are needed for this research, thus access to confidential data is imperative.
Population of Interest
The population of interest for this research are the individuals that were randomly selected to participate in the 24-hour recall interview. This interview used an automated multiple-pass method consisting of one or two interviews. The first was to represent one-day (“daily”) intake while the second interview allowed for assessment of “usual” intake. As well the first 24 hour recall was used for point estimates (mean) while the 2nd recall was important to make conclusions related to distributions. This research will focus on adults who are 19 years of age and older. Individuals younger than 19 years of age are excluded from these analyses, and they are not included in data sets for many key variables of interest including adult health and marketing.
The second year Ph.D student complete the analysis with support from the advisor (Ph.D in epidemiology) with statistical help from the local RDC analyst. A statistical consultant (Michelle Edwards) is a co-investigator, as is Sunghwan Yi, from Consumer Studies, who has done LPA.
Preliminary data analysis is expected to begin May 2018, and the post graduate student will finish his analysis by Sep 2018. The Ph.D thesis will be completed by 2019.
No additional ethical approvals are needed.
The result of this research is expected to be a graduate level thesis and seminar presentation of the findings. A peer-review paper is planned. As per the RDC Microdata Research Contract, the final paper will be submitted to Statistics Canada as the product derived from the research project at the RDC.
Variables of Interest
CCHS contains numerous relevant variables. Those of interest are: household characteristics, general health, level of physical activity/sedentary activities, measured height and weight (BMI), intake of vitamin/mineral supplements, prevalence of chronic conditions, smoking, alcohol use, food security and socio-demographic characteristics. A broad view has been taken to identify all possible variables that may be associated with food intake, in keeping with descriptive epidemiological principles. The study is exploratory and may be hypothesis generating.
Table of Proposed Variables
|Is [respondent name] male or female?
|What is [respondent name]’s age?
|What is [respondent name]’s marital status?
|What is the highest degree, certificate or diploma [respondent name] has obtained?
|In general, would you say [your/his/her] health is:
|How satisfied are you with your life in general?
|In general, would you say your mental health is:
|Thinking about the amount of stress in [your/his/her] life, would you say that most days are:
|In the past 3 months, how many times did you participate in physical activity?
|About how much time did you spend on each occasion?
|In the past month, that is, from one month ago to yesterday, did you take any vitamins or minerals?
|Prevalence of chronic conditions
|[Do/Does] [you/FNAME] have high blood pressure?
|[Do/Does] [you/FNAME] have diabetes?
|[Do/Does] [you/FNAME] have heart disease?
|[Do/Does] [you/FNAME] have cancer?
|[Do/Does] [you/FNAME] have osteoporosis?
|At the present time, [do/does] [you/FNAME] smoke cigarettes daily, occasionally or not at all?
|When did [you/he/she] stop smoking? Was it:
|During the past 12 months, how often did [you/he/she] drink alcoholic beverages?
|How often in the past 12 months [have/has] [you/he/she] had 5 or more drinks on one occasion?
|Which of the following statements best describes the food eaten in your household in the past 12 months?
|Are you aboriginal?
|What was the main source of income?
|What is your best estimate of the total household income, before taxes and deductions
|What is your best estimate of [your/FNAME’s] total personal income,
Socio-demographic characteristics (SDC)
|In what country [were/was] [you/he/she] born?
|In which province or territory were you born?
|Are you now, or have you ever been a landed immigrant in Canada?
|In what year did you first become a landed immigrant in Canada?
|To which ethnic or cultural groups did your ancestors belong? (For example: French, Scottish, Chinese, East Indian)
|Are you an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations, Métis or Inuk (Inuit)? First Nations includes Status and Non-Status Indians.
|Are you First Nations, Métis or Inuk (Inuit)?
|You may belong to one or more racial or cultural groups on the following list. Are you… ?
|Is this dwelling…?
Neighbourhood environment (NBE)
|Many shops, stores, markets or other places to buy things I need are within easy walking distance of my home.
|The crime rate in my neighbourhood makes it unsafe to go on walks at night
|FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION
|How often do you usually drink fruit juices such as orange, grapefruit or tomato?
|How often do you usually eat fruit?
|How often do you usually eat green salad?
|How many servings of other vegetables do you usually eat?
|In the last month, how many times did you eat dark green vegetables such as broccoli, green beans, peas
|Food choices (FDC)
|Do you choose certain foods or avoid others:
because you are concerned about your body weight?
|because you are concerned about heart disease?
|because you are concerned about cancer?
|because you are concerned about osteoporosis ?
|the lower fat content?
|the fiber content?
|the calcium content?
|the fat content?
|the type of fat they contain?
|the salt content?
|the cholesterol content?
|the calorie content?
Canada’s Food Guide use (FGU)
|Have you ever seen or heard of Canada’s Food Guide?
|Have you ever used information from Canada’s Food Guide?
|What did you use the information for?
|Satisfaction with life (SWL)
|How satisfied are you with your job or main activity?
|How satisfied are you with your leisure activities?
|(How satisfied are you) with your financial situation?
|(How satisfied are you) with yourself?
|How satisfied are you with the way your body looks?
|(How satisfied are you) with your relationships with family members?
|(How satisfied are you) with your relationships with friends?
|How satisfied are you with your housing?
|(How satisfied are you) with your neighbourhood?
Health insurance coverage (INS)
|[Do you] have insurance that covers all or part of the cost of [your] prescription medications?
|[Do you] have insurance that covers all or part of [your] long-term care costs, including home care?
|Food security (FSC)
|The first statement is: [You and other household members] worried that food would run out before you got money to
|The food that [you and other household members] bought just didn’t last, and there wasn’t any money to get more.
|[You and other household members] couldn’t afford to eat balanced meals.
|[You or other adults in your household] relied on only a few kinds of low-cost food to feed [the children].
|[You or other adults in your household] couldn’t feed [the children] a balanced meal, because you couldn’t afford it.
|[The children were] not eating enough because [you or other adults in your household] just couldn’t
|In the past 12 months, since last ^CURRENTMONTH, did [you or other adults in your household] ever cut
|How often did this happen? Was it…?
|In the past 12 months, did you (personally) ever eat less than you felt you should because there wasn’t enough money to
|in the past 12 months, were you (personally) ever hungry but didn’t eat
|In the past 12 months, did you (personally) ever lose weight because you didn’t have enough money for food?
|In the past 12 months, did [you or other adults in your household] ever not eat for a whole day
|In the past 12 months, did [you or other adults in your household] ever cut the size of [any of the children’s] meals
|In the past 12 months, did [any of the children] ever skip meals because there wasn’t enough money for food?
|How often did this happen? Was it…?
|In the past 12 months, [were any of the children] ever hungry but you just couldn’t afford more food?
|In the past 12 months, did [any of the children] ever not eat for a whole day
|Primary health care (PHC)
|Is there a place that you usually [go] to when you [need] immediate care for a minor health problem?
|What kind of place is it?
|Do you have a regular health care provider?
|What are the reasons why you do not have a regular health care provider?
|Is that regular health care provider a…?
|When you [need] immediate care for a minor health problem
|Do you usually speak in English, in French or in another language with th
|Is there one or more nurses working with your [family physician/specialist/nurse practitioner/regular
|Other than doctors and nurses, are there other health professionals like nutritionists
|Other than from your [family physician/specialist/nurse
|In general, how would you rate the level of coordination between your
|You feel that you have a number of good qualities.
|You feel that you’re a person of worth at least equal to others.
|You are able to do things as well as most other people.
|You take a positive attitude toward yourself.
|Overall, you are satisfied with yourself.
|All in all, you’re inclined to feel you’re a failure.
|Oral health (OHT)
|In general, would you say the health of your mouth is…?
|How satisfied are you with the appearance of your teeth and/or dentures?
|In the past 12 months, how often have you found it uncomfortable to eat any food because of problems with your mouth?
|(In the past 12 months,) how often have you avoided eating particular foods because of problems with your mouth?
|In the past 12 months, how often have you had any other persistent or on-going pain anywhere in your mouth?
|Do you have at least one of your own teeth?
|Do you wear dentures, dental prosthesis or false teeth?
|In the past 12 months, how often have you had bleeding gums, including while brushing or flossing your teeth?
|(In the past 12 months,) how often have you had persistent dry mouth?
|(In the past 12 months,) how often have you had persistent bad breath?
|Activities of daily living (ADL)
|Because of any physical condition, mental condition or health problem, do you have any difficulty:
with preparing meals?
|with running errands such as shopping for groceries?
|with doing everyday housework?
|with personal care such as bathing, dressing, eating or taking medication?
|with moving about inside the house?
|with looking after your personal finances such as making bank transactions or paying bills?
1. Roberts KC, Shields M, de Groh M, Aziz A, Gilbert JA. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: results from the 2009 to 2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health reports. 2012;23(3):37-41.
2. Riediger ND, Clara I. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Canadian adult population. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne. 2011;183(15):E1127-34.
3. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, King MA, Pickett W. Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2004;35(5):360-7.
4. Jeejeebhoy K, Dhaliwal R, Heyland DK, Leung R, Day AG, Brauer P, et al. Family physician-led, team-based, lifestyle intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome: results of a multicentre feasibility project. CMAJ open. 2017;5(1):E229-e36.
5. Mudryj AN, Yu N, Hartman TJ, Mitchell DC, Lawrence FR, Aukema HM. Pulse consumption in Canadian adults influences nutrient intakes. The British journal of nutrition. 2012;108 Suppl 1:S27-36.
6. Ipsos Reid,Factors influencing pulse consumption in Canada. Government of Alberta; 2010.
7. Mudryj AN, Yu N, Aukema HM. Nutritional and health benefits of pulses. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme. 2014;39(11):1197-204.
8. Champ MM-J. Non-nutrient bioactive substances of pulses. British Journal of Nutrition. 2002;88(S3):307-19.
9. Stagnari F, Maggio A, Galieni A, Pisante M. Multiple benefits of legumes for agriculture sustainability: an overview. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture. 2017;4(1):2.
10. Dubois O. The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture: managing systems at risk: Earthscan; 2011.
11. Mollard RC, Luhovyy BL, Panahi S, Nunez M, Hanley A, Anderson GH. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults. The British journal of nutrition. 2012;108 Suppl 1:S111-22.
12. Hermsdorff HH, Zulet MA, Abete I, Martinez JA. A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects. European journal of nutrition. 2011;50(1):61-9.
13. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 916. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
14. Kim SJ, de Souza RJ, Choo VL, Ha V, Cozma AI, Chiavaroli L, et al. Effects of dietary pulse consumption on body weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2016;103(5):1213-23.
15. Leterme P. Recommendations by health organizations for pulse consumption. British Journal of Nutrition. 2002;88(S3):239-42.
16. Mudryj AN, Yu N, Aukema HM. Nutritional and health benefits of pulses. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2014;39(11):1197-204.
17. Schneider AV. Overview of the market and consumption of pulses in Europe. The British journal of nutrition. 2002;88 Suppl 3:S243-50.
18. Kearney J. Food consumption trends and drivers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 2010;365(1554):2793-807.
19. Schyver T, Smith C. Reported attitudes and beliefs toward soy food consumption of soy consumers versus nonconsumers in natural foods or mainstream grocery stores. Journal of nutrition education and behavior. 2005;37(6):292-9.
20. Tu VP, Husson F, Sutan A, Ha DT, Valentin D. For me the taste of soy is not a barrier to its consumption. And how about you? Appetite. 2012;58(3):914-21.
21. Hoek AC, Luning PA, Weijzen P, Engels W, Kok FJ, de Graaf C. Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance. Appetite. 2011;56(3):662-73.
22. Yi S, Kanetkar V, Brauer P. Assessment of heterogeneity in types of vegetables served by main household food preparers and food decision influencers. Public health nutrition. 2015;18(15):2750-8.
23. O P. Using Bootstrap Weights with Wes Var and SUDAAN. Information and Technical Bulletin. 2004;1:6-15.
24. Rust K, Rao J. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 1996;5(3):283-310.
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
Related ContentAll Tags
Content relating to: "Community Health"
Community Health is the field of public health that concerns itself with the health and wellbeing of residents within a particular area, taking into account environmental and infrastructural factors.
Effectiveness of WIC Nutrition Education
Public Health Issue The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is recognized as one of the most successful federal assistance programs in the nation. St...
What is the Scope of Sustainable Communities in India?
What is the scope of sustainable communities in India? This study aims to assess sustainability of communities based on various chosen parameters and find the difficulties, if any, faced by these communities....
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this research project and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: