Applications of Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Therapy and Student-Centered Learning

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CHAPTER - I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
  1. INTRODUCTION:
Carl Rogers’ personal life Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was a commanding American psychologist and among the originators of the humanistic methodology (or client focused methodology) of psychology. Rogers is generally thought to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was regarded for his spearheading research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1956. The Person-Centered approach, his own particular exceptional way to deal with comprehension of identity and human connections, with application in different areas, for example, psychotherapy and guiding (Client-Centered therapy), training (learning focused learning), associations, and other gathering situations. For his expert work, he was given the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Psychology by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1972. In a study by Haggbloom (Haggbloom, et al., 2002) utilising six criteria, for example, references and acknowledgement, Rogers was observed to be the 6th most prominent analyst of the twentieth century and second, among psychologists, just to Sigmund Freud. Rogers set up a guiding focus associated with the college and there led studies to decide the viability of his strategies. His discoveries and hypotheses showed up in Client-Centered Therapy (1951) and Psychotherapy and Personality Change (1954). One of his graduate student learning at the University of Chicago, Thomas Gordon, built up the Parent Effectiveness Training (P.E.T.) development. In 1956, Rogers became the President of the American Academy of Psychotherapists. He taught psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (1957–63), amid which time he composed one of his best-known books, On Becoming a Person (1961). Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (1908–70) spearheaded a development theory called ‘humanistic psychology’ which achieved its top in the 1960s. In 1961, he was chosen a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Carl Rogers was additionally one of the general population who scrutinised the ascent of McCarthyism in the 1950s. Through articles, he scrutinised society of its retrogressive looking affinities. The following two years he exited the theological school to go to Teachers College, Columbia University, getting an MA in 1928 and a PhD in 1931. While finishing his doctoral work, he was occupied with child study. In 1930, Rogers served as chief of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Rochester, New York. From 1935 to 1940 he addressed at the University of Rochester and composed The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child (1939), taking into account his involvement in working with disturbed youngsters. He was emphatically impacted in developing his Person-centred methodology by the post-Freudian psychotherapeutic routine of Otto Rank (Kramer, 1995). In 1940 Rogers became an educator of clinical psychology at Ohio State University, where he composed his second book, Counselling and Psychotherapy (1942). In it, Rogers recommended that the client, by setting up an association with an understanding, tolerating specialist, can resolve troubles and pick up the knowledge important to rebuild their life. In 1945, he was welcome to set up a guiding and research focus centre at the University of Chicago. In 1947 he was chosen President of the American Psychological Association (APA). While a Professor of psychology at the University of Chicago (1945–57), Rogers set up a guiding focus associated with the college and there led studies to decide the adequacy of his techniques. His discoveries and speculations showed up in Client-Centered Therapy (1951) and Psychotherapy and Personality Change (1954). In 1961, he was chosen a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Carl Rogers was likewise one of the general people who scrutinised the ascent of McCarthyism in the 1950s. Through articles, he condemned society of its regressive looking affinities. Rogers taught at University of Wisconsin until 1963, when he turned into a resident at the new Western Behavioral Sciences Institute (WBSI) in La Jolla, California. Rogers left the WBSI to help found the Center for Studies of the Person in 1968. His later books incorporate Carl Rogers on Personal Power (1977) and Freedom to Learn for the 80's (1983). He remained a Resident of La Jolla for the rest of his life, doing treatment, giving discourses and composing until his sudden passing in 1987. In 1987, Rogers endured a fall that brought about a cracked pelvis: he had life alarm and could contact paramedics. He had an effective operation, yet his pancreas fizzled the following night and he passed away a couple of days after the fact. Rogers’ last years were dedicated to applying his hypotheses in circumstances of political abuse and national social class, making a trip worldwide to do as such. In Belfast, Northern Ireland, he united persuasive Protestants and Catholics; in South Africa, blacks and whites; in Brazil individuals rising up out of autocracy to majority rule government in the United States, shoppers and suppliers in the wellbeing field. His last outing, at age 85, was to the Soviet Union, where he addressed and encouraged escalated experiential workshops cultivating correspondence and imagination. He was amazed at the quantities of Russians who knew of his work. Together with his little girl, Natalie Rogers, and therapists Maria Bowen, Maureen O'Hara, and John K. Wood, somewhere around 1974 and 1984, Rogers met a progression of private projects in the US, Europe, Brazil and Japan, the Person-Centered Approach Workshops, which concentrated on diverse correspondences, self-improvement, self-strengthening, and learning for social change. Applications of Carl Rogers’ ‘Person-Centered therapy’ and ‘Student-Centered learning’: Rogers initially built up his hypothesis to be the establishment of an arrangement of treatment. He at first called this “non-directive therapy” however later supplanted the expression “non-directive” with the expression “Client-Centered” and after that later utilised the expression “Person-Centered”. Indeed, even before the dissemination of Client-Centered Therapy in 1951, Rogers trusted that the standards he was portraying could be connected in an assortment of settings and not simply in the treatment circumstance. Accordingly, he began to utilise the term Person-Centered approach later in his life to depicting his general hypothesis. Person-Centered therapy is the utilisation of the Person-Centered way to deal with the treatment circumstance. Different applications incorporate a hypothesis of identity, interpersonal relations, training, nursing, culturally diverse relations and other “helping” callings and circumstances. Rogers co-wrote Advising with Returned Servicemen (1946), with John L. Wallen (the maker of the behavioural model known as The Interpersonal Gap), reporting the utilisation of Person-Centered way to deal with directing military faculty coming back from the Second World War. The principal exact proof of the adequacy of the client focused methodology was distributed in 1941 at the Ohio State University by Elias Porter, utilising the recordings of remedial sessions between Carl Rogers and his clients. Doorman utilised Rogers' transcripts and devised a framework to gauge the level of directiveness or non-directiveness a guide utilised. The state of mind and introduction of the guide were shown to be instrumental in the choices made by the client. Learner-Centered teaching The application of training has an expansive powerful research custom like that of treatment with studies having started in the late 1930s and proceeding with today (Cornelius-White, 2007). Rogers portrayed the way to deal with instruction in Client-Centered Therapy and composed Freedom to Learn committed only to the subject in 1969. Opportunity to Learn was reconsidered two times. The new Learner-Centered Model is comparable in numerous respects to this traditional Person-Centered way to deal with instruction. Rogers and Harold Lyon started a book preceding Rogers death, entitled On Becoming an Effective Teacher - Person-focused Teaching, Psychology, Philosophy, and Dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon, which was finished by Lyon and Reinhard Tausch and distributed in 2013 containing Rogers ongoing unpublished works on Person-Centered teaching. Rogers had the accompanying five speculations with respect to learner-focused instruction: “A man can’t instruct someone else specifically; a man can just encourage another's learning” (Rogers C. , 1951). This is an after-effect of his identity hypothesis, which expresses that everybody exists and always show signs of change in a universe of involvement in which he or she is in the middle. Every individual responds and reacts in light of discernment and experience. The conviction is that what the learning does is more critical than what the educator does. The emphasis is on the learning (Rogers, 1951). Along with these lines, the foundation and encounters of the learner are fundamental to how and what is found out. Every learning will handle what he or she realises diversely relying upon what he or she conveys to the classroom. “A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self.” (Rogers, 1951). In this manner, the importance of learning is the key to learning. “Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organisation of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism” (Rogers, 1951). The research scholar finds in the works of Carl Rogers is that in the event that the substance or presentation of a course is conflicting with biased data, the learning will take on the off chance that he or she is interested in differing ideas. Being interested in considering ideas that fluctuate from one’s own is basic to learning. Subsequently, tenderly reassuring liberality is useful in connecting with the theory of learning. Additionally, it is imperative, therefore, that new data be pertinent and identified with existing knowledge. “The structure and organisation of self-appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat.” (Rogers, 1951). In Rogers’ works we see on the off chance that learners trust that ideas are being constrained by them, they may get to be uncomfortable and dreadful. A hindrance is made by a manner of risk in the classroom. Along with these lines, an open, cordial environment in which trust is produced is the key in the classroom. The trepidation of requital for not concurring with an idea ought to be disposed of. A classroom tone of bolster reduces fears and urges learning to have the mettle to investigate ideas and convictions that shift from those they convey to the classroom. Additionally, new data may debilitate the learner’s idea of him or herself; in this way, the less helpless the learner feels, the more probable he or she will have the capacity to open up to the learning process. “The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated.” (Knowles, HoltonIII, & Swanson, 1998). The researcher sees that educator ought to be interested in gaining from the learner and furthermore attempting to interface the learning of the topic. Incessant connection with the learner will accomplish this objective. The educator’s acknowledgement of being a coach who directs as opposed to the master who advises is instrumental to learner focused, non-threatening, and unforced learning. Rogerian logical approach In 1970, Richard Young, Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth Pike distributed Rhetoric: Discovery and Change, a generally powerful school compose course book that utilised a Rogerian way to deal with correspondence to update the customary Aristotelian structure for a teaching and learning process. The Rogerian technique for argument includes every side restating the other’s position as per the general inclination of the other. In a paper, it can be communicated via painstakingly recognising and understanding the restriction, instead of rejecting them. Diverse relations The application of ‘diverse relations’ has included workshops in very unpleasant circumstances and worldwide areas incorporating clashes and challenges in South Africa, Central America, and Ireland. Along with Alberto Zucconi and Charles Devonshire, he helped to establish the Istituto dell’Approccio Centrato Sulla Persona (Person-Centered Approach Institute) in Rome, Italy. His worldwide work for peace finished in the Rust Peace Workshop which occurred in November 1985 in Rust, Austria. Pioneers from 17 countries assembled to talk about the subject “The Central America Challenge”. The meeting was striking for a few reasons: it united national figures as individuals (not as their positions), it was a private occasion and was a mind-boggling constructive experience where individuals heard each other and set up genuine individual ties, instead of solidly formal and directed discretionary meetings. Carl Rogers served on the leading group of the Human Ecology Fund from the late 50s into the 60s, which was a CIA subsidised association that gave awards to scientists investigating identity. He got cash also. Also, “he and other people in the field of personality and psychotherapy were given a lot of information about Khrushchev. ‘We were asked to figure out what we thought of him and what would be the best ‘way of dealing with him. And that seemed to be an entirely principled and legitimate aspect. I don't think we contributed very much, but, anyway, we tried (Greenfield, 1977).’” Hypothesis: Rogers' hypothesis and theory of the self are thought to be humanistic, existential, and phenomenological. His hypothesis is constructed straightforwardly in light of the “phenomenal field” identity hypothesis of (Boeree C. G., 1998). Rogers’ elaboration of his own hypothesis is broad. He composed 16 books and numerous more diary articles portraying it. Prochaska and Norcross (2003) states Rogers “consistently stood for an empirical evaluation of psychotherapy. He and his followers have demonstrated a humanistic approach to conducting therapy and a scientific approach to evaluating therapy need not be incompatible.” (Wilson, 2011) Nineteen suggestions His hypothesis (starting 1951) depended on 19 propositions: 1. All people (life forms) exist in a constantly changing universe of experience (amazing field) of which they are the inside. 2. The life form responds to the field as it is experienced and saw. This perceptual field is “reality” for the person. 3. The life form responds as a sorted out entire to this remarkable field. 4. A part of the aggregate perceptual field bit by bit gets to be separated as the self. 5. As an aftereffect of connection with nature, and especially as a consequence of evolutional cooperation with others, the structure of the self is framed - a composed, a liquid yet predictable calculated example of an impression of qualities and connections of the “I” or the “me”, together with qualities appended to these ideas. 6. The creature has one essential inclination and endeavouring - to complete, keep up and upgrade the encountering life form. 7. The best vantage point for comprehension conduct is from the inward edge of reference of the person. 8. Behaviour is fundamentally the objective guided endeavour of the living being to fulfil its needs as experienced, in the field as saw. 9. Emotion goes with, and when all is said in done encourages, such objective coordinated conduct, the sort of feeling being identified with the apparent hugeness of the conduct for the upkeep and upgrade of the living being. 10. The qualities appended to encounters, and the qualities that are a part of the self-structure, on a few occasions, are qualities experienced specifically by the life form, and in a few examples are qualities introjected or assumed control from others, yet saw in a twisted manner, as though they had been experienced straightforwardly. 11. As encounters happen in the life of the individual, they are either, a) symbolized, saw and composed into some connection to the self, b) overlooked in light of the fact that there is no apparent relationship to the self-structure, c) denied symbolization or given misshaped symbolization in light of the fact that the experience is conflicting with the structure of the self. 12. Most of the methods for carrying on that are embraced by the creature are those that are predictable with the idea of self. 13. In a few cases, conduct might be achieved by natural encounters and needs which have not been symbolised. Such conduct might be conflicting with the structure of the self yet in such examples the conduct is not “claimed” by the person. 14. Psychological conformity exists when the idea of the self is such that all the tactile and instinctive encounters of the life form are, or might be, absorbed on a typical level into a reliable association with the idea of self. 15. Psychological maladjustment exists when the living being precludes mindfulness from claiming huge tangible and instinctive encounters, which therefore are not symbolised and composed into the gestalt of the self-structure. At the point when this circumstance exists, there is an essential or potential mental pressure. 16. Any experience which is conflicting with the association of the structure of the self might be seen as a risk, and a greater amount of these observations there are, the all the more unbendingly the self-structure is sorted out to look after itself. 17. Under certain conditions, including essentially finish nonattendance of danger to the self-structure, encounters which are conflicting with it might be seen and inspected, and the structure of self-updated to absorb and incorporate such encounters. 18. When the individual sees and acknowledges into one steady and incorporated framework all his tangible and instinctive encounters, then he is essentially additionally comprehension of others and is all the more tolerating of others as isolated people. 19. As the individual sees and acknowledges into his self-structure a greater amount of his natural encounters, he finds that he is supplanting his present worth framework - construct widely in light of introjections which have been distortedly symbolised - with a proceeding with the organismic esteeming process. Also, Rogers is known for rehearsing “unequivocal constructive respect,” which is characterised as tolerating a man “without negative judgment of .... [a person's] essential worth.” (Barry, 2002) Development of the Personality: As for improvement, Rogers depicted standards instead of stages. The principle issue is the advancement of a self-idea and the advancement from an undifferentiated self to being completely separated. Self-Concept ... the organised consistent conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of 'I' or ‘me’ and the perceptions of the relationships of the 'I' or ‘me’ to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values attached to these perceptions. It is a gestalt which is available to awareness though not necessarily in awareness. It is a fluid and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given moment it is a specific entity.(Rogers C. , 1959) In the advancement of the self-idea, he saw contingent and unequivocal positive view as ‘key’. Those brought up in a domain of definite positive respect have the chance to completely realise themselves. Those brought up in a situation of restrictive positive respect feel commendable just in the event that they coordinate conditions (what Rogers depicts as conditions of worth) that have been set down for them by others. Fully functioning person: “Optimal development, referred to below in proposition 14, results in a certain process rather than static state. Rogers describes this as the good life, where the organism continually aims to fulfil its full potential.” (Pyc15) He listed the characteristics of a fully functioning person as follows: 1. A developing openness to encounter – they move far from protectiveness and have no requirement for subception (a perceptual guard that includes unwittingly applying techniques to keep an alarming jolt from entering cognizance). 2. A progressively existential way of life – living every minute completely – not misshaping the minute to fit identity or self-idea, however, permitting identity and self-idea to exude from the experience. This outcome in fervour, brave, versatility, resistance, suddenness and an absence of inflexibility and proposes an establishment of trust. “To open one's spirit to what is going on now, and discover in that present process whatever structure it appears to have”. (Rogers C. , 1961, p. 189) 3. Increasing organismic trust – they believe their own judgment and their capacity to pick conduct that is fitting for every minute. They don't depend on existing codes and social standards yet assume that as they are interested in encounters they will have the capacity to believe their own feeling of good and bad. 4. Freedom of decision – not being shackled by the confinements that impact an incongruent individual, they can settle on a more extensive scope of decisions all the more easily. They trust that they assume a part in deciding their own particular conduct thus feel in charge of their own conduct. 5. Creativity – it takes after that they will feel all the more liberated to be imaginative. They will likewise be more innovative in the way they adjust to their own particular circumstances without feeling a need to accommodate. 6. Reliability and productivity – they can be trusted to act valuably. A person who is interested in everything their needs will have the capacity to keep up a harmony between them. Indeed, even forceful needs will be coordinated and adjusted by inherent goodness incompatible people. 7. A rich full life – he depicts the life of the completely working individual as rich, full and energising and proposes that they encounter euphoria and agony, adoration and shock, trepidation and bravery all the more seriously. Rogers’ depiction of the great life: This process of the good life is not, I am convinced, a life for the faint-hearted. It involves the stretching and growing of becoming more and more of one's potentialities. It involves the courage to be. It means launching oneself fully into the stream of life. (Rogers C. , 1961, p. 420) Incongruence Rogers distinguished the “genuine self” as the part of one’s being that is established in the completing inclination, takes after organismic esteeming, needs and gets positive respect and self-respect. Then again, to the degree that our general public is out of sync with the completing inclination, and we are compelled to live with states of worth that are out of a venture with organismic esteeming, and get just restrictive positive respect and self-respect, we create rather a ‘perfect self’. By perfect, Rogers is proposing something not genuine, something that is constantly out of our achieve, the standard we can’t meet. This crevice between the genuine self and the perfect self, the ‘I am’ and the ‘I ought to’ is called confusion. Psychopathology Rogers portrayed the ideas of coinciding and incongruence as imperative thoughts in his hypothesis. In suggestion number 6, he alludes to the completing inclination. In the meantime, he perceived the requirement for positive respect. In a completely consistent individual understanding, their potential is not to the detriment of encountering positive respect. They can lead experience that is valid and real. Incongruent people, in their quest for constructive respect, a lead experience that incorporates falseness and doesn’t understand their potential. Conditions put on them by people around them make it vital for them to do without their veritable, genuine lives to meet with the endorsement of others. They lead experience that is not consistent with themselves, to who they are on the back to front. The researcher finds that Rogers recommended the incongruent person, who is dependable on the edge and can’t be interested in all encounters, who is not working preferably and might even be failing. They buckle down at keeping up/ensuring their self-idea. Since their lives are not true this is a troublesome assignment and they are under steady risk. They send barrier components to accomplish this. He portrays two systems: contortion and dissent. Contortion or Bending happens when the individual sees a risk to their self-idea. They misshape the recognition until it fits their self-idea. This cautious conduct decreases the awareness of the risk yet not the danger itself. Thus as the dangers mount, the work of ensuring the self-idea turns out to be more troublesome and the individual turns out to be more protective and unbending in their self-structure. In the event that the incongruence is extreme, this procedure might lead the person to a state that would normally be depicted as a hypochondriac. Their working becomes shaky and they become mentally defenceless. On the off chance that the circumstance compounds it is conceivable that the guards stop to capacity out and the individual gets to be mindful of the incongruence of their circumstance. Their identity becomes muddled and odd; silly conduct, connected with prior precluded viewpoints from claiming self, might surface wildly.
  1.          Problem Selection: A Rationale in Brief
The researcher has discovered the examination issue from the investigation of past Research regarding Instructor and Learner with ‘learning’ at the centre of the research. In the wake of considering the examination which was done previously, the researcher found that instruction is a key idea for the famous educationists and social reformers, their reasoning acquires change the entire arrangement of training in light of the fact that reasoning has its own particular force and perception. “The organism has one basic tendency and striving - to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism.” (Rogers C. , 1951, p. 487) There is a decent arrangement of examination done in the past on instructive scholar Rogers, in which the researcher has inspected their points, system, educational program, part of the instructor, part of learning and their contemporary importance. Yet, there is very little research work done in the field of ‘instructive psychology’ and an ‘individual therapist’. In the present study, the researcher has considered this matter and chose Carl Rogers’ judiciously and thoroughly considering some of his works. Carl Rogers was a prominent American therapist. In the present exploration work.
  1.          STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
The title of this study is: SEARCHING FOR EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVES FROM THE ANALYSIS OF CARL ROGERS’ SELECTED WORKS
  1.          Defining the Problem
The Researcher has selected three books of Carl R. Rogers:
  1. On Becoming a Person (1961/1995 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York, )
  2. A Way of being (1985  Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston / New York,)
  3. Freedom to Learn (1986 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York,)
In the present research work, Researcher tried to study Carl Rogers’ selected works and derive its educational messages at four broad levels. - Psychological, Philosophical, Sociological and Counselling level (Guiding Level or Instruction Level).
  1.            Definition of the terms
It is essential and necessary to define certain key words used in the problem because in Education, Educational Psychology, Sociology as well as Philosophy the same word can be defined or viewed in different ways. So by defining the terms, we specify its meaning in the present research work. SEARCHING: -Adjective Try to discover something by looking painstakingly and completely.
  • Examine (something) altogether with a specific end goal to discover something or somebody.
  • Investigating profoundly.
  • Diligent and careful in request or examination.
  • Having astuteness and forcefulness and entrance in thought, expression, or keenness.
  • Try to find or spend time attempting to discover.
  • Inquire into the subject to a search.
  • Examining precisely or all together.
  • Acutely perceptive or infiltrating.
  • To go or look through (a spot, range, research and so on.) painstakingly with a specific end goal to discover something missing or lost or Discovering New.
  • To take a gander at or analyse deliberately keeping in mind the end goal to discover something disguised.
  • To investigate or analyse to find.
  • To take a gander at, read, or look at (a record, composition, collection, repository, and so forth.) for data.
  • To take a gander at or underneath the shallow parts of to find intention, response, feeling, essential truth, and so forth.
  • To ask, examine, look at, or look for; behaviour an examination, exploration or examination.
  • An act or occasion of seeking; cautious examination or examination.
  • Exploring altogether.
  • To investigate; look at; to find.
  • An operation that figures out if one or to a greater degree an arrangement of things has a specified property.
  • The examination of option speculations.
  • Try to find or find.
  • To investigate or over painstakingly or completely with an end goal to discover or find something new.
  • To uncover, discover, or come to know by request.
Here, in this examination “Looking” means precisely and altogether examination of Carl Rogers’ chosen works. EDUCATIONAL – Adjective
  • Connected with education.
  • Providing knowledge education.
  • Relating to the process of education.
  • Relating to schooling or learning especially at an advanced level.
  • The act or process of educating or being educated.
  • The field of study that is concerned with the pedagogy of teaching and learning.
  • An instructive or enlightening experience.
  • The act or process of acquiring knowledge.
Here, in this research – the word educational is connected with the field of education at a philosophical, sociological, psychological and counselling level for deriving messages from selected works. PERSPECTIVES: Noun
  • Having or showing Insight.
  • A particular attitude toward something.
  • Viewpoints.
  • Try to see the issue from a different perspectives or angles.
  • The ability to think about problems and taking decisions in a reasonable way without exaggerating their importance.
  • A view especially one in which person can see far into the distance.
  • A way of looking at or thinking about something.
  • All that can be seen from a certain point of view.
  • A visible scene, especially one extending to a distance.
  • The state of existing in space before the eye.
  • The state of one's ideas, the facts known to one, etc.
  •  A mental view or outlook.
  • The relationship of aspects of a subject to each other and to a whole.
  • Subjective evaluation of relative significance; a point of view.
  • The ability to perceive things in their actual interrelations or comparative importance.
  • The technique of representing three-dimensional objects and depth relationships on a two-dimensional surface.
  • The proper or accurate point of view or the ability to see it.
  • A view over some distance in space or time; vista; prospect.
  • A way of regarding situations or topics etc.
  • A comprehensive view of the world and human life.
  • The appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer.
  • Outward or visible aspect of a person or thing.
Here, in this research – (philosophical, sociological, psychological and counselling) four educational perspectives are taken into account for deriving educational messages. ANALYSIS: Noun
  • An investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole.
  • A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analysed.
  • The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations.
  • A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analysed.
  •  The separation of an intellectual or material whole into its constituent parts for individual study.
  • The method of proof in which a known truth is sought as a consequence of a series of deductions from that which is the thing to be proved.
  • The process of separating a whole into its parts to discover their function, relationship, etc.
  •  A minute and critical analysis.
  • The analysis of complex things into simpler constituents.
  • Analysis of all aspects of a project along with ways to collect information about the operation of its parts.
  • A form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analysed.
  • An examination of a complex, its elements, and their relations.
  • A method in the philosophy of resolving complex expressions into simpler or more basic ones.
  • The separating of any material or abstract entity into its constituent elements.
  • The process or a method of studying the nature of something or of determining its essential features and their relations.
  • An investigation based on the properties of numbers.
  • The separation of a substance into its constituent elements, usually by chemical means, for the study and identification of each component.  The qualitative analysis determines what substances are present in a compound.  The quantitative analysis determines how much of each substance is present in a compound.
  • A branch of mathematics concerned with limits and convergence and principally involving differential calculus, integral calculus, sequences, and series.
  • A detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view.
  • The abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations
  • Analysis - a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders; based on different theories.
Here, in this research, the selected books of Carl Rogers’s analysed through qualitative method. Carl Ransom Rogers (Personal Life) Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was an American psychologist and the founder of the Humanistic Approach to Psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honoured for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished scientific contributions by the American Psychological Association in 1956. Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children.  His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. His education started in the second grade because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence.  With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to become rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined. He went on to study at the University of Wisconsin for an agriculture major. Later, he switched to religion to study for the ministry. During this time, he was selected as one of ten students to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for six months.  He tells us that his new experiences so broadened his thinking that he began to doubt some of his basic religious views. After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. While there, he took a student organised seminar called “Why am I entering the ministry?  I might as well tell you that, unless you want to change your career, never take a class with such a title!  He tells us that most of the participants thought their way right out of religious work.” (Boeree D. C., 2006) Religion’s loss was, of course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program at Columbia University and received his PhD in 1931.  He had already begun his clinical work at the Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.  At this clinic, he learned about Otto Rank’s theory and therapy techniques, which started him on the road to developing his own approach. He was offered a full professorship at Ohio State in 1940.  In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counselling and Psychotherapy.  Then, in 1945, he was invited to set up a counselling centre at the University of Chicago.  It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centred Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory. In 1957, he returned to teach at his alma mater, the University of Wisconsin.  Unfortunately, it was a time of conflict within their psychology department, and Rogers became very disillusioned with higher education.  In 1964, he was happy to accept a research position in La Jolla, California.  He provided therapy, gave speeches, and wrote, until his death in 1987. Carl R. Rogers’ selected works 1. On Becoming a Person (1961/1995 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York), On Becoming a Person, in which Carl Rogers claimed that people have their own resources for healing and personal growth. Rogers introduced the concepts of congruence, empathic understanding, acceptance, and unconditional positive regard into the therapeutic environment to enhance the outcome for clients. He encouraged counsellors to demonstrate each of these aspects in order to help the client gain insight, recognise feelings, express self-concept, and achieve self-acceptance and self-actualization. (Goodtherapy.org, 2013) 2.  A Way of Being (1985 Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston / New York)      A Way of Being was written in the early 1980s, near the end of Carl Rogers' career, and serves as a coda to his classic On Becoming a Person. More philosophical than his earlier writings, it traces his professional and personal development and ends with a prophetic call for a more humane future.
  1. Freedom to Learn (1986 Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York)   This text focuses on issues of importance in learning: learning from children who love school; researching person-centred issues; developing the administrator's role as a facilitator; building discipline and classroom management with the learner; and person-centred views of transforming schools.
The researcher has selected above mentioned three works of Carl Rogers for investigation. The researcher has derived educational messages (from three works) from selected works of Carl Rogers by following a particular method or approach.
  1.            Objectives of the Study
  • To study Carl Rogers’ view on experiential learning.
  • To study the role of true facilitator.
  • To Study Carl Rogers’ view on ‘Healthy Person’
  • To develop criteria for a fully functioning person.
  • To study the various stages of human development and derive messages of Education.
  • To study the factors which influence Human Development.
  • To study the salient features of a helping relationship.
  • To study Carl Rogers’ views on person’s learning.
  • To study Carl Rogers’ views on facilitated learning.
  • To explore the process of becoming a person and to derive message about education.
  • To study Rogers’ views on teaching and learning and to derive message to education.
  • To study the significance of learning in education and in Therapy.
  • To study the student-centred teaching approach and to derive educational messages.
  • To investigate client centred Therapy and to derive educational messages.
  • To study Carl Rogers views on creativity and its educational implication.
  • To explore Carl Rogers’ ideas on the human potential for growth and to derive messages for education.
  • To study the concept of humanistic education and to derive message for education.
  • To study Rogers’ concept of freedom to learn and its educational implication.
  • To study the concept of self-directed learning and to derive message to education.
  • To study Rogers’ concept of incongruity and to derive message for education.
  • To develop optional climates for human development and learning.
    1.            Questions of the Study
  • How does Carl Rogers view experiential learning?
  • What is the role of true facilitator in teaching learning process?
  • How does Carl Rogers’ view a ‘Healthy Person’?
  • What are the features of a fully functioning person?
  • Which are the stages of human development and what are their impacts on education at different levels?
  • How does a person learn?
  • How can important learning be facilitated?
  • Which are the factors influencing human development and how they affect an individual and his education?
  • How can Carl Rogers view the helping relationship?
  • What does it mean to become a person?
  • How does Carl Rogers view the teaching-learning process?
  • What is the significance of learning at various stages of human life?
  • What is the student centred approach and what is its impact on education?
  • What is the client centred therapy and what is its impact on education?
  • How does Carl Rogers view creativity in terms of education?
  • What is Rogers’ concept of human’s potential for growth?
  • What is the concept of humanistic education?
  • What is Carl Rogers’ concept in Freedom to Learn?
  • What is the concept of self-directed Learning?
  • How can we generate or develop more facilitative leaders?
    1.            Scope of the Study
  • This research work is based on analysis of the book: On Becoming a Person, A Way of being and Freedom to Learn, written by Carl Rogers.
  • This research work covers the Ideas, Principles, Events and Theories from the selected books of Carl Rogers.
  • These books are analysed thoroughly through qualitative analysis method.
  • The characteristics of a fully functioning person talking into account.
  • The philosophical, sociological, psychological and counselling aspect taking into account.
    1.            Significance of the Study
  • The present study is an attempt to discover psychological, philosophical, sociological and counselling aspect in Carl Rogers’ selected works.
  • The present study is an attempt to discover the concept of an integrated person.
  • The present study is an attempt to discover the holistic wellbeing of a human being (fully functioning person).
  • To study the educational aspect as depicted in selected works of Carl Rogers for bringing changes in the present system of education.
  • To study the role of parents for up brings their children.
  • To study the role of educational Institution for preventing mal- adjustment.
  • To study the role of society in creating holistic youths (fully functioning person).
  • To study Carl Rogers’ view on an integrated person, his up brings and his education.
    1.            Scheme of Chapterization
In this report, there are total six chapters. Planning of the same is as follows:
  • The First chapter is concerned with an introduction, defining the problem, definitions of difficult terms, questions of the study, objectives of the study and scope of the study and significance of the study.
  • The Second chapter describes theoretical foundations of the research works.
  • The Third chapter is about the reviews of the related literature.
  • The Fourth chapter is about research design. It discusses the research method, content analysis.
  • The Fifth chapter gives data collection, analysis and interpretation.
  • The Sixth chapter comprises the summary, educational implications and Suggestions for the future studies.
    1.        Summary
The introductory chapter serves to give an idea of ‘why’ aspect of this research. The rationale, definition of the terms, objectives, research questions, the scope of the study, and significance of the study has been placed in this chapter. The next chapter will deal with the theoretical foundations of the study.

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Text Analysis for the Social Sciences:Methods for Drawing Statistical Inferences from Texts and Transcripts, 275–285. Retrieved January 20, 2015 Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. London: Constable. Rogers, C. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable. Retrieved June 12, 2015 Rogers, C. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality, and Interpersonal Relationships: As Developed in the Client-centered Framework. In S. Koch, & S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A Study of a Science (Vol. 3, pp. 184-256). New York: McGraw Hill. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3a1o9R47kWNeGtXemhGbXAxM3c/edit Rogers, C. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapists' View Of Psychotherapy. London: Constable. Retrieved January 13, 2016 Rogers, C. R. (1968). Client-centered Approach to Therapy. In I. L. Kutash, & A. Wolf (Eds.), Psychotherapist's Casebook: Theory and Technique in Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved January 22, 2016 Rogers, C. R. (1969). Freedom to Learn (20 ed.). The University of Michigan: C. E. Merrill Pub. Co.,. Retrieved January 02, 2014 Rogers, C. R. (1980). A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Miffin. Retrieved January 12, 2014 Rogers, C. R. (1989). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved March 22, 2014 Rogers, C. R. (2012). Client Centred Therapy (New Ed). UK: Hachette. Retrieved October 22, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=bWieBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT361&lpg=PT361&dq=As+the+infant+interacts+with+his+environment+he+gradually+builds+up+concept+about+himself,+about+the+environment,+and+about+himself+in+relation+to+the+environment&source=bl&ots=LwgrRvH Rogers, C. R., Kirschenbaum, H., & Henderson, V. L. (1989). The Carl Rogers Reader. (H. Kirschenbaum, & V. L. Henderson, Eds.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved April 12, 2014 Rosengren, K. E. (1981). Advances in Scandinavia content analysis: An introduction. (K. E. Rosengren, Ed.) Advances in content analysis, pp. 9-19. Retrieved January 16, 2015 Ryckmann, R. (1993). Theories of personality (5th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. Retrieved June 12, 2015 -Ryer, S. M. (n.d.). Competency K. Retrieved June 14, 2015, from http://shannonmeaney.weebly.com/comp-k.html Scott, M. E. (2015, April 6). Research Methodology or Method How to Tell the Difference. Retrieved May 10, 2015, from Magate Wildhorse℠: http://magatewildhorse.ca/research-methodology-or-method%E2%94%81-how-to-tell-the-difference/ Serenity Carr, A. E. (Ed.). (2016). Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary online. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/acceptance Sharma, R. K. (2008). Sociological Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers Distributors (P) LTD. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=X9iylmDMupUC&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=%22+The+keys+to+the+vast+storehouse+of+published+literature%22&source=bl&ots=IZmW5yfprP&sig=UsTjhddXliksfHeUdSDz138GfLg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjpp5eO8MLMAhXFcI4KHWaRBBEQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage Shekhar, A. (Ed.). (2012). Numerons: Psychology for IAS. Retrieved January 12, 2014, from numerons: https://numerons.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/introduction.pdf Singer, D., & Revenson, T. (1997). A Piaget Primer: How a Child Thinks (Revised Edition) (Revised ed.). Madison, Connecticut: International Universities Press Inc. Retrieved May 22, 2014 Skinner, B. F. (1976). Walden Two. Indianopolis/ Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company INC. Retrieved July 11, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=KEiYzfCVzv4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=walden+2&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Smith, K. (2012, January 3). The Humanistic Approach to Psychology. Retrieved January 11, 2014, from New Stepps Science, Technology, Ethics, Philosophy, Politics and Sociology: http://new-stepps.blogspot.in/2012/01/v-behaviorurldefaultvmlo.html Smith, M. K. (1999). The behaviourist orientation to learning. Retrieved August 13, 2014, from the encyclopedia of informal education: http://infed.org/mobi/the-behaviourist-orientation-to-learning/ Smith, M. K. (1999). The cognitive orientation to learning. Retrieved February 23, 2014, from the encyclopedia of informal education: http://infed.org/mobi/the-cognitive-orientation-to-learning/ Spatial Stimulus-Response Compatibility. (1990). In R. W. Proctor, & T. G. Reeve (Eds.), Stimulus Response Compatibility: An Integrated Perspective (p. 90). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North- Holland, ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V. Retrieved December 22, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KdJeuZphwCIC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Stimulus-Response+School&ots=V_A69uBrMj&sig=fgdRj0rzBeNzc0UkhbUQvJoPA98#v=onepage&q&f=false Srikanth, C. (2015). Education in India. srikanth. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=RF38CQAAQBAJ&pg=PA39&lpg=PA39&dq=%22+I.+To+give+a+knowledge+of+the+nature+of+the+child+II.+To%22&source=bl&ots=Tcj5162jEo&sig=lv0PzXcye_OrfIsxvFJsJJgHK5w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiS1KrKkuDLAhUWA44KHSUDA9QQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepag Stempel, G. (1989). Content Analysis. In G.H.Stempel, & B.H.Westley (Eds.), Research methods in mass communications. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. Retrieved March 18, 2015 Stone, P. J., Dunphy, D. C., Smith, M. S., & Ogilvie, D. M. (1966). The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis. (C. W. Roberts, Ed.) Cambridge: MIT press. Retrieved January 22, 2015 Swaim, E. E. (1974, August 24). B.F. Skinner and Carl R. Rogers on Behavior and Education. Oregon ASCD Curriculum Bulletin, p. 48. Retrieved August 20, 2015, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED098087.pdf Taviss, I. (1969, February). Changes in the form of alienation: The 1900's vs. the 1950's. American Sociological Review, pp. 45-67. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. Bristol: PA: Falmer. Retrieved January 16, 2015 The Gestalt Principles. (2014). Retrieved March 13, 2015, from http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/gestaltprinciples/gestaltprinc.htm Tolstoy, L. (1941). War and Peace (Vol. 3). London: Oxford University. Retrieved January 23, 2016 Unit-II Hormic School. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2016, from International Journal of Teacher Education and Research: http://med.ijter.com/UNIT-IIEP.pdf Vijayalakshmi, B., Devi Prasad, B., & Visweswara Rao, K. (1996). Trends in Social Work Literature: A content analysis of the Indian Journal of Social Work 1971-1990. Indian Journal of Social Work, 57(3), 442-460. Retrieved July 12, 2015 Wang, J. (1996). The siren songs of consumption: and analysis of foreign advertisements in two Mainland Chinese newspapers. Gazette, 3, pp. 201-219. Retrieved January 12, 2015 Weber, R. P. (1985). Basic Content Analysis. New Delhi: Sage. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Wertheimer, M. (1959). Productive Thinking. New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved February 13, 2014 Wertheimer, M. (1959). Productive Thinking. New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved February 14, 2014 What is Humanistic Psychology? (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2014, from The Association of Humanistic Psychology: https://www.ahpweb.org/about/new-vision/item/8-humanistic-psychology-overview.html Wilken, D. P. (Ed.). (2015). Revisiting Carl Rogers Theory of Personality. Journal Psyche. Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://journalpsyche.org/revisiting-carl-rogers-theory-of-personality/ Wilson, A. (2011). How to be a Parent Champion and add magic to your family. Rochester: Develop Your Child CIC. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=v4FferbqGFIC&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=%22to+conducting+therapy+and+a+scientific+approach+to+evaluating%22&source=bl&ots=H5i_qk9Hqr&sig=91f4b51i_DDlDGBMrGk1CpMFxOk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwia8f_W1MDLAhUKm5QKHROMCwQQ6AEIHDAA#v=on Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (1994). Mass media research: an introduction (4th ed.). California: Wadsworth. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Woodrum, E. (1984). Mainstreaming content analysis in social science: Methodological advantage-obstacles and solutions. Social Science Research, 2, pp. 1-9. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Work, P. G. (n.d.). Human Growth and Personality Development. Retrieved from Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College: http://www.andavancollege.ac.in/depts/msw/htmlfiles/mswnotes/hgpd.pdf Ysthename, O. (2014, October 24). Educational Psychology. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from www.Slideshare.net: http://www.slideshare.net/iheartohmar/educational-psychology-40689177 Yusof, K. M., Azli, N. A., Kosnin, A. M., Yusof, S. K., & Yusof, Y. M. (Eds.). (2012). Outcome-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Innovative Practices. Hershey: Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global. Retrieved January 14, 2014, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=hwFORNLzchgC&pg=PA158&lpg=PA158&dq=%22with+existing+knowledge+and+experiences+(Jonassen,+1999).%22&source=bl&ots=7_MVZk84XJ&sig=9oXWuc5gy0YwMJNZQ8xs8fttEp0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj4tJaY_cDMAhWJCY4KHYnIDiYQ6AEIHDAA#v=onep                   CHAPTER - II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION                         CHAPTER - II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION 2.  Introduction A research needs a study of some key concepts and concerns which are the backbone of the whole work. The researcher believes that it provides necessary orientations for an effective interpretation of the study. The theoretical foundation of the present study encompasses these things: Meaning of Psychology, Branches of Psychology or (Classification of Psychology), Meaning, Nature and scope of educational psychology, the relationship between Psychology and Education, Schools of Psychology, Theories of learning, and Humanistic School of psychology. 2.1 Meaning of Psychology The word ‘Psychology’ is originally built of two Greek words ‘Psyche’ and ‘Logos’. ‘Psyche’ means soul and later on, it stood for the ‘mind’. ‘Logos’ means a ‘Word’ or ‘Talk’ about or ‘Study For’. Thus by derivation Psychology means a “talk about soul,” or the science of the soul. Psychology is the science of behaviour. The psychology seeks to understand and explain how and why we behave. It tries to tell us how we feel, think and act, in a specific way. It studies the conditions that underlie behaviour and the phenomenon of its modification. Psychology is the study of behaviour and mind, embracing all aspects of human experience. It is an academic discipline and an applied science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. (Psychology, n.d.) The researcher finds that in the 18th century, psychology was understood as the ‘Science of Mind’. William James (1892) defined psychology as the science of mental processes. But the word ‘mind’ is also quite ambiguous as there was confusion regarding the nature and functions of the mind.
  • Modern psychologists defined psychology as the “Science of Consciousness”. James Sully (1884) defined psychology as the “Science of the Inner World”. Wilhelm Wundt (1892) defined psychology as the science which studies the “internal experiences”. But there are three levels of consciousness – conscious, subconscious and the unconscious and so this definition also was not accepted by some.
  • (Thus psychology first lost its soul, then its mind and then its consciousness). At present only its behaviour exists. William McDugall (1905) defined psychology as the “Science of Behaviour”, W.B. Pillsbury (1911) and J.B. Watson (1912) also defined psychology as the ‘science of behaviour’.
  • Behaviour generally means overt activities which can be observed and measured scientifically. But one’s behaviour is always influenced by his experiences. So when we study one’s behaviour we must also study his experiences.
  • Psychology should, therefore, be defined as a “science of behaviour and experiences on human beings” (B.F. Skinner)
  • According to Crow and Crow, “Psychology is the study of human behaviour and human relationship’”.
2.2 Branches of Psychology or (Classification of Psychology) Psychologists discover, organise, and interpret facts about the behaviour of organisms in their mental aspects. Psychology may, therefore, be defined as a body of data and verifiable laws regarding the mental phases of organic life. The science of psychology includes the following principal divisions.
  1. Normal Psychology
  2. Abnormal Psychology
  3. Human Psychology
  1.  Child Psychology
  2. Adolescent Psychology
  3.  Adult Psychology
  1. Animal or Comparative Psychology
  2. Individual psychology
  3. Social Psychology
  4. Physiological Psychology
  5. Genetic Psychology
  6.  Environmental Psychology (Geo-psychology)
  7.  Race Psychology
  8.  Dynamics Psychology
  9.  Para Psychology
  10.  General Psychology
  11.  Psychology of Relaxation
  12.  Applied Psychology
  1. Industrial Psychology
  2. Pathological Psychology
  3. Criminal Psychology or Legal Psychology
  4. Clinical Psychology
  5. Military Psychology
  6. Political Psychology
  7. Educational Psychology
  1. Normal Psychology: - It deals with the overt behaviour and inner mental processes of normal individuals.
  2. Abnormal Psychology: - This branch of psychology deals with group behaviour and inter-relationships of people among themselves. Group dynamics, likes and dislikes, interests and attitudes, social distances and prejudices of the people in their personal and social relationships are studied by this branch.
  3. Human Psychology: - It is concerned with the study of human nature and reactions. Human psychology has got following sub-divisions-
  1. Child Psychology: - It studies the behaviour of children from birth to maturity.
  2. Adolescent Psychology: - It studies the behaviour and personality patterns of adolescents (approximately twelve to nineteen-year-old).
  3. Adult Psychology: - It studies the behaviour of adult humans. An adult is a mature person and quite differently in certain types of behaviour than a child. His emotional, social and intellectual behaviour is not like the behaviour of a child. So it is totally a separate branch of psychology.
  1. Animal or Comparative Psychology: - It may be named as Animal Psychology also as it is a comparative study of the behaviour of man and various animals. It is an experimental psychology. Animals cannot express themselves, therefore, we can study their behaviour with the help of experiments only. It is very difficult to do some experiments on human beings, therefore, some of the experiments are first tried on animals and then the result are applied to human beings. The laws of learning, now applied with much success to pupils in schools, were discovered in this way.
  2. Individual psychology: - It deals with the variation in human beings. No two persons are alike. They always differ in their behaviour according to their intelligence, race and sex. They also differ in behaviour in their factors such as interest, philosophy and education. It studies the data on the differences among individuals.
  3. Social Psychology: - This branch of psychology deals with group behaviour and inter-relationships of people among themselves. Group dynamics, likes and dislikes, interests and attitudes, social distance and prejudices of the people in their personal and social relationships are studied by this branch. Statesmen, Politicians, administrators, General and Social Organizers need the study of this branch of psychology.
  4. Physiological Psychology: - This branch of psychology describes and explains the biological and physiological basis of behaviour. The internal environment and physiological structure of the body, particularly the brain, nervous system, and functioning of the glands in relation to the cognitive, cognitive and affective behaviour of human beings comprise its subject matter.
  5. Genetic Psychology: - It deals with the developmental aspects of psychology, tracing the processes whereby individual and group behaviour modes originate and develop.
  6. Environmental Psychology (Geo-psychology):- This branch of psychology describes and explains the relation of the psychical environment, particularly weather, climate, soil, and landscape with behaviour.
  7. Race Psychology: - It deals with data regarding the special characteristics and differences among races.
  8. Dynamics Psychology: - It manages the investigation of mental procedures, changes, commercial intentions, as opposed to structures of mental states thusly.
  9. Para Psychology: - This new branch of Psychology manages additional tactile observation, precognition, and an instance of asserted resurrection, clairvoyance and unified marvels.
  10. General Psychology: - This is a generally huge field of psychology which recuperates with the key guidelines, principals and hypotheses of psychology in connection with the investigation of the conduct of typical grown-up people. It is the mother of the all different branches of psychology.
  11. Psychology of Relaxation: - It manages the information in regards to the methodology of unwinding.
  12. Applied Psychology: - It applies the information and standards of Psychology for reasonable utility. A percentage of the imperative sub-division are as under:
  1. Industrial Psychology: - This branch of connected Psychology looks for utilisation of the mental standards, hypotheses and procedures for the investigation of human conduct in connection to the modern environment. It examines the themes and the ways and method for determining the tastes and hobbies of purchasers, promoting and offer of items, determination, preparing and position of staff, arrangement of work issues, foundation of symphonious relations between the businesses and the representatives, fortifying the ethics of the labourers and expanding generation and so on.
  2. Pathological Psychology:-It is concerned with the study of mental diseases.
  3. Criminal Psychology or Legal Psychology: - It is a branch of connected psychology which thinks about the conduct of clients, crooks, and witness and so on in their individual surroundings with the use of mental standards and strategies. It contains the topic for enhancing the ways and method for discovery of wrongdoings, distinguishing proof and worry of false witnesses and other complex issues. The main drivers of any wrongdoing, offence, and debate or legitimate case can be appropriately comprehended through the utilisation of this branch of psychology and accordingly legitimate remedial and rehabilitative measures can be settled on.
  4. Clinical Psychology: - This branch of connected Psychology depicts and clarifies the reasons for emotional instability or strange conduct of a patient by going to the centre or healing centre and proposes individual or bunch treatment for the treatment and compelling modification of the influenced individual in the public eye.
  5. Military Psychology: - This branch of Psychology is worried about the utilisation of mental standards and strategies in the field of military exercises. Step by step instructions to keep up the resolve of the soldiers and residents amid wartime, how to battle the enemy’s purposeful publicity and knowledge exercises, how to secure enlistment of better individual for the military, and how to enhance the battling abilities and hierarchical atmosphere and initiative in the military are a percentage of the different subjects that are managed by this branch of psychology.
  6. Political Psychology: - This branch of Psychology manages the utilisation of mental standards and systems in concentrating on legislative issues and determining political additions. The information of the progress of gathering conduct, judgment of popular assessment, characteristics of administration, Psychology of promulgation and recommendation, the craft of tact and so on. Is a portion of the key ideas that find a place on the topic of Political Psychology?
  7. Educational Psychology: - This is the branch of connected psychology which tries to apply the mental standards, speculations and strategies to human conduct in instructive circumstances. The topic of this branch covers mental ways and method for enhancing all parts of the instructing learning process including the learner, the learning process, learning material, learning environment and the instructor.
2.3 Educational psychology-Meaning, Nature and Scope: 2.3.1 Meaning of Educational Psychology Educational Psychology is one of the many branches of Psychology dealing mainly with the problems, processes and products of education. It is an attempt to apply the knowledge of psychology in the field of education. Here we try to study human behaviour, particularly the behaviour of the learner in relation to his educational environment. In other words, Educational Psychology may be defined as that branch of psychology which studies the behaviour of the learner in relation to his educational needs and his environment. Educational Psychology has been defined by various Psychologists and scholars. Some of the important definitions are given below- (Krishna & Rao, 2004) Skinner (1958) Educational psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning. Crow and Crow (1973) Educational psychology describes and explains the learning experiences of an individual from birth through old age. Anderson “Educational psychology is a subject to be studied, an area or field of knowledge, a set of applications of ideas and principles from a field of knowledge to social process, a set of tool and techniques, and a field of research while General Psychology is a pure science, Educational Psychology is its application in the field of education with the aim of socializing man and modifying his behaviour.” In the words of E.A. Peel, “Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand the development of his pupils, the range and limits of their capacities, the processes by which they learn and their social relationships.” Encyclopaedia of Educational Research ‘Educational Psychology is the study of learner and of the learning –teaching  process in its various branches directed toward helping the child to come to terms with society with a maximum of security and satisfaction. 2.3.2 Nature of Educational psychology Educational Psychology is a branch and an integral part of psychology, its temperament can’t be the same as the principle subject. The accompanying focuses affirm the way of Educational Psychology as science. (1) Educational Psychology has an all-around sorted out, precise and generally acknowledged group of actualities bolstered by the significant mental laws and standards. (2) It is continually looking for truth, i.e. examining the conduct of the learner in connection to his instructive surroundings. (3) It utilises exploratory systems and receives an experimental methodology for concentrating on the learner’s conduct. (4) The procedures and results of these studies are adequately investigative as a high level of consistent practicality, objectivity, unwavering quality and legitimacy are kept up in completing the study and look into in the field of Educational Psychology. (5) Educational Psychology does not acknowledge noise and does not underestimate anything. (6) Educational Psychology is, for the most part, worried with the “what” and the “why” of happenings in the present as opposed to nurturing past. In this way, in its study, it centres consideration on an issue such as the present conduct of the learner, the reasons for such conduct, and the repercussions if it somehow managed to proceed unaltered. (7) It is a positive science instead of a standardising science and like the sciences, it doesn’t worry about qualities and beliefs. W.A. Kelly (1941) listed the nature of Educational Psychology as follows:                                                                                                                                 (Srikanth, 2015)
  1. To give a knowledge of the nature of the child.
  2. To give an understanding of the nature, aims and purposes of education.
  3. To give an understanding of the scientific methods and procedures which have been used in arriving at the facts and principles of educational psychology.
  4. To present the principles and techniques of learning and teaching.
  5. To give training in methods of measuring abilities and achievement in school subjects.
  6. To give a knowledge of the growth and development of children.
  7. To assist in the better adjustment of children and to help them to prevent maladjustment.
  8. To study the educational significance and control of emotions.
  9. To give an understanding of the principles and techniques of correct training.
Thus, educational psychology is an applied, positive, social, specific and practical science. While general science deals with the behaviour of the individuals in various spheres, educational psychology studies the behaviour of the individual in an educational sphere only. 2.3.3  Scope of Educational psychology:  The degree of the subject recommends its field of study. Talking specifically terms, it infers the regions of study that are fused into a particular subject. The degree of Educational Psychology is securing more foremost and more conspicuous essentialness in the field of direction. Educational mind science is the mix of two i.e. Informational and Psychology. So Educational mind exploration is the examination of the behaviour of the instructor, taught and persons joined with the informative environment. Enlightening mind science is, thusly, that branch of educational substance, which oversees human behaviour and its alteration. The going with are joined into the degree of Educational Psychology. (1)  Human Behaviour: It considers human behaviour in informational circumstances. Mind exploration is the examination of behaviour and preparing deals with the adjustment of behaviour and from now on, informational cerebrum research attacks in the whole field of preparing.       (2)  Growth and Development: It contemplates improvement and headway of the child. How a child experiences diverse periods of advancement and what are the traits of each stage are joined into the examination of Educational Psychology. (3)  Learning Process: It focuses on the law of learning: learning is an important marvel in the guideline. It thinks how learning can happen most enough and monetarily. (4)  Heredity and Environment: Whatever degree heredity and environment contribute towards the advancement of the individual and how this data can be used for understanding the perfect change of the child, outline a surprising part of the degree of Educational Psychology. (5)  Personality: Informative Psychology deals with the nature and headway of the personality of a man. Honestly, the direction has been portrayed as an all-around progression of the character of an individual; personality change similarly recommends an adjusted character. (6)  Individual Difference: Each individual varies from another and it is one of the crucial certainties of human instinct, which has been brought to light by Educational Psychology. This one certainly has upset the idea and procedure of training. (7)  Intelligence and its Measurement: The extent of Educational Psychology incorporates the investigation of the way of knowledge and its estimation. This is of extraordinary significance for an instructor or a teacher. (8)  Guidance and Counselling: This is a standout amongst the most imperative fields or ranges of study incorporated into the field of Educational Psychology. Instruction is only giving direction to the developing child. Along these lines, direction shapes an imperative part of Educational Psychology. The accompanying five zones were named by American Psychological Associations:
(1)  Human development and advancement, including the impact of heredity and environment on different parts of person,
(2)  Learning: The nature of learning procedure, components affecting the learning process and so forth.
(3)  Personality and alteration: It incorporate numerous sub-points, for example, psychological well-being of the students and instructors character,
(4)   Measurement and assessment, insights,
(5)  Techniques and routines for Educational Psychology.
Along these lines, Educational Psychology depicts and clarifies the taking in the experience of a person from conception to maturity. Its topic is worried about the conditions that influence learning. 2.4 Relationship between Education and Psychology Education and Psychology are correlated subjects. Psychology is a broader area in which education searches to give a practical shape of the psychology findings in the teaching-learning situation. For a detailed study of both the subject, we first must explore the meaning of psychology and education. The word ‘psychology’ has been derived from two Greek words ‘psyche’ and ‘logos’ which means ‘study of soul’. But this meaning was changed into ‘Mind’, ‘Consciousness’ and ‘Behaviour’. J. B. Watson, the father of the behavioristic school of psychology, termed psychology as the ‘science of behaviour’. The meaning of education is a modification of behaviour for one’s adjustment. When we study the behaviour of the child and teacher in the educational situations, for solving educational problems, we take the help of educational psychology. The role of the school is to help in a harmonious development of the personality of the child. So it becomes the duty and task of the teacher to guide child according to psychological norms. Therefore, for every teacher study of psychology is an essential item. So we can say that educational psychology is the application of psychology and its principles in educational situations. According to Skinner, “Educational psychology covers the entire range of behaviour and personality as related to education.” There is an inner link between education and psychology. The relationship between Education and Psychology: (1)  Psychology and points of instruction: The points of instruction can be settled by taking the assistance of Psychology changes of the child. So the necessities, interest, inclination and demeanour are the markers for arranging any action for training. (2)  Psychology and educational programs: At the season of educational programs arranging and development, appropriate consideration ought to be taken for the improvement rate of the child. So they are corresponding during the time spent instruction. (3)  Psychology and systems: An educator needs to give directions through various techniques, which ought to be connected with mental issues, needs and advancement of the youngster. (4)  Psychology and assessment: The aggregate procedure of assessment and examination ought to be connected with mental standards. Inquiries ought to be arranged taking the ordinary advancement of the youngsters. (5)  Psychology and discipline: The issues of order can be checked through legitimate mental methods. It additionally checks diverse behavioural issues of the youngsters. (6)  Psychology and organisation: The procedure of organisation ought to be founded on the mental strategies. In an organisation, legitimate consideration ought to be given on the premise of individual contrasts. (7)  Psychology and instructor: Instructor ought to be an expert in Psychology to manage a complex instructive circumstance. Instructing is a craftsmanship thus he ought to know diverse procedures of psychology with a specific end goal to tackle distinctive issues of the youngsters. (8)  Psychology and timetable, reading material arrangement: On the premise of the mental procedure the educational modules labourers, instructors, chairmen get readily suitable timetable as indicated by the premium, time, suitability, nearby state of the learners. Additionally while getting ready course readings he should consider the estimation of mental needs, limits and improvement of the learner. Hence, both psychology and instruction have a close connection with one another. Pestalozzi additionally said that, psychology projects training. Each educator ought to take in the child Psychology before instructing. 2.5  Schools of Psychology The research scholar believes that the study of Carl Rogers also requires that we take a look at the schools of psychology to get an insider’s opinion on the matters. Psychology is the investigation of the human personality. In spite of the fact that the real schools of thought in Psychology are all inspired by how the human personality functions, they approach this subject in various ways. A few therapists are worried about conduct; others concentrate on the interior battles that go ahead inside individuals’ brains, while different psychologists study individuals’ surroundings. There are numerous schools of psychologists yet we will say here just those which have impacted or helped instructive psychology in accomplishing its point and goals. These schools were: (1)   Structuralism, (2)   Functionalism (3)   Behaviourism, (4)   Gestalt psychology (5)   Hormic School (6)   Psychoanalysis (7)  Humanist Psychology (8)   Transpersonal Psychology (9)   Stimulus-Response School (10)  Cognitive Psychology

2.5.1  Structuralism: Introduction

Structuralism became out of the work of Wundt, and his student Titchner. These psychologists trusted the superior reason for psychology was to discover the units, or the components, which make up the psyche. Wundt suggested that psychology ought to concentrate on breaking down the substance of awareness so as to decide its essential components and the relationship between them, his fundamental study was in prompt cognizance. Both Titchner and Wundt believed that ‘Immediate Consciousness’ has extraordinary significance to comprehend ‘mind’. Furthermore, this experience of prompt cognizance is similar to “Experience of Awareness” or we can say that Awareness is the piece of quick cognizance. Also, for this, the strategy utilised, was a reflection. For thoughtfulness, we require a Subject (a man) who function as an Observer and can feel as ‘why is personality a primary concern?’ in light of any enhancements. Furthermore, he can tell that all in the Verbal report. For instance on the off chance that somebody says “I am eager” means around then “I’m introspecting”. Titchener called the Introspection as ‘Self Observation’. The principle objective of psychology was to comprehend the structure of the psyche. Consequently, this idea was marked as “Structuralism”. Structuralism assumed a huge part in conditioning the field of psychology amid its developmental years. Wundt and his supporters built up psychology as an autonomous trial science and their accentuation on experimental strategies for request remains a key part of the order today. But the structuralists couldn’t escape feedback. Notwithstanding their honourable endeavour at the exploratory examination, thoughtfulness was not as much as perfect in light of the fact that no two persons see the same thing in the very same way. Subject’s reports accordingly had a tendency to be subjective and clashing. A percentage of the fiercest reactions of structuralism originated from the individuals as William James, one of the main advocates of the functionalist point of view. 2.5.1.1    Its Contribution to Education 1. Structuralism aided in building up psychology as a free and composed order by isolating it from theory and mysticism. 2. It gave reflection as a strategy for examining conduct. In spite of far-reaching feedback, reflection is still viewed as one of the vital strategies for concentrating on conduct. What goes ahead inside one’s brain over the span of a psychological demonstration can be experienced or clarified just by the individual himself, and reflection is the main suitable strategy that can be utilised in extracting such reports. Subsequently, things about Educational Psychology can profit by the utilisation of this technique. 3. Structuralism is credited with having taken the activity in setting up the primary psychological research facility and utilising the method of efficient perception of the exercises of the psyche. It has brought about making psychology a subject of exploratory study and experimentation. What we discover today in the field of psychology and instructive psychology as far as lab and also field analyses can then securely be asserted as a positive commitment to the school of structuralism. 2.5.2 Functionalism: Functionalism was founded by William James in reaction to Structuralism. Functionalism asserts that psychology should be concerned with the functions, or purposes, of human behaviour. This school of thought expanded upon structuralism by encouraging psychologists not to limit their study to introspection. Instead, functionalists believed that behaviour can also be attributed to child rearing, education, work environment and behaviour. Structuralism was soon challenged by William James and some other psychologist who felt that their new field shouldn’t focus on the structure of consciousness but on its Functions. James was interested in understanding the mental process of “Adaptation”; the process that helped the humans (and animals also) adapt to their environment. James said that psychology should concern with not only what the mind is made of but also how and why it works as it does. Because of his practical emphasis on the functional-practical nature of mind, the concept of psychology became accepted and widespread. Functionalism. Functionalism was strongly influenced by Darwin’s theory, the theory of natural selection. (Only those species will survive which have the strong will / desire to survive, or the species which have the power to fight with the natural problems, or cope up the problems in their survival. And those characteristics, which helped in the survival of the species, are passed on from one generation to next generation.) The Principles, which was recognised at once as both definitive and innovating in its field, established the functional point of view in psychology. It assimilated mental science to the biological disciplines and treated thinking and knowledge as instruments in the struggle to live. (Kallen, 2016) The researcher finds that ‘consciousness’ is uniquely a human characteristic. James emphasised the purpose of consciousness. He felt that consciousness must have some biological use or else it would not survive. Its function is to make the human being a better-adapted animal. Functionalism also used the method of Introspection as a tool. Functionalism covered some mental processes like - Learning, Perceiving, Memory, Thinking, and Personality. 2.5.2.1  Functionalism: Contribution to Education As the research scholar understands Functionalism, which is viewed as an experimental and more common sense supported arrangement of psychology than structuralism, helped in making the arrangement of training as practicable and valuable as could be expected under the circumstances by the accompanying commitment: Structuralism focused on immediate mental experience. Titchener often stated that he was only concerned with the ‘is,’ and that he left the ‘is for’ to others. Essentially, he was stating that he was only concerned with facts and that to ask the question ‘is for?’ was to delve into speculation, something that Titchener personally detested. He believed that for psychology to be accepted as a science, it needed to focus on facts. (Fritz, 2015) 1. It laid accentuation on the capacity of the substance of the educational programs by supporting that just those things ought to be taught to the child which they could apply in ordinary life. 2. The strategies and procedures of learning were made more capacity capable through the thoughts engendered by this framework. Functionalists like Dewey felt that the prominence of training and showing techniques ought not to be on the topic but rather on the requirements of the students. Such learner-focused methodologies in the strategies for instructing opened the route for the revelation of new techniques and gadgets in the showing learning process. 3. This framework extended the extent of psychology and instructive psychology by building up an assortment of new strategies past reflection for contemplating conduct essentially in light of experimental enquiry, precise information including so as to gather and target translation and in its circle the investigation of numerous helpful themes not secured by structuralism.

4. The field of estimation and assessment identified with psychology and training has likewise been advanced by functionalism with the presentation of certain important procedures and gadgets like the survey, stock, mental tests, and different other people implicate for the target portrayal of conduct.

5. Functionalism opened the route for the investigation of psychology as far as the modification of the living beings to its surroundings. The study and issues of the individual, ordinary and also strange, were joined in the topic of psychology and instructive psychology.

6. Functionalism prepared for connected examination because of the utilisation of psychology to the handy issues, especially in the field of instructive psychology.

Titchener strongly advocated for psychology as a science and therefore believed it was imperative to classify the components of thought; after all, science deals with facts, not theories. He reasoned that if a thought, like ‘this is an apple,’ is a collection of elements, those elements or sensations should be identifiable. Much of his work focused on sensations, and he concluded that there are over 40,000 sensations that comprise thought, primarily related to vision and hearing. (Fritz, 2015)

2.5.3  Behaviourism:

Behaviourism was introduced in 1913 by John B. Watson, an American psychologist. Watson and his followers believed that observable behaviour, not inner experience, was the only reliable source of information. This concentration on observable events was a reaction against the structuralists’ emphasis on introspection. The behaviourists also stressed the importance of the environment in shaping an individual’s behaviour. They chiefly looked for connections between observable behaviour and stimuli from the environment. Behaviourism, according to Watson, was the science of observable behaviour. Only behaviour that could be observed, recorded and measured was of any real value for the study of humans or animals. Watson’s thinking was significantly influenced by the earlier classical conditioning experiments of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov and his now infamous dogs. (Gilles, 2015) The behaviourist movement was greatly influenced by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. In a famous study, Pavlov rang a bell each time he gave a dog some food; the dog’s mouth would water when the animal smelled the food. After Pavlov repeated the procedure many times, the dog’s saliva began to flow whenever the animal heard the bell, even if no food appeared. This experiment demonstrated that a reflex--such as the flow of saliva--can become associated with a stimulus other than the one that first produced it--in this case, the sound of a bell instead of the smell of food. The learning process by which a response becomes associated with a new stimulus is called conditioning. Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect. Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect - Reinforcement. Behaviour which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behaviour which is not reinforced tends to die out or be extinguished (i.e. weakened). B.F. Skinner (1938) coined the term ‘operant conditioning’; it means roughly changing of behaviour by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behaviour. (McLeod S. , Skinner - Operant Conditioning, 2015) Watson and the other behaviourists realised that human behaviour could also be changed by conditioning. In fact, Watson believed he could produce almost any response by controlling an individual’s environment. During the mid-1900’s, the American psychologist B. F. Skinner gained much attention for behaviourist ideas. B. F. Skinner became known for his studies of how rewards and punishments can influence behaviour. He believed that rewards, or positive reinforcements, cause the behaviour to be repeated. Skinner suggested that positive reinforcement is more effective in teaching new and better behaviour. In his book (Skinner, 1976), Skinner describes how the principles of conditioning might be applied to create an ideal planned society. The community encourages its members “to view every habit and custom with an eye to possible improvement” and to have “a constantly experimental attitude toward everything.” 2.5.3.1  Its Contribution to Education 1. Behaviourism presented the investigative strategy for considering conduct, which is basically taking into account the target perception of the conduct and the occasions. Behaviourism accordingly assisted in supplanting thoughtful measures with the experimental and target measures. 2. Behaviourists, while giving second place to inherited attributes, highlighted the part of the environment in forming and adjusting the conduct of the child. It helped in reforming every one of the projects and techniques identified with instruction, preparing and recovery by underlining a more noteworthy need to give an ideal learning circumstances and environment for better development and advancement of the child. 3. The way to deal with managing unusual and rationally wiped out persons and additionally reprobate, maladjusted, in reverse and issue youngsters was likewise definitely changed by virtue of the trial discoveries of the behaviourists. Specifically, the method of conditioning conduct and the conduct change programs pushed by the behaviourists introduced new period into this field. 4. Since behaviourists did not put stock in elements such as the “brain” and the psyche-body issue, the mental way to deal with human conduct was out and out disposed of! Subsequently, all ideas identified with the principle of mentalism such as sensation, feeling, recognition were dropped from psychology and instruction writings, offering an approach to new ideas such as a jolt, reaction, propensities, learning, and conditioning. 5. Behaviourism aided in amplifying the extent of instructive psychology to incorporate the investigation of creatures as an approach to take in more about human instinct. 6. Behaviourism upheld the utilisation of support and compensates as prompting for the securing of alluring conduct and for surrendering the undesirable. 7. Behaviourism highlighted the part of inspiration and meaning of the points and purposes in learning and forming of conduct. 8. Behaviourism offered to ascend to new thoughts and advancements in the field of learning and guideline like customised learning and individualised self-instructional projects including showing machines and PC helped direction. 2.5.4 Gestalt psychology: The research scholar emphatically includes Gestalt psychology as one of the most influential psychology theories. Gestalt psychology, like behaviourism, developed as a reaction against structuralism. Gestalt psychologists believed that human beings and other animals perceive the external world as an organised pattern, not as individual sensations. For example, a film consists of thousands of individual still pictures, but we see what looks like smooth, continuous movement. The German word Gestalt means pattern, form, or shape. Unlike the behaviourists, the Gestaltists believed that behaviour should be studied as an organised pattern rather than as separate incidents of stimulus and response. The familiar saying “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” expresses an important principle of the Gestalt movement. ‘Gestalt’ is a psychology term which means “unified whole”. It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organise visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied: Similarity occurs when objects look similar to one another. People often perceive them as a group or pattern. Similarity occurs when objects look similar to one another. People often perceive them as a group or pattern. Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object. Closure occurs when an object is incomplete or space is not completely enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated, people perceive the whole by filling in the missing information. (The Gestalt Principles, 2014) Gestalt psychology was founded in Germany around 1912.  Max Wertheimer, a German psychologist, Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka were the founders of this school. During the 1930’s, Wertheimer and two colleagues took the Gestalt movement to the United States. This school’s contribution is in the field of learning, creative thinking and insight etc. Work of Köhler gave birth to the theory of Insight learning. 2.5.4.1  Its Contribution to Education 1. Gestaltists kept up that the entire is constantly more noteworthy than its constituents or parts. This suggestion impacts the field of training in numerous angles as we now examine. a) In the commitment and association of the educational module and syllabi, the due thought is being given to the gestalt guideline. The concerned topic of a specific topic of a specific topic is constantly sorted out in general and the educational programs containing distinctive subjects and exercises is so confined as to reflect solidarity and cohesiveness among them. b) Stress is being laid on a between disciplinary methodology in training. c) The gestalt approach has been appropriately recognised in strategy and strategies of instructing and learning. This has brought about displaying the learning material in a gestalt structure and after that procedure to the parts. d) Due weight on the gestalt endeavours with respect to educators, heads, folks and another individual from society is being laid in the training and welfare of youngsters. Another gestalt psychologist, Perkins, believes insight deals with three processes:
  • Unconscious leap in thinking.
  • The increased amount of speed in mental processing.
  • The amount of short-circuiting that occurs in normal reasoning.
  • Views going against the gestalt psychology are:
  • Nothing-special view
  • Neo-gestalt view
  • The Three-Process View
Gestalt psychology should not be confused with the gestalt therapy of Fritz Perls, which is only peripherally linked to Gestalt psychology. (Gestalt psychology, 2014) 1. Gestaltists laid extraordinary accentuation on the part of the inspiration, and unmistakable objectives and purposes in a realising .this have brought about giving a focal part to inspiration in any plan of learning and training. The accentuation on setting obvious destinations, characterising them in clear behavioural terms and connecting instruction with the necessities and intentions of the learner might be said to be a percentage of the considerable commitment of Gestalt psychology. 2. Gestaltism has an eminent element that it makes the assignment of observation, learning and critical thinking a keen undertaking as opposed to a piecemeal atomic capacity or an insignificant boost –response mechanical procedure. It has given a logical and dynamic strategy for critical thinking in view of subjective capacities of the learner.         2.5.5           Hormic School: (It is also known as ‘purposivism’. This school is strongly opposed to the mechanistic or behavioristic point of view. It regards man   as a unit but also as a purposive, striking organism McDougall was the most profound of   this school. It is called Hormic because it emphasises on ‘home’, ‘striving’, or ‘urge to do something.’ Every activity of human being has got certain   purpose   and motivation. This school believes in this theory.) It is based on three basic facts, (1) Behaviour is always purposive, (2) Every individual has got instincts, and (3)  Total behaviour is influenced by instincts, sensation and interests. Hormic School / Purposive Psychology McDougall is the more profound of the Hormic Theory. The term ‘Hormic’ is derived from the Greek word Horm - which means ’an urge for action’. The purpose is the central concept of Hormic Psychology. Nobody can dispute the fact of human purpose. Voluntary actions of men may be purposive. But McDougall asserts that every action of an animal is purposive; even instinctive actions are instinctive. Each animal species is so constituted that it naturally seeks to realise certain goals, which satisfy its needs. These organic needs & the tendencies to satisfy them by trying to realise certain goals [e.g. food, shelter & mate] - are inborn and common to all members of the species. Hence, they are called Instinctive. The man also inherits certain propensities natural to the species, which are also called Instincts. McDougall calls them ”Psycho-physical Dispositions”. These are the primary motives of all their strife. Intelligence is subservient to instincts. It supplies the means for the natural goals of instincts. McDougall explains behaviour in terms of striving for goal or purpose. He explains experience also in terms of ‘Goal-seeking’. There are 02 types of Purposive Psychology: Hedonistic Psychology: It asserts that the true goal of all strife is pleasure; that we always strive to attain a foreseen pleasure and avoid a foreseen pain; that we desire such things as food, shelter, rest etc. Only for the sake of pleasure which we shall desire from them. This is a pleasure - pain theory of action - generally called Psychological Hedonism. Hormic Psychology: It rejects Psychological Hedonism and keeps up that the indulgent hypothesis is false. We truly want and take a challenging look at these articles, viewing them as inherently great and alluring. We yearn and look for either objective or items since we are constituted in that way. The fulfilment of the objective or item is generally suffused with a delight or fulfilment that blueprints the movement. Be that as it may, joy is never the objective or endeavouring or activity. Hormic Psychology is hostile to behaviouristic. It is against behaviourism - which decreased to mechanical reaction to jolt. McDougall holds that conduct can’t be clarified with a reason. All conduct is purposive or teleological. It includes making progress toward an objective and supposing of foreknowledge of an objective. McDougall concurs with the Gestaltists that sophisticated creatures learn by knowledge. Yet, he includes that premonition is likewise important for learning. Learning includes premonition and understanding. The creature predicts the accomplishment of the objective and the strides vital for the fulfilment of it. Thus he encounters something for the joy of accomplishment. The delight goes with the making of the fundamental development; and it fortifies, manages and empowers those developments. Consequently, premonition is important. Be that as it may, McDougall does not deny learning by trial and mistake. He perceives Two (02) types of learning: Intelligent Learning involves achievement through insight and foresight or premonition. McDougall was the example of this school of thought. As per him, every movement has a reason behind it and leads towards some improvement. Indeed, even youngsters attempt to develop. There is a point before us notwithstanding amid youth. Likewise, he focused on that every one of our practices is deliberate and objectively situated. We are constantly enlivened by inborn sentiment getting to be incredible and great. As indicated by him, a reaction is not generally on account of the event of a boost. A reaction might be a result of a rationale. It is a bit much that we feel the yearning of eating just when we take a glance at desserts. Longing to eat relies on craving. This is the rationale, which delivers the yearning to eat. Distinctive thought processes result in various reactions. The impulses invoke the human action. Every nature connected with a few feelings turns into the focal point of all exercises. Without them no action is conceivable. Commitment to Education
  • Hormic psychology is concerned not just with cognizance; it lays incredible significance on ‘conation’ too. As per it, information is just a by-result of the ‘conation’.
  • Thus right instruction implies teaching him as far as his objectives of life. In this manner Hormic psychology is powerful.
  • As impulses are the propellers of our exercises, instruction ought to sublimate these senses that are to the utilisation of these impulses for a higher reason, inferring social great.
  • McDougall lays incredible accentuation on the part of the school in the advancement of self in regards to a conclusion. It lays specific accentuation on the advancement of self-discipline and character, on the grounds that the advancement of resolution aids in the improvement of self with respect to self-assessment.
  • It is the character thus, which control the will.
  • This school of psychology gives the instructor a knowledge, which helps him to alter youngster instruction in the light of the child’s inherent inclinations, wishes and feelings.
According to him, a response is not always because of the occurrence of a stimulus. A response may be because of a motive. It is not necessary that we feel the desire of eating only when we look at sweets. (Unit-II Hormic School) Being trained in the anatomy and physiology of the brain, McDougall actually attempted to formulate a psycho-physiological creed that could provide the literature with concepts and hypotheses to account for a wide range of psychological insights. Such a step represents probably an important turning point in the history of modern psychology. (Jusmani, 1969) Quasi-mechanical Learning through trial & error. In the 2nd kind of learning, also, there is striving towards a goal, and some satisfaction results from reaching the goal. If there were no striving & goal-seeking, more repetition of a movement sequence would not result in facilitation. Thus all kinds of learning --- intelligent learning through insight & foresight and unintelligent learning through mere repetition are purposive. McDougall regards personality as moulded by disposition, temperament & character.
  • Disposition is the sum total of the instinctive tendencies; and determined by heredity.
  • Temperament is the sum total of the effects of metabolic & chemical changes in the body upon mental life.
  • The character is the sum total of the acquired habits & sentiments.
Hormic Psychology is opposed to Associationism / Psychological Atonism - which regards the mind as a mosaic of discrete elements, sensations and ideas - connected with one another by the laws of association. Hormic Psychology is anti-intellectualistic. It is Psychology of Motivation. It emphasises “The Urge to Action” and regards the cognitive activity as subordinate to it.

2.5.6 Psychoanalysis:

Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud. This school of thought says that human behaviour is caused by the unconscious mind. Freud believed that unconscious mind is made up of three components: the Id, the Ego and the Superego. The Id, which people are born with, is only interested in satisfying desires and receiving pleasure. The Ego is also interested in gaining pleasure, but it’s the part of the unconscious mind that can reason and decide which desires are appropriate to act upon. The Superego, the moral centre of the unconscious mind, is concerned about the ‘right and wrong’. Psychoanalysis was founded during the late 1800’s and early 1900’s by the Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis was based on the theory that behaviour is determined by powerful inner forces, According to Freud and other psychoanalysts, from early childhood people repress (force out of conscious awareness) any desires or needs that are unacceptable to themselves or to society. The repressed feelings can cause personality disturbances, self-destructive behaviour, or even physical symptoms. Freud said that unconscious conflicts, usually related to sex or aggression, were prime motivators of human behaviour. He was the first person who includes the unconscious mind in a formal psychological theory. Freud believed that all behaviours -whether normal or abnormal -is influenced by psychological motives, often unconscious one. Freud’s ”Theory of Unconscious Mind” has a great value to understand the behaviour, especially abnormal behaviour.  2.5.6.1 Its Contribution to Education 1. It has given a decent strategy for the investigation of conduct. 2. It has given a decent treatment to treatment of emotional instability and strange conduct. 3. It has highlighted the significance of good instruction and a solid domain in the early years by underscoring the part of adolescence encounters. 4. Freud’s idea of the oblivious has helped in comprehension the reason for maladaptive conduct. 5. His highlighting on the part of sex in one’s life has drawn out the need of giving legitimate sex instruction to the child. 6. Freud’s arrangement of analysis has required the procurement of appropriate extracurricular exercises and suitable leisure activities and so forth. In the school developers for the arrival of stifled or obstructed vitality and confined emotions. 2.5.7 Humanist Psychology: This new school of psychology mirrors the late patterns of humanism in psychology. Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Rollo May, Arthur Combs, Gordon Allport and other prominent psychologists have added to its development. Humanistic Psychology gives more regard to the person by not thinking of him as only as an advanced machine or a casualty of the contention between the sense of self and the Id. It considered him as a deliberate being, fit for adjusting to his surroundings and picking his own strategy keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish the objectives which he has chosen for himself. These objectives might be as straightforward as the fulfilment of a typical physical need or as grand as the accomplishment of self-acknowledgment or individual satisfaction. Humanistic psychology accentuates such particularly human parts of identity as the presence of choice and opportunity of decision and man’s quest for remarkable objectives and qualities to guide his conduct and to give an individual intending to his presence. Humanistic psychologists believe that:
  • An individual’s behaviour is primarily determined by his perception of the world around him.
  • Individuals are not solely the product of their environment.
  • Individuals are internally directed and motivated to fulfil their human potential.
Humanistic psychology expanded its influence throughout the 1970s and the 1980s.  Its impact can be understood in terms of three major areas: 1)  It offered a new set of values for approaching an understanding of human nature and the human condition. 2)  It offered an expanded horizon of methods of inquiry in the study of human behaviour. 3)  It offered a broader range of more effective methods in the professional practice of psychotherapy. (McLeod S. , Humanism, 2007, p. 2) Both Rogers and Maslow regarded personal growth and fulfilment in life as a basic human motive. This means that each person, in different ways, seeks to grow psychologically and continuously enhance themselves. This has been captured by the term self-actualization, which is about psychological growth, fulfilment and satisfaction in life.  However, Rogers and Maslow both describe different ways of how self-actualization can be achieved. (McLeod S. , Humanism, 2007, p. 1) 2.5.7.1  Principles of Humanistic Education There are five fundamental standards of humanistic training: 1. Students ought to have the capacity to pick what they need to realise. Humanistic educators trust that students will be persuaded to take in a subject in the event that it’s something they need and need to know. 2. The objective of instruction ought to be to encourage students’ yearning to learn and show them how to learn. Students ought to act naturally roused in their studies and craving to learn all alone. 3. Humanistic teachers trust that evaluations are insignificant and that just self-assessment is significant. Reviewing urges students to work for an evaluation and not for individual fulfilment. Likewise, humanistic instructors are against target tests since they test a student’s capacity to retain and don’t give adequate instructive criticism to the educator and student. 4. Humanistic teachers trust that both emotions and information are essential to the learning process. Dissimilar to customary instructors, humanistic educators don’t isolate the intellectual and full of feeling spaces. 5. Humanistic teachers demand that schools need to furnish students with a non-debilitating environment so they will feel secure to learn. When students feel secure, learning gets to be less demanding and more significant. Fig 2.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs retrieved from (Humanistic Psychology, 2015) 2.5.7.2 Summary The five essential standards of humanistic training can be abridged as takes after: 1. Students’ learning ought to be naturally coordinated. 2. Schools ought to create students who need and know how to learn. 3. The main type of significant assessment is self-assessment. 4. Feelings, and in addition information, are critical in the learning process. 5. Students learn best in a non-debilitating environment. 2.5.8 Transpersonal Psychology:   Transpersonal Psychology is one of the most recent methodologies predominant in contemporary psychology. The work of Abraham Maslow as far as Self-completion by restraining one’s fullest potential might be said to be the foundation of this school of psychology. It centres its consideration on the investigation of individual encounters that appear to rise above normal presence. As such, what we think and how we feel in our changed conditions of mindfulness is the branch of knowledge of transpersonal psychology. These states might become too amid conditions of serious stretch and trouble or in snippets of remarkable energy and satisfaction. They might be stimulated amid times of rest or profound focus. Tentatively, they might be incorporated with the assistance of some particular medications, religious discussions, yoga and supernatural reflection, and so on. 2.5.9        Stimulus-Response School: Psychology today has continued to develop in several directions. A group of extreme Psychologists called the Stimulus-Response School believe all behaviour is a series of responses to different stimuli. According to these psychologists, the stimulus connected with any response can eventually be identified. As a result, stimulus-response psychologists regard behaviour as predictable and potentially controllable. Another important aspect of taxonomy is the dimension between relevant and irrelevant dimensions of the stimulus set. A stimulus dimension is relevant when the required response depends on the value of the stimulus in that dimension, whereas a stimulus dimension is irrelevant if the value on it are uncorrelated with the required response. (Spatial Stimulus-Response Compatibility, 1990) 2.5.10 Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive Psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental procedures including how individuals think, see, recollect and learn. As a component of the bigger field of subjective science, this branch of psychology is identified with different controls including neuroscience, theory and etymology. The centre of Cognitive Psychology is on how individuals procure, process and store data. There are various handy applications for Cognitive examination, for example, enhancing memory, expanding basic leadership exactness and organising instructive educational module to upgrade learning. Stimulus (External Factor) Affects: Response (Human Behaviour) Until the 1950s, behaviourism was the prevailing school of thought in psychology. Somewhere around 1950 and 1970, the tide started to move against behavioural psychology to concentrate on themes, for example, consideration, memory and critical thinking. Frequently alluded to as the psychological unrest, this period produced significant exploration on points including preparing models, subjective examination techniques and the main utilisation of the expression ‘intellectual psychology’. The expression “intellectual psychology” was initially utilised as a part of 1967 by American psychologist Ulric Neisser in his book Cognitive Psychology. As indicated by Neisser, discernment includes “all procedures by which the tactile information is changed, decreased, expounded, put away, recouped, and utilised. It is worried about these procedures notwithstanding when they work without applicable incitement, as in pictures and visualisations... Given such a clearing definition, it is obvious that comprehension is included in everything an individual may conceivably do; that each mental wonder is a Cognitive marvel. Current speculations of instruction have connected numerous ideas that are central purposes of psychological psychology. Probably the most noticeable ideas include: Metacognition: Metacognition is an expansive idea enveloping all conduct of one’s considerations and information about their own particular considering. A key territory of instructive centre in this domain is identified with self-observing, which relates profoundly to how well students can assess their own insight and apply systems to enhance information in territories in which they are lacking. Definitive information and procedural learning: Declarative learning is a person’s “broad” learning base, while procedural learning is particular information identifying with performing specific errands. The utilisation of these intellectual standards to instruction endeavours to enlarge a student’s capacity to incorporate decisive information into recently learned methodology with an end goal to encourage quickened learning. Information Association: Applications of psychological psychology’s comprehension of how learning is sorted out in the cerebrum has been a noteworthy centre inside the field of training as of late. The various levelled technique for sorting out data and how that maps well onto the cerebrum’s memory are ideas that have demonstrated to a great degree gainful in classrooms. Although social transformation may not have been the primary focus in the past, a large percentage of contemporary humanistic psychologists currently investigate pressing social, cultural, and gender issues. (Hoffman, 2009) Even the earliest writers who were associated with and inspired psychological humanism explored topics as diverse as the political nature of “normal” and everyday experience (RD Laing), the disintegration of the capacity to love in modern consumerist society (Erich Fromm), (Fromm, 1956) the growing technological dominance over human life (Medard Boss), and the question of evil (Rollo May-Carl Rogers debate). In addition, Maureen O’Hara, who worked with both Carl Rogers and Paolo Freire, has pointed to a convergence between the two thinkers given their distinct but mutually related focus on developing critical consciousness of situations which oppress and dehumanise. (O'Hara, 1989) Evaluation of the Cognitive Approach Pros of Cognitive Approach:
  • A viable approach which has been used to create the multi-store model of memory processes, supported by many other experiments.
  • Easily combined with other approaches. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy is a popular and successful form of treatment for issues such as obsessive compulsive disorder.
  • Takes into account the internal, invisible thought processes that affect our behaviour, unlike the behavioural approach.
Cons of Cognitive approach:
  • Depends largely on controlled experiments to observe human behaviour, which may lack ecological validity (being compared to real-life behaviour).
  • Does not take into account genetic factors; for example hereditary correlations of mental disorders.
  • Reductionist to an extent, although case studies are taken into account, the behavioural approach attempts to apply the scientific view to human behaviour, which may be argued to be unique to each individual.
2.6  Humanistic school of psychology Humanisticpsychology Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century, drawing on the work of early pioneers like Carl Rogers and the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology. It adopts a holistic  approach  to  human  existence  through  investigations  of  meaning,  values,  freedom,  tragedy,  personal responsibility, human potential, spirituality, and self-actualization. The most general and neutral term for the movement is humanistic psychology. Phenomenological and existential psychologies can be seen as sub-kinds of humanistic psychology and as antecedents of the more recent strictly American versions of humanism professed by psychologists as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers who were not, however, the first psychologists to have an essentially humanistic orientation. Elements of humanism can be found in the psychoanalytic thought of Fromm, Horney, and even Jung and Adler and the American existential psychologist, Rollo May, anticipated many of the tenets of humanism. (Collacciani, n.d.) 2.6.1  TheThird-Force The term ‘Third Force’ is really a general categorisation of a few introductions and accentuations inside of psychology. The ‘Third Force’ might be anything, which is not behaviourism or analysis. Components of this ‘Third Force’ are humanism, phenomenology, or existentialism. This development is multifaceted in nature: it comprises of different, notwithstanding clashing parts. It is both a response to and an augmentation of behaviourism and analysis. It is both a unique element and a pragmatic aide for a living. Enrolment in the development is independent of anyone else announcement, not by acknowledgement of an arrangement of solid standards and convictions. The broadest and nonpartisan term for the development is humanistic psychology. Phenomenological and existential psychology projects can be seen as sub-sorts of humanistic psychology and as precursors of the later entirely American variants of humanism affirmed by psychologists as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers who were not, be that as it may, the main analysts to have a basically humanistic introduction. Components of humanism can be found in the psychoanalytic considered Fromm, Horney, and even Jung and Adler and the American existential analyst, Rollo May, expected huge numbers of the precepts of humanism. Humanism is an endeavour to reorient psychology to more individual arranged targets. For a defender of humanism, the new development spoke to an arrival to a genuine sympathy toward awareness following 50 years of behaviourally situated test psychology and by systematically arranged profundity psychology (therapy). It might be said, humanism received the exceptional introduction to Gestalt psychology, however, broadened it from the domain of more perceptual cognizance to cover the living being’s whole identity or condition of being. Humanistic Psychology is a contemporary manifestation of that ongoing commitment. Its message is a response to the denigration of the human spirit that has so often been implied in the image of the person drawn by behavioural and social sciences. (What is Humanistic Psychology?, n.d.) Humanism manages the condition of a man’s mindfulness or cognizant sentiments in an understanding connection. The accompanying is normal for humanism: • Presumes a no unthinking perspective of man, • Does not acknowledge the guideline of determinism, • Views man as a subject and not an article, and • Focuses on the comprehensive versatile status of a life form’s behavioural activities. • Each individual or his/her conduct is remarkable and must be determined as far as his/her own particular cognitive cognizant perspective. The humanist is occupied with a man’s regular life conduct as it happens in the common habitat, not in tightened bits of simulated conduct as they happen in the research facility: By definition, humanism is both a world perspective (reasoning of man) and in addition a connected psychology (psychotherapeutic met
  1.      Humanism is permeated
  • By such concepts as external validity, meaning, understanding, subjectivity, relevance, and value, and
  •  By such goals or phenomena as authenticity, self-actualization, creativity, development of meaningful human relationships, knowledge of innermost feelings, expanding one’s awareness, and love.
2.6.3    Humanism represents
  • A return to common-sense psychology, in which a person’s goals, feeling, desires, and the like are a primary concern; and
  • A revival of interest in such Christian values as love, concern, goodness.   While humanism is not necessarily anti-empirical, it is a protest against the mechanistic, deterministic, reductionist orientation of Lockian, Newtonian, and Darwinian science adopted by behaviouristic ally oriented experimental psychology.
2.6.4  Basic Assumptions Basic assumptions of the humanistic approach are that behaviour must be understood in terms of the cognitive experience of the individual, (phenomenology) and that behaviour is not constrained by either past experience of the individual or current circumstances (Determinism).  Instead, people can make choices (free will). 2.6.5 Methodological approaches The research scholar here would like to include the Humanistic Psychology and Methodological approached to provide a broader understanding and permeated theories. The Humanistic psychology (and Roger’s hypothesis specifically) does not effortlessly fit lab research, i.e. target experimentation is inconceivable. Humanistic therapists are not researchers in the conventional sense, and they would prefer not to be on the grounds that they imagine that science in the present structure is not prepared to examine, clarify, or comprehend human instinct. Another science, a human science, is required. A human science would not concentrate on people as the physical sciences study physical articles, rather think about people as mindful, picking, esteeming, enthusiastic, and interesting creatures in the universe. Following conventional science does not do this, it must be dismissed. An idiographic way to deal with science is in this manner normal for humanistic exploration. The sole model of the humanist picking research undertakings is significance. A given study is embraced in light of the fact that it is mentally pertinent and relates to the human issues and worries, as characterised by the humanism analyst. As an extended Gestalt psychology, humanism endeavours to dissect, comprehend, and externalise an individual life form’s awareness the substance of the perceptual cognizance, as well as the full scope of awareness: sentiments, self-ideas, objectives, goals, and convictions. As a type of profundity psychology, humanism must survey a few parts of the condition of the prosperity of the living being, that is, the level of self-actualisation achieved, nature of self-idea, or level of saw change in a remedial circumstance. This suggests humanists in a perfect world ought to utilise formative engaged longitudinal technique, furthermore should confront every one of the issues connected with single-contextual investigation strategy so fundamentally, this point of view supports a subjective way to deal with information gathering. The primary wellspring of information originates from clinical meetings (transcripts), the Q-sort and substance examination of clients’ announcements. Confirmation of Rogerian hypothesis originates from a strategy called (1) Q-sort and (2) content investigation of articulations made by clients amid treatment. The objective of the Q-sort strategy is to find the thoughts individuals have about themselves and to quantify the impact of treatment. The fundamental methodology is to give a man a parcel of cards each of which contains an alternate proclamation, and after that have the individual sort the cards on a continuum from the announcement that best depict the individual to the announcement that slightest portrays him or her. A study by Butler and Haugh (1954) outlines the Q-sort strategy. The members were individuals in directing coordinated with a controlling bunch. In the guiding gathering, the connection between the self-sort and the perfect sort was zero, however in the control amass the relationship between the two sorts was .58, showing some level of relationship. Taking after advising (normal 31 sessions for each client), this gathering was requested that sort once more. The outcomes demonstrated a relationship of .34, a critical change more than zero. A case of substance examination is Seeman (1949) who explored 16 interviews including 10 clients at various periods of treatment. The verbal clarifications of these clients were entreated into four characterizations: (1) verbalizations of issues or symptoms, (2) affirmation of pro’s responses, (3) appreciation of issues or reactions, (4) examination of game plans for what’s to come. Seeman found that as treatment progressed, there were fewer enunciations of hindrances and issues. Signs of affirmation rose at the start and after that declined. In later gatherings, clients demonstrated more unmistakable cognizance of their difficulties and gave more clarifications conveying gets prepared for what’s to come. This study is considered, by attentive with Rogers’ speculation, as offering authenticity to his key thoughts of improvement. 2.6.6  Historical and cultural background: Historicalrootsofthemovementslay both backs in time and in the post-WW2 period where an eclectic status quo between behaviourism, psychoanalysis and cognitive psychologist etc. was seen before the humanistic psychology appeared. Early ideas of humanism existed already in Ancient Greece, during the Renaissance and in Christianity. Humanists are like the ancient Greek humanists, and Maslow in 1973formulated that ‘thevalueswhicharetoguidehumanactionmustbefound within nature and natural reality itself’(Barber, 2015).  The humanistic psychologists couldn’t acknowledge the naturalistic estimations of the behaviourists, which in their perspective were dealt with like ‘items’ with no respect to their subjectivity, awareness, and choice. Amid the nineteenth and mid-twentieth century, a few European savants like e.g. Jean-Paul Sartre in France and Martin Heidegger in Germany related themselves with existentialism, which concentrates on moral obligation, through and through freedom, and the endeavouring towards self-awareness and satisfaction. In existentialism real decisions in life are frequently joined by nervousness, since only we are in charge of our own lives. By individuals can comprehend others by concentrating all alone cognizant experience, a position that Gestalt psychology called phenomenology. In any case, the development of humanistic psychology in the United States advanced as an issue of sympathy toward human independence. William James distributed Principles of Psychology (1890) and appeared in his works worry about existence’s issues. He composed an awesome arrangement about the self. Other self-hypotheses originate from George Herbert Mead in his book Mind, Self and Society (1934), and the existential psychology in Europe additionally offered motivation to the American advancement of humanistic psychology, which began with the distribution of Roger’s first book Counselling and Psychotherapy: Newer Concepts in Practice (1942). The decade of the 1960s was a disturbed time in the United States. There was the Vietnam War, the death of Martin Luther King, the Kennedy siblings, racial challenges happened in numerous huge urban communities, and the ‘Flower children’ were in open disobedience to the estimations of their guardians and society. They dropped out of society and came back to a more straightforward life, where there was no space for judicious or observational rationality. The third-constrain development turned out to be extremely well-known in the 1960s and 1970s, yet its notoriety fell in the 1980s and keeps on doing as such yet it stays persuasive in a few sections of contemporary psychology, much the same as behaviourism and analysis. Humanistic psychology tried to be the third-compel in psychology (behaviourism was the primary power and therapy was the second drive) and guaranteed to expand on the oversights of the two different strengths in psychology and go past them. Humanistic psychology, therefore, does not dismiss everything from the two different powers and in this manner tended to proceed with the mixed soul of the 1950s. Humanistic psychology offered an investigation and a different option for behaviourism, however, recognised that behaviourism, albeit constrained, was substantial inside of its area. Humanistic analysts tried to add to behaviourism an energy about human awareness that would round out the logical picture of human psychology.   Maslow (1973):Iinterpretthisthird psychology (humanistic psychology) to include the first and second psychologies...I am Freudian and I am behaviouristic and I am humanistic.’ 2.6.7 Basic tenets of humanistic psychology include the following
  • Little of quality can be found out about people by contemplating creatures.
  • Subjective the truth is the essential aid for human conduct.
  • Studying people is more useful than concentrating on what gatherings of people have in like ‘manner’.
  • A noteworthy exertion ought to be made to find those things that extend and advance human experience.
  • Research ought to look to discover those things that will take care of human issues.
  • The objective of psychology is to figure a complete depiction of what it intends to be a person (incorporates significance of dialect, feelings, how people try to discover importance in the development of the field of psychology.
2.6.8  Development of the Field These preparatory gatherings, in the end, prompted different advancements, which finished in the portrayal of humanistic psychology as a conspicuous “third constraint” in psychology (alongside behaviourism and therapy). Noteworthy improvements incorporated the arrangement of the Association for Humanistic Psychology (AHP) in 1961 and the dispatch of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology (initially ‘The Phoenix’) in 1961. Thus, graduate projects in Humanistic Psychology at establishments of higher learning developed in number and enrollment. In 1971, humanistic psychology as a field was perceived by the American Psychological Association (APA) and allowed its own particular (Division 32) inside the APA. Division 32 distributes its own particular scholastic diary called The Humanistic Psychologist. The significant scholars considered to have arranged the ground for Humanistic Psychology are Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May. Maslow was intensely affected by Kurt Goldstein amid their years together at Brandeis University. Psychoanalytic essayists additionally affected humanistic psychology. Maslow himself broadly recognised his ‘obligation to Freud’ in Towards a Psychology of Being Other psychoanalytic impacts incorporate the work of Wilhelm Reich, who examined a basically ‘decent’, sound centre self and Character Analysis (1933), and Carl Gustav Jung’s legendary and original accentuation. Other paramount motivations for and pioneers of the development incorporate Roberto Assagioli, Gordon Allport, Medard Boss, Martin Buber (near Jacob L. Moreno), James Bugental, Victor Frankl, Erich Fromm, Hans-Werner Gessmann, Amedeo Giorgi, Kurt Goldstein, Sidney Jourard, R. D. Laing, Clark Moustakas, Lewis Mumford, Fritz Perls, Anthony Sutich, Thomas Szasz, Kirk J. Schneider, and Ken Wilber. A humanistic perspective is not contradicted to quantitative strategies, but rather, taking after Edmund Husserl: 1) Favours giving the techniques a chance to be gotten from the topic and not uncritically embracing the techniques for regular science, and 2) Advocates for methodological pluralism. Therefore, a great part of the topic of psychology fits subjective methodologies (e.g., the lived experience of distress), and quantitative strategies are for the most part proper when something can be tallied without levelling the marvels (e.g., the period of time spent crying).     2.6.9 Major Representatives of Humanistic Perspective The most important founders Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970). Both were initially attracted to behaviourism but became aware of its limitations. 2.6.9.1   CarlRogers Carl Rogers developed ‘Client-Centred psychotherapy’ in the 1940s and utilised it with fighters coming back from WW2. The treatment is phenomenological arranged (the specialist tries to go into the world perspective of the client and let the client work out answers for his/her own issue). The treatment was another option to the psychoanalytic strategy, and it was an essential stride in the foundation of clinical and guiding psychology in the post-war period. Rogers clashed with behaviourism due to his methodology with empathic comprehension of the client. Rogers suspected that behaviourism treated people like creatures, as machines whose conduct could be anticipated and controlled with no regard for cognizance. Amid the 1950s, Skinner and Rogers faced off regarding the relative ampleness of their perspectives. Phenomenological psychology is particularly speaking to the psychologist in view of the compassion and utilisation of subjective experience.
  1.   Rogers distinguishes between 3 modes of knowledge:
The target mode where we attempt to comprehend the world as an article,  a subjective mode comprising of a man’s own subjective learning of individual cognizant experience, including goals and feeling of flexibility inner world. The psychologist must top this third mode. Rogers trusted that the psychologist can just help the client on the off chance that he/she comprehends the client’s close to home world and subjective self and he trusted that psychology, in the end, could discover efficient approaches to knowing the individual experience of other individuals, with the goal that treatment could be far and away superior. Rogers argued (And this is a case of epistemological predisposition) that behaviourism limits itself only to the target method of learning thus restrains psychology to specific procedures and speculations (and not taking into consideration different methods for looking for information). That behaviourism treats people like questions (dislike encountering subjects in their own particular right), for instance, Skinner who just acknowledges physical causality (ecological impacts in the type of possibilities of fortification). As indicated by Skinner, behaviourism does not acknowledge the uniqueness of people including free-will, awareness, subjectivity, and self-sufficiency.   (Burgenthal; 1964Man is aware...man has choice. Man is intentional)
  • That humans experience the freedom of choice, also in therapy.
  • That in science he accepted the term determinism, but in therapy he accepted freedom. The two exist in different dimensions.
2.6.9.3  Abraham Maslow The Research Scholar would like to mention the great scholar Abraham Maslow. The main scholar and coordinator of humanistic psychology. He began as a Clinical Trial Analyst and after that turned his consideration regarding the issue of imagination in workmanship and science, and planned his hypothesis of self-actualisation in view of the investigation of innovative individuals. Self-actualisation made their genuine human inventive forces (a complexity to a great many people who just fulfil their requirements for nourishment, cover and so forth.). Maslow asserted that all people have innovative gifts, which could be actualized on the off chance that it was not for socially forced restraints. Both Maslow and Rogers worked at making individuals leave all the more socially agreeable ways and move them to understand their true abilities as people. Self-actualising individuals are described by the accompanying:
  • They see reality precisely and completely.
  • They exhibit an extraordinary acknowledgement of themselves and of others.
  • They show suddenness and expectation.
  • They have a requirement for protection.
  • They have a tendency to be free of their surroundings and society.
  • They have an intermittent spiritualist or crest experience.
  • They are worried about all people rather than with just their companions and relatives.
  • They have a tendency to have just a couple of companions.
  • They have a very much grown however not threatening comical inclination.
  • They have a solid moral sense, however,
Maslow found what was to become the JournalofHumanisticpsychology in 1961 and the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1963. 2.6.10 Skinner’s view of humanism and behaviourism. B.F. Skinner. (The Humanist, July/August 1972) There is by all accounts two methods for knowing, or thinking about, someone else. One is connected with existentialism, phenomenology, and structuralism. It is a matter of realising what a man is, or what he resemble, or what he is coming to be or getting to be. We attempt to know someone else in this sense as we probably are aware ourselves. We share his emotions through sensitivity or sympathy. Through instinct, we find his demeanours, goals, and different perspectives. We speak with him in the etymological feeling of making thoughts and sentiments regular to the two of us. We do some all the more viable on the off chance that we have built up great interpersonal relations. This is an aloof, pondering sort of knowing: If we need to anticipate what a man does or is liable to do, we accept that he, similar to us, will accord to what he is; his conduct, similar to our own, will be a declaration of his emotions, perspectives, aims states of mind, etc. The other method for knowing is a matter of what a man does. We can for the most part watch this specifically as whatever another marvel on the planet; no uncommon sort of knowing is required. We clarify why a man carries on as he does by swinging to the earth instead of inward states or exercises. The earth was viable amid the advancement of the species, and we call the outcome the human hereditary gift. An individual from the animal categories is presented to another part of that environment amid his lifetime, and from it, he obtains a collection of conduct, which changes over a living being with a hereditary blessing into a man. “One does not need to be a genius to achieve it. He thought self-actualising people were not ordinary people with something added; rather they were ordinary people with nothing taken away.” (Frager & Fadiman, 1998) I would characterise a humanist as one of the individuals who, due to nature to which he has been uncovered, is worried for the fate of humankind. A development that calls itself ‘humanistic psychology’ takes a fairly distinctive line. It has been portrayed as ‘a third drive’ to recognise it from behaviourism and analysis; however “third” ought not to be taken to mean progressed, nor ought to “compel” propose power. Since behaviourism and analysis both perspective human conduct as a decided framework, humanistic analysts have accentuated a difference by guarding the self-sufficiency of the person. They have demanded that a man can rise above his surroundings, that he is more than a causal stage amongst conduct and environment, which he figures out what natural powers will follow up on him in a word, that he has a free decision. This position is most at home in existentialism, phenomenology, and structuralism, in light of the fact that the accentuation is on what a man is or is getting to be. Maslow’s demeanour ‘self-actualisation’ wholes it up pleasantly: The individual is to satisfy himself not only through delight, obviously, but rather through ‘otherworldly growth’..... (Shekhar, 2012) Better types of government are not to be found in better rules, better instructive practices in better educators, better monetary frameworks in more edified administration, or better treatment in more empathetic specialists. Nor are they to be found in better subjects, students, labourers, or patients. The age-old slip-up is to search for salvation in the character of self-sufficient men and ladies as opposed to in the social situations that have shown up in the advancement of societies and that can now be expressly outlined. By turning from man qua man to the outer states of which man’s conduct is a capacity, it has been conceivable to plan better practices being taken care of by psychotics and retardants, in child care, in training (in both possibility administration in the classroom and the outline of instructional material), in motivator frameworks in industry, and in reformatory establishments. In these and numerous different zones we can now all the more viable work for the benefit of the person, for the best great of the best number, and for the benefit of the way of life or of humanity overall. These are certainly humanistic concerns, and no one who calls himself a humanist can afford to neglect them. Men and women have never faced a greater threat to the future of their species. There is much to be done and done quickly, and nothing less than the active prosecution of the science of behaviour will suffice. (Brunkow, 2014) 2.6.11  Counselling and Therapy  Humanistic psychology includes several approaches to counselling and therapy. Among the earliest approaches we find the developmental theory of Abraham Maslow, emphasising a hierarchy of needs and motivations; (Blok, 2012) the existential psychology of Rollo May recognizing human decision and the terrible parts of human presence; and the individual focused or Client Centred treatment of Carl Rogers, which is fixated on the clients’ ability for self-healing and comprehension of his/her own advancement. Different ways to deal with humanistic directing and treatment incorporate Gestalt treatment, humanistic psychotherapy, profundity treatment, all-encompassing well-being, experience bunches, affectability preparing, conjugal and family treatments, bodywork, and the existential psychotherapy of Medard Boss. Existential-integrative psychotherapy, created by Kirk Schneider (2008), is a moderately new advancement inside humanistic and existential treatment. Self-improvement is additionally incorporated into humanistic psychology: Sheila Ernst and Lucy Goodison have depicted utilising a percentage of the primary humanistic methodologies in self-improvement gatherings. Co-directing, which is a simply self-improvement methodology, is viewed as going in close vicinity to humanistic psychology (see John Rowan’s Guide to Humanistic Psychology). The humanistic hypothesis has affected different types of famous treatment, including Harvey Jackins’ Re-assessment Counselling and the work of Carl Rogers. Humanistic psychology tends to look beyond the medical model of psychology in order to open up a non-pathologizing view of the person. This usually implies that the therapist downplays the pathological aspects of a person’s life in favour of the healthy aspects. A key ingredient in this approach is the meeting between therapist and client and the possibilities for dialogue. (Manichander T. ) A key fixing in this methodology is the meeting in the middle of specialist and client and the conceivable outcomes for dialogue. The point of much humanistic treatment is to help the client approach a more grounded and more beneficial feeling of self, likewise called self-completion. This is a piece of humanistic psychology’s inspiration to be an exploration of human experience, concentrating on the real lived experience of persons. 2.6.12  Humanistic Psychology and Social Issues                                       Although social transformation may not have been the primary focus in the past, a large percentage of contemporary humanistic psychologists currently investigate pressing social, cultural, and gender issues. Even the earliest writers who were associated with and inspired psychological humanism explored topics as diverse as the political nature of “normal” and everyday experience (RD Laing), the disintegration of the capacity to love in modern consumerist society (Erich Fromm), the growing technological dominance over human life (Medard Boss), and the question of evil (Rollo May-Carl Rogers debate). (Problems of Development & Learning : Psychology & Social Issues, 2015) In addition, Maureen O’Hara, who worked with both Carl Rogers and Paolo Freire, has pointed to a convergence between the two thinkers given their distinct but mutually related focus on developing critical consciousness of situations which oppress and dehumanise. 2.6.13.  Some criticism of Humanistic Psychology The behaviourists have been the severest critics of humanistic psychology because of the phenomenological approach, which they feel, is purely subjective and dualistic. Thus, according to behaviourists, the theories lack any empirical validity and the scientific method is abandoned in favour of introspection. (Humanistic Perspective, 2015) Skinner and Rogers were occupied with open dialogues and civil arguments on a few events. The general conclusion came to was that the two men were at inverse posts and would never concur. Another evaluation is that reflective self-reports are famously questionable and close to a supposition to consider that what one says is truly what one feels. Testing into a theoretical internal identity is simply managing in fictions. Humanistic psychology has been considered, by a few, to be a sort of religion. These ideas should just be tackled confidence so that any sort of thought that psychology ought to be viewed as a branch of normal science is deserted. The humanistic methodology has relapsed psychology back to the Middle Ages and the Church Fathers. It is fixing every one of the endeavours of the more goal and tentatively minded analysts to accomplish the objective of psychology as a target investigation of conduct. Psychoanalytic reactions guarantee that people can’t clarify their own particular conduct in light of the fact that the causes are to a great extent oblivious. Thusly, cognizant clarifications will be misshaped by justification or different guards. Both analysis and behaviourism guarantee that clarification of conduct can’t be founded on confirmation of the individual who is carrying on however on the appraisal of an onlooker. Pundits of the field call attention to that it has a tendency to disregard social change research. Isaac Prilleltensky, a self-depicted radical who champions group and women’s activist psychology, has contended for quite a long time that humanistic psychology incidentally adds to systemic foul play. Further, it has been contended that the early incarnations of humanistic psychology did not have a combined exact base, and the modellers of the development embraced an ‘unembarrassed refusal of human correspondence and group’. In any case, as indicated by contemporary humanistic masterminds, humanistic psychology need not be comprehended to advance such thoughts as narcissism, conceit, or narrow-mindedness. The association of humanistic discourse with narcissistic and overly optimistic worldviews is a misreading of humanistic theory. In their response to (E.P. Martin. Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), Bohart and Greening (2001) note that along with pieces on self-actualization and individual fulfilment, humanistic psychologists have also published papers on a wide range of social issues and topics, such as the promotion of international peace and understanding, awareness of the holocaust, the reduction of violence, and the promotion of social welfare and justice for all. (Humanistic Psychology, 2015) Reactions that humanistic psychology does not have an ‘exact base’ have had a tendency to depend on professedly “confined perspectives” of what constitutes ‘observational’, an uncritical selection of common science techniques (rather than human science strategies), and an inside and out disregard of Rogers’ own experimental work. Despite what might be expected, humanistic psychology has a long history of exact examination, including yet not constrained to the work of Maslow, Amedeo Giorgi and David Elkins. Truth be told, humanistic psychology research follows its roots the distance back to American psychology pioneer William James’ perfect work of art, “Assortments of Religious Experience”. 2.7  CONCEPT OF LEARNING 2.7.1 Meaning and Definitions of learning Learning, in psychology is the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behaviour occurs because of practice or experience. Learning is also a process of acquiring modifications in existing knowledge, skills, habits, or tendencies through experience, practice, or exercise. The researcher finds the following various definitions regarding the learning: (Introduction to Learning, 2011) Gates and others “Learning is the modification of behaviourthrough experience”. Henry, P smith “Learning is the acquisition of new behaviour orstrengthening or weakening of old behaviour as a result of experience”. Crow and Crow “Learning is the acquisition of habits, knowledgeand attitudes. It involves new ways of doing things, and it operates in an individual’s attempt to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situations”. Skinner “Learning is the process of progressive behaviouradaptation.” Munn “To learn is to modify behaviour and experience.” M. L. Bigge “Learning may be considered as a change in insights,behaviour, perception, motivation or a combination of these”. The above definitions emphasise four attributes of learning...
  • As Process: the first is that learning is a permanent change in behaviour.
  • It does not include change due to illness, fatigue, maturation and use of an intoxicant.
  • The learning is not directly observable but manifests in the activities of the individual.
  • Learning depends on practice and experience.
    2.7.2   Characteristics of Learning Yoakum & Simpson have stated the following general characteristics of learning: Learning is growth, adjustment, an organisation of experience, purposeful, both individual and social, a product of the environment. According to W.R Mc law,(Ysthename, 2014), learning has the following characteristics. 1. Learning is a persistent alteration of conduct proceeds all through life. 2. Learning is pervasive. It ventures into all parts of human life. 3. Learning includes the entire individual, socially, candidly and mentally. 4. Learning is regularly an adjustment in the association of conduct. 5. Learning is formative. Time is one of its measurements. 6. Learning is receptive to motivating forces. Much of the time positive motivators, for example, prizes are best than negative impetuses, for example, disciplines. 7. Learning is constantly worried about objectives. These objectives can be communicated as far as discernible conduct. 8. Interest and learning are absolutely related. The individual learns to wager those things, which he is keen on learning. Most young men discover figuring out how to play football less demanding than figuring out how to include portions. 9. Learning relies on upon development and inspiration. 2.7.3   Types of Learning Learning has been characterised from multiple points of view. (Work, n.d.) I. Informal, formal and non-formal learning: Depending in transit of obtaining it learning might be casual, formal or non-formal.
  • Informal learning is accidental. It happens all through life. It is not arranged.
  • Formal learning is purposeful and sorted out. It happens in the formal instructive establishment.
  • Non-formal is likewise purposeful and sorted out. It is adaptable.
II.  Individual or Group learning: Learning is called either individual or gathering learning relying on the people included in the learning process. III. Another order includes the sorts of the movement included (a) Motor learning: - when learning includes principally the utilisation of muscles it is called as engine learning. e.g.: figuring out how to stroll, to work a (b) Discrimination learning: - Learning which includes the demonstration of segregation is called separation learning. E.g. newborn child segregates in the middle of mother and a close relative, drain and water. (c) Verbal learning: - when learning includes the utilisation of words it is called as verbal learning. (d) Concept learning: - when learning includes the development of idea it is called as idea learning. (e) Sensory learning: - when learning is concerned with discernment and sense it is a tangible lead. 2.7.4   NATURE OF LEARNING: A. Learning is adjustment or alteration: We all constantly communicate with our surroundings. We regularly make alteration and adjust to our social surroundings. Through a procedure of constant taking in, the individual sets himself up for important conformity or adjustment. That is the reason learning is additionally portrayed as a procedure of dynamic conformity to constantly evolving conditions, which one experiences. B. Learning is change: Learning is regularly considered as a procedure of change with practice or preparing. We realise numerous things, which help us to enhance our execution. C. Learning is sorting out experience: Learning is not a minor expansion of information. It is the rearrangement of experience. D. Learning brings behavioural changes: Whatever the bearing of the progressions might be, learning acquires dynamic changes the conduct of a person. That is the reason he can conform to evolving circumstances. E. Learning is dynamic: Learning does not happen without a reason and self-action. In any showing learning prepare, the movement of the learner tallies more than the action of an instructor. F. Learning is objective coordinated: when the point and motivation behind learning are clear, an individual adapts quickly. It is the reason or objective, which figures out what, the learner finds in the learning circumstances and how he acts. On the off chance that there is no reason or objective learning can scarcely be seen. G. Learning is widespread and constant: All living animals learn. Each minute the individual draws in himself to take in more and that’s just the beginning. Right from the conception of a youngster till the demise learning proceeds. 2.7.5 PROCESS OF LEARNING Learning is a process. It is carried out through steps. Learning process involves –
  1. A motive or a drive.
  2. An attractive goal.
  3. A block to the attainment of the goal.
Let us see the steps one by one – (a)  An intention or a drive: Motive is the dynamic constraint that stimulates conduct and urges a person to act. We do any action due to our intentions or our needs. At the point when our need is, sufficiently solid we are constrained to make progress toward its fulfilment. Learning happens on account of reaction to some incitement. For whatever length of time that our present conduct, information, expertise and execution are satisfactory to fulfil everything our needs, utilise don’t feel any need to change our conduct towards it or secure new learning and aptitudes. It is this necessity, which starts a learner to learn something. (b) Goal: Every individual need to set an unequivocal objective for accomplishment. We ought to dependably have a positive objective for accomplishing anything. On the off chance that a clear objective is set than learning gets to be intentional and intriguing. (c) Obstacle/piece/obstruction: The deterrent or square or the boundary is just as vital during the time spent on learning. The hindrance or the obstructions keep us far from achieving the objective.       2.8    Reviews of learning theories (Five basic learning theories) Fundamental Orientations (Perspectives) for Learning Theories Hypotheses about human learning can be gathered into five wide “points of view”. These are: 1. Behaviourism :  concentrate on perceptible conduct 2. Cognitive :   learning as absolutely a mental/neurological procedure 3. Constructivism: learner consolidates new data with existing information 4. Humanistic:   feelings and influence assume a part in learning 5. Social:   people learn best in gathering exercises Four orientations to learning (after Merriam and Caffarella 1991: 138)
Aspect Behaviourist Cognitivist Humanist Social and situational
Learning theorists Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson, Guthrie, Hull, Tolman, Skinner Koffka, Köhler, Lewin, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne Maslow, Rogers Bandura, Lave and Wenger, Salomon
View of the learning process Change in behaviour Internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory, perception A personal act to fulfil potential. Interaction /observation in social contexts. Movement from the periphery to the centre of a community of practice
Locus of learning Stimuli in external environment Internal cognitive structuring Affective and cognitive needs Learning is in the relationship between people and environment.
Purpose in education Produce behavioural change in the desired direction Develop capacity and skills to learn better Become self-actualized, autonomous Full participation in communities of practice and utilisation of resources
Educator’s role Arranges environment to elicit desired response Structures content of learning activity Facilitates development of the whole person Works to establish communities of practice in which conversation and participation can occur.
Manifestations in adult learning Behavioural objectives Competency -based education Skill development and training Cognitive development Intelligence, learning and memory as function of age Learning how to learn Andragogy Self-directed learning Socialization Social participation Associationalism Conversation
Table 2.1 Four orientations to learning (Source: Smith, M. K. (1999) ‘Learning theory’, the encyclopaedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm) The advancement of these hypotheses over numerous decades is a captivating story. A few speculations created as a negative response to prior ones. Others based upon foundational speculations, taking a look at particular settings for learning or taking them to a more modern level. A brief depiction of these five general points of view here: 2.8.1. Behaviourist Orientation Behaviourism was founded by John B. Watson in the early part of the 20th Century. This was the earliest formulation of a coherent theory of learning, at least in modern Western society. A variety of perspectives emerged over the next few decades, including the work of Ivan Pavlov, Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, Hull, Skinner, and others. John B. Watson, who is generally credited as the first behaviourist, argued that the inner experiences that were the focus of psychology could not be properly studied as they were not observable. Instead, he turned to laboratory experimentation. The result was the generation of the stimulus-response model. In this, the environment is seen as providing stimuli to which individuals develop responses. (Smith M. K., 1999) From the behaviourist perspective, three assumptions are held to be true. First, the focus was on observable behaviour rather than on internal cognitive processes. If learning has occurred, then some sort of observable external behaviour is apparent. Second, the environment is the shaper of learning and behaviour; what one learns is determined by the elements in the environment, not individual characteristics. Third, Principles of contiguity and reinforcement are central to explaining the learning process. The behaviourist introduction is crucial to much current instructive work on, including grown-up training. Skinner trusted a definitive objective of instruction was to prepare people to practices which would guarantee their own survival, and additionally the survival of societies and the species. The instructor’s part, in this point of view, is to give a situation that evokes the fancied practices and smothers the undesirable ones. Instructive practices which have these ideas at their centre incorporate the orderly outline of the guideline, behavioural and execution targets, customised direction, competency-based direction, and educator responsibility. Preparing for abilities and livelihoods is especially intensely immersed with learning and being strengthened for ‘correct responses and behaviours’. In terms of learning, according to James Hartley (1998), four key principles come to the fore: (New Learning and New Literacies, 2010)
  • Activity is important. Learning is better when the learner is active rather than passive. (‘Learning by doing’ is to be applauded).
  • Repetition, generalisation and discrimination are important notions. Frequent practice – and practice in varied contexts – is necessary for learning to take place. Skills are not acquired without frequent practice.
  • Reinforcement is the cardinal motivator. Positive reinforcers like rewards and successes are preferable to negative events like punishments and failures.
  • Learning is helped when objectives are clear. Those who look to behaviourism in teaching will generally frame their activities by behavioural objectives e.g. ‘By the end of this session participants will be able to…’ With this comes a concern with competencies and product approaches to curriculum.

2.8.1.1  Major Thinkers in Behaviourism

2.8.1.2  Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936 Theory of Classical Conditioning) Ivan P. Pavlov is Russia’s most well-known researcher. He first won extraordinary qualification for his examination on the physiology of the digestive framework. Pavlov experienced a methodological issue that was eventually to demonstrate more imperative and more intriguing than his physiological exploration. He had found ‘conditioning’. For Pavlov, all conduct was reflexive. Be that as it may, how do such practices contrast from the conduct usually called ‘intuitive’? Instinctual conduct is now and then said to be propelled. The creature must be ravenous, to be sexually excited, or to have home building hormones before these sorts of instinctual conduct can happen. However, Pavlov reasoned that there is by all accounts no premise for recognising reflexes and what has ordinarily been considered as non-reflexive conduct. As a therapist, Pavlov was worried about the sensory system, and particularly the cerebral cortex, not with any legitimateness that he may discover in conduct. At a unique level, Pavlov believed that all learning, whether of evoked reactions in creatures or of very calculated practices in people, was because of the systems of established conditioning. We now trust it to not be right, however, it is none the less one of the considerable thoughts of our way of life (ClassicalConditioningof Ivan Petrovich Pavlov 1849-1936 select any one this or above). Ivan Petrovich Pavlov is the father of Russian psychology. He initially prepared and filled in as a physiologist yet his examination with creatures laid an essential base for the improvement of behavioural hypotheses. He contemplated circumstances in which one could create a given reaction (salvation) by utilising irrelevant boost (light, chime) alone. This marvel introduced itself after the disconnected jolt had been joined for a timeframe with the more characteristic elicitor of the craved reaction (sustenance). The specialised term utilised is the unconditioned boost (sustenance) for the ordinary method for getting the reaction. In this ordinary circumstance, the regular reaction (salvation) is the unconditioned reaction. It can get to be moulded reaction if combined enough with an adapted boost (chime, light). To summarise, classical conditioning (later developed by John Watson) involves learning to associate an unconditioned stimulus that already brings about a particular response (i.e. a reflex) with a new (conditioned) stimulus, so that the new stimulus brings about the same response. (McLeod S. A., 2013) Fig. 2.2 Pavlov’s classical conditioning Pavlov developed some rather unfriendly technical terms to describe this process. The unconditioned stimulus (or UCS) is the object or event that originally produces the reflexive / natural response. The response to this is called the unconditioned response (or UCR). The neutral stimulus (NS) is a new stimulus that does not produce a response. Once the neutral stimulus has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus, it becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS). The conditioned response (CR) is the response to the conditioned stimulus. There are four perspectives to the hypotheses Pavlov developed, based upon such established conditioning tests, they are:
  1. Fortification: Here support has a correct importance. It portrays circumstances in which a moulded jolt (e.g. light or chime) is over and over took after by an unconditioned boost (e.g. sustenance) and its regular reaction. Pavlov’s inquiries about included changing the support time plans and created an extra understanding of the established conditioning process. For an illustration, it was conceivable to acquire diverse reactions to two jolts by utilising support methods. This was known as ‘separation’.
  2. Eradication. Trial elimination was achieved by dropping the unconditioned boost (sustenance) out of the examination until the moulded reaction (salivating to the light) no more introduced itself. Termination is not an instance of overlooking. The reaction is debilitated extensively, however, one can repeat it.
  3. Inhabitation. Exploratory termination is a kind of inhabitation. A reaction can likewise be disposed of when a confounding jolt is utilised. Inhabitation can happen as a consequence of separation, a circumstance in which the subject recognises two boosts which beforehand produced the same reaction. Support can be utilised to finish an assortment of closures.
  4. Speculation. Speculation happens while inspiring properties of one boost are tackled by another jolt with which it is combined. On the off chance that both jolts are fortified, then speculation can happen (in the event that they are not both strengthened, a separation will happen).
Pavlov’s many experiments clearly support conclusions regarding the power of reinforcement. The basic idea of behaviourism was that shift in behaviour result primarily from conditioning processes, rather than from inborn biological mechanisms. (Kristinsdóttir, 2008) 2.8.1.3  Implications ofPavlovs Theoryto ClassroomSituations
  • The hypothesis trusted that one must have the capacity to practice and top an undertaking viable before setting out on another. This implies a student should have the capacity to react to a specific boost (data) before he/she can be connected with another one.
  • Instructors ought to know how to inspire their students to learn. They ought to be flexible with different procedures that can upgrade viable cooperation of the students in the educating learning exercises.
  • The majority of the passionate reactions can be learned through established conditioning. A negative or positive reaction gets through the boost being matched with. For instance, giving the fundamental school material to elementary school students will grow nice sentiments about school and learning in them, while, discipline will dishearten them from going to the school.
2.8.1.4  John Watson and the Theory of Conditioning
  • John Watson (1878-1958), the father of behaviourism
As a research based on educational psychology, the research scholar would like to include the famous the ‘Little Albert Experiment’ as it represents the facets of conditioning of the human mind. The Little Albert Experiment: The ‘Little Albert’ experiment was a celebrated psychological test led by behaviourist John B. Watson and graduate student Rosalie Rayner. Already, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov had directed trials showing the conditioning procedure in dogs. Watson was occupied with taking Pavlov’s examination further to demonstrate that passionate responses could be traditionally adapted in individuals. The member in the examination was a child that Watson and Rayner called “Albert B.”, yet is referred to famously today as Little Albert. Around the age of nine months, Watson and Rayner presented the child to a progression of jolts including a white rodent, a rabbit, a monkey, and covers and copying daily papers and watched the child’s responses. The child at first demonstrated no apprehension of any of the items he appeared. Whenever Albert has uncovered the rodent, Watson made an uproarious clamour by hitting a metal funnel with a mallet. Actually, the child started to cry subsequent to listening to the uproarious commotion. After more than once blending the white rodent with the noisy commotion, Albert started to cry just in the wake of seeing the rodent. Elements of Classical Conditioning in the Little Albert Experiment The Little Albert experiment presents an example of how classical conditioning can be used to condition an emotional response.
  • Neutral Stimulus: The white rat
  • Unconditioned Stimulus: The loud noise
  • Unconditioned Response: Fear
  • Conditioned Stimulus: The white rat
  • Conditioned Response: Fear
Watson and Rayner wrote: The instant the rat was shown, the baby began to cry. Almost instantly he turned sharply to the left, fell over on [his] left side, raised himself on all fours and began to crawl away so rapidly that he was caught with difficulty before reaching the edge of the table. (Cherry, 2016)
  • Watson bolstered Pavlov’s thoughts on adapted reactions. Through his investigations, Watson attempted to exhibit the part of conditioning in creating and additionally taking out passionate reactions, for example, dread.
  • Consider, for instance, the child who declines to go to class in the morning. Who taught the child to carry on along these lines? Potentially, a harasser frightened the youngster and imparted dread in him/her. The child connected going to class with the harasser and in this manner going to class turned into a terrifying background to him/her. The outcome is that at whatever point educational time comes, the child turns out to be rowdy and frightened. Watson saw these ‘inherent’ (moulded) practices all over.
  • Watson is best known for taking his hypothesis of behaviourism and applying it to the advancement of the child. He accepted unequivocally that a youngster’s situation is the element that shapes practices over their hereditary cosmetics or common personality. Watson is renowned for saying that he could take ‘twelve solid newborn children? What’s more, prepare any of them to wind up an expert he may choose - specialist, attorney, craftsman, and dealer boss and, yes, even homeless person man and hoodlum.’ at the end of the day, he trusted that you can open the child to certain ecological powers and, after some time, condition that child end up a man you need. As you may envision, this was radical speculation and a kind of behavioural control that numerous individuals were not happy with around then. Parts of Watson’s hypothesis:
  • He restricted mentalist ideas.
  • He utilised contiguity to clarify learning.
  • He considered feeling to be simply one more case of traditional conditioning.
  • He rejected the thought of individual contrasts.
  • He contemplated through blends of identifiable reflexes.
  • He was a boss defender of “support” and trusted that every single human contrast was the consequence of learning
2.8.1.5  Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949). Edward L. Thorndike’s pioneer investigations in the fields of human and animal learning are among the most influential in the history of Psychology. (Cooper, 2013) One of Thorndike’s incredible commitments to psychology was the Law of Effect, which expresses that reactions which happen only preceding a wonderful situation will probably be repeated, and reactions only before an irritating situation are more probable NOT to be repeated. The second commitment was his dismissal of the idea that man is essentially another individual that can reason. He trusted insight ought to be characterised exclusively regarding more prominent or lesser capacity to frame associations. Thorndike (1898) studied learning in animals (usually cats).  He devised a classic experiment in which he used a puzzle box (see fig. 2.3) to empirically test the laws of learning. (McLeod S. , 2007) Fig 2.3 Simplified graph of the result of the puzzle box experiment. He put a cat in the puzzle box, which had an urge to escape to achieve a scrap of fish set outside. Thorndike would put a cat into the crate and determine how long it would take the cat and to what extent it took to get away. The cats tried different things with various approaches to get away from the riddle box and achieve the fish. In the long run, they would discover the lever which opened the pen. When it had gotten away it was placed in once more, and afresh the time it took to escape was noted. In progressive trials the cats would discover that squeezing the lever would have good outcomes and they would embrace this conduct, turning out to be progressively snappy at squeezing the lever. A few extra laws shape some portion of Thorndike’s learning hypothesis:
  • Different Response: In any given circumstance, the individual will react in an assortment of ways if the principal reaction does not promptly prompt an all the more fulfilling situation. Critical thinking is through experimentation.
  • Set or Attitude: There are inclination’s to carry on or respond especially. These are extraordinary for species or gatherings of related species and might be socially decided in people.
  • Prepotency of Elements -Thorndike watched that a learner could sift through insignificant parts of a circumstance and react just too critical (defender) components in an issue circumstance.
  • The reaction by Analogy - In another setting, reactions from related or comparable connections might be exchanged to the new setting. This is now and again alluded to as the hypothesis of indistinguishable components.
  • Affiliated moving - It is conceivable to move any reaction starting with one jolt then onto the next.
  • Law of Readiness-a progression of reactions can be fastened together to fulfil some objective which will bring about inconvenience if blocked.
  • Law of Exercise - associations gets to be reinforced with practice and debilitate when practice is stopped.
  • Insight is an element of associations made.
Thorndike’s most prominent commitment is likely the accentuation he put on outcomes of conduct as determiners of what is discovered and what is definitely not. He likewise presented creature considers for checking forecasts produced using his hypothesis. He likewise was among the first to apply mental standards in the region of instructing. Structure acknowledged Thorndike’s view that associations were framed amongst boosts and reaction instead of prize and response. This turned into a focal component of Hull’s framework. His hypothesis was a sort of bound psychology more often than not called connectionism. He saw the most normal learning as a type of trial and learning process. He asserts that one learns by selecting a reaction and getting fortifications on the off chance that it is right, then an association is made. With his trials on creatures, Thorndike built up the laws of realising, that is, the conditions which the right reaction to picked jolts will be solidly altered in the creature’s conduct. These laws can be isolated into three classifications:
  1. Law of Effect: Once an association is made the quality of that association is relied on upon what takes after. A prize will reinforce that conduct and a discipline will debilitate the conduct, later Thorndike included that compensates are more critical than discipline.
  2. Laws of Readiness: Demonstrated that if a creature has a condition of preparation, making an association will be fulfilling and the creature will do things to keep up the associations. On the off chance that the life form is not prepared, the association will get to be irritating and the creature will do things to dispose of it. This status, however, is not care for perusing availability, it is more like readiness for activity. It has nothing to do with having the vital essential abilities or developing enough. Maybe it is substantially more a physical availability.
  3. Law of Exercise: Identifies with the reinforcing associations through practice and debilitating different associations through neglect. The Laws of Exercise has suggestions for the utilisation of practice and ideas of overlooking. He later added to this law the significance of not basic practice but rather of practice took after by prizes. Consequently, his Laws of Effect and Exercise are connected.
Thorndike did not put any accentuation on the part of importance or comprehension. His work was simply given to methods for expanding the event of specific practices and attempting to see how the occasions happened. Thorndike reasoned that compensates demonstration to fortify boost reaction affiliations. This was an essential rule, that he connected to people by guaranteeing that people add to a heap of jolt reaction affiliations. 2.8.1.6  Educational Implication of Thorndike’s Theory
  1. Thorndike’s hypothesis underscores the significance of inspiration in learning. So learning ought to be made intentional and objective coordinated.
  2. It hassles the significance of mental availability, important practice and motivating force in the learning process.
  3. The law of status suggests that the instructor ought to set up the psyches of the students to be prepared to acknowledge the information, abilities and aptitudes before educating the theme.
  4. To keep up an educated association for more period, a survey of scholarly material is fundamental.
  5. According to this hypothesis, the assignment can be begun from the simpler perspective towards its troublesome side. This methodology will give an advantage to the weaker and in the development of the child.
  6. A little child realises a few abilities through experimentation strategy just, for example, sitting, standing, strolling, running and so forth. In instructing likewise the child redresses the written work in the wake of submitting missteps.
  7. In this hypothesis, more accentuation has been laid on inspiration. Accordingly, before beginning instructing in the classroom, the students ought to be appropriately stimulated.
  8. Practice leads a man towards development. Practice is the principle highlight of experimentation strategy. Rehearse helps in decreasing the mistakes submitted by the child in realising any idea.
  9. Habits are framed as an aftereffect of reiteration. With the assistance of this hypothesis, the wrong propensities for the youngsters can be adjusted and the great propensities reinforced.
  10. The hypothesis might be considered very supportively in changing the conduct of the reprobate child. The instructor ought to cure such youngsters making utilisation of this hypothesis.
  11. The impacts of prizes and discipline additionally influence the learning of the child. In this manner, the hypothesis lays accentuation on the utilisation of prize and discipline in the class by the instructor.
  12. With the assistance of this hypothesis, the instructor can control the negative feelings of the children, for example, outrage, envy and so forth.
  13. The instructor can enhance his showing strategies making utilisation of this hypothesis. He should watch the impacts of his showing techniques on the students and ought not to falter to roll out vital improvements in them if required.
  14. The hypothesis pays more accentuation on oral drill work. Consequently, an educator ought to lead oral drill of the taught substance. This assistance in fortifying the adapting more.
2.8.1.7  B.F. Skinner’s Theory of Instrumental or Operant Conditioning The research scholar here would like to mention the renowned researcher B.F.Skinner and his famous experiment as a part of deeper understanding the psychology of teaching and learning. By the 1920s, John B. Watson had left academic psychology and other behaviourists were becoming influential, proposing new forms of learning other than ‘classical conditioning’. Perhaps the most important of these was Burrhus Frederic Skinner. Although, for obvious reasons, he is more commonly known as B.F. Skinner. Skinner’s perspectives were somewhat less compelling than those of Watson. Skinner trusted that we do have such an incredible facet of a brain, however, that it is essentially more profitable to concentrate on detectable conduct instead of inward mental occasions. The work of Skinner has established in a perspective that traditional conditioning was excessively short-sighted to be a finished clarification of complex human conduct. He trusted that an ideal approach to comprehending conduct is to take a look at the reasons for an activity and its outcomes. He called this methodology ‘Operant Conditioning’. BF Skinner: Operant Conditioning Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect. Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect - Reinforcement. Behaviour which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behaviour which is not reinforced tends to die out or be extinguished (i.e. weakened). Skinner (1948) studied Operant Conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a ‘Skinner Box’ which was similar to Thorndike’s puzzle box. Fig 2.4  Skinner Box Operant Conditioning manages operants - deliberate activities that affect the encompassing environment. Skinner set out to recognise the procedures which made certain operant practices pretty much prone to happen. Skinner’s hypothesis of operant conditioning depended on the work of Thorndike (1905). Edward Thorndike concentrated on learning in creatures utilising a riddle box to propose the hypothesis known as the ‘Law of Effect’. Instrumental conditioning hypothesis of learning was figured by B.F. Skinner., who was an American Psychologist. His hypothesis came taking into account the omissions found in the traditional conditioning hypothesis. Skinner trusted that traditional conditioning clarified just how to conduct that has as of now been procured can happen in the vicinity of another jolt (Iversen, 1992). Operant or instrumental conditioning, notwithstanding, trusted that most learnings comprise of procuring new conduct. He trusted that conduct is a result of a reaction that takes after the activity. The learner will conceivably rehash the activity or a specific conduct on the off chance that it is taken after/compensated with a charming result (uplifting feedback). Skinner clarified the two kinds of reactions in his hypothesis. One can be evoked just by the boost or data an individual secures at a specific period (reflex reaction). For instance, venturing on a sharp protest or touching a hot metal will initially make somebody create a reflex reaction. The second sort is the reaction that an individual evokes taking after his/her own choice. This kind of reaction is called operant conditioning. It depends on the way that conduct works upon nature to create its own particular reaction. This operant conduct discharges deliberate reaction. Operant conditioning trusts that behavioural reactions get to be associated with ecological jolts to a great extent as a consequence of what happens after the reaction happens. To set up his cases, Skinner performed numerous analyses with pigeons and white rats in the research centre. He developed a container (Skinner box) with a little lever inside it. The lever discharges sustenance to the creatures at whatever point the lever is squeezed. In one of the examinations, an eager rodent is set in the crate and if the rodent presses the lever, the sustenance would drop for it. The lever, in this case, is mechanically associated with a gadget that naturally records each endeavour the rodent made. In the case, the rodent moved around eagerly and every time the lever is squeezed, the nourishment falls for the rodent. The rodent gets to be relentless in squeezing the lever so that the nourishment could fall. The sustenance that descends for the rodent fortifies its activity, this lever squeezing turns into a conditioning reaction for the rodent. Conversely, if the nourishment is not going with the squeezing of the lever, the quantity of presses would fall step by step to the most minimal point. In this sort of hypothesis, it is the outcome or result of a conduct that makes that conduct more inclined to be rehashed on educated. On the off chance that the aftereffect of conduct is satisfying, one is liable to react the same path whenever one experiences that jolt. In the above examination, the squeezing of lever gets to be an instrument (instrumental). Skinner in this hypothesis distinguished the two sorts of strengthens, they are certain and negative fortifies. The boost that happens after a reaction is called fortifying. Giving a lovely or complimentary comment to a student for scoring a decent check in a task or homework is a positive reinforce. By this activity, it is likely that such a student will need to keep doing his/her task expeditiously. Be that as it may, the student who gets discipline for getting rowdy in the classroom is not liable to rehash the activity for which he/she has gotten a repulsive/negative prize. 2.8.1.8 Classroom ImplicationsofInstrumental/Operant Conditioning Theory The educator ought to realise that the earth or the conditions in which the students learn are exceptionally noteworthy to the learning results, henceforth, the instructor ought to give helpful learning environment and conditions for his/her students. 1.  Reinforcement is a crucial variable if the students must perform well in a given assignment. To this end, the instructor ought not to disregard the utilisation of inspiration that can sufficiently move the students into activities. 2. If a student takes part in a problematic conduct, the educator ought not to fortify such a conduct rather, he/she ought to attempt to tell such a student the challenge result of that activity. 3.  At the point when there is impedance in the exchange of encounters by the learners, the instructor might utilise clarifications and fortification to fortify the wanted truths and debilitate the undesired one. Operant Conditioning in the Classroom In the ordinary learning circumstance, operant conditioning applies to a great extent to issues of class and student administration, as opposed to learning content. It is extremely pertinent to conditioning ability execution. A basic approach to shape conduct is to give input on learner execution, e.g. compliments, endorsement, consolation, and attestation. A variable proportion delivers the most astounding reaction rate for students taking in another assignment, whereby at first fortification (e.g. acclaim) happens at continuous interims, and as the execution enhances support happens less much of the time, until in the long run just uncommon results are fortified. For instance, if an instructor needed to urge students to answer questions in class they ought to applaud them for each endeavour (paying little respect to whether their answer is right). Progressively the educator will just acclaim the students when their answer is right, and after some time just excellent answers will be lauded. Undesirable practices, for example, lateness and commanding class dialogue can be stifled through being disregarded by the educator (as opposed to being strengthened by having consideration attracted to them). Information of accomplishment is additionally vital as it inspires future learning. In any case, it is essential to fluctuate the sort of support given so that the conduct is kept up. This is not a simple errand, as the educator may seem crafty in the event that he/she ponders the best approach to carry on. Critical Evaluation: Operant conditioning can be utilised to clarify a wide assortment of practices, from the procedure of learning to fixation and dialect obtaining. It likewise has common sense application, (for example, token economy) which can be connected in classrooms, jails and psychiatric clinics. Be that as it may, operant conditioning neglects to consider the part of acquired and intellectual elements in learning, and in this way is a fragmented clarification of the learning procedure in people and creatures. For example, (Kohler, 1924) found that primates often seem to solve problems in a flash of insight rather than be trial and error learning. Also, social learning theory (Bandura, 1977) suggests that humans can learn automatically through observation rather than through personal experience. The utilisation of creature exploration in operant conditioning concentrates additionally raises the issue of extrapolation. A few psychologists contend we can’t sum up from studies on creatures to people as their life systems and physiology is not the same as people, and they can’t consider their encounters and summon reason, persistence, memory or self-solace. 2.8.2  Cognitive Orientation
  • Subjective hypotheses of learning is worried about procedures which happen inside the cerebrum and sensory system as a man learns. They share the viewpoint that individuals effectively handle data and learning happens through the endeavours of the learner. Inside mental procedures incorporate inputting, sorting out, putting away, recovering, and discovering connections between data. New data is connected to old learning, pattern and scripts.
  • All the different intellectual methodologies underline how data is prepared. There were some early endeavours to compose intellectual speculations in the late 1900’s, yet these were usurped by the behaviourist work being done around then. It was not until the years after World War II that intellectual speculations started to discover their quality.
The Gestalt psychologists were the first to challenge the behaviourist point of view. They criticised behaviourism for its reductionist tendencies and felt it was too dependent on external behaviours to explain learning. By the mid-twentieth century, Gestalt theories and the work of Wertheimer, Köhler, Koffka, and Lewin provided competition to behaviourism as the only accepted theory of learning. (Merriam & Caffarella, 1991) Operant conditioning (also called ‘instrumental conditioning’) is a type of learning in which (a) the strength of a behaviour is modified by the behaviour’s consequences, such as reward or punishment, and (b) the behaviour is controlled by antecedents called ‘discriminative stimuli’ which come to signal those consequences. Fig 2.5  Diagram of operant conditioning (Operant Conditioning, 2016)
  • Gestalt learning hypotheses accentuated recognition, understanding, and significance as the key components of learning. The individual was seen as a perceptual living being, who composed, translated, and offered to intend to the occasions that encroached upon his cognizance. Understanding occasions and wonders was a driving idea. The learner understands things by considering them. For Gestaltists, the uniqueness of the learner and his inner mental procedures is fundamental.
Piaget (1973) believed that the child plays an active role in the growth of intelligence and learns by doing. He regarded the child as a philosopher who perceives the world only as he has experienced it. Therefore, most of Piaget’s inspiration in cognitive and intellectual development came from observations of children. In fact, Piaget observed and studied his own three children through each stage of their cognitive development. (Piaget, Main Trends in Psychology, 1973)
  • A contemporary exploration into psychological learning hypothesis concentrates on data parade, memory, metacognition, speculations of exchange, PC recreations, counterfeit consciousness, numerical learning models, Ausubel, Bruner, and Gagne are all named contemporary subjective scholars. Each of these scholars underscored distinctive parts of the subjective working of the individual and gathering settings.
  • Psychological speculations are very various, however, all are brought together by the significance of the learner’s interior mental procedures. These three spearheading subjective scholars, Bruner, Ausubel and Gagné likewise shared normal thoughts. They didn’t underscore a formative point of view, as much as Piaget did. These three scholars were contemporaries, doing quite a bit of their work in the 1960’s and 1970’s. And, after its all said and done, each was perceived as a compelling voice in his field.
  • In spite of the fact that Ausubel, Bruner and Gagné each took alternate points of view on realising, each has made critical commitments to the general model of human learning. Ausubel considered the effect of former learning and started the instrument called the “propelled coordinator”. The behaviourists did not consider the significance of former learning.
  • Bruner’s work on categorization and idea development gave models of how the learner gets data from the earth. Gagné took a look at the occasions of learning and guideline as a progression of stages, utilising the subjective strides of coding, putting away, recovering and exchanging data.
  • James Hartley (1998) has helpfully drawn out a portion of the key standards of learning connected with subjective psychology. As he puts it: ‘Taking in results from deductions, desires and making associations. Rather than gaining propensities, learners obtain arrangements and systems, and the earlier information is vital” (Smith M. K., 1999). The standards he recognises are:
  • Instruction ought to be very much composed. All around composed materials less demanding to learn and to recollect.
  • Instruction ought to be unmistakably organised. Topics are said to have intrinsic structures – consistent connections between key thoughts and ideas – which interface the parts together.
  • The perceptual components of the assignment are critical. Learners go too specifically to various parts of the earth. Hence, the way an issue is shown is imperative if learners are to comprehend it.
  • Prior learning is essential. Things must fit with what is as of now known whether it is to be learnt.
  • Differences between people are vital as they will influence learning. Contrasts in ‘psychological style’ or techniques for methodology impact learning.
  • Cognitive criticism offers data to learners about their prosperity or disappointment concerning the current workload. Support can come through giving data – an ‘information of results’ – as opposed to just a prize.
  • Vital classroom standards from intellectual psychology incorporate significant learning, association, and elaboration.
  • Create a domain where there are loads of manipulatives, instruments where they can build up a comprehension. An educator can make inquiries to offer students some assistance with refining their reasoning and perceive where they might not be right.
  • Failure might be viewed as something to be thankful for as it is a device to offer learners some assistance with realising that they have to take in more.
  • The role of the instructor: monitoring their progress, asking lots of questions.
Shannon says as in her blog (-Ryer, n.d.) Refined by Skinner, and is perhaps better known as operant conditioning - reinforcing what you want people to do again; ignoring or punish what you want people to stop doing. In terms of learning there are four key principles come to the forefront:
  • Activity is important. Learning is better when the learner is active rather than passive. (‘Learning by doing’ is to be applauded).
  • Repetition, generalisation and discrimination are important notions. Frequent practice - and practice in varied contexts - is necessary for learning to take place. Skills are not acquired without frequent practice.
  • Reinforcement is the cardinal motivator. Positive reinforcers like rewards and successes are preferable to negative events like punishments and failures. Learning is helped when objectives are clear.
2.8.2.1  Major Thinkers in Cognitivism
2.8.2.2  Max Wertheimer (1880 - 1943) Gestalt Learning Theory Productive Thinking
Along with Köhler and Koffka, Max Wertheimer was one of the principal proponents of Gestalt theory which emphasised higher-order cognitive processes in the midst of behaviourism. The focus of Gestalt theory was the idea of “grouping”, i.e., characteristics of stimuli cause us to structure or interpret a visual field or problem in a certain way (Wertheimer, 1922). (Culatta, Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer), 2015) Further (Manichander, Brindhamani, & Marisamy, 2015) describes the primary factors that determine grouping were: (1)  Proximity - elements tend to be grouped together according to their nearness, (2)  Similarity - items similar in some respect tend to be grouped together, (3)  Closure - items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity, and
(4)  Simplicity - items will be organised into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness.
These factors were called the laws of organisation and were explained in the context of perception and problem-solving. Wertheimer was particularly worried about critical thinking. Wertheimer gives a Gestalt elucidation of critical thinking scenes of celebrated researchers (e.g., Galileo, Einstein) and also youngsters gave scientific issues. The embodiment of effective critical thinking conduct as indicated by Wertheimer is having the capacity to see the general structure of the issue: “A certain region in the field becomes crucial, is focused; but it does not become isolated. A new, deeper structural view of the situation develops, involving changes in functional meaning, the grouping, etc. of the items. Directed by what is required by the structure of a situation for a crucial region, one is led to a reasonable prediction, which like the other parts of the structure, calls for verification, direct or indirect. Two directions are involved: getting a whole consistent picture, and seeing what the structure of the whole requires for the parts.” (Wertheimer, 1959) Application Gestalt theory applies to all aspects of human learning, although it applies most directly to perception and problem-solving. The work of Gibson was strongly influenced by Gestalt theory. Principles
  • The learner should be encouraged to discover the underlying nature of a topic or problem (i.e., the relationship among the elements).
  • Gaps, incongruities, or disturbances are an important stimulus for learning
  • Instruction should be based upon the laws of organisation: proximity, closure, similarity and simplicity.
2.8.2.3  Kurt Lewin (1890 - 1947) Field Theory of Learning or Topological Theory of Learning This hypothesis was put by Kurt Lewin. It is extremely vital to comprehend a man’s conduct, one must perceive his position on a kind of a guide in connection to objectives, he is attempting to achieve Kurt Lewin was a Gestalt psychologist and along these lines he propounded his hypothesis on the premise of gestaltian components with a little change or adjustment field hypothesis of understanding gives more significance on encounters while the topological hypothesis of Lewins stresses on conduct and makes utilisation of inspiration. This hypothesis, which manages the life space to clarify the individual’s conduct can be concentrated on as under. There are four primary segments of this hypothesis. They are (1)  Life space, (2)  Valence, (3)  Barrier, and (4)  Motivation. (1)  Life space - The ‘life space’ in this hypothesis alludes to that environment, which individual is living reacting or responding. It incorporates the elements of the environment to which the individual is responding to the general population he comes in contact, the material he experiences and controls his reasoning way and limit of creative ability. This environment is connected with the relationship in the middle of the individual and his psychology and so forth. The individual needs to cross certain boundaries to accomplish his objectives. It can appear through the accompanying outlines. The gathering of strengths arrange individual’s conduct designed and this example will decide his future conduct. It alludes the space in which one lives mentally. (2)  Valence - Valence infers fascination or shock of a locale or objective or reason for the movement is alluring (gives delight or lessens pressures), it is called as positive valence and if the objectives or the mental area is incautious (expansions strain and so on) it is known as Negative Valence. This Valence might be solid medium or week relying on the mental elements. (3)  Barrier - The individual needs to cross a number of troubles, hindrances and issues to achieve his wanted objective. These challenges, dangers or boundary might be physical or mental ceaseless remaking happen as a consequence of the mental changes in the life space of a person. (4)  Motivation - Lewin gives a critical spot to inspiration in his hypothesis. By. ‘Inspiration is the procedure, in which intentions are identified with particular objectives and the fulfilment of thought process is controlled by accomplishing it’. The outer and inside both sorts of inspiration are imperative. He has acknowledged the estimation of prize and discipline in his hypothesis of learning. 2.8.2.4  Educational Implications of Lewins Theory: Kurt Lewin (Luh-veen) was considered by some as the father of present day social psychology because of his demonstration of softening new ground up utilising investigative strategies and experimentation in the investigation of social conduct. His attention on combining psychology with the logic of science brought about a broad number of exact studies performed in the domains of child improvement, inspiration and social conduct, especially doing with observational studies and investigations on child’s conduct. Lewin adjusted Gestalt standards as well as further connected them to a hypothesis of identity and advancement into what is presently known as the ‘Psychological Field Theory’. He made an interpretation of Gestalt rationality into social experience including individuals who ought to be considered as wholes as opposed to being made out of discrete parts. A man is displayed all in all framework comprising of subsystems that are to some degree isolated yet are still equipped for connecting and consolidating with each other. He was one of the main psychologists to recommend that the improvement of an individual was the result of the connection between characteristic inclinations (nature) and backgrounds (sustain). This origination was displayed by Lewin as a numerical condition known as Lewin’s Equation for conduct, expressing that conduct is the capacity of the individual associating inside his surroundings or B = f (P,E). In that capacity, Lewin represented human conduct by stressing strengths and strains that impact it. He declared that the conduct of an individual is constantly designed for some objective or goal and it is correctly this goal that matters most in the execution of conduct. These expectations evidently take after field standards and are affected by mental powers, for example, how the individual sees a circumstance. As per Levin, conduct exists in a totality of cooperating truths which contain a dynamic field. The circumstances or conditions in any part of the field are impacted by and rely on upon each other part of the field. This mental field is also called the life space which involves the individual and his mental or behavioural environment otherwise called actualities that influence the conduct or considerations of the person at one point in time. Life space is most as often as possible controlled by the physical and social environment that the individual ends up in. It might incorporate spots where he goes, occasions that happen, emotions about spots and individuals experienced, what he sees on TV or peruses in books, his envisioned considerations and objectives. Incorporated by a child’s life space are strengths which the child might know about or not, notwithstanding constraints which are acknowledged by the youngster as genuine however they may not be so. For instance, if a child is persuaded that his kin is more adored by their folks, regardless of the possibility that it was not valid, the youngster’s recognition would, for, despite everything him be a certainty inside his life space. Working from this misguided judgment, the child’s conduct and demeanours would be affected the same amount of as though what he knew were to be sure a truth. Actualities in a child’s life space can come from different sources, for example, the current physiological state, e.g. yearning or energy, his social needs, for example, wish for endorsement, his past encounters, present substances and future objectives. The improvement of a child is described by an identity framework that consistently extends and separates to suit the learning of new parts, standards and social codes. Lewin further offered a clarification with respect to why same age child’s show contrasts being developed. Every child encounters a special mix of realities that make up his life space that can never be precisely the same as another child’s life space. Action research Kurt Lewin is also generally credited as the person who coined the term ‘action research’. The research needed for social practice can best be characterised as research for social management or social engineering. It is a type of action research, a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action, and research leading to social action. Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice (Lewin, 1973). Fig 2.6  Kurt Lewin change model His approach involves a spiral of steps, ‘each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action and fact-finding about the result of the action’ (ibid.: 206). The basic cycle involves the following: This is how Lewin describes the initial cycle: The first step then is to examine the idea carefully in the light of the means available. Frequently more fact-finding about the situation is required. If this first period of planning is successful, two items emerge: namely, “an overall plan” of how to reach the objective and secondly, a decision in regard to the first step of action. Usually, this planning has also somewhat modified the original idea. (ibid.: 205) The next step is ‘composed of a circle of planning, executing, and reconnaissance or fact finding for the purpose of evaluating the results of the second step and preparing the rational basis for planning the third step, and for perhaps modifying again the overall plan’ (ibid.: 206). What we can see here is an approach to research that is oriented to problem-solving in social and organisational settings, and that has a form that parallels Dewey’s conception of learning from experience. The approach, as presented, does take a fairly sequential form – and it is open to literal interpretation. Following it can lead to practice that is ‘correct’ rather than ‘good’ – as we will see. It can also be argued that model itself places insufficient emphasis on analysis at key points.
  1.   Wolfgang Köhler (1887 - 1967) Insight Learning
Köhler was one of the first Gestalt scholars, alongside Wertheimer and Koffka. These ‘fathers of Gestalt’ were Germans, however, finished their professions in the US. Gestalt hypothesis developed as a response to the behaviourist speculations of Pavlov and Watson which concentrated on mechanical jolt reaction conduct. The expression ‘Gestalt’ alludes to any example or sorted out entirety. The key idea in Gestalt hypothesis is that the way of the parts is dictated by the entire - parts are optional to the entirety. When we prepare tactile jolts, we know straightforwardly of a design or general example which is gotten a handle on all in all. For instance, when listening to music, we see a tune as opposed to individual notes, or when taking a look at an artistic creation, we see the general picture instead of individual brush strokes. Köhler underscored that one must analyse the entire to find what its common parts are, and not continue from littler components as a whole. Köhler proposed the view that insight follows from the characteristics of objects under consideration. His theory suggested that learning could occur by “sudden comprehension” as opposed to gradual understanding. This could occur without reinforcement, and once it occurs, no review, training, or investigation are necessary. Significantly, insight is not necessarily observable by another person. (Radtke, 2009). Kohler questioned Thorndike’s conclusion that his animals learned mechanically through the selection of action of rewards and punishments (Hothersall, 1995). Kohler attempted to prove that animals arrive at a solution through insight rather than trial and error. His first experiments with dogs and cats involved food being placed on the other side of a barrier. The dogs and cats went right towards the food instead of moving away from the goal to circumvent the barrier like chimps who were presented with this situation (Luyster, 2010). Köhler strayed from the experiential methodologies utilised by behaviourist psychologists as a part of concentrating on learning. He outlined a progression of issue circumstances for the chimpanzees that he was working with. For every situation, every one of the components that were expected to tackle the issue was accessible to the creatures. By watching how the chimpanzees solved the issues, he achieved the conclusion that learning occurred through a demonstration of knowledge. His hypothesis proposed that learning could happen by “sudden appreciation” rather than continuous comprehension. This could happen without support, and once it happens, no audit, preparing, or examination are essential. Essentially, knowledge is not as a matter, of course, detectable by someone else. Five qualities of Insight Learning:
  • The more noteworthy the knowledge, the more noteworthy are the potential outcomes of accomplishing understanding.
  • The more grounded the encounters of the creature, the more prominent probability it will have of accomplishing understanding.
  • Insight learning can be tried in the lab.
  • Insight learning can be connected to new circumstances.
  • Even if adroit learning is not the aftereffect of experimentation, experimentation is available in knowledge.
2.8.2.6  EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS 1.  From Whole to Parts: The instructor ought to show the topic in general to encourage understanding learning. 2.  Incorporated Approach: While arranging educational modules, gestalt standards ought to be given due thought. A specific subject ought not to be dealt with as the simple accumulation of disengaged realities. It ought to be firmly coordinated into an entirety. 3.  The significance of Motivation: The instructor ought to excite the child’s interest, hobby and inspiration. He ought to increase full consideration of the entire class before educating. 4.  Accentuation on Understanding: It has made taking in a smart undertaking requiring mental capacities than a jolt - reaction affiliation. So the learner must be given open doors for utilising his mental capacities. 5.  Critical thinking Approach: This hypothesis accentuation that as the learner can take care of issues by his knowledge, important learning, and learning by understanding, thinking, and so on must be energised in the school. 6.  Checking of Previous Experiences: As knowledge relies on the past encounters of the learner, the instructor must check the past encounters of the child and relate them with the new learning circumstance. 7.  Objective Orientation: As learning is a deliberate and objective arranged assignment, the learner must be all around familiar with these destinations. He ought to be completely acquainted with the objectives and purposes of each assignment. Knowledge learning does not include continuous conditioning or experimentation. Rather, inward hierarchical procedures happen that bring about new conduct. Wolfgang Kohler’s most celebrated study on Insight learning (1925) included Sultan, the chimpanzee, who, Kohler contended, utilised understanding to take in an imaginative method for achieving a natural product that was out of compass. In opposition to strict speculations of behaviourism, Insight learning proposes that we learn by conditioning, as well as by psychological procedures that can’t be specifically watched. In people, understanding learning happens at whatever point the answer for an issue all of a sudden shows up, regardless of the fact that already no advancement was being made. Understanding ought not to be mistaken for heuristics. Insight is understanding another conduct to take care of an issue, while a heuristic is a mental easy route to handle a lot of data. Humans, especially, have the power to see the relationship between things and come up with a solution.  An example would be the times when we try our best to come up with a solution but are trials would prove to be fruitless.  But suddenly, out of nowhere, a solution would come to us.  This is what Kohler called as ‘insight learning’. For Kohler, insight involves a sudden restructuring of our perceptual world into a new pattern or gestalt.  Kohler did not deny the importance of reward and punishment. (demiguin, 2015)

2.8.3.  Constructivism (Constructivist Learning Theory)

Constructivism is the mark given to an arrangement of hypotheses about realising which fall under some place amongst psychological and humanistic perspectives. On the off chance that behaviourism regards the living being as a black box, intellectual hypothesis perceives the significance of the psyche in understanding the material with which it is exhibited. In any case, regardless it presupposes that the part of the learner is fundamental to absorb whatever the instructor presents. Constructivism — especially in its ‘social’ structures — proposes that the learner is a great deal all the more effectively required in a joint endeavour with the educator of making (‘developing’) new implications. Constructivism is where each individual learner combines new information with existing knowledge and experiences (Jonassen, 1999) (Yusof, Azli, Kosnin, Yusof, & Yusof, 2012). Constructivism is additionally a philosophical perspective. The objectivist logic, or world perspective, hold that there is a target world that is seen pretty much precisely through the faculties, and that learning is the procedure of effectively deciphering the faculties and reacting accurately to items and occasions in this present reality. Constructivism is a generally late branch of psychology that has majorly affected the reasoning of numerous instructional theorists. Constructivist thinking varies broadly on many issues, but the central point is that learning is always a unique product constructed as each individual learner combines new information with existing knowledge and experiences. An individual has learned when they have constructed new interpretations of the social, cultural, physical, and intellectual environments in which they live (Dick and Carey, 2005). There are different schools of constructivism thought. (Ibid 158) Insignificant (Cognitive) Constructivism: The idea that information is effectively built by the learner, not latently got by nature. Gotten from the absorption - settlement and pattern models of Piaget. Social constructivism: By constructivism, learning is naturally social. What we realise in a component of social standards and understandings, and the information is not just built by the individual, but rather by social gatherings. Moderate constructivism: Keeps up that there is to be sure a true however that our comprehension of it is exceptionally individual and evolving. Radical constructivism: Holds that we can never truly know the careful way of this present reality, so it is just our understandings that matter. Social Constructivism: Gets a more extensive connection to learning, including traditions, religion, dialect, and physiology, devices accessible (Computers, books, and so on.). Instruments are utilised to redistribute the intellectual burden between the learner and the apparatus and can influence the psyche past real use by changing one’s abilities, points of view, and reactions. Basic Constructivism: Basic Constructivism includes a measurement of basic assessment and social change to the instructive procedure. This methodology consolidates the utilisation of Communicative Ethics which characterises the conditions for building up dialogue arranged toward common comprehension among learners and instructors. Informative Ethics advances (1) essential sympathy toward looking after sympathetic, mindful, and trusting connections, (2) duty to accomplish complementary comprehension of objectives, hobbies and guidelines, and (3) sympathy toward and basic familiarity with the regularly imperceptible tenets of the classroom, including social and social myths. 2.8.3.1  Principles of Constructivist Learning The research scholar has come to many facets of the character of an ideal constructive learning and they are as follows:
  • Emphasise adapting instead of instructing.
  • Emphasise the activities and considering learners instead of instructors.
  • Emphasis on dynamic learning.
  • Use revelation or guided disclosure approaches.
  • Encourage learner development of data and activities.
  • Have an establishment in arranged insight and its related thought of tied down direction.
  • Use helpful or cooperative learning exercises.
  • Use deliberate, genuine or credible learning exercises.
  • Emphasise learner decision and arrangement of objectives, methodologies, and assessment strategies.
  • Encourage individual self-rule with respect to the learners.
  • Support learner reflection.
  • Support learner responsibility for and exercises.
  • Encourage learners to acknowledge and think about the intricacy of this present reality.
  • Use authentic activities and exercises that are actually significant to learners.
  • Motivation is a vital segment since it causes the learner’s tactile mechanical assembly to be enacted. Importance, interest, fun, achievement, accomplishment, outer prizes and different inspirations encourage simplicity of learning.
  • Knowledge is important for learning. It is the premise of structure and importance making. The more we know, the more we can learn.
  • Fundamentals of Constructivism for course outline (Presuppositions from Bruner).
  • Students accompany a world perspective.
  • Their world perspective goes about as a channel to every one of their encounters and approaching perceptions.
  • Changing a world perspective takes work.
  • Students gain from different students and the educator.
  • Students learn by doing.
  • When all members have a voice, development of new thoughts is advanced
  • Constructivism works best when the learner gets ready something for others to see or listen. At the point when the learner gets ready visuals, for example, content, representation, sites, or exercises in which another can take an interest, or attempts to disclose material to different students, or works in a gathering setting, inclining is particularly intense.
  • The research scholar focuses the nine characteristics of a ‘Constructivist Teacher’ which are as follows:
1. The teacher serves as one of the numerous assets for students, not inexorably the essential wellspring of data. 2. The educator connects with students in encounters that test past originations of their current learning. 3. The educator utilises student reactions as a part of the arranging of next lessons and looks for the elaboration of students’ starting reactions. 4. The educator empowers inquiries and discourse among students by asking open-finished inquiries. 5. The educator helps students to comprehend their own psychological procedures (metacognition) by utilising subjective wording, for example, group, examine, make, arrange, a chain of importance, and so on when surrounding assignments. 6. The instructor supports and acknowledges student self-governance and activity by being willing to relinquish classroom control 7. The instructor makes accessible rudimentary information and essential assets, alongside manipulative and intelligent physical materials. 8. The instructor does not isolate knowing from the procedure of discovering. 9. The instructor encourages clear correspondence from students in composing and verbal reactions, from the perspective that correspondence originates from ones profound basic comprehension of the ideas being imparted. When they can impart unmistakably and genuinely, they have really incorporated the new learning. Standards of constructivist course plan:
  • Maintain a mitigation between the learner and possibly harming impacts of instructional practices. Accentuate the full of the feeling area, make direction pertinent to the learner, offer learners some assistance with developing states of mind and convictions that evil backing both present learning and long-lasting learning and adjust educator control with individual independence in the learning environment.
  • Provide connections for both self-ruling learning and learning inside of connections to different students. Bunch examination, ventures, cooperation and also free.
  • Provide purposes behind learning inside of the learning exercises themselves. Have students recognise pertinence and reason.
  • Promote and make cognizant the attitude and mentalities that empower a learner to expect obligation regarding his/her subjective and formative procedures.
  • Use the vital investigation of blunders to fortify the learner’s contribution.
  2.8.3.2  Major Contributors to Constructivism
  • David Ausubel
  • Jerome Bruner
  • Jean Piaget
2.8.3.3  David Ausubel (1918 - 2008) Meaningful Verbal Learning or Subsumption Theory Ausubel’s Learning Theory David Paul Ausubel was an American psychologist who’s most significant contribution is tothe fields of educational psychology, cognitive science, and science education. Ausubel believed that understanding concepts, principles, and ideas are achieved through deductive reasoning. Similarly, he believed in the idea of meaningful learning as opposed to conditioning memorization. The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. This led Ausubel to develop an interesting theory of meaningful learning and advance organisers. The assimilation theory of meaningful verbal learning and retention and the distinctions between rote and meaningful learning and between reception and discovery learning are reviewed in the light of some recent research on advance organisers, adjunct questions, and cognitive style. An attempt is made to reply to some of the frequently made criticisms of the author’s research methodology in his studies of advance organisers and retroactive interference in meaningful prose learning and retention. (Ausubel, 2009) Learning Theory
  • Ausubel’s trusts that learning of new information depends on what is now known. That is, development of information starts with our perception and acknowledgement of occasions and questions through ideas we as of now have. We learn by building a system of ideas and adding to them.
  • Ausubel additionally focuses on the significance of gathering as opposed to revelation learning and important as opposed to repetition learning. He proclaims that his hypothesis applies just to gathering learning in school settings. He didn’t say, in any case, that revelation learning doesn’t work; yet rather that it was not proficient. At the end of the day, Ausubel trusted that understanding ideas, standards, and thoughts are accomplished through deductive thinking. Ausubel was affected by the teachings of Jean Piaget. Like Piaget’s thoughts of theoretical plans, Ausubel related this to his clarification of how individuals procure information.
  • Significant learning by doing.
  • Ausubel’s hypothesis additionally concentrates on important learning. By hypothesis, to learn definitively, people must relate new information to significant ideas they definitely know. New information must associate with the learner’s learning structure.
  • Significant learning can be stood out from repetition learning. He had confidence in significant learning instead of repetition retention. The last can likewise consolidate new data into the previous learning structure yet without cooperation. Repetition memory is utilised to review successions of articles, for example, telephone numbers. Be that as it may, it is of no utilisation to the learner in comprehension the connections between the articles. Since significant learning includes an acknowledgement of the connections between ideas, it has the benefit of being exchanged to long haul memory. The most significant component in important learning is the manner by which the new data is coordinated into the old information structure. In like manner, Ausubel trusts that learning is progressively sorted out; that new data is important to the degree that it can be connected (appended, tied down) to what is now known
  • Advance Organisers.
  • Ausubel advocates the utilisation of development coordinators as a component to interface new learning material with existing related thoughts. Advance coordinators are useful in the way that they help the procedure of realising when troublesome and complex material are presented. This is fulfilled through two conditions:
    1. The student must process and comprehend the data displayed in the coordinator - this builds the adequacy of the coordinator itself.
    2. The coordinator must show the relations among the fundamental ideas and terms that will be utilised Ausubel’s hypothesis of development coordinators fall into two classes: similar and interpretive.
Comparative Organizers The primary objective of similar coordinators is to enact existing mappings and is utilised as suggestions to bring into the working memory of what you may not understand is significant. A near Organiser is utilised both to incorporate and segregate. It “incorporates new thoughts with fundamentally comparative ideas in intellectual structure, and in addition, build discriminability in the middle of new and existing thoughts which are basically distinctive yet confusable comparable” Expository Organizers In contrast, expository organisers provide new knowledge that students will need to understand the upcoming information. Expository organisers are frequently utilised when the new learning material is new to the learner. They frequently relate what the learner definitely knows with the new and new material—this thus is expected to make the new material more conceivable to the learner. Principles
  • The broadest thoughts of a subject ought to be exhibited first and afterwards dynamically separated regarding the point of interest and specificity.
  • Instructional materials ought to endeavour to incorporate new material with beforehand displayed data through correlations and cross-referencing of new and old thought
2.8.3.4  Educational Implication of David Ausubel’s Learning Theory The application of Ausubel theory. For teachers, this would mean the following steps:
  • Start lessons with development coordinators that incorporate general standards or with inquiries that will encourage students to figure out how to methodically incorporate the material.
  • Alert the students to new or key ideas, and quickly depict the learning objective.
  • Present new learning substance in little steps sorted out legitimately and sequenced in ways that are anything but difficult to take after.
  • Get reactions frequently, keeping in mind the end goal to draw in the learners effectively and guarantee that every stride is sail through, before proceeding onward to the following one.
  • Finish the lesson with an intuitive audit of the fundamental focuses, focusing on general intelligent ideas.
  • Follow up the lesson with inquiry or assignments that oblige learners to appreciate material all alone and apply it or extend it.
 2.8.3.5  Jerome Seymour Bruner (1915 - )     Constructivism and Discovery Learning  Bruner’s Theory Of Learning Jerome Bruner (1915) an American therapist created a hypothesis of intellectual advancement, learning and guideline. By subjective improvement includes an expanding autonomy of the reaction of the learner from the specific boosts. It infers an extraordinary level of subjective preparing and mental representation past the quick tactile information. His concept of subjective advancement in view of the premises that a man’s learning of world depends on his built models of reality. He gives accentuation on dialect for psychological advancement. Bruner upheld three-phase of intellectual improvement, for example, Enactive stage: In this stage, the newborn children activity is a reaction to boosts characterises the jolts. That implies baby knows the jolts just by following up on it, else it doesn’t exist. Subjective advancement happens through exercises of babies. This stage compares to Piaget’s tangible engine period. Notable stage: In this stage, the child speaks to the world through pictures. Redundancy of activity might prompt the improvement of a picture of the activity. It is represented by the perceptual association. The move from activity to picture is normally seen by end of the first year of life. Typical stage: In this stage, the child speaks to the world through images. That is youngster can speak to the information in typical shape and can comprehend certain unique ideas. The child in this stage participates in dialect and science. For improvement of typical quality, the dialect is imperative. We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development. (Bruner, The Process of Education, 1999) BRUNER’S VIEW ON LEARNING: By learning includes dynamic handling of data and that is developed and sorted out uniquely by every learner. Learning about the world is not just filled the person, rather the individual goes to specifically to nature, prepare and sort out the data they take in and store the data with their own particular interesting models for future use. Learning includes three concurrent procedures. This notion underpins the idea of the spiral curriculum – ‘A curriculum as it develops should revisit this basic idea repeatedly, building upon them until the student has grasped the full formal apparatus that goes with them’ (ibid.: 13). Securing: The child gains new incorporating so as to learn or data it as indicated by the current method of representation. It leads to alteration or development of existing mode. Transmission: The new learning or data gained by the youngster is controlled or changed to meet new errand. Assessment: Finally, child assesses how effectively he has controlled the data. Status: He upheld that preparation is key for learning. It is not something that comes through development. Maybe it can be learned and consequently can be taught. Inspiration: Ideally, enthusiasm for the material to be learned is the best jolt to the learner, instead of outside objectives as evaluation. The thought process in learning must be kept dynamic; they should base on however much as could be expected upon the enthusiasm of learner. It must be kept expansive and divertive in expression. Additionally, inspiration is likewise required for figuring out how to happen. Realising which happens as a consequence of characteristic interest, the desire towards authority and ability and displaying after another is fulfilling or self-remunerating. Disclosure learning: It is an enquiry based, development learning hypothesis that happens in critical thinking circumstances where the learner draws on his/her own past experience and existing information to revelation realities and relationship and new truth to be learned. Student’s interface with the world by investigating and controlling items, grappling with inquiries and debates or performing tests. As result student might probably recollect idea and information found all alone. Bruner proposed disclosure learning in which child are locked in to investigate and learn all alone by the strategies for revelation. It doesn’t mean discovering something which was not known before rather alludes to what one finds for oneself. By revelation is a matter of modifying or changing the confirmation in a manner that one is empowered to go past the proof so gathered to extra new understanding. It includes development and in addition testing theory. Bruner notices four-point of preference of disclosure learning; it builds scholarly power, it increments characteristic inspiration, it educates the strategies of revelation and it results in better maintenance of what is found out. He said instructor ought to urge learners to investigate, enquire the surroundings and thereby learn. To instruct someone… is not a matter of getting him to commit results to mind. Rather, it is to teach him to participate in the process that makes possible the establishment of knowledge. We teach a subject not to produce little living libraries on that subject, but rather to get a student to think mathematically for himself, to consider matters as a historian does, to take part in the process of knowledge-getting. Knowing is a process, not a product. (1966: 72) Instinctive and investigative considering: Intuition (the scholarly systems of arriving and conceivable yet speculative plan without experiencing the expository strides by which such details would be observed to be substantial/invalid) is highly dismissed however fundamental element of beneficial considering. 2.8.3.6  Educational Implications:
  • In 1960 Bruner’s text, The Process of Education was published. The main premise of Bruner’s text was that students are active learners who construct their own knowledge.
  • Bruner (1961) proposes that learners’ construct their own knowledge and do this by organising and categorising information using a coding system. Bruner believed that the most effect way to develop a coding system is to discover it rather than being told it by the teacher. The concept of discovery learning implies that students construct their own knowledge for themselves (also known as a constructivist approach).
  • The aim of education should be to create autonomous learners (i.e., learning to learn).
  • In The Culture of Education, Bruner reassessed the state of educational practices three decades after he had begun his educational research. Bruner was also credited with helping found the Head Start early childcare program. (Bruner, NYU Faculty Page, 2016)
In his research on the cognitive development of children (1966), Jerome Bruner proposed three modes of representation: Enactive representation (action-based) Iconic representation (image-based) Symbolic representation (language-based)
  • Bruner gives weight on the preparation of learner in the learning process. The educator must worry about the encounters and connections that will make youngster willing to learn. Showing learning procedure ought to consider nature of the learner and inclinations in the learner.
  • The part of the structure in learning and how it might be made the focal point of instructing. The educating and learning of structure, rather the just authority of certainties and topics is the focus.
  • The objectives of training ought to be clear and identified with the life of learner as it makes natural inspiration that actuates the procedure of investigation. The learner must know the objectives in light of the fact that it inclinations to learn.
  • He gives most extreme significance to a child in the learning process. In this way, learning must be identified with the past experience of the child. It should likewise compose in a manner that inside of the grip of the learner at his phase of advancement. The topic must be selected to the point that it must be suitable for a child at various levels of advancement. The topic can be spoken to in three routes, for example, by a set of activities, by a set of pictures and by a set of images.
  • The showing learning materials (educational modules, course books) ought to be appropriately sequenced for successful instructing. It can be requested from simple to troublesome, easy to perplexing, known not cement to digest. A decent arrangement is what advances from inactive through distinguished to typical representation.
  • Bruner upheld Spiral educational programs. It depends on the thought that any subject can be taught viable in some wisely fair shape to any youngster at any phase of advancement. Educational modules as it creates ought to return to this essential thoughts over and again, expanding upon them until the student has gotten a handle on the full formal contraption that runs with them. Rather than travelling through the materials in a lockstep style (mastering a stage and after that procedure to another one) the same material can be exhibited or taught at various levels with the expansion of more points of interest. Here learner will get an opportunity to widen and extend their insight.
  • He likewise accentuates on fortification. Fortification is vital for figuring out how to happen. Support ought to be given at the ideal time. It must come when it is valuable or important not very early and not very late. He trusts that solid characteristic prize can lead a learner to learn.
  • The procedure of educating and learning is that a blend of solid, pictorial than typical exercises prompts more powerful learning. The movement is; begin with a solid affair the move to picture lastly utilise typically.
2.8.3.7  Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) Genetic Epistemology (Cognitive Constructivism) Jean Piaget’s prominent work is his theory of the four stages of cognitive development. He was one of the most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology in the 20th century whose primary interest was in biological influences on how we come to know, and the developmental stages we move through as we acquire this ability. (Singer & Revenson, 1997)
  • Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a therapist and a pioneer in the investigation of child insight. His initial studies in science, and particularly development impacted his way to deal with human learning. He trusted that the human ability to think and learn was a versatile component that empowered people to bargain viable with nature. As opposed to the behaviourists and gestalt therapists, Piaget did not concentrate on creatures, but rather little youngsters.
  • Piaget’s examination in a formative psychology focused on the topic of how learning creates in the psyche. Piaget drew nearer the issues of speculation and focusing so as to learn the mental and subjective procedures that make them conceivable. This centre turned into the characterising component of the cognitivist hypothesis. By, child shapes their own particular originations of reality through consistent association with their surroundings. Psychological advancement in this way happens as child adjusts to their surroundings, along these lines building their feeling of reality.
  • Piaget viewed learning development as something that happens constantly in a consecutive process comprising of coherently implanted structures (schemata) succeeding each other all through an individual’s lifetime. This is isolated into phases of advancement and youngsters move starting with one stage then onto the next by development and investigation.
  • Piaget recognised the accompanying formative stages:
  • The sensorimotor stage: For the primary 18 months to two years of life, newborn children are just mindful of sensorimotor encounters. Along these lines they don’t know how things will respond, as are continually testing shaking things, placing them in their mouths, or tossing them. Along these lines, they figure out how to co-ordinate their physical developments. Their learning is predominantly by experimentation.
  • The preoperational stage: This is a stage from around 18-24 months to 7 years when a child can consider things in typical terms. They can imagine, verbalise, and comprehend past and future. Be that as it may, circumstances and end results, time, examination, and other complex thoughts are still out of range. The child is still not ready to build conceptual thoughts and to work on them exclusively in the brain. The child works with the solid, physical circumstance before him/her.
  • The concrete operational stage: From 7-12 years, youngsters increase new capabilities in intuition and get to be included in occasions outside of their lives. The child is at long last ready to begin to conceptualise things after a lot of physical experimentation with articles. The youngster can do subtraction, increase, division, and expansion of numbers, not simply things. Be that as it may, the capacity to handle an issue with a few variables systematically is bizarre at this stage.
  • The formal operational stage: From 12 years of age et cetera, learners can consider dynamic connections (as in polynomial math), comprehend approach, detail speculations, and consider potential outcomes and deliberations like equity.
  • Piaget sketched out a few standards for building subjective structures. Amid every single formative stage, the child encounters his/her surroundings utilising whatever mental maps he/she has built as such. In the event that the experience is a rehash one, it fits effortlessly into the child’s intellectual structure (that is it is absorbed into the current psychological structure) so that the child keeps up the mental balance. On the off chance that the experience is distinctive or new, the youngster loses harmony (henceforth disequilibrium), and changes. His/her psychological structure to suit the new conditions. Along these lines, the child manufactures more satisfactory intellectual structures.
Standards 1. Children will give diverse clarifications of reality at various phases of subjective advancement. 2. Cognitive improvement is encouraged by giving exercises or circumstances that connect with learners and require adjustment (i.e., digestion and settlement). 3. Learning materials and exercises ought to include the suitable level of the engine or mental operations for an offspring of given age; abstain from requesting that students perform assignments that are past their current subjective abilities. 4. Use instructing techniques that effectively include students and present challenges 2.8.3.8  Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s hypothesis has majorly affected the hypothesis and routine of instruction. It has made a perspective where the centre of consideration is on formative fitting training. This alludes to an instructive with situations, educational programs, materials and guideline that are consistency with student’s physical and intellectual capacities and in addition their social and passionate needs. There are four fundamental showing suggestions drawn from Piaget’s hypothesis (Slavin, 2005): Fig 2.7  Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development (College, 2016) 1.  A spotlight on the procedure of child’s reasoning, not only its items. Notwithstanding checking the accuracy of child’s answers, instructors must comprehend the procedures youngsters use to get to the answer. Suitable learning encounters expand on youngsters’ present level of psychological working, and just when instructor’s value child’s techniques for touching base at specific determinations are they in a position to give such encounters. 2.  Recognition of the vital part of youngsters’ self-start, dynamic contribution in learning exercises. In a Piagetian classroom, the presentation of instant learning is deemphasized, and youngsters are urged to find for themselves through unconstrained cooperation with nature. Subsequently, rather than instructing instructional, educators give a rich assortment of exercises that allow youngsters to act straightforwardly on the physical world. 3.  A de-emphasis on practices went for making child grown-up like in their reasoning. Piaget alluded to the inquiry “In what manner would we be able to accelerate improvement?” as “the American question.” Among the numerous nations he went by, psychologists and teachers in the United States appeared to be most keen on what procedures could be utilised to quicken youngsters’ advancement through the stages. Piagetian-based instructive projects acknowledge his firm conviction that untimely educating could be more terrible than no instructing by any stretch of the imagination since it prompts shallow acknowledgement of grown-up recipes as opposed to genuine subjective comprehension (May and Kundert, 1997). 4.  Acceptance of individual contrasts in a formative advancement. Piaget’s hypothesis accepts that all child experience the same formative grouping however that they do as such at various rates. In this manner, instructors must attempt to orchestrate classroom exercises for people and little gatherings of the child as opposed to for the aggregate class bunch. What’s more, since individuals contrast is normal, evaluation of youngsters’ instructive advancement ought to be made regarding every child’s own past course of improvement, not as far as standardising guidelines gave by the exhibitions of same-age peers. According to (Piaget, 1958), assimilation and accommodation require an active learner, not a passive one, because problem-solving skills cannot be taught, they must be discovered. Assimilation: The procedure by which a man takes material into their psyche from nature, which may mean changing the confirmation of their faculties to make it fit. Accommodation: The distinction made to one’s brain or ideas by the procedure of absorption. Note that digestion and convenience go together: you can’t have one without the other. Decentration: The capacity to move far from one arrangement of characterization to another as proper. Egocentrism: The conviction that you are the focal point of the universe and everything rotates around you: the relating failure to see the world as another person does and adjust to it. Not moral “narrow-mindedness”, only an early phase of mental improvement. Operation:  The procedure of working something out in your mind. Youthful kids (in the sensorimotor and preoperational stages) need to act, and give things a shot in this present reality, to work things out (like rely on fingers): more seasoned youngsters and grown-ups can accomplish more in their heads. Schema (or scheme): The representation in the psyche of an arrangement of observations, thoughts, and/or activities, which go together. Stage A period in a kid’s advancement in which he or she is fit for seeing a few things however not others. 2.8.4.  Humanist Orientation Humanistic speculations move the accentuation to the potential for individual development in the learner. They bring the emotional working of the human into the enclosure of learning. Freud’s psychoanalytic way to deal with conduct was an effective impact on the humanistic learning scholars. A considerable lot of Freud’s ideas, for example, the subliminal personality, nervousness, suppression, guard instruments, drives, and transference discovered their way into the humanistic learning hypotheses. The humanists dismiss the ideas of behaviourism that the earth decides to learn. They supported the thought that individuals can control their own particular fate and that people are intrinsically great and longing a superior world for themselves as well as other people. Conduct is a result of the decision; individuals are dynamic specialists in their own particular learning and lives, not vulnerable respondents to powers that follow up on them. Inspiration, decision, and obligation are impacts of learning. Backgrounds’ are the focal coliseum for learning. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are the two scholars who have contributed most to this point of view. 2.8.4.1  Carl Rogers (Experiential Learning) Rogers recognised two sorts of learning: subjective (good for nothing) and experiential (critical). The previous relates to scholarly information, for example, learning vocabulary or augmentation tables and the last alludes to connected learning, for example, finding out about motors keeping in mind the end goal to repair an auto. The way to the refinement is that experiential learning addresses the necessities and needs of the learner. Rogers records these characteristics of experiential learning: individual association, self-started, assessed by the learner, and pervasive impacts on the learner. To Rogers, experiential learning is equal to individual change and development. Rogers feels that every person have a characteristic inclination to take in; the part of the educator is to encourage such learning. This incorporates: (1)  Setting a positive atmosphere for learning. (2)  Clarifying the reasons of the learner(s). (3)  Organising and making accessible learning assets. (4)  Balancing scholarly and enthusiastic segments of learning, and (5)  Sharing sentiments and musings with learners however not overwhelming. By, learning is encouraged when: (1)  The student partakes totally in the learning prepare and has control over its inclination and bearing, (2)  It is fundamentally based upon direct showdown with viable, social, individual or examination issues, and (3) Self-assessment is the primary technique for surveying advancement or achievement. Rogers likewise accentuates the significance of figuring out how to learn and an openness to change. Roger’s hypothesis of learning advanced as a component of the humanistic instruction development. (4)  Self-risk of the learner is least. (5)  Learning assets And atmosphere are in learners support. (6)  Complete investment of learners, control its inclination and course. (7)  Realises significance of learning. (8)  Develops an openness and additionally readiness to learn. 2.8.4.2  Principles
  • Significant learning happens when the topic is important to the individual premiums of the student.
  • Learning which is undermining to the self (e.g., new states of mind or points of view) are all the more effectively absorbed when outside dangers are at any rate?
  • Learning continues speedier when the risk to the self is low.
  • Self-started learning is the most enduring and pervasive.
2.8.4.3  Characteristics or characteristics of experiential learning:
  • Personal association of the learner.
  • Self-started
  • Self-assessment
  • Pervasive impact on a learner.
Rogers trust: Strength and possibilities of people. Individuals have a characteristic slant for learning and a longing to develop and advance. Experiential learning advocates:
  • Humanistic and learner focused methodology in the classroom.
  • To make learning prepare more accommodating.
  • As per the necessities and enthusiasm of the learners.
  • Personal social development and improvement
  • Emphasising more on application than on hypothesis alone.
To Rogers, experiential learning is identical to individual change and development. Rogers feels that every single individual have a characteristic inclination to take in; the part of the instructor is to encourage such learning. This incorporates:
  •  Setting a positive atmosphere for learning
  •  Clarifying the reasons of the learner(s)
  •  Organising and making accessible learning assets
  •  Balancing scholarly and enthusiastic parts of learning
  •  Sharing sentiments and contemplations with learners yet not ruling
2.8.4.4  Role of the Teacher and the folks: 1. To help youngsters in their natural longing for individual change and development. 2. To administer to and encourage such realising which causes the child to develop and create as indicated by their prerequisites. 2.8.5.  Social Learning Orientation The centre of social learning speculations is connections between individuals as the essential system of learning. Learning depends on the perception of others in a social setting. Early social learning hypotheses in the 1940’s drew intensely from behaviourism, proposing that imitative reactions, when fortified, let to the watched learning and behavioural changes. Later, in the 1960’s the work of Bandura split far from the behaviourist perspectives. He was the first to the discrete perception of another’s conduct from the demonstration of impersonation. He hypothesised that an eyewitness can learn by seeing without imitating what is being realised. Four procedures structure the foundations of observational learning hypothesis. These are a consideration, maintenance (memory), behavioural practice, and inspiration. Every one of the four procedures adds to learning by perception. Two other essential advocates of social learning hypothesis are Vygotsky and John Seely Brown. Numerous helpful ideas rise up out of the social learning introduction, including motivational procedures, the locus of control, social part securing, and the significance of cooperation of learner with the environment and other learners. 2.8.5.1  Major Thinkers in social learning theory Lev Vygotsky Albert Bandura 2.8.5.2  Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) Social Development Theory Social learning hypotheses offer us to see how individuals some assistance with learning in social connections (gain from one another) and advises us on how we, as educators, develop dynamic learning groups. Lev Vygotsky, a Soviet psychologist, was initially persuaded that social cooperation assumes a crucial part in the advancement of comprehension. By society was a determinant of individual advancement. People are the main species to have societies, and each human child creates in the connection of a society. Consequently, human intellectual improvement is influenced to a bigger or lesser degree by the way of life in which people are enmeshed, including family situations. By, society appears to make two sorts of commitments to child’s scholarly improvement. Firstly, children procure a significant part of the substance of their reasoning (cognizance) from it and, besides, they get the procedures or method for their reasoning from it. So, culture educates youngsters both what to think and how to think. Along these lines, children are liable to display their conduct on the watched conduct of their guardians. Learning is subsequently reliant on the social association. One of the prominent parts of discovering that Vygotsky highlighted was that a child adapts better with the assistance of a grown-up. He didn’t dole out much significance to the phases of advancement of a child (such as Piaget did), however, was keener on the potential for psychological improvement. This, he accepted, is constrained to a specific time traverse which he called the ‘zone of proximal improvement’ (ZPD). Vygotsky’s hypothesis was an endeavour to clarify cognizance as the final result of socialisation. At any given time in a child’s improvement, he/she will be more vulnerable to certain new information. Clearly, if new learning is not anticipated then the youngster would have likely achieved the most noteworthy purpose of his/her insight. All together for the youngster to build his insight, then a grown-up (for instance an educator) would need to platform a child to the new stature of information in a specific space. Vygotsky’s hypothesis is corresponding to Bandura’s work on social learning and a key part of arranged learning hypothesis also. Since Vygotsky’s attention was on intellectual advancement, it is fascinating to contrast his perspectives and those a constructivist (Bruner) and a hereditary epistemologist (Piaget) 2.8.5.3  Principles 1. Learning and improvement is a social, collective movement. 2. The Zone of Proximal Development can serve as an aide for curricular and lesson arranging. 3. Classroom movement ought to be reality-based and appropriate to this present reality. 4. Learning reaches out to the home and other out-of-school situations and exercises and all learning circumstances ought to be connected. 5. Cognitive improvement is restricted to a specific extent at any given age. 6. Full intellectual advancement requires social collaboration.     2.8.5.4  Applying Vygotsky to the classroom
  • Vygotsky’s burdens the significance of taking a look at every youngster as a person who adapts particularly. Therefore, the information and abilities that are advantageous learning shifts with the person.
  • The general objective of training as per Vygotsky is to “create and lead improvement which is the consequence of social learning through the disguise of society and social connections.” He over and over focused on the significance of past encounters and earlier information in comprehending new circumstances or present encounters. Subsequently, all new information and recently presented abilities are significantly impacted by every student’s way of life, particularly their family surroundings.
  • Language aptitude is especially basic for making meaning and connecting new thoughts to past encounters and former information. By, disguised abilities or mental apparatuses “are utilised to pick up authority over one’s own particular conduct and cognizance.” Primary among these devices is the “improvement of discourse and its connection to thought.”
  • In Vygotsky’s perspective, the educator has the “errand of managing and coordinating the youngster’s movement.” Children can then take care of novel issues “on the premise of a model they have been appeared in class.” at the end of the day, child learn by taking care of issues with the assistance of the instructor, who models forms for them in a classroom situation that is coordinated by the instructor. Generally, “the youngster impersonates the educator through a procedure of re-making past classroom coordinated.”
    2.8.5.5 Albert Bandura (1925 - ) Social Learning Theory or Observational Learning Albert Bandura is noted as one of the exponents of the theory of social learning and observational learning. Social learning theory explains human behaviour from the point of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioural and environmental influences. For social learning theory to take place, there are four factors which must be present. These are observers (learners), teacher (model), learners’ attention and proximity or nearness. The process of learning is influenced by the extent of identifications and imitations by the learners to the other three factors (Bandura, 1978). In  most  cases,  an  individual  will  like  to  emulate  a  model  who  is perceived to be competent, powerful, and attractive, as well as someone whose  behaviour  is  relevant  to  the  observer  (Bandura,  1986).  This means that we learn by observing the behaviour of others (Miller & Dollard, 1941). In  social  learning  theory,  reinforcement  is  not  a  prerequisite  for  a learning to occur, but this increases the chance that what has been learnt will definitely be performed. This theory is, therefore, rested on the fact that an action or behaviour can be performed if the model is pleasantly rewarded. It is also believed that there is the probability that an observer might drop a behaviour if he found out that the model has received a negative reinforcement for practising such a behaviour. Bandura figured his discoveries in a four-stage design which consolidates an intellectual perspective and an operant perspective of learning.   Fig 2.8  Behaviourist and Cognitive model of Bandura (1) Attention, including displayed occasions (peculiarity, full of feeling valence, unpredictability, predominance, useful worth) and eyewitness qualities (tangible limits, excitement level, perceptual set, past support), (2) Retention, including typical coding, intellectual association, typical practice, engine practice), (3) Motor Reproduction, including physical capacities, self-perception of propagation, precision of input, and (4) Motivation, including outer, vicarious and self-support. 2.8.5.6  Principles 1. The most elevated amount of observational learning is accomplished by first sorting out and practising the demonstrated conduct typically and afterwards authorising it clearly. Coding displayed conduct into words, names or pictures results in preferred maintenance over basically watching. 2. Individuals will probably embrace a demonstrated conduct in the event that it results in results they esteem. 3. Individuals will probably embrace a demonstrated conduct if the model is like the spectator and has appreciated status and the conduct has useful worth. 2.8.5.7  Classroom Implications of Social Learning Theory
  1. The educator is a model for students in his/her classroom, and he/she profoundly affects students’ dispositions, convictions and conduct (Crowl, Kaminsiky and Podell, 1997). For this situation, the educator ought to be a decent model.
  2. The instructor ought to dependably ensure that he/she doesn’t approve any nonsensical conduct from his/her students. Any culpable student ought to be properly managed, in order to serve as an obstruction to different individuals from the classroom.
  3. The educator ought not to neglect to give complimentary comments, for example, ‘well benefited’, ‘phenomenal’, ‘child/young lady’, ‘keep it up’, as a method for urging different students to mimic a decent conduct.
  4. Instructor/folks ought to demoralise their students/youngsters from watching savage movies or keeping companions of far-fetched characters.
2.9  Summary  The research scholar in chapter 2 has discussed in length the various dimensions of psychology, psychoanalytic, educational psychology and many psychologists and their various theories. The aim of this chapter was to give proper clarification regarding the various theories and theorists that are showing new horizons to the field of educational psychology and providing a boost to the humanistic aspects that are needed in the education theories. This chapter encompasses at length theories regarding ‘Learning Theories’, ‘Learning Statistics’ and the educational implications of the ‘Change Model’ and ‘Insight Learning’. This chapter not only provides the backdrop of the theories that are there in the field of education and psychology but also paves the way for the next chapter that will take a deeper look into educational applications and understanding the theories of these stalwarts and especially shed light on the works of Carl Rogers.

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Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://journalpsyche.org/revisiting-carl-rogers-theory-of-personality/ Wilson, A. (2011). How to be a Parent Champion and add magic to your family. Rochester: Develop Your Child CIC. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=v4FferbqGFIC&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=%22to+conducting+therapy+and+a+scientific+approach+to+evaluating%22&source=bl&ots=H5i_qk9Hqr&sig=91f4b51i_DDlDGBMrGk1CpMFxOk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwia8f_W1MDLAhUKm5QKHROMCwQQ6AEIHDAA#v=on Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (1994). Mass media research: an introduction (4th ed.). California: Wadsworth. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Woodrum, E. (1984). Mainstreaming content analysis in social science: Methodological advantage-obstacles and solutions. Social Science Research, 2, pp. 1-9. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Work, P. G. (n.d.). Human Growth and Personality Development. Retrieved from Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College: http://www.andavancollege.ac.in/depts/msw/htmlfiles/mswnotes/hgpd.pdf Ysthename, O. (2014, October 24). Educational Psychology. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from www.Slideshare.net: http://www.slideshare.net/iheartohmar/educational-psychology-40689177 Yusof, K. M., Azli, N. A., Kosnin, A. M., Yusof, S. K., & Yusof, Y. M. (Eds.). (2012). Outcome-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Innovative Practices. Hershey: Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global. Retrieved January 14, 2014, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=hwFORNLzchgC&pg=PA158&lpg=PA158&dq=%22with+existing+knowledge+and+experiences+(Jonassen,+1999).%22&source=bl&ots=7_MVZk84XJ&sig=9oXWuc5gy0YwMJNZQ8xs8fttEp0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj4tJaY_cDMAhWJCY4KHYnIDiYQ6AEIHDAA#v=onep                   CHAPTER - III REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                  
  1. Introduction
First Chapter manages the reasonable casing work of the present examination issue. It had the announcement of the issue, terms characterised, destinations of the study, and inquiries of the study, importance of the study and the extent of the study. Chapter 2 manages the hypothetical establishment of present exploration work at the same time, for a particular examination to involve the spot in the improvement of a control, the research scholar should be completely acquainted with both past hypothesis and research exploration. To guarantee this recognition an audit of the examination writing is finished. It permits the research scholar to know the measure of work done in the concerned zone. The clarity of the examination issue is conceivable with the through comprehension of the learning era in the territory of exploration. It maintains a strategic distance from the replication. It proposes the strategy, system, wellsprings of information and measurable procedure/techniques fitting to the arrangement of the issue. The audit of the related writing gives some understanding with respect to the issues on which the agent is working. The research scholar ought to ponder the related writing for the near study which gives a credible foundation, recognition, rule and instructive data. (The review of the past inquiries about is critical in light of the fact that it gives a knowledge into the issues on which the research scholar is working. The research scholar ought to think about the related writing for the near study which gives a bona fide foundation, commonality, rule and instructive data.)
  1.           Significance of the Review of Related Literature
According to Borg and Gall(1979, p98), “The review of the literature in educational research provides you with the means of getting to the frontier in your particular field of knowledge. If we fails to build the foundation of knowledge provided by the review of the literature, the work is likely to be shallow and naive.” (Riedel, 2000) The review of the related writing gives fundamental references to the research scholar. It gives the information about target and bearing of exploration. It helps in figuring out what techniques can be utilised; how to discover applicable data legitimately. The past explores direct the route for the study goals, scope, apparatuses, tests, constraints and thus the entire configuration of the study. It gives research scholar a foundation to thinking about an issue region. The reasonable points of view and aides in arranging, selecting instrument for information accumulation and receiving strategies, procedures for the investigation and understanding of information. According to Charter V. Good, The keys to the vast storehouse of published literature may open doors to sources of significant problems and explanatory hypotheses and provide helpful orientation for definition of the problem, background for selection of procedure, and comparative data for interpretation of results. In order to be creative and original, one must read extensively and critically as a stimulus to thinking. (Sharma, 2008) According to John W. Best, Practically all human knowledge can be found in books and libraries. Unlike other animals that must start anew with each generation, man builds upon the accumulated and recorded knowledge of the past. His constant adding to the vast store of knowledge makes possible progress in all areas of human Endeavour. (Mishra & Dhir, 2005) According to (Desai & Desai, 1989), “The review of related literature should be distinct for the development of problem and for the insight of the research.”
  1.          The Purpose of Review of Related Literature
The researcher has reviewed the related literature for the following purposes.
  • To give a connection to the exploration and legitimise the examination.
  • To be guaranteed the exploration hasn’t been done before (or on the off chance that it is rehashed, that it is set apart as a ‘replication study’).
  • To study/show where the exploration fits into the current collection of information.
  • To acquaint oneself with the related works, its targets and procedure.
  • To delineate how the subject has been contemplated, highlight blemishes and layout crevices in past examination.
  • Whatever the work is giving a few inputs to the present study.
  • To determine some essential ramifications for the present study.
    1.           The Details of Reviewing
      1.   Carl Rogers contribution to humanistic and clinical psychology
  • Why is everyone so unhappy?
Carl Rogers was very close to some other eminent scholars (especially Abraham Maslow and George Kelly) was in charge of planning the fundamental thoughts of Humanistic psychology. Carl Rogers, another influential humanistic psychologist working in the therapeutic field, believed that people are basically good, that they are driven to fulfil their potential to actualize themselves and that they have the capacity to choose their own behaviour (Sammons 2009). He imparted to different humanists the general suppositions of humanistic psychology: that individuals are essentially great, that they are headed to satisfy their potential and that individuals have the ability to pick their own particular conduct. He additionally accepted that each of us sees the world in our own particular novel way and that, keeping in mind the end goal to comprehend what somebody does, you need to attempt and see the world as they see it.                               Fig 3.1 How ‘wellbeing’ behaves in real life usage (Ereaut and Whiting 2008) (Jackson, 2015) The research scholar find one specific question that Rogers welcomes us to ask is for what good reason, when we live in a general public that is in such a large number of regards vastly rich, so a considerable lot of us are so troubled. The answer, in Rogers’ perspective, is in any event mostly that the things to which we append worth are not the things that are fundamentally useful for our mental prosperity. Carl Rogers’ main ideas
MainIdea   What’sthis?
      Theactualising tendency Everything that is alive is headed to satisfy its potential. This inclination can be found in every single living framework, from the blossom that strengths its way between the clearing stones to the timberland biological system that tries to spread similarly as it can. In people, it is showed as the propensity to attempt to be everything we can be.
Organismic valuing The thought that each life form has an inborn thought of what’s great or awful for it. Indeed, even the least difficult creature or plant has a tendency to maintain a strategic distance from things that harm it. An infant will release nourishment that tastes terrible. Individuals will, for the most part, move far from circumstances or things that debilitate them or are bringing about them hurt.
Unconditional positiveregard We should be cherished, esteemed and regarded by others. It’s a precondition to our advancement. A youngster that is nourished and cleaned however not cherished and supported might survive, but rather it won’t create and flourish. We require the unlimited positive respect of others so as to have positive self-respect.
Positiveself- regard A feeling of self-esteem or self-regard. In the event that we do not have this, then the best approach to accomplishing our potential gets to be blocked. Take a gander at how much troublesome conduct and scholastic disappointment at school comes to fruition since a few youngsters don’t trust they are ‘sufficient’.
Conditionsof worth The positive respect of others ought not have strings joined, but rather regularly it does. After some time, this might bring about contingent self-respect, where we trust we are just worth something on the off chance that we meet the conditions that others have forced on us. For instance, ‘I fizzled my exams, so I’m futile’, or ‘I should be rich to be cheerful’.
Incongruity The crevice between what you are and could turn into (the ‘genuine self’), and what you think you ought to be (the ‘perfect self’). The greater the crevice turns into, the more troubled we feel. States of worth are a piece of the perfect self, so on the off chance that we are just ever esteemed for accomplishing the objectives others set for us, we are set up for an existence of misery.
Defences The things we do to adapt to the sentiments of uneasiness connected with disjointedness. One type of guard is refusal. For instance, the student who never turns up for an exam never needs to face less than stellar scores. Another resistance is twisting. For instance, an student who accuses poor educating or an out of line test for their less than stellar scores.
Table 3.1 Carl Rogers’ ideas What determines whether someone is happy? The issue is that our general public can meddle with our actualising propensity. The things that society (through our guardians, instructors, companions, bosses) lets us know are critical are not as a matter, of course, the things that are entirely for our improvement as individuals. As an outcome, we work persistently to satisfy states of worth that might be implausible or unhelpful as individual objectives. Since we see that the respect of others is contingent, we just esteem ourselves in connection to the conditions forced on us.  Actualization      Society                                                                                                  Unconditional positive   Conditions of worth Regard of others                                       Positive self-regard    Conditional positive                                                                            Self-regard          Real self                       Ideal self   Where there is incongruity between the real and             ideal selves, the person is motivated to ‘close the gap’. This may involve distorting reality, avoidance or striving to meet conditions of worth (e.g. by passing exams or accumulating possessions or money). Fig 3.2  Carl Rogers’ on Real and Ideal self The Research Scholar find that a crevice opens up between the perfect-self and the genuine-self, and the more extensive that hole turns into, the more troubled we are. All we can do is help to create the conditions under which the person can start to make their own authentic choices, and support them through the changes they decide to make.  Rogers compared it to learning to ride a bicycle.  You can’t tell the person how to do it, they will only learn through trying. (Smith K. , 2012) To attempt to manage this ambiguity, we begin to misshape our impression of the world or maybe to prevent angles from securing it totally. Presently we are distant with parts of reality, and on the off chance that we don’t see the world and our place inside of it precisely, in what capacity will we ever satisfy our potential – the main thing that will really give us a more mollified life. So we constantly seek after the objectives that others have set for us, continually trusting that the following accomplishment, the following advancement, the following capability, the following pay rise, the following sexual accomplice, the following pair of shoes will be the thing that at long last makes up upbeat. Shockingly, it never is. The fully functioning person Rogers’ didn’t utilise ‘upbeat’ while depicting mentally firm individuals, regardless of the fact that that is the thing that he essentially implied. Rather, he utilised the term ‘fully functioning person’. This is somebody whose mental set-up is such that they are in a position to satisfy their human potential. Completely utilitarian individuals are:
  • Open to Experience – they don’t twist the world to secure themselves.
  • Living in the ‘here-and-now’ – they don’t dwell on the past or worry about the future. Doing what’s good for them – they trust organismic valuing to guide their decisions and choices
  • Experientially free – they feel as if they are in control of their lives, rather than being constrained
  • Creative – They contribute to the actualization of others through art, science, parenting or their job.
  • Inventive – they add to the realisation of others through workmanship, science, child rearing or their occupation.
  • Can we make individuals cheerful (or completely working)?
No, we can’t say this for certain. On the off chance that we go around attempting to change individuals or letting them know how they should think we wind up forcing yet another arrangement of states of worth and that is adding to the issue, not giving an answer. That is not the same as saying that individuals can’t change. Maybe, the fact is this is the main change that checks and originates from inside of the individual themselves. The researcher would like to add is that what we can do is make the conditions under which the individual can begin to settle on their own valid decisions, and bolster them through the progressions they choose to make. Rogers contrasted it with figuring out how to ride a bike. You can’t advise the individual how to do it, they will just learn through attempting. You can help by supporting them as they learn yet in the event that you never let go of them, they will never do it freely. Rogers built up his own particular arrangement of remedial systems to individuals move towards satisfying their potential. These methods are differently called non-order treatment, client focused treatment, or all the more regularly, Rogerian Counselling. Rogers’ trusted that the achievement of treatment or directing has less to with the systems utilised by the advisor as with the relationship that the researcher creates with the client. On the off chance that you add to the right kind of relationship, then that gives the client space to inspect their own particular issues, wellsprings of despondency and methods for seeing the world. They can then choose what they need to change and find a way to change it. By, the advisor must have three critical qualities in their association with the client:
Quality What’s this?
Congruence Honesty and genuineness.  The therapist must relate to the client as one human being to another, not as a professional like a doctor would.
Empathy The client must be able to feel what the client feels because this is the only thing that will allow the client to feel as if they are genuinely understood.
Respect The therapist must show acceptance and unconditional positive regard for the client, as the lack of this is usually at the root of the client’s unhappiness
Table 3.2 Explanation of the terms The main technique used in counselling is reflecting back to the client the things they say. This means more than just repeating what they say. It involves demonstrating to the client that they are really understood whilst at the same time helping them explore their perceptions and feelings to arrive at their own understandings.
  1.              A brief summary of Carl Rogers’ major Works
Review of On Becoming a Person (Rogers, 1961) In On Becoming a Person via Carl R. Rogers, the creator talks about his one of a kind way to deal with psychotherapy as a distinct option for the Freudian model of analysis. Rogers’ hypotheses move the researcher’s control of an advising session over to a ‘client-focused’ (non-mandate) psychological model. This moving of control far from the advisor permits the ‘client’ to utilise ‘information of self’ to mend his own particular issues. The client needs to develop, develop, and go up against his issues and resolve them. At the point when given the open door, the client will take part in self-investigation and work his issues through. Utilising client focused treatment, the client starts to comprehend his emotions, accumulates experiences, and takes fitting activities to enhance numerous parts of his life. This kind of treatment is not attempting to take care of only one issue, but rather is a completely coordinated methodology meaning to offer the client some assistance with accepting and comprehend himself. Rogers comprehends that self-awareness is a constant procedure of getting to be. This sort of self-improvement ought to be a ‘characteristic’ procedure of self-realization. Tragically, the individual encounters numerous set moves in this formative process and gets to be lost and befuddled. In any case, every individual has a ‘driving inward compel’ that needs to offer him some assistance with learning and develop. This powerful urge permits the individual to end up his own particular educator, and he can lead himself back to his normal procedure of getting to be. Adding to one’s self, and helping other people understand their potential is a primary subject all through this book. Rogers says a man feels great when during the time spent building up the self. Subsequent to the client is his own particular educator, Rogers supplies the model for instructing and listening to the self. Ahead of schedule in the researcher client relationship, a sentiment coinciding ought to be set up. Rogers characterises consistency as: “an accurate matching of experience and awareness” (Rogers C. R., On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy, 1989, p. 282). The researcher must feel tolerating, legitimate, and open with the client, so his responses mirror an exact consciousness of his emotions and experience. He can’t give off an impression of being feeling one way, yet really be feeling another way. Rogers is not ready to offer counsel to the client or coordinating, inducing, translating or diagnosing him on a superficial basis. His idea of self-coordinated development gives the client opportunity and decisions. The client can possibly comprehend himself by watching and evaluating his own particular conduct and convictions. Rogers’ methods change the way advisors see the client. Rather than seeing the client as a task that the advisor needs to settle, Rogers sees the client as a man who is imparting a one of a kind ordeal to researcher. The researcher ought to see positive potential in the client. He needs to offer the client some assistance with becoming mindful of his demeanours, mental self-view and self-coordinated practices. Every individual is in a procedure of getting to be and is continually developing. Numerous individuals think they require a ‘false face’ to play by societal guidelines. In specific circumstances, the individual is feeling he should utilise a ‘face cover’ for putting on a show to be somebody else. Rogers acknowledges the client as he may be, and needs him to evacuate the false cover and uncover his actual face. The procedure of uprooting the cover helps the client find his actual self. This prompts the acknowledgement that the external persona is not spilling out of the individual. The answer for this issue is for the client to achieve the piece of himself that has been denied or concealed. He permits himself to ‘feel and be’ who he genuinely is, without requiring the mental brace of a face veil. Removing the veil is unnerving for the client since he is uncovering a concealed a portion of himself. By, when the individual encounters his sentiments at ‘an organic level’ he comprehends the truth inside of himself (Rogers C. R., On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy, 1989, p. 111). Rogers quotes Kierkegaard, who offers valuable psychological insights into the causes of despair. Kierkegaard posits that the most common form of despair stems from not choosing to be oneself (p. 110). As a solution, Kierkegaard says that when a person chooses to be his true self, he will feel the opposite of despair (p. 110). The client ought to permit himself to ‘experience what he is feeling’. He ought not to attempt to persuade himself that he is feeling a specific way when he is feeling in an unexpected way. There are parts of his identity he needs to reveal, so he can encounter his actual sentiments ‘freely and fully’ (Rogers, 1989, p. 111). To experience his actual emotions, Rogers says, the client must break out of his shell. The client needs to encounter ‘pure culture’ (p. 112). This wonder happens when the individual – ‘is’ - the inclination itself, and is encountering his emotions to a great. At this stage, the client is beginning to end up who he really is. He is encountering himself. The research scholar in the book by Carl Rogers finds that during the process of becoming a person, the client is more ‘open to his experience’ (Rogers, 1989, p. 115). His experience is his over a significant time span, and the time he goes through with everyone around him. ‘Openness’ identifies with imagining different choices for future conduct, and killing examples of feeling restricted, yet acting another (incongruence). Rogers says that openness “is the opposite of defensiveness” (p. 115). By opening himself up, the client turns out to be more sensible when communicating with individuals, experiencing new circumstances, and overcoming challenges. Rogers focuses on the significance of opening-up to the consciousness existing apart from everything else “in oneself and in the situation” (p. 116). The client will ‘discover his ‘self’ through experience’. The individual is getting to be himself as his encounters lead him to a comprehension of who he genuinely is. The genuine self is uncovering itself through individual implications that are gotten from backgrounds. These encounters will impart their importance, and the client ought not to hurry to judgment by marking them. By not making suppositions, the client is getting to be himself. He is preventing himself from complying with the wishes of others and is not denying his actual emotions. He is not claiming to be somebody else and is perceiving that he lives in a perpetually streaming, fluctuating procedure of background. Another procedure to use for ‘living the good life’ is by ‘living existentially’. This includes living in the occasion (without being cautious) and permitting one’s self to feel the progression of presence. The client turns into ‘a participant and observer’ as opposed to the ‘controller’ of a continuous procedure of getting to be (Rogers, 1989, p. 188). Thus of living is unstructured and does exclude assumptions about the way things should be. No judgments or assessments are important on the grounds that the individual is experiencing every experience as it comes his direction. Existential living permits the client to live ‘outside the box’ of societal standards and gives the client flexibility to adjust and respond to every circumstance. ‘Trusting in one’s organism’ identifies with believing a wide assortment of sentiments and propensities that exist at the ‘organic level’. The individual turns into his life from “without self-deception and without distortion” (Rogers, 1989, p. 102). Rather than attempting to comprehend what others expect of him – or second-speculating himself in light of the assessments of others – he begins acting on the basis of his own satisfaction. He comes to be fully aware of who he is while having the experience (p. 104). This mindfulness helps him to end up an entire, working living being. By turning out to be entire, the individual can comprehend his actual sentiments at the natural level. This prompts self-acknowledgment and believing one’s own instinctual knowledge. Therefore, the individual’s cognizance is living serenely with itself and does not have to always screen frightful considerations and sentiments. ‘The process of functioning more fully’ permits the client to experience his emotions and to overcome dread connected with his sentiments. The client adds to a framework whereby, he is picking who he needs to turn into. He is receptive and settles on choices in light of regardless of whether the circumstance offers him some assistance with becoming the individual he needs to be. He is occupied with social occasion however much data as could reasonably be expected to act in ways that will deliver positive results. He is turning into a completely incorporated individual. At the point when a man is straightforward with himself, he acknowledges his sentiments as a basic part of the individual he is getting to be. By confiding in himself, the client can perceive his sentiments about occasions that are occurring around him and knows about future conceivable outcomes. He starts to comprehend why he is – where he is in life, and how to discover importance in every experience. The client begins to feel that what he possesses has ‘an internal locus of evaluation’ (Rogers, 1989, p. 118). He comprehends that he is the chief and does not require the endorsement of others. He is open to looking inside to assess a circumstance and is no more depending on the outer world for deciding. Particularly for the innovative individual, the way in which he is living and communicating is critical. Flexibility of self-expression permits him to experience the way he needs to and bears him the chance to express his one of a kind singularity at all times. The face cover is no more essential since he is not attempting to please anybody other than himself. His inner assessment process gives him the capacity to disentangle what is valid for him. He moves far from individuals, spots and things that are not in arrangement with his actual self. The client comprehends that he is in charge of controlling his life in the right heading. Be that as it may, when the client acknowledges he is the “chooser” and “the one who determines the value of the experience”, it can be either an energising or frightening realisation (p. 122). Another characteristic that the research scholar finds regarding that a person becoming himself is to have a ‘willingness to be a process’. Rogers points out that the client should view himself as a process rather than a product (Rogers, 1989, p. 122). At the point when the client enters treatment, he might have assumptions about how he needs to ‘turn-out’ after he is ‘altered’. He might have particular objectives, in which he is expecting a specific result. Rogers says desires can prompt disillusionments. Along these lines, Rogers suggests that particular objectives ought to be set aside since there is no altered mental state that can be accomplished in the middle of advisor and client (p. 122). At the point when the client acknowledges there is no impeccable condition of perpetual equalisation, he might get to be confounded, disillusioned and annoy. He goes to the acknowledgement that his life will persistently be in a condition of flux, and he will constantly be tackling issues. In any case, in view of psychotherapy, he is currently better furnished with the mental devices that are important to offer him some assistance with maximising his satisfaction and minimise despair. The client keeps on peeling off layers of the false-self and moves toward understanding the genuine self. He figures out how to believe the life form and needs to advance. Be that as it may, once in a while he won’t be pushing ahead or going in a positive course. As a feature of the learning process, he will discover his way back to where he needs to be. In the end, he will discover significance in each minute, regardless of which course he picks. At the point when settling on the wrong choice, he looks for new potential outcomes or worthy arrangements. Rogers needed the client to wind up himself. Amid treatment, Rogers was not guiding the client to think in a particular bearing. He gave the client aggregate opportunity to pick the conversational heading he felt most good with. Rogers’ expectations, be that as it may, were to urge the client to finish a giving up procedure of disposing of old covers, false convictions, false pictures, unsafe connections, and self-ruinous behavioural examples. Rogers needs to fabricate a trusting association with the client, and offer him some assistance with becoming self-propelled. He needed the client to look after his interests, and express his inventiveness (and singularity), without contemplating it mentally. Rogers’ remedial strategies were intended to bolster the client’s endeavours to mend the identity while increasing genuine information of the self. The thoughts Rogers raised are useful for implementing in treatment as well as for training. While perceiving the imperfections of the training framework, Rogers connected the ideas he saw as compelling jolts for learning in the classroom. A class without instructors, addresses, or examinations was his optimal, yet this perfect wasn’t promptly affirmed by any college. Rather, Rogers endeavoured to make a situation where students and staff are looking for an answer for an issue or issues, pushing aggregately far from imperfect thoughts and utilising assets cooperatively to progress to a less wrong thought. Rogers recommends we see examinations not as markers of the material we’ve adapted, but rather as important tickets for passage into focuses in life, for example, graduate school. On the off chance that we as learners could come to esteem to procedure of adapting more than the examinations and last grade, what would we be able to accomplish together? Rogers expresses that there is no perfect that is a stasis, yet a continually streaming process that we can permit ourselves to end up occupied with, and that in turning out to be a piece of this procedure, we can accomplish what he considers to be the great life. ((1), 184-196). Adapting as well, is a procedure of consistent change, of development in our own insight and in the, for the most part, acknowledged thoughts of society. By tolerating learning as a liquid idea, we can encourage our satisfaction in life and our scholarly interests.     Some Important Chapters of the Book Part II – How Can I Be of Help?
  • Chapter 2: Some Hypotheses Regarding the Facilitation of Personal Growth
  • Chapter 3: The Characteristics of a Helping Relationship
Part III – The Process of Becoming a Person
  • Chapter 6: What it Means to Become a Person
Part IV – A Philosophy of Persons
  • Chapter 9: A Therapist’s View of The Good Life: The Fully Functioning Person
Part VI – What Are the Implications for Living?
  • Chapter 13: Personal Thoughts on Teaching and Learning
  • Chapter 14: Significant Learning: In Therapy and in Education
  • Chapter 15: Student-Centered Teaching as Experienced by a Participant
  • Chapter 16: The Implications of Client-Centered Therapy for Family Life
  • Chapter 17: Dealing with Breakdowns in Communication – Interpersonal and Intergroup
  • Chapter 18: A Tentative Formation of a General Law of Interpersonal Relationships
  • Chapter 19: Toward a Theory of Creativity
Other important ideas in this book: 1) Autonomic functioning; 2) Importance of creativity; 3) Experience of Psychotherapy; 4) Feeling meaning; 5) Free will; 6) Goals of science; 7) The Good life concept; 8) Importance of Listening; 9) Outcome of therapy; 10) Predictions of behaviour; 11) Q-technique; 12) Elements of relationships; 13) Interpersonal relationships and; 14) Emphatic Understanding. Review of Freedom To Learn (Rogers, 1969) Carl Rogers is recognised as one of the founders of human psychology, having developed the Client Centred Approach to counselling and psychotherapy which has been widely used (Rogers C. R., Freedom to Learn, 1969, p. iii).[1] In correlation with the previous speculations of human inspiration and office, his hypothesis of human realising, which will be abridged in this segment, is more extensive in degree, and locations not only the methods by which a man is stirred, however the learner in general individual. Rogers displayed his hypothesis of learning in Freedom to Learn (1969), which he composed while an inhabitant individual at the Centre for Studies of the Person in La Jolla, CA. His objective was not to expound on learning as far as the “inert, clean, purposeless, immediately overlooked stuff which is packed into the psyche of the unfortunate individual tied into his seat by the ironclad obligations of congruity” (p. 3), but instead the kind of learning described by “the insatiable curiosity which drives the adolescent boy to absorb everything he can see or hear or read about gasoline engines in order to improve the efficiency and speed of his ‘hot-rod’” (p. 3). The student of this sort of learning, he said, is “the student who says, ‘I am discovering, drawing in from the outside, and making that which is drawn in a real part of me’” (p. 3). To advance portray the two sorts of adapting as of now said, Rogers, depicted them as characterising inverse closures of a continuum of significance, feeling, and pertinent. One end of the continuum he spoke to by the accompanying impactful perception: Toward one side of the scale is the sort of assignment clinicians now and then set for the subjects—the learning of babble syllables? To retain such things as baz, ent, nep, arl, lud and so forth, is a troublesome undertaking. Since there is no importance included, these syllables are difficult to learn and are prone to be overlooked rapidly. The research scholar trusts that we would neglect to perceive that a great part of the material displayed to students in the classroom has, for the student, the same puzzling, trivial quality that the rundown of drivel syllables has for us. This is particularly valid for the underprivileged student whose foundation gives no setting to the material with which he is stood up to. Be that as it may, almost every student finds that substantial segments of his educational modules are for him, unimportant. Consequently, instruction turns into the pointless endeavour to learn material which has no individual importance. Such learning involves the mind only. It is learning which takes place from the neck up. It does not involve feelings or personal meanings; it has no relevance for the whole person. (Rogers, 1969, pp. 3-4) Interestingly, he depicted the flip side of the continuum regarding noteworthy, important encounters, which are not effortlessly overlooked: At the point when the little child touches the warm radiator, he learns for himself the importance of, ‘hot’; he has taken in a future alert with respect to every comparable radiator; and he has taken in these learnings as insight, included manner which won’t be soon overlooked. In like manner the student who has remembered “two plus two equals four” might one day in his play with pieces or marbles all of a sudden acknowledge, “Two and two do make four!” He has found something huge for himself, in a way which includes both his considerations and emotions. Or the child who has laboriously acquired “reading skills” is caught up one day in a printed story, whether a comic book or an adventure tale and realises that words can have a magic power which lifts him out of himself into another world. He has now “really” learned to read. (Rogers, 1969, p. 4) Rogers (1969) recorded five characterising components of noteworthy or experiential learning: It has a nature of individual inclusion – Significant learning has a nature of individual contribution in which “the whole person in both his feeling and cognitive aspects [is] in the learning event” (p. 5). It is self-started – “Even when the impetus or stimulus comes from the outside, the sense of discovery, of reaching out, of grasping and comprehending, comes from within” (p. 5). It is pervasive – Significant learning “makes a difference in the behaviour, the attitudes, perhaps even the personality of the learner” (p. 5). It is assessed by the learner – The learner knows “whether it is meeting his need, whether it leads toward what he wants to know, whether it illuminates the dark area of ignorance he is experiencing” (p. 5). Its essence is meaning – “When such learning takes place, the element of meaning to the learner is built into the whole experience” (p. 5). As a case of noteworthy taking in—the kind that represents his hypothesis of opportunity to learn—Rogers referred to the casual notes kept by Barbara J. Shiel, an instructor, who out of sadness and dissatisfaction chose to attempt an intense trial in advancing experiential learning in her 6th-grade class. In the analysis, Mrs Shiel presented the idea of work contracts. These were likewise sheets that contained a rundown of the greater part of the subjects the class was to think about, alongside a rundown of recommendations for study under each, and a space for students to compose their arrangements in every territory. When the agreement was made, the student started to study or work on his arrangement. He could function the length of the required or needed to deal with an undertaking or venture. Since I was not allowed to toss the state-contrived educational programs time plan, I clarified the week by week time-subject squares to the kids—this was to be a thought in their arranging. We likewise examined successive adapting, particularly in math, mastering an aptitude before continuing to the following level of learning. They discovered the text provided an introduction to a skill, demonstrated the skill, and provided exercises to master it and tests to check achievement. When they felt they were ready to go on, they were free to do so. They set their own pace, began at their own level, and went as far as they were able or self-motivated to go. (Rogers, 1969, pp. 17-18). Since assessment was self-started and regarded by the instructor, there was no requirement for swindling to make progress. We discovered that ‘failure’ is only a word, that there is a difference between ‘failure’ and making a mistake, and that mistakes are a part of the learning process. (Rogers, 1969, p. 18) One cannot measure the difference in attitude, the increased interest, the growing pride in self-improvement, but one is aware that they exist (Rogers, 1969, p. 19). The experience of Mrs Shiel’s experiment is illustrative of ten principles of learning that Rogers (1969, pp. 157-164) abstracted from his own experience: 1. Human beings have a natural potentiality for learning. They are curious about their world, until and unless this curiosity is blunted by their experience in our educational system (p. 157). 2Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the student as having relevance for his own purposes. A somewhat more formal way of stating this is that a person learns significantly only those things which he perceives as being involved in the maintenance of or the enhancement of his own self (p. 158). 3. Learning which involves a change in self-organization—in the perception of oneself-is threatening and tends to be resisted. Why has there been so much furore, sometimes even lawsuits, concerning the adolescent boy who comes to school with long hair? Surely the length of his hair makes little objective difference. The reason seems to be that if I, as a teacher or administrator, accept the value which he places on non-conformity then it threatens the value which I have placed on conforming to social demands. If I permit this contradiction to exist I may find myself changing, because I will be forced to a reappraisal of some of my values.  (p. 159)
  1.                Those learning’s which are threatening to the ‘self’ are more easily perceived and assimilated when external threats are at a minimum.
The boy who is retarded in his reading already feels threatened and inadequate because of this deficiency. When he is forced to attempt to read aloud in front of the group, when he is ridiculed for his efforts, when his grades are a vivid reflection of his failure, it is no surprise that he may go through several years of school with no perceptible increase in his reading ability. On the other hand, a supportive, understanding environment and a lack of grades, or an encouragement of self-evaluation, remove the external threats and permit him to make progress because he is no longer paralysed by fear. (pp. 159-160)
  1.                When threat to the self is low, experience can be perceived in differentiated fashion and learning can proceed.
When [the learner] is in an environment in which he is assured of personal security and when he becomes convinced that there is no threat to his ego, he is once more free to…move forward in the process of learning. (p. 161)
  1.                Much significant learning is acquired through doing.
Placing the student in direct experiential confrontation with practical problems, social problems, ethical and philosophical problems, personal issues, and research problems, is one of the most effective modes of promoting learning (p. 162).
  1.                Learning is facilitated when the student participates responsibly in the learning process.
When he chooses his own directions, helps to discover his own learning resources, formulates his own problems, decides his own course of action, lives with the consequences of these choices, then significant learning is maximised (p. 162).
  1.                Self-initiated learning which involves the whole person of the learner—feelings as wells as intellect—is the most lasting and pervasive.
We have discovered this in psychotherapy, where it is the totally involved learning of oneself by oneself which is most effective. This is not the learning which takes place “only from the neck up”. It is a ‘gut level’ type of learning which is profound and pervasive. It can also occur in the tentative discovery of a new self-generated idea or in the learning of a difficult skill, or in the act of artistic creation—a painting, a poem, a sculpture. It is the whole person who ‘lets himself go’ in these creative learnings. An important element in these situations is that the learner knows it is his own learning and thus can hold to it or relinquish it in the face of a more profound learning without having to turn to some authority for corroboration of his judgment. (pp. 162-163)
  1.                Independence, creativity, and self-reliance are all facilitated when self-criticism and self-evaluation are basic and evaluation by others is of secondary importance.
If a child is to grow up to be independent and self-reliant he must be given opportunities at an early age not only to make his own judgments and his own mistakes but to evaluate the consequences of these judgments and choices. (p. 163).
  1.            The most socially useful learning in the modern world is the learning of the process of learning, a continuing openness to experience and incorporation into oneself of the process of change.
If our present culture survives it will be because we have been able to develop individuals for whom change is the central fact of life and who have been able to live comfortably with this central fact. It means that they will not be concerned, as so many are today, that their past learning is inadequate to enable them to cope with current situations. They will instead have the comfortable expectation that it will be continuously necessary to incorporate new and challenging learning’s about ever-changing situations. (pp. 163-164). Rogers’ theory of learning also included ten principles that define the role of the teacher as a facilitator of learning. Rogers (1969) summarised this role by stating that “the primary task of the teacher is to permit [italics added] the student to learn, to feed his or her own curiosity” (p. 18). Rogers’ ten principles of facilitation are complementary to his ten principles of learning. Together they form a human learning theory that emphasises learner agency, cognition, and affect. These ten principles are as follows (summarised from (Rogers C. R., Freedom to Learn, 1969, pp. 164-166):
  1. The facilitator has much to do with setting the initial mood or climate of the group or class experience. “If his own basic philosophy is one of trust in the group and in the individuals who compose the group, then this point of view will be communicated in many subtle ways” (p. 164).
  2. The facilitator helps to elicit and clarify the purposes of the individuals in the class as well as the more general purposes of the group.
  3. He relies upon the desire of each student to implement those purposes which have meaning for him, as the motivational force behind significant learning.
  4. He endeavours to organise and make easily available the widest possible range of resources for learning.
  5. He regards himself as a flexible resource to be utilised by the group.
  6. In responding to expressions in the classroom group, he accepts both the intellectual content and the emotionalized attitudes, endeavouring to give each aspect the approximate degree of emphasis which it has for the individual or group.
  7. As the acceptant classroom climate becomes established, the facilitator is     able increasingly to become a participant learner, a member of the group,    expressing his views as those of one individual only.
  8. He takes the initiative in sharing himself with the group—his feelings as well as his thoughts—in ways which do not demand nor impose but represent simply a personal sharing which students may take or leave.
  9.                Throughout the classroom experience, he remains alert to the expressions indicative of deep or strong feelings. “He endeavours to understand these from the person’s point of view and to communicate his empathic understanding…he helps to bring them into the open for constructive understanding and use by the group” (pp. 165-166).
  10.            In his functioning as a facilitator of learning, the leader endeavours to recognise and accept his own limitations. “He realizes that he can only grant freedom to his students to the extent that he is comfortable in giving such freedom” (p. 166).
The research scholar finds that here Rogers makes reference to Teaching Machines: “This is also one of the great advantages of the teaching machine when properly used. Here the poor reader can begin at his own level of achievement and practically every minute step he makes is marked by reward and a feeling of success.” (p. 160)
  • Some key thoughts of Carl Rogers on Teaching and Learning, Learning and Its Facilitation,
  •                   Regarding Learning and Its Facilitation
Here are a number of the principles which can, I believe, be abstracted from current experience and research related to this newer approach: Critical thoughts on Teaching and Learning The researcher wishes to present some very brief remarks, in the hope that if they bring forth new light on the researcher’s own ideas.
  • The research scholar’s experience is that he can’t instruct someone else how to educate. To endeavour it is for me, over the long haul, pointless.
  • I can’t help suspecting that anything that can be taught to another is generally irrelevant and has practically no critical impact on conduct.
  • I understand progressively that I am just inspired by learnings which fundamentally impact conduct.
  • I have come to feel that the main realising which fundamentally impact conduct is self-found self-appropriated learning.
  • Such self-found learning, truth that has been by and by appropriated and absorbed in experience, can’t be straightforwardly conveyed to another.
  • As an outcome of the above, I understand that I have lost enthusiasm for being an instructor.
  • When I attempt to educate, as I do in some cases, I am dismayed by the outcomes, which appears somewhat more than insignificant, on the grounds that occasionally the instructing seems to succeed. When this happens I find that the outcomes are harming. It appears to bring about the person to doubt his own particular experience and to smother huge learning. Thus, I have come to feel that the results of educating are either irrelevant or destructive.
  • When I glance back at the aftereffects of the research scholar past instructing, the genuine results appear the same - either harm was done - or nothing critical happened. This is honestly disturbing.
  • As a result, I understand that I am just keen on being a learner, ideally learning things that matter, that have some huge impact on the research scholar own conduct.
  • I think that it’s extremely compensating to learn, in gatherings, involved with one individual as in treatment, or by the researcher himself.
  • I find that one of the best, however most troublesome, routes for me to learn is to drop the reseach scholar own preventiveness, at any rate incidentally, and to attempt to comprehend the path in which his experience appears and feels to the next individual.
  • I find that another method for learning for me is to express the research scholar own instabilities, to attempt to illuminate the specialist puzzlements, and in this way get nearer to the implying that the reseach scholar’s experience really appears to have.
  • This entire train of encountering, and the implications that I have so far found in it, appear to have dispatched me on a procedure which is both interesting and on occasion a bit of alarming. It appears to mean giving the specialist’s encounters a chance to convey me on, in a course which has all the earmarks of being forward, toward objectives that I can however faintly characterise, as I attempt to comprehend at any rate the present significance of that experience. The sensation is that of skimming with an intricate stream of experience, with the entrancing plausibility of attempting to grasp its continually evolving multifaceted nature.
The researcher is almost afraid that he may seem to have gotten away from any discussion of learning, as well as teaching. Let me again introduce a practical note by saying that by themselves these interpretations of the researcher’s experience may sound queer and aberrant, but not particularly shocking. It is when the researcher realized the implications that the researcher shook a bit at the distance the researcher have come from the common sense world that everyone knows is right regarding teaching and learning. The researcher can best illustrate this by saying that if the experiences of teaching and learning others had been the same as mine, and if the researcher had discovered similar meanings in it, many consequences would have had implied. Meaning that the reasercher has found that many of the lerning patterns vary from person to person and teacher to teacher or instructor to instructor. The researcher believes that the humanistic aspects in the teaching has a much deeper introspective need than just the superficial and narrow understanding of the human psyche. In the following book the researcher finds the Rogerian ideas of experience (Rogers, Kirschenbaum, & Henderson, 1989)
  1. Such experience would imply that we would do away with teaching. People would get together if they wished to learn.
  2. We would do away with examinations. They measure the inconsequential type of learning.
  3. We would do away with grades and credits for the same reason.
  4. We would do away with degrees as a measure of competence partly for the same reason. Another reason is that a degree marks an end or a conclusion of something, and a learner is only interested in the continuing process of learning.
  5. We would do away with the exposition of conclusions, for we would realise that no one learns significantly from conclusions.
The researcher would like to show primarily whether anything in the researcher’s inward thinking, as have tried to describe it, speaks to anything in experience of the classroom as one have lived it, and if so, what the meanings are that exist for one in your experience. The researcher also focuses on the fact that self-learning and instruction based learning has its advantages and disadvantages. Person Centred Approach as shown in (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980) Person Centred psychotherapy (otherwise called Client-Centred or Rogerian treatment) is a type of talk treatment created via Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s. The reason for this type of treatment is to increment a man’s sentiments of self-esteem, diminish the level of incongruence between the perfect and genuine self, and help a man turn out to be all the more completely working. Rogers’ solid faith in the positive way of human creatures depends on his numerous years of clinical directing. He recommends that all customers, regardless of what the issue, can enhance without being taught anything particular by an advisor, once they acknowledge and regard themselves. The Founder of The Humanistic Psychology Movement and the father of client-centred treatment, Carl Rogers constructed his all-encompassing purpose with respect to his key faith in the human potential for development. A Way of Being (1980), more individual and philosophical than his prior works, was composed in the mid-1980s, close to the end of his recognised profession. Reissued for the anniversary of Roger’s introduction to the world, this one of a kind accumulation follows his expert and self-improvement from the 1960s to the 1980s and finishes with a man focused prescience in which Rogers requires a more compassionate future.
  1.            Reviews of books on Carl Rogers / Humanism
Title: Person-Centred Therapy: 100 Key Points Author: Paul Wilkins Paperback: 336 pages Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition Language: English ISBN-10: 0415452376 ISBN-13: 978-0415452373 Year: 2009 Publisher: Routledge, Tailor and Francis Group Person-centred therapy, in light of the thoughts of the prominent psychotherapist Carl Rogers, is broadly drilled in the UK and all through the world. It has applications in wellbeing and social care, the wilful area and is progressively significant to work with individuals who are extremely rationally and sincerely upset. This book offers an extensive diagram and shows the centre hypotheses, advances and practices of the methodology in a brief, available structure. Person-centred therapy: 100 Key Points the book starts with a thought of the standards and reasoning supporting individual focused treatment before moving to a complete examination of the exemplary hypothesis whereupon practice is based. Further ranges of discourse include: The model of the individual, including the birthplaces of mental and enthusiastic trouble the procedure of valuable change an audit of updates and advances in individual focused hypothesis kid improvement, styles of handling and designs of self the nature of nearness and working at social profundity. At last reactions of the methodology are tended to and refuted, driving perusers to the more extensive individual focused writing. In that capacity this book will be especially valuable to students and researchers of individual focused treatment, and also any individual who needs to know more around one of the real restorative modalities.
  1.            Reviews of past researches related to Rogers Theory or Clinical            counselling psychology
Title: B.F Skinner and Carl Rogers on Behaviour and Education Investigator: EUGENE “E” SWAIM Year: 1972 University: University of Oregon Degree: Doctor of Philosophy Method: 1) Content Analysis 2) Ideas Exploratory 3).primary Sources Material B.F.SKINNER AND CARL R. ROGERS ON BEHAVIOR AND EDUCATION             EUGENE “E” SWAIM has studied B.F.Skinner and Carl R. Rogers on Behaviour and Education. The objectives of the study were to study human behavioural control by focuses upon two conflicting approaches, those of B.F.Skinner and Carl Rogers and derived its Messages for Education. The Researcher has used Content Analysis Method in which he deals with Ideas as Exploratory in design. Researcher used the writing of B.F.Skinner and Carl Rogers as a Primary Sources. Both the psychologist’s theories were sharply contrasted to each other. Conditioning-a Mechanistic approach B.F.Skinner Operant to study human behaviour, while Carl Rogers’s favours’ Humanistic approach to study Human behaviour. B.F.Skinner sees man as an organic machine; therefore Skinner advocates immediate and maximum use of technology in behaviour control. Skinner gave a famous example of a novel, Walden Two. He visualises a society in which people are controlled by a hierarchy of experts. The experts decide what is “good” and they prescribe appropriate conditions of living and learning, while Carl Rogers strongly denounces such action. Rogers says, There is a lot about behaviourism that I accept, I was simply trying to go beyond it... The assumption is that the subjective human being has an importance and a value which is basic: that no matter how he may be labelled or evaluated him is a human person first of all and most deeply. He is not only a machine, not only a collection of stimulus-response bonds, not an object, not a pawn. (Swaim, 1974) The concept of ‘self’ was also differing by Carl Rogers and B.F.Skinner. Skinner explain that the concept of self-knowledge and self-control imply two selves. The self-knower is a social product; the known ‘self’ comes from other sources. The controlling self is of social origin; the controlled self is of genetic origin. These selves are not persons; they are observed pattern of behaviour exhibited by the same physical organism under different stimuli and contingencies of reinforcement. Much of Rogers’s theory centres in the self. The ‘self’ represents the core of the individual. “As the infant interacts with his environment he gradually builds up concept about himself, about the environment, and about himself in relation to the environment” (Rogers C. R., Client Centred Therapy (New Ed), 2012). But the parents and others also impose conceptual patterns upon the infant. As long as the developing child can keep thinking of all experiences which enhance his self-image as positive and all experiences which threaten his self-image as negative, he is psychologically healthy. As soon as the conceptual patterns, which are imposed by others, become a part of the evaluation of the SELF, the individual can experience difficulty. All kind of evaluations, made by others, becomes a part of the infant’s perceptual field. And because of these social pressures, the individual begins to deny to his own awareness some of his actual experiences. What the individual is actually experiencing is being filtered through impose conceptual patterns. So Rogers advocates self-enhancement. Self-awareness is an element in the process toward the goal of greatest realisation of all potentials of the individual. In order to counteract or minimise the self-destroying results of socialisation, Rogers recommends a ‘safe environment’ for the individual whose self-image and self-awareness has suffered from over socialisation. The researcher has concluded his research work by following educational implications. SKINNER ON EDUCATION Skinner believed that behaviour is a function of its consequences. The learner will repeat the desired behaviour if positive reinforcement (a pleasant consequence) follows the behaviour. Positive reinforcement or ‘rewards’ can include verbal reinforcement such as ‘That’s great’ or “You’re certainly on the right track” through to more tangible rewards such as a certificate at the end of the course or promotion to a higher level in an organisation. ‘Negative reinforcement’ also strengthen a behaviour and refers to a situation when a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a consequence of the behaviour. Punishment, on the other hand, weakens a behaviour because a negative condition is introduced or experienced as a consequence of the behaviour and teaches the individual not to repeat the behaviour which was negatively reinforced. A set of conditions is created which are designed to eliminate behaviour (Burns, 1995). Laird considers this aspect of behaviourism has little or no relevance to education. However, Burns says that punishment is widely used in everyday life although it only works for a short time and often only when the punishing agency is present. ROGERS ON EDUCATION For Rogers, learning is a function of need; need is what the individual perceives as maintaining and enhancing to his self. Therefore, those element of ‘education’ that are not perceived as self-related are of little or no significance probably not ‘learned at all’ within Rogers’ definition of learning. The following statements summarise some of the fundamental ideas of his educational theory:
  • One person cannot teach another person how to teach.
  • Anything that can be ‘taught’ to another is inconsequential.
  • The only learning that significantly influences behaviour is that which is self-discovered and self-appropriated.
  • Such self-discovered ‘truth’ cannot be directed communicated to another.
  • With effort, one may, on occasion, succeed in ‘teaching’ another something, but if this happens it is damaging, not helpful. The person who has been ‘taught’ begins to distrust his own experience. If one’s own experience is not trusted, ‘significant’ learning is stifled.
The researcher finds that Carl Rogers sees education in terms of individual exploration and discovery, individual understanding, individually significant meaning and learning. He further writes:  “By significant learning, I mean learning which is more than an accumulation of facts; it is learning which makes a difference in the individual’s behaviour, in the action he chooses in the future, in his attitudes and in his personality.” (Rogers C. R., On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy, 1989, p. 280) The kinds of changes Rogers believes results from this kind of learning are:
  1.                The person comes to see himself differently.
  2.                He accepts himself and his feelings more fully.
  3.                He becomes more self-confident and self-directing.
  4.                He becomes more the person he would like to be.
  5.                He becomes more flexible, less rigid, in his perceptions.
  6.                He adopts more realistic goals for himself.
  7.                He behaves in a more matures fashion.
  8. He changes his maladjusted behaviours, even such a long established one as chronic alcoholism.
  9.                He becomes more acceptant of others.
  10. He becomes more open to the evidence, both to what is going on outside of himself and to what is going on inside of himself.
  11.            He changes in his basic personality characteristics, in constructive ways.
These are the results which Rogers trusts his hypothesis infers:
  • Such experience would infer that we get rid of instructing. Individuals would get together on the off chance that they wished to learn.
  • We would get rid of examinations. They measure just the immaterial kind of learning.
  • The suggestion would be that we would get rid of evaluations and credits for the same reason.
  • We would get rid of degree as a measure of fitness incompletely for the same reason. Another reason is that a degree, denote an end or a decision of something, and a learner is just intrigued by the proceeding with procedure of learning.
  • It would infer getting rid of the article of conclusions, for we understand that nobody gains essentially from conclusion.
Title: The Impact of David Ausubel and Carl Rogers in Developing One Orientation to Humanistic Education; Implication for Staff Development Investigator: Libby Zinman Schwartz Year: 1980 University: Temple University Graduate Board Degree: Doctor of Education Method: 1) Content Analysis 2) Library Work The Impact of David Ausubel and Carl Rogers in Developing One Orientation to Humanistic Education; Implication for Staff Development Libby Zinman Schwartz has done The Impact of David Ausubel and Carl Rogers In developing one Orientation to Humanistic Education; Implication for Staff Development. The main objectives of the study were to describe the major proposition of Ausubel and Rogers as they related to humanistic education and to derive implication for Staff Development. The researcher has selected this research problem by considering three major reason of his time. First: The researcher has selected this research problem because during his time of research American Educational System was influenced by Humanistic education or effective education and Benjamin Bloom’s recent work, Human Characteristics and School Learning (Bloom, 1976)which provided policymakers with a research base for early education and head staff development. Carl Rogers is the pioneers of humanistic education therefore here investigator attempted to clarify the concept of humanistic education as well as Rogerian therapy and Carl Rogers concept of healthy human personality. The researcher has selected works of Ausubel for the development of psychological aspects of Curriculum theory. The researcher has concluded his research work by following implications. Orientation to Humanistic Education
  1. If the logic and psychological meaning are dependent on adequacy of cognitive structure, then growth in personal knowledge is central to humanistic education.
  2. If growth in personal knowledge is to be adequate and functional, then actual and potential meanings must meet the requirement of being not only propositional but amenable to risk taking.
  3. If cognitive structure is the link between the learners knows and what he need to know, then risk-taking is a requirement of humanistic education.
  4. If growth in personal knowledge is a condition of meaningful learning, then falsification and/or conformability of logical and psychological meanings are central to humanistic education.
  5. If exploration of personal parameters is central to humanistic education, then all exploration of potentially meaningful subject matter must meet the condition of reliability within situational contexts.
  6. If logical and psychological meanings are derived from exploration of personal and situational contexts, then growth in personal knowledge is demonstrated incongruent behaviour.
  7. If schooling is constrained by congruent behaviour, then schooling finds it’s basic in the reality of actual and potential meanings.
  8. If congruent behaviour in schooling is constrained by logical meanings, then the development of a personal evaluative ethic is central to humanistic education.
  9. If growth in personal knowledge is dependent on confirming or falsifying propositional contexts, then consistent staff development is central to humanistic education.
Implication for staff Development
  • One implication for staff development is that personal knowledge cannot develop without adequate cognitive structure.
  • A second implication for staff is to determine what substantive content should be selected which can contribute to personal knowledge. Before staff can select substantive content areas from which an inner core of personal meaning can be derived, the staff must first describe the logical and psychological ‘meanings’ that can contribute to personal growth.
  • Third implication for staff development is that once identified, the subject matter that impacts on personal that impact on personal growth must be converted into situations conveying actual and potential meaning.
  • Once the content is identified, it must be converted into actual and potentially meaningful situation.
  • Staff must examine the diverse subject matters in an attempt to identify the particular subject matter most amenable to developing a sense of the world of self-identity and an understanding of others.
  • One implication for staff development is to examine the means to confirm or deny propositional content. Teacher must then be able to interact with students so logical and psychological ‘meanings’ may be verified, if cognitive structure is to be adequate and facilitate growth in personal knowledge.
  • Another implication for staff development is to select the interpersonal and information skills in which teachers may receive instruction, so they may become efficient in applying the skills to situational contexts which can be translated into the problematic.
  • Seven interpersonal and educational abilities must be created. (Informing, Inquiry, Intensive tuning in, Self-divulgence, Accepting, Clarifying, Asserting)
  • The learner must have the capacity to assess his self-awareness, inside of the limitations of the coherent implications which are given in school programs.
  • Staff improvement is focused to an introduction to humanistic instruction which requires comparability of propositional substance and relatability in the middle of sensible and mental “implications” in circumstances which are agreeable to hazard taking.
  • Finally, the learner who will realise that the genuine and potential ‘implications’ he has procured have added to his feeling of the world, his self-character and his comprehension of others.
Title: Actualization In Theory and Therapy: Rogers’ Way of Being Versus Jung’s Way Investigator: Vincent f. Copp Year: 1994 University: The Chicago School of Professional Psychology Degree: Doctor of Psychology Method: 1) Content Analysis 2) LIBRARY WORK   Actualization In Theory And Therapy: Rogers’ Way of Being Versus Jung’s Way Vincent F. Copp analysed the issue of mental development based upon the work of Carl Rogers’ and Carl Jung. This examination of mental development centres upon Rogers’ idea of the completing propensity inside of the individual and Jung’s idea of the individuation process which people follow in endeavouring to achieve a condition of self-acknowledgment: The agent starts with the suspicions fundamental each of the two ideas of mental development ,the researcher further continues to analyse how Rogers’ and Jung, consolidated their ideas of mental development into their speculations of identity, into their ways to deal with treatment and the significant types of confirmation both the men created in backing of their work. The researcher has dissected that Jung’s way to deal with mental development speaks to a way or way by using the conventional techniques therapy, for example, the translation of dreams and the transference relationship, while Roger’s way to deal with mental development is based upon the advisors singular method for being in the dispositions of validity, unrestricted positive respect and sympathetic comprehension. The present study acquired light that Jung’s hypothesis has given way or way toward brain science development, a route based upon a fanciful and profound viewpoint rather than logical. Rogers’ hypothesis then again depicts people’s close to home subjective methods for being amid the procedure of realising their inclinations methods for being which he displayed in a way that was comprised with his experimental point of view. The researcher has finished up his work by inspecting the suggestion that both the methodologies have for the mental development of customer and additionally for the mental development of the advisor especially then starting advisor. Title: Rogers’ Concept Of The Fully Functioning Person: An Adequate Portrayal Of Human Freedom? Investigator: Lina Di Blasio Year: 1992 University: THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA Degree: MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION Method: 1) Content Analysis (philosophical analysis) 2) LIBRARY WORK Lina Di Blasio dissected Rogers’ idea of the completely using so as to work individual substance examination strategy. The significant target of the present exploration work is to contemplate Rogerian perspective of human flexibility as it is communicated in the idea of the completely working individual, sufficiently builds up the particular contrast between persons as a free subjects and the decided objects of common sciences. The researcher has inspected and examined Carl Rogers’ perspectives and discover that According to Carl Rogers’ test technique is insufficient for the human sciences. Rogers’ contends that when investigative technique and methodology connected to investigation of individual persons are dehumanised: that is, persons are diminished to protests bound by common laws of circumstances and end results and subsequently neglect to uncover urgent parts of people, for overcoming logical strategy. Roger planned another hypothesis - exploration of the individual - the idea of completely working individual. The agent has discovered the characteristics of completely working individual: Existential living. Openness to Experience, Creativity, a Sense of Freedom and Organismic Trust. The completely working individual is a person who is interested in her experience, lives existentially in the present and feels free top receive and change creatively. He is a man who has viable figured out how to learn. The researcher has closed by instructive ramifications that educator and advisor must study the people at enthusiastic, intellectual, and mental level, they should spurred the inventiveness of learners, they energised independent intuition among learners and liberating them inflexible worth framework. Title: An Analysis of the Concept of Self in Selected Writings of Carl Rogers and Reinhold Niebuhr Investigator: Steven Eugene Wilkerson Year: 1980 University: The Florida State University Degree: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Method: 1) Content Analysis (philosophical analysis) 2) LIBRARY WORK Steven Eugene Wilkerson investigated the idea of self in chose compositions of Carl Rogers and Reinhold Niebuhr. Present exploration work concentrated on the idea of self as that idea was utilised inside of the hypothetical models of human instinct of Carl Rogers, clinician and Reinhold Niebuhr, scholar and ethicist. The examiner has broken down the models of human instinct of Carl Rogers and Reinhold Niebuhr for taking after reasons:
  • Both utilised the idea of self to depict an elite capacity inside of the individual which arranges recognition and conduct.
  • Both contended that a radical change in the capacity of the self is required for human conduct to approach their individual regulating thoughts of wellbeing.
  • Both models were impact on a wide assortment of callings and teaches especially peaceful advising.
  • Finally, their models were chosen in light of the proceeding with significance of the idea of self in contemporary contemplated human instinct.
The research scholar finds a critical contrasts in their conceptualizations of self. The properties related by Rogers with the idea of ‘self’ in the chosen compositions were the constituent components of the photo or gestalt that one has of oneself in connection to the rest of experience. That ‘self’ idea incorporates the introjected states of worth which serve as the perceptual strainers through which experience is deciphered and frequently contorted, prompting mental maladjustment. The properties related by Reinhold Niebuhr with the idea of ‘self’ were qualities of a guaranteed profound component in human instinct. The ‘self’ is human-centrally portrayed as a power of resolution and amazing quality incomprehensibly typified in regular presence and restlessly enticed to escape oddity and anxiety by the will to power or arousing quality which underlie the essential articulations of human bad conduct. Examination likewise uncovered fundamental contrasts between supernatural, epistemological, and axiological suspicions supporting their particular models of human instinct. The significance of procedural investigation of different models of human instinct and conduct that guide advising practice. The issue of surplus implications often connected with the idea of self in directing and psychotherapeutic writing and research. Some suggestion for peaceful advising. Title: Revelation And Self-Understanding: A Comparative Study of Gabriel Moren and Carl Rogers Investigator: Sr. Maureena P. Fritz Year: 1971 University: The University Of Ottawa Degree: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Method: 1) Content Analysis (philosophical analysis) 2) LIBRARY WORK The researcher has concentrated on the relationship between man’s comprehension of disclosure and his self-comprehension by contrasting the religious philosophy of disclosure in the composition of Gabriel Moran with the mental perspective of man in the considered Carl Rogers. The significant target of present exploration work is to look at the relationship in the middle of disclosure and man’s ‘self’ comprehension. The researcher starts by exploring the spot of Moran’s compositions on disclosure as a major aspect of an inversion occurring in catholic religious philosophy furthermore look at the connection in the middle of nature and the heavenly. This examination uncovers an improvement far from a static, cyclic thought of disclosure towards a dynamic procedure, idea in which limits isolating the frightened from the mainstream are broken, and a development towards an accentuation upon human experience as the locus of the genuine. As per the writer feels Moran is an authentic dialogue in the middle of God and the person inside of a trusting group. Disclosure is an individual union in learning in the middle of talks related to God and partaking subject in the disclosure history of a group. The researcher likewise discovered comparable improvement from a static to a procedure model, in the mental pictures of man from Rogers’s hypotheses. Rogers say that man is a being in procedure with an inward pushed toward self-completion and independence. He is vital social and needing others to give that interpersonal relationship which is fundamental for human development with security, warm worry with legitimate fellowship and individual vicinity. He is permitted and welcomed to wind up who he fundamentally and possibly is an individual. By contrasting with authors, agent uncovers a converging of religious philosophy and brain science in progress of these two journalists. Man’s powerful development does not run parallel to his characteristic development but rather one with it. Development towards self-comprehension is development in disclosure and then again, development in appreciation of the awesome human experience is development towards more prominent self-comprehension. The examiner discovered normal for solid man from Rogers works and recommended that training ought to add to these quality among people; self-assurance, self-bearing, openness to experience, imagination, flexibility and trust in the life form. The author recommended more experience, group, and recognition based training for making solid society and sound people. The part of instructors, advisors and educationists were to give favourable atmosphere, atmosphere of wellbeing for full development and advancements of a person. Internal nature of man is frail and effectively changed by propensity, society weight and wrong states of mind so the part of educators or advisors were to control the tired and horrible motivations of a man. Title: Core Conditions in Student-Centered Learning Environments Investigator: Margaret Ann Hartford Year: 2009 University: THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT-EI PASO Degree: MASTER OF ARTS Method: 1) ethnomethodological design 2) LIBRARY WORK Margaret Ann Hartford investigated centre conditions in student focused instructive settings by using an ethnomethodologically configuration to analyse the encounters of self-chose teachers all through the United States. Through overviews and subsequent meetings, instructors reported their expert encounters with respect to the centre conditions in student focused learning as laid out via Carl Rogers. The essential goals of this exploration looked to find what a few instructors and students might be making in the classroom setting, especially in relationship to the educators’ usage of the centre conditions, their impression of how making a learner-focused environment identifies with the students’ learning process, and what the instructors have found as to using sympathy, positive respect, and validity. The examiner locate our four key conditions for learning and key centre conditions for making helpful atmosphere for learning they are: 1) Objectivity, 2) Respect for the individual, 3) Understanding for the Self and 4) Psychological Knowledge, meeting, acknowledgement, and sympathy. The researchers has remarking so as to close that only scholarly assessment must be dodged yet assess people as entire individual with human traits, for example, social abilities, sense of pride, innovativeness, and so on ,make shows preparing all the more intriguing rather than pointless gatherings, papers works. Title: An Analysis of the Differential Effect of Carl Rogers’ Teaching Principles on Cognitive Growth in Second Language Investigator: William Crossan Year: 1976 University: THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA, CANADA Degree: Doctor of Philosophy Method: 1) Quasi-experimental design 2) Multiple Covariance analysis William Crossan examined an investigation of the differential impact of Carl Rogers’ Teaching standards on psychological development in second dialect. The motivation behind this study was to test a hypothesis that is picking up acknowledgement in the region of second dialect instructing specifically that showing adequacy is connected with a theory and philosophy that is humanistic in introduction. Agent has characterized humanism as being predictable with the instructive hypothesis and strategy of carl rogers and educators were classified as high humanistic (HH) and low humanistic (LH) on a self-report instrument taking into account Rogers’ theory.it was conjectured that there would be no distinction in the adequacy of HH and LH instructors in the regions of French dialect abilities, science, understanding and definition when viability was resolved on the premise of students accomplishment at the evaluation one, grade two and grade three levels. The study outline was an adjusted pre-test and post-test plan with investigation of covariance as the measurable method. Both gatherings were thought about on the last post-test measures, factual technique gave a redress to the introductory imbalance of the gatherings. The examiner assess that the evaluation one level showed that humanistic educators (HH) were all in all more viable than (LH) instructors, at evaluation two-level the outcome were blended, while at the evaluation three-level the LH educators were more successful when adequacy was resolved on the premise of students accomplishment. The result of the examination demonstrate that the educator viability is not a unidimensional variable but rather is influenced by the double measurements of the instructor’s methodology and the capacity to be performed. Where the capacity is undertaking focused, then instructors who are order towards a particular objective have all the earmarks of being more successful than educators who embrace an extensively based showing technique with humanistic principles. The best educators give off an impression of being the individuals who have the adaptability to change conduct design as per the circumstance and educational programs objectives. Assessment of the examination does not give bolster that a humanistic methodology as characterised via Carl Rogers is the best way to deal with second dialect educating. (Make educational implication brief, short and combine all modify)
  • The part of training is to create people potential inside of his own worth structure.
  • The part of training is to give a boulevard to the acknowledgement of man’s self-completion.
  • Education should fundamentally be the acknowledgement of man’s potential and the support of distinction, contrast and inventiveness.
  • The instructor ought to give a wide assortment of encounters and empower open doors for choice, thereby improving the youngster’s development towards self-realization.
  • The classroom must turn into a lab where the atmosphere is helpful for the development and improvement of a positive mental self-view.
  • The distinction of the kid must be perceived and his extraordinary characters created.
  • The school can improve the development of a positive self-idea through such instructive examples as the individualization of guideline and software engineers that oblige people needs.
  • Pupil instructor communication ought to be create inside of a helping relationship.
  • The instructor as being warm and delicate to the students need.
  • Ideal normal for an educator laid out by Rogers - 1. Realness or harmoniousness, 2. Prizing, acknowledgment and test, 3. Empathic comprehension.
  • Teachers ought to be strong, delicate, agreed and build up compatibility, certainty and security in the class as opposed to being dictator order and meddlesome.
  • Language ought to be taught through social interaction of dialect.
  • Rogers firmly trusts that the starting off learning rests not upon the showing attitudes of the pioneer, his insightful information of the field, his educational programs arranging, his utilization of varying media helps, his addresses, presentations and plenitude of books yet the assistance of huge learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exists in the individual relationship between the facilitator and the learner.
  1.            Lesson’s from the reviews and characteristic of this research and Summary:
‘On Becoming a Person’ is an accumulation of addresses and compositions drafted via Carl Rogers in the vicinity of 1951 and 1961. The book is profoundly smart and practically thoughtful in its clarification of how Rogers touched base at his individual focused way to deal with psychotherapy. Real to life individual disclosures of Roger's involvement and experiences on human connections are given, just like an investigation of psychotherapy as a helping ‘relationship’ between the specialist and customer. I was particularly hit with Rogers’ idea of compatibility, which was examined finally. A man is harmonious when they carry on as per what they really feel – in the event that they feel miserable, then it is correct that they shed tears. At the point when a man is incongruent with their actual emotions they wear a veil and are in this manner expelled from and ‘unacceptant’ of their actual self. To the degree that somebody is ‘unacceptant’ of their actual self, they can’t be ‘acceptant’ of others. As indicated by Rogers, coinciding is required of all specialists – being really acceptant of themselves liberates them to be acceptant of customers. The message that stays with me in the wake of perusing the book is Rogers’ thought that ‘turning into a man’ means being a work in advance. We tend to consider identity characterized by particular attributes, qualities, and practices. Rogers places that we are the whole of our encounters, which stream in time; consequently, our identity is not unbending but rather streaming too – we are ceaselessly and logically turning into the individual we craving to be. It is the point at which we can't turn into our optimal self that mental pain is experienced. Rogers represents the impacts of being ‘unacceptant’ of oneself as wearing a cover and building a divider. At the point when a man is ‘unacceptant’ of themselves they stay uninformed of their actual self (their sentiments, recognitions, and viewpoints). As a result, they accept the identity qualities expected of them by their condition or culture. I could relate this to my client work, showing exactly how pertinent the book is to my developing learning base. Rogers clarifies that individuals wear a ‘cover’ before others as they dread others may see the genuine individual under the veil and reject them. In this way, individuals can wind up wearing a remotely forced cover keeping in mind the end goal to avoid erosion with noteworthy. By experience, when wears the veil, noteworthy others regard, love, acknowledge and even respect the cover, which bolsters their conviction that the genuine them would not be acknowledged. Living along these lines, a man manufactures an invulnerable divider that shrouds who they really are – even from themselves. The need to go similarly as concealing the ‘self’ from themselves originates from the dread of finding the profundities of their feelings and losing control of them. Once more, I can relate this to some of my customers, and to myself. Pondering this has given me a more noteworthy comprehension of the mental misery experienced by the individuals who shroud their actual ‘self’ – it takes the majority of their quality and imagination to keep the veil and the divider set up. Rogers trusts that in a bona fide, acceptant and empathic restorative relationship the customer will feel sufficiently safe to gradually evacuate the cover and disassemble the divider until they are OK with and ‘acceptant’ of themselves. This is Rogers’ meaning of ‘effective’ treatment. The tone and selection of words in the book are recognizable, and its advancement of thoughts misleadingly straightforward. Without a doubt, Rogers demonstrates that the book was composed basically for ‘standard’ individuals. It is in this way in ‘plain English’, with any convoluted ideas portrayed in straightforward terms. Roger's additionally utilizes representations and selections of meetings to delineate his perceptions. Learning picked up from checking on the book will encourage me with my directing practice. Specifically, on the off chance that I acknowledge that I have an obligation to build up an association with my customers, then I can likewise acknowledge that my association with customers must be portrayed by validity (i.e. the capacity to be completely forthright, open and harmonious in self-revelation), acknowledgment (i.e. an unequivocal positive respect of the customer), and compassion (i.e. the capacity to genuinely tune in and comprehend the customers perceptual world rather than just naming their expressions). These three conditions empower the helpful relationship to illuminate and improve the restorative procedure. All over a significant time span connections from which I determine delight and enthusiastic development are those involving validity, acknowledgment and compassion. In the event that individual connections of this kind can impel me to statures of individual development and development, how likewise an honest to goodness, acceptant and empathic association with a specialist can drive a customer to end up noticeably a completely working individual who knows about their sentiments and encounters and enabled to address their own incongruence. Over all, Roger’s exceptional content – ‘On Becoming a Person’ – has highlighted to me the significance of the connection amongst guide and customer inside the individual focused approach.

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Approaches to textual analysis. In K. E. Rosengren (Ed.), Advances in content analysis (pp. 23-41). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage publication. Retrieved January 16, 2015 Lowenthal, L. (1994). Biographies in popular magazines. (P. F. Lazersfled, & F. N. Stenton, Eds.) Radio Research. Lowry, D., & Davis, E. (1989). Part-time TV portrayals of sex, contraception and venereal diseases. Journalism Quarterly, 2, pp. 347-352. Retrieved February 14, 2015 Loy, P. (1979). Content analysis of Journal articles as a technique for historical research. Journal of the History of Sociology,, 1(1), 93-101. Retrieved July 12, 2015 Lukole, R. (2003). Content Analysis. Retrieved January 11, 2015 Luyster, F. (2010). Wolfgang Kohler. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from Muskingum University: http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/kohler.htm Manichander, T. (n.d.). Advanced Educational Psychology. Lulu.com. Retrieved October 11, 2014, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=kvZCCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=%22+Humanistic+psychology+tends+to+look+beyond+the+medical%22&source=bl&ots=1Q-grjIdDU&sig=lSCZxavXy9LwCEt6fzOHL6PP2vo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiBouebx7vMAhXHA44KHQ4JDw8Q6AEIKjAC#v=snippet& Manichander, T., Brindhamani, M., & Marisamy, K. (2015). Psychology Of Learners And Learning. Raleigh: Lulu Publication. Retrieved January 1, 2016, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=GWVlCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=%22+%22A+certain+region+in+the+field+becomes+crucial,+is+focused;%22&source=bl&ots=xUqJNp_jg5&sig=95IxchikDGrC5TWamR_xtu7iy28&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwirr52mnsDMAhXDLqYKHZzrCY4Q6AEIMTAF#v=o Martin, J. R. (2010). A framework of research Methodology. Retrieved June 20, 2015, from http://maaw.info/ArticleSummaries/FrameworkForResearchMethodology.gif Matson, F. W. (1971, March). Humanistic Theory: the third revolution in psychology. The Humanist. Retrieved October 13, 2014 McLeod, S. (2007). Edward Thorndike. Retrieved May 10, 2014, from Simply Psychology: www.simplypsychology.org/edward-thorndike.html McLeod, S. (2007). Humanism. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/humanistic.html McLeod, S. (2015). Skinner - Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html McLeod, S. A. (2013). Pavlov's Dogs. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.html McMillan, J., & Schumacher, S. (2009). Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry (7th ed.). Pearson Education. Retrieved January 03, 2015 McTavish, D., & Pirro, E. (1990). Contextual content analysis. Quality and Quantity, 245-265. Retrieved January 16, 2015 Merriam, & Caffarella. (1991). Four Perspectives on Learning. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/orientations.html Mishra, B. C., & Dhir, A. (2005). Ashram Schools in India: Problems and Prospects. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House. Retrieved January 22, 2014, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=C5wgXY8pp1EC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=%22+%E2%80%9CPractically+all+human+knowledge+can+be+found+in+books%22&source=bl&ots=Vo0e6uWzEp&sig=n8Jeztp7s0fwsE3Oi4_Zl6ThP08&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwihm_Tn8cLMAhVCCI4KHQj_DlIQ6AEILDAD#v= Morgan, D. L. (1993). Qualitative content analysis: Aguide to paths not taken. Qualitative Health Research, pp. 112-121. Retrieved January 16, 2015 Murty, D. (2001). Developmental Journalism. New Delhi: Dominant Publishers. Retrieved July 12, 2015 Nachmias, D., & Nachmias, C. (1976). Content Analysis. (E. Arnold, Ed.) Research Methods in Social Sciences, pp. 132-139. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Nandy, B. R., & Sarvela, P. D. (1997). Content analysis reexamined: Arelevant research method for healtheducation. American Journal of Health Behavior, 222-234. Retrieved January 16, 2015 New Learning and New Literacies. (2010, September 30). Retrieved from Wikibooks: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/New_Learning_and_New_Literacies O'Hara, M. (1989). Person-centered approach as conscientização: The works of Carl Rogers and Paulo Freire. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 29(1), 11-35. doi:10.1177/0022167889291002. Olson, B. (1994). Sex and the soaps: A comparative content analysis of health issues. Journalism Quarterly, 4, pp. 840-850. Retrieved March 20, 2015 Operant Conditioning. (2016, April 26). Retrieved April 30, 2016, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operant_conditioning Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence. AMC. Retrieved January 13, 2014 Piaget, J. (1973). Main Trends in Psychology. London: George Allen & Unwin. Retrieved January 20, 2014 Problems of Development & Learning : Psychology & Social Issues. (2015). Retrieved January 11, 2016, from http://courses.aiu.edu/Problems%20of%20Development%20&%20Learning/Sec%205/05.Psychology%20&%20Social%20Issues.pdf Psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2016, from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology#cite_note-Fernald-2 Radtke, R. (2009). Wolfgang Kohler. Retrieved November 10, 2014, from PerceptionandAttention: https://perceptionandattention.wikispaces.com/References Riedel, M. (2000). Research Strategies for Secondary Data: A Perspective for Criminology and Criminal Justice. New Delhi: Sage Publications. Retrieved January 16, 2014, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=CttyAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&dq=%22+The+review+of+the+literature+in+educational+research+provides%22&source=bl&ots=RBnWDUFlg7&sig=qeRRwNMKslYsmmSTAJm3FPlDKVY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2vKSP78LMAhXQWo4KHew5BAUQ6AEIHDAA#v=o Roberts, C. W. (1997). A Theoretical Map for Selecting Among Text AnalysisMethods. (C. W. (ed), Ed.) Text Analysis for the Social Sciences:Methods for Drawing Statistical Inferences from Texts and Transcripts, 275–285. Retrieved January 20, 2015 Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. London: Constable. Rogers, C. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable. Retrieved June 12, 2015 Rogers, C. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality, and Interpersonal Relationships: As Developed in the Client-centered Framework. In S. Koch, & S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A Study of a Science (Vol. 3, pp. 184-256). New York: McGraw Hill. Retrieved October 13, 2015, from https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3a1o9R47kWNeGtXemhGbXAxM3c/edit Rogers, C. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapists' View Of Psychotherapy. London: Constable. Retrieved January 13, 2016 Rogers, C. R. (1968). Client-centered Approach to Therapy. In I. L. Kutash, & A. Wolf (Eds.), Psychotherapist's Casebook: Theory and Technique in Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved January 22, 2016 Rogers, C. R. (1969). Freedom to Learn (20 ed.). The University of Michigan: C. E. Merrill Pub. Co.,. Retrieved January 02, 2014 Rogers, C. R. (1980). A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Miffin. Retrieved January 12, 2014 Rogers, C. R. (1989). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved March 22, 2014 Rogers, C. R. (2012). Client Centred Therapy (New Ed). UK: Hachette. Retrieved October 22, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=bWieBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT361&lpg=PT361&dq=As+the+infant+interacts+with+his+environment+he+gradually+builds+up+concept+about+himself,+about+the+environment,+and+about+himself+in+relation+to+the+environment&source=bl&ots=LwgrRvH Rogers, C. R., Kirschenbaum, H., & Henderson, V. L. (1989). The Carl Rogers Reader. (H. Kirschenbaum, & V. L. Henderson, Eds.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved April 12, 2014 Rosengren, K. E. (1981). Advances in Scandinavia content analysis: An introduction. (K. E. Rosengren, Ed.) Advances in content analysis, pp. 9-19. Retrieved January 16, 2015 Ryckmann, R. (1993). Theories of personality (5th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. Retrieved June 12, 2015 -Ryer, S. M. (n.d.). Competency K. Retrieved June 14, 2015, from http://shannonmeaney.weebly.com/comp-k.html Scott, M. E. (2015, April 6). Research Methodology or Method How to Tell the Difference. Retrieved May 10, 2015, from Magate Wildhorse℠: http://magatewildhorse.ca/research-methodology-or-method%E2%94%81-how-to-tell-the-difference/ Serenity Carr, A. E. (Ed.). (2016). Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary online. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/acceptance Sharma, R. K. (2008). Sociological Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers Distributors (P) LTD. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=X9iylmDMupUC&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=%22+The+keys+to+the+vast+storehouse+of+published+literature%22&source=bl&ots=IZmW5yfprP&sig=UsTjhddXliksfHeUdSDz138GfLg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjpp5eO8MLMAhXFcI4KHWaRBBEQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage Shekhar, A. (Ed.). (2012). Numerons: Psychology for IAS. Retrieved January 12, 2014, from numerons: https://numerons.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/introduction.pdf Singer, D., & Revenson, T. (1997). A Piaget Primer: How a Child Thinks (Revised Edition) (Revised ed.). Madison, Connecticut: International Universities Press Inc. Retrieved May 22, 2014 Skinner, B. F. (1976). Walden Two. Indianopolis/ Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company INC. Retrieved July 11, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=KEiYzfCVzv4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=walden+2&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Smith, K. (2012, January 3). The Humanistic Approach to Psychology. Retrieved January 11, 2014, from New Stepps Science, Technology, Ethics, Philosophy, Politics and Sociology: http://new-stepps.blogspot.in/2012/01/v-behaviorurldefaultvmlo.html Smith, M. K. (1999). The behaviourist orientation to learning. Retrieved August 13, 2014, from the encyclopedia of informal education: http://infed.org/mobi/the-behaviourist-orientation-to-learning/ Smith, M. K. (1999). The cognitive orientation to learning. Retrieved February 23, 2014, from the encyclopedia of informal education: http://infed.org/mobi/the-cognitive-orientation-to-learning/ Spatial Stimulus-Response Compatibility. (1990). In R. W. Proctor, & T. G. Reeve (Eds.), Stimulus Response Compatibility: An Integrated Perspective (p. 90). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North- Holland, ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V. Retrieved December 22, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KdJeuZphwCIC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Stimulus-Response+School&ots=V_A69uBrMj&sig=fgdRj0rzBeNzc0UkhbUQvJoPA98#v=onepage&q&f=false Srikanth, C. (2015). Education in India. srikanth. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=RF38CQAAQBAJ&pg=PA39&lpg=PA39&dq=%22+I.+To+give+a+knowledge+of+the+nature+of+the+child+II.+To%22&source=bl&ots=Tcj5162jEo&sig=lv0PzXcye_OrfIsxvFJsJJgHK5w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiS1KrKkuDLAhUWA44KHSUDA9QQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepag Stempel, G. (1989). Content Analysis. In G.H.Stempel, & B.H.Westley (Eds.), Research methods in mass communications. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. Retrieved March 18, 2015 Stone, P. J., Dunphy, D. C., Smith, M. S., & Ogilvie, D. M. (1966). The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis. (C. W. Roberts, Ed.) Cambridge: MIT press. Retrieved January 22, 2015 Swaim, E. E. (1974, August 24). B.F. Skinner and Carl R. Rogers on Behavior and Education. Oregon ASCD Curriculum Bulletin, p. 48. Retrieved August 20, 2015, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED098087.pdf Taviss, I. (1969, February). Changes in the form of alienation: The 1900's vs. the 1950's. American Sociological Review, pp. 45-67. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. Bristol: PA: Falmer. Retrieved January 16, 2015 The Gestalt Principles. (2014). Retrieved March 13, 2015, from http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/gestaltprinciples/gestaltprinc.htm Tolstoy, L. (1941). War and Peace (Vol. 3). London: Oxford University. Retrieved January 23, 2016 Unit-II Hormic School. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2016, from International Journal of Teacher Education and Research: http://med.ijter.com/UNIT-IIEP.pdf Vijayalakshmi, B., Devi Prasad, B., & Visweswara Rao, K. (1996). Trends in Social Work Literature: A content analysis of the Indian Journal of Social Work 1971-1990. Indian Journal of Social Work, 57(3), 442-460. Retrieved July 12, 2015 Wang, J. (1996). The siren songs of consumption: and analysis of foreign advertisements in two Mainland Chinese newspapers. Gazette, 3, pp. 201-219. Retrieved January 12, 2015 Weber, R. P. (1985). Basic Content Analysis. New Delhi: Sage. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Wertheimer, M. (1959). Productive Thinking. New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved February 13, 2014 Wertheimer, M. (1959). Productive Thinking. New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved February 14, 2014 What is Humanistic Psychology? (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2014, from The Association of Humanistic Psychology: https://www.ahpweb.org/about/new-vision/item/8-humanistic-psychology-overview.html Wilken, D. P. (Ed.). (2015). Revisiting Carl Rogers Theory of Personality. Journal Psyche. Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://journalpsyche.org/revisiting-carl-rogers-theory-of-personality/ Wilson, A. (2011). How to be a Parent Champion and add magic to your family. Rochester: Develop Your Child CIC. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=v4FferbqGFIC&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=%22to+conducting+therapy+and+a+scientific+approach+to+evaluating%22&source=bl&ots=H5i_qk9Hqr&sig=91f4b51i_DDlDGBMrGk1CpMFxOk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwia8f_W1MDLAhUKm5QKHROMCwQQ6AEIHDAA#v=on Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (1994). Mass media research: an introduction (4th ed.). California: Wadsworth. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Woodrum, E. (1984). Mainstreaming content analysis in social science: Methodological advantage-obstacles and solutions. Social Science Research, 2, pp. 1-9. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Work, P. G. (n.d.). Human Growth and Personality Development. Retrieved from Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College: http://www.andavancollege.ac.in/depts/msw/htmlfiles/mswnotes/hgpd.pdf Ysthename, O. (2014, October 24). Educational Psychology. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from www.Slideshare.net: http://www.slideshare.net/iheartohmar/educational-psychology-40689177 Yusof, K. M., Azli, N. A., Kosnin, A. M., Yusof, S. K., & Yusof, Y. M. (Eds.). (2012). Outcome-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Innovative Practices. Hershey: Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global. Retrieved January 14, 2014, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=hwFORNLzchgC&pg=PA158&lpg=PA158&dq=%22with+existing+knowledge+and+experiences+(Jonassen,+1999).%22&source=bl&ots=7_MVZk84XJ&sig=9oXWuc5gy0YwMJNZQ8xs8fttEp0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj4tJaY_cDMAhWJCY4KHYnIDiYQ6AEIHDAA#v=onep                   CHAPTER - IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE
  1. INTRODUCTION:
Research is a watchful and basic quest for answer for the issues that delight and astound mankind. As per Van Dalen (1979 P. 1) “Research is born of curiosity and nourished by the intense yearning to learn the truth and to improve our ways of things.” For any fruitful research it is important to embrace a methodical strategy to gather crucial information which is satisfactory in amount and quality, adequate solid furthermore legitimate. Such information can be obtained by receiving different techniques according to the requirements and nature of the issue. An appropriate approach and process help in characterizing and initiating the outline of the study. In the present study, the specialist has introduced a point by point depiction of research philosophy that had been conceived and executed for directing the study.
  1.          RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
Borg and Gull (1979 P.20) rightly call attention to that, “Educational Research involves a more systematic structure of analysis, usually resulting in some sort of formal record of procedure and a report of result and conclusion.” Educational researcher having differences in sorts change from each other in matters relating to the philosophy embraced. By explaining that method consists of “systematic modes, procedures or tools used for collection and analysis of data”, the authors make it easier for readers to understand what may be described as research method.  Among the variety of data collection tools which make up methods are: survey questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, and photographs.  …Mackenzie and Knipe describe research methodology as “the overall approach to research linked to the paradigm or theoretical framework”.  In other words methodology explains how the researcher will solve the problem that is being addressed by the research and include, among other components, the methods, frameworks, and indicators of success that will be applied to the study. (Scott, 2015) Fig 4.1 a framework of Research Methodology (Martin, 2010) Research is a procedure of finding, inspecting, translating, assessing and a breaking down an issue scientifically. The entire procedure of research needs a methodical work with the assistance of legitimate strategies. There are three sorts of research in sociologies; 1. Analyzing the facts or reality 2. Interpreting the available information 3. Presenting a logical philosophy based on theoretical aspect only Many educationists have divided the research type in following categories: 1. Survey Type 2. Case Study Type 3. Historical and Philosophical Type 4. Experiential psychological and Statistical Type 5. Descriptive Type “Research methods – how data, are collected and analysed – and the types of generalizations and representations derived from the data” (McMillan & Schumacher, 2009). The present work can be classified as one belonging to the descriptive, analytical and synthesis type. It is an attempt to study the selected three books of Carl Rogers and derives their message for education which needs an analysis of the content.
  1.          ADOPTED RESEARCH METHODS
    1.   CONTENT ANALYSIS METHOD
Content analysis is a research instrument used to decide the vicinity of specific words or ideas inside of the writings or sets of writings. Researchers measure and divide the vicinity, implications and connections of such words and ideas, then make deductions about the messages inside of the writings, the writer(s), the group of onlookers, and even the way of life and time of which these are a section. Writings can be characterized extensively as books, book parts, papers, interviews, discourses, daily paper features and articles, authentic archives, talks, discussions, promoting, theatre, casual discussion, or truly any event of open dialect. To direct the content research on any such content, the content is coded or separated, into reasonable classifications on an assortment of levels- - word, word sense, expression, sentence, or subject - and after that inspected utilizing one of the content research’s essential techniques: calculated research or social research. Content Analysis is depicted as the logical analysis of the content of the correspondence. It is the analysis of the content with reference to the implications, settings and aims contained in messages. The term Content Analysis is 75 years of age, and Webster’s Dictionary of English dialect has recorded it since 1961. Content analysis is a strategy for outlining any type of content by checking different parts of the content. This empowers a more target assessment than contrasting content in view of the impressions of an audience. For instance, an impressionistic outline of a TV system is not content analysis. Nor is a book audit: it’s an assessment. Content analysis, however, is frequently research’s composed words, is a quantitative technique. The consequences of content analysis are numbers and rates. Subsequent to doing a content analysis, you may create an impression, for example, “27% of projects on Radio Lukole in April 2003 said no less than one part of peacebuilding, contrasted and just 3% of the projects in 2001. (Lukole, 2003)“ Despite the fact that it might appear to be unrefined and short-sighted to put forth such expressions, the tallying fills two needs:
  • To expel a great part of the subjectivity from rundowns
  • To rearrange the location of patterns.
Additionally, the way that projects have been tallied infers that someone has listened to each system on the station: content research is constantly careful. As you’ll see underneath, content analysis can really be significantly more unobtrusive than the above case. There are a lot of extensions for human judgment in doling out significance to content. In 1952, Bernard Berelson distributed Content analysis in Communication Research, which proclaimed acknowledgment for the procedure as an adaptable apparatus for sociology and media analysts. Some scholars adopted it for historical and political research as well (Holsti, 1968). However, the method achieved greater popularity among social science scholars as well as a method of communication research (Wimmer & Dominick, 1994). The advancement of content research as an undeniable investigative technique occurred amid World War II when the U.S. government supported a task under the directorship of Harold Lasswell to assess adversary purposeful publicity. The assets made accessible for research and the methodological advances made in the setting of the issues concentrated on under the undertaking contributed altogether to the development of the procedure in content analysis. One of the outcomes of the project, the book entitled LanguageofPoliticspublished in 1940s (Lasswell, Leites, & Associates, 1965), still remains a classic in the field of content analysis.  Later on, the method spread to other disciplines (Woodrum, 1984).
  1.   DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
Content means what is contained and content analysis is the research of what is contained in a message. Broadly content analysis may be seen as a method where the content of the message forms the basis for drawing inferences and conclusions about the content (Nachmias & Nachmias, 1976). Further, content research falls in the interface of perception and archive analysis. It is characterized as a strategy for perception as in as opposed to requesting that individuals react to inquiries, it “takes the communications that people have produced and asks questions of communications” (Kerlinger, 1986). In this way, it is likewise considered as an inconspicuous or non-receptive technique for social research.               Fig 4.2 Content for analysis In case you’re likewise doing crowd inquire about, the primary explanation behind additionally doing content research is to have the capacity to make joins between causes (e.g. Program content) and impact (e.g. Group of audience’s size). On the off chance that you do a group of people overview, however, you don’t efficiently relate the review discoveries to your system yield, you won’t know why your crowd may have expanded or diminished. You may figure, when the study comes about first show up, however, an intensive content research is greatly improved than an estimate. The researcher finds that when you examine the circumstances and end results, as in the above illustration, you can perceive how content analysis varies from gathering of person’s exploration:
  • Content analysis reveals causes
  • Gathering of people exploration reveals impacts.
The whole procedure - connecting causes to impacts, is known as assessment. Various meanings of content research are accessible. As indicated by (Berelson, Content Analysis in Communication Research, 1952) content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication. (Holsti, 1968) Says that it is any technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristics of messages. (Kerlinger, 1986) defined content analysis as a method of studying and analyzing communication in a systematic, objective, and quantitative manner for the purpose of measuring variables. (Krippendorff, 1980) defined content analysis as a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data in their context. As for Weber (1985), it is a research methodology that utilizes a set of procedures to make valid inferences from text. These derivations are about sender(s) of message, the message itself, or the group of onlookers of message. As per Stone, content analysis alludes to any strategy for evaluating the relative degree to which indicated references, dispositions, or topics pervade a given message or record. A watchful research of the meanings of the technique show accentuation put on viewpoints, for example, framework, objectivity, evaluation, setting and legitimacy - with reference to the inductions drawn from the correspondence content about the sender, the message or the recipient of the message. Therefore, content analysis is about making legitimate, replicable and target surmising about the message on the premise of express guidelines. The material for the content research can be letters, journals, daily paper content, society melodies, short stories, and messages of Radio, Television, records, writings or any images. Further, similar to whatever other research technique, content analysis adjusts to three phase psychological standards of experiment-psychological strategy. They are:
  1. Objectivity: Which implies that the analysis is sought after on the premise of unequivocal tenets, which empower diverse researchers to acquire the same results from the same archives or messages.
  2. Efficient: The consideration or prohibition of content is done by reliably connected tenets where by the likelihood of including just materials which bolster the specialist’s thoughts – is wiped out.
  3. Generalizability: The outcomes got by the specialist can be connected to other comparative circumstances.
    1.   USES OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
the research scholar would like to add that due to the fact that it can be applied to examine any piece of writing or occurrence of recorded communication, content analysis is currently used in a dizzying array of fields, ranging from marketing and media studies, to literature and rhetoric, ethnography and cultural studies, gender and age issues, sociology and political science, psychology and cognitive science, and many other fields of inquiry. Additionally, content analysis reflects a close relationship with socio and psycholinguistics and is playing an integral role in the development of artificial intelligence. The following list (adapted from (Berelson, Content Analysis in Communication Research, 1952) offers more possibilities for the Uses of content analysis:
  • Reveal international differences in communication content
  • Detect the existence of propaganda
  • Identify the intentions, focus or communication trends of an individual, group or institution
  • Describe attitudinal and behavioural responses to communications
  • Determine psychological or emotional state of persons or groups
Now, an attempt is made in this section, using some studies as examples, to explain about the applications of content analysis. Though scholars from various disciplines such as social sciences, communications, and psychology, political science, history, and language studies use content analysis, it is most widely used in social science and mass communication research. It has been used broadly to understand a wide range of themes such as social change, cultural symbols, changing trends in the theoretical content of different disciplines, verification of authorship, changes in the mass media content, nature of news coverage of social issues or social problems such as atrocities against women, dowry harassment, social movements, ascertaining trends in propaganda, election issues as reflected in the mass media content, and so on. The research scholar learns that one of its most important applications has been to study social phenomenon such as prejudice, discrimination or changing cultural symbols in the communication content. For example, (Berelson & Salter, 1946) in their classic content analysis study highlighted the media under-representation of minority groups. They studied prejudice – a consistent discrimination against minority groups of Americans - in popular magazine fiction. They content analysed 198 short stories published in eight of the popular magazines during the period 1937 – 1943 and discussed their findings under the broad categories such as the distribution of characters, their role, appearance, status and their goals which the authors further classified as ‘head’ goals and ‘heart’ goals. To understand the changing cultural symbols, (Taviss, 1969) content analysed popular fiction in the 1900s and the 1950s to test the hypothesis that social alienation had been decreasing in middle class American society, while self-alienation had been increasing. The  results  indicated,  for  instance,  an  overall  rise  in  the  appearance  of alienation themes, a slight decrease in social alienation and a large increase in self-alienation. Similarly, (Lowenthal, 1994)  in his famous article “Biographies in popular magazines” examined the changing definitions of heroes in popular magazines in the US, and observed a drift away from working professionals and businessmen to entertainers. In another interesting study, (Chai, 1978) studied the political conflict in Red China following the death of Mao Tse-Tung in 1976, by analysing the content of 40 obituary notices – received by the central committee of the Communist Party of China, as it was impossible  for  American  scholars  to  survey  or  to  observe  first-hand  the  Chinese reaction to Mao’s death. One of the most frequent uses of the content analysis is to study the changing trends in the theoretical content and methodological approaches by content analysing the journal articles of the discipline (Loy, 1979). Using this approach, (Vijayalakshmi, Devi Prasad, & Visweswara Rao, 1996) analysed a stratified random sample of 194 research articles published in the Indian Journal of Social Work from 1971 to 1990 to identify characteristics of authors, and document the trends in empirical content, subject areas, and methodological characteristics such as source of data, research design, sampling, and statistical techniques used in the articles. Similarly, public attitude towards important issues such as civic amenities, unemployment and so on were assessed by analysing the content of editorials or letters to the editor in newspapers (Devi Prasad, Visweswara Rao, & Sampat Kumar, 1992) (Inkeles & Geiger, 1952) (Inkeles & Geiger, 1953). One significant area of its use has been the analysis of newspaper content of the election coverage and editorial treatment to mould the opinion of voters. For example, Devi Prasad et. al. (1991), analysed the editorials and letters to the editor published in four dailies in India before the 1991 elections to find out the prominent election related themes which figured in the news and direction of their coverage in the respective newspapers. As a known unobtrusive research method, content analysis is sometimes used to study sensitive topics to corroborate the findings arrived at by other methods. (Devi Prasad, 1994)  analysed  the  dowry-related  news  items  published  in  three  English  and  six regional language daily newspapers during the period from 1981 to 1988. The news items  were  analysed  to  understand  the  background  of  the  dowry  victim,  persons involved in the conflict, possible causes of conflict, nature of victim’s abuse and death, and nature of reporting. Content analysis has also been used to ascertain trends in the communication content of dailies, weeklies, cartoons, and coverage of development news, political news and crime news. (Murty, 2001) Analysed the news items, letters to the editor, and editorials of four selected dailies in India published during the calendar year of 1995, to make a comparative study of the coverage of development news. Political science researches have used the method to analyse the propaganda devices used by the warring groups (George A. , 1959) (Lasswell, Leites, & Associates, 1965) (George A. L., 1959). Other important applications of the method were systematic analyses of advertisements in newspapers and magazines to draw useful inference on national culture, as well as media preferences of advertisers (Auter & Moore, 1993) (Wang, 1996) Similarly, television, radio, and movies offer rich sources of material for content analysis.  Many scholars have explored changes in women’s roles, sexual behaviour and health, and violence by analysing the content of in television and movie messages (Head, 1952) (Lowry & Davis, 1989) (Olson, 1994). The above examples throw light on the range and diversity of studies, which made use of the method of content analysis. They also show the variety of messages used to draw inferences about the source, content of the message etc.  Though a versatile method, it has its strengths and limitations. An understanding of these will help us use the method effectively.
  1.   THE PROCESS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
The researcher find that Content  Analysis  begins  with  a  specific  statement  of  the  objectives  or  research questions to be studied.  The researcher asks the question ‘what do I want to find out from this communication content’ and frames the objectives for study. The researcher must, therefore, locate a source of communication relevant to the research question and ask questions that can be solved by content analysis. According to the research the content analysis has six main stages, each described by one section of this chapter:
  1. Selecting content for analysis
  2. Units of content
  3. Preparing content for coding
  4. Coding the content
  5. Drawing conclusions
    1. Selecting content for analysis:
Content is tremendous: the world contains a boundless measure of content. It’s uncommon that a region of interest has so minimal content that you can break down it all. Notwithstanding when you do research the entire of something (e.g. all the photos in one issue of a magazine) you will, for the most part, need, to sum up, those discoveries to a more extensive setting, (for example, all the issues of that magazine). As it were, you are trusting that the issue you chose is an agent test. Like group of audience research, content research includes inspecting, as clarified above. Be that as it may, with content research, you’re inspecting content, not individuals. The assemblage of data you draw the specimen from is frequently called a ‘corpus’ – Latin for body.
  1. Units of content:
The research scholar believes that to have the capacity to check content, your corpus should be separated into various units, generally comparable in size. There’s no restriction to the quantity of units in a corpus, yet when all is said in done the bigger the unit, the less units you require. On the off chance that the units you are including fluctuate incredibly length, and in the event that you are searching for the nearness of some topic, a long unit will have a more noteworthy shot of including that subject than will a short unit. On the off chance that the longest units are commonly the span of the most limited, you may need to change the unit - maybe ‘per thousand words’ rather than ‘per website page’. If the meetings fluctuate significantly long, a period based unit might be more suitable than ‘per meeting’.
  1. Units of media content
Contingent upon the measure of your idea of psychological unit, you’ll have to take an alternate way to deal with coding. The principle alternatives are (from most limited to longest)
  1. A word or expression.
In the event that you are considering the utilization of dialect, words are a suitable unit (maybe can likewise assemble equivalent words together, and incorporate expressions). In spite of the fact that a corpus may have a huge number of words, programming can check them naturally.
  1. A section, articulation, or conversational turn: up to a couple of hundred words.
  2. An article. This may be anything from a short daily paper thing to a magazine article or site page: for the most part between a couple of hundred and a couple of thousand words.
  3. An extensive record. This can be a book, a scene of a TV program, or a transcript of a long radio talk.
  1. Preparing content for coding:
Before content research can start, it should be protected in a structure that can be divided. For print media, the web, and mail overviews (which are as of now in composed structure) no translation is required. Even so, radio and TV programs, and recorded meetings and gathering exchanges, are regularly deciphered before the content analysis can start. Full translation – that is, transformation into composed words, ordinarily into a PC record – is moderate and costly. In spite of the fact that it’s occasionally a psychological, full translation is frequently avoidable, without influencing the nature of the analysis. A substitute for interpretation is the thing that I call content talking (clarified beneath).
  1. Coding the content
Coding in content research is the same as coding answers in a review: compressing reactions into gatherings, lessening the quantity of various reactions to make correlations simpler. Hence you should have the capacity to sort ideas into gatherings so that in every gathering the ideas are both as comparative as would be prudent to each other, and as various, as could reasonably be expected from ideas in each other gathering.
  1. Arriving at conclusions
An imperative part of any content analysis is to concentrate on the content that is not there: what was not said. This sounds inconceivable, isn’t that right? In what manner would you be able to study content that is not there? Really, it’s not hard, in light of the fact that there’s dependably an understood research. The content you found in the analysis can be contrasted and the content that you (or the gathering of people) expected - or it can be contrasted and another arrangement of content. It’s the point at which you look at two corpora (plural of corpus) that content research turns out to be generally valuable. This should be possible either by doing two content analysis on the double (utilizing diverse corpora yet the same standards) or contrasting your own content research and one that another person has done. In the event that the same coding edge is utilized for both, it makes the correlation much more straightforward. The researcher finds that the Researches can be:
  • sequential (e.g. the current year’s content contrasted and last)
  • geological (your content analysis contrasted and a comparative one in another territory)
  • media-based (e.g. contrasting TV and daily paper news scope)
  • program content versus gathering of people inclinations
...etc. Making a research between two coordinated arrangements of information will regularly deliver extremely fascinating results. There’s no compelling reason to constrain correlations with two corpora: any number of content researches can be looked at, the length they utilized the same standards. With a few correlations, results are normally clear, and with 10 or more, a couple of corpora, for the most part, emerge as various - however with around 4 to 9 researches, researches can turn out to be fairly muddled. The objective of content analysis is to convert recorded ‘raw’ numbers into data, which can be treated in essentially a scientific manner so that a body of knowledge may be built up.   In fact, the researcher who wishes to undertake a study using content analysis must deal with four methodological issues: selection of units of analysis, developing categories, sampling appropriate content, and checking reliability of coding (Stempel, 1989). According to (Krippendorff, 1980), six questions must be addressed in every content analysis:
  1. Which data are analysed?
  2. How are they defined?
  3. What is the population from which they are drawn?
  4. What is the context relative to which the data are analysed?
  5. What are the boundaries of the analysis?
  6. What is the target of the inferences?
In qualitative type of research, the most commonly used methodology for research in Education has been Content Analysis. Content analysis method is a method of dividing or parting out the main content of the topic and examining it in an analytical way. Content analysis means
  • Division
  • Classification
  • Analysis
  • Interpretation
Content analysis method is probably the most favourable and demanding of all methods of data analysis. According to (Berelson, 1952, p. 21) “Content analysis is a research technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristic within a text.” It is an internal and intellectual process which is especially used in the description of books. In the words of (Krippendorff, 1980, p. 23), “Content analysis is a research technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristic within a text.” Content analysis method evaluates and examines the authenticity of the information in different perspectives. The deeper we go in the research of the data, the better we understand the content matter. The content analysis method involves the following things in its framework.
  • The information for the research
  • Reference to the information
  • Knowledge of the researcher about reality
  • Target of the content analysis
  • Brining out implications by the basic intellectual process
  • Validity for final success
According to (Weber, 1985, p. 2), “Content analysis method is a useful method of knowing the basic ideas of any person, group, institute or society.” Hyman (1968, p80-82) in his book Research in Education has given these steps of content analysis method. 1. Preliminary reading of books 2. Selection of content points 3. Developing logical foundation 4. Determining the form of thinking units 5. Creating graph or tool 6. Collecting tentative data 7. Selecting sample units 8. Determining the study units 9. Deriving keywords 10. Creating series and tables 11. Determining the forms of analysis 12. Reading of contents 13. Recording of interpretation and findings 14. Examining the coherence The above discussion suggests that classification of the text into consistent units and their coding make the researcher derive the latent meaning from the selected content in the lights of Educational and reach to the fruitful result. The above steps of content analysis method, if followed well, the researcher can reach to the fruitful result. Usual classes of information that you will deal with in the research and development of products include:       Table 4.1 Descriptive Analysis As the table above as of now shows, it regularly happens that you will discover no PC program that could deal with all the sorts of information that you need to break down. In such a circumstance you ought to consider in the event that you can ‘operationalize’ or change the badly arranged class of your material into one of those organizations that your system of analysis can deal with. This operation, which you typically need to do physically, implies for instance. A basic descriptive analysis of data involves the calculation of simple measures of composition and the distribution of variables by sex, and for each sex, that facilitate straightforward gender-focused comparisons between different groups of population. Depending upon the type of data, these measures may be proportions, rates, ratios or averages, for example. Furthermore, when necessary, such as in the case of sample surveys, measures of association between variables can be used to decide whether the differences observed for women and men are statistically significant or not. Invalid source specified. The goal of analysis is to arrange the collected material so that the answer to the initial problem of the project reveals itself. The problem dictates what kinds of information has to be analyzed, and on the type of information depends which tools can be used to handle it. If you are doing descriptive research you can usually choose the problem to be studied, and select also the types of information you want to collect and analyze. If you want to stay out of difficulties you can select all the types of your material from only one row of the table below. The situation is different in normative research, i.e. when studying practical problems, you cannot omit “awkward” aspects if they are essential in the problem. Invalid source specified.                             Table 4. 2 Descriptive Content Analysis The research scholar has given below the points regarding the descriptive content analysis. Evaluating: Build a scale for measuring the quality or property. When you have changed most or the greater part of your information into quantifiable variables you can sustain your material into a spreadsheet program like Excel, or into an insights program. These projects rapidly let you know whether the connections between your variables take after any known scientific example, see Quantitative Analysis. Arrangement: Characterize fringes which partition your material into important littler gatherings, dole out codes to these gatherings and sort the material likewise. After this operation, you can nourish your material into an information base project which contain a huge number of sorting and legitimate operations which can be utilized to reveal the shrouded structures in the information. At long last, bear in mind the option of dividing your information without a PC. Techniques which work about dependably, incorporate the accompanying: Cross-classify all the material physically on a vast sheet of paper, maybe with the assistance of card documents, duplicating machine and organizers. This is a revered technique that is still viable for the situation that you require break down relations between not more than a few properties of the examined cases. On the off chance that you require more than three or four measurements in the table it gets to be hard to observe the connections. Subjective research can incorporate a wide range of material, even estimations and pictures and so on. The primary device will be your mind and the report will be verbal. It functions admirably for a situation concentrate, yet the clarity of research has a tendency to endure in the event that you have to break down more than a modest bunch of cases. Content analysis has a long history in research, dating back to the 18th century in Scandinavia (Rosengren, 1981). In the United States, content analysis was first used as an analytic technique at the beginning of the 20th century (Barcus, 1959 ). Initially, researchers used content analysis as either a qualitative or quantitative method in their studies (Berelson, Content Analysis in Communication Research, 1952). Later, content analysis was used primarily as a quantitative research method, with text data coded into explicit categories and then described using statistics. This approach is sometimes referred to as quantitative analysis of qualitative data (Morgan, 1993) and is not our primary focus in this article. More recently, the potential of content analysis as a method of qualitative analysis for health researchers has been recognized, leading to its increased application and popularity (Nandy & Sarvela, 1997). Qualitative content analysis is one of numerous research methods used to analyse text data. Other methods include ethnography, grounded theory, phenomenology, and historical research. Research using qualitative content analysis focuses on the characteristics of language as communication with attention to the content or contextual meaning of the text (Budd, Thorp, & Donohew, 1967); (Lindkvist, 1981) (McTavish & Pirro, 1990) (Tesch, 1990). Text data might be in verbal, print, or electronic form and might have been obtained from narrative responses, open-ended survey questions, interviews, focus groups, observations, or print media such as articles, books, or manuals (Kondracki & Wellman, 2002). Qualitative content analysis goes beyond merely counting words to examining language intensely for the purpose of classifying large amounts of text into an efficient number of categories that represent similar meanings (Weber, 1985). These categories can represent either explicit communication or inferred communication. The goal of content analysis is “to provide knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon under study” (Downe-Wamboldt, 1992, p. 314). In this article, qualitative content analysis is defined as a research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns.
  1.   TYPES OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
Types of content analysis
  • Conceptual analysis and Relational analysis
  • Qualitative vs. Quantitative
  • Thematic vs. Referential
  • Sampling
  • Statistical treatment of results
  • Data collection costs.
  •                  Conceptual analysis and Relational analysis:
Conceptual analysis can be thought of as establishing the existence and frequency of concepts most often represented by words of phrases in a text. For instance, say you have a hunch that your favourite poet often writes about ‘hunger’. With conceptual analysis, you can determine how many times words such as ‘hunger’, ‘hungry’, ‘famished’ or ‘starving’ appear in a volume of poems. In contrast, relational analysis goes one step further by examining the relationship among concepts in a text. Returning to the ‘hunger’ example, with relational analysis, you could identify what other words or phrases ‘hunger’ or ‘famished’ appear next to and then determine what meanings emerge as a result of these groupings. In any case, the General Inquirer did represent a pioneering approach to automated content analysis. Much automated content analysis to this date is based on the General Inquirer approach to software design with its automatic matching of an input text to entries in an internal dictionary, classified into coding categories. The very definition of content analysis has also slightly changed with a greater emphasis on its inferential character. “Content analysis is any research technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristics within text” (Stone, Dunphy, Smith, & Ogilvie, 1966, p. 5). “Content analysis is a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context” (Krippendorff, 1980, p. 21). In answer to the question “what’s content analysis good for?” (Roberts, 1997) Answers: “quantitative text analysis is good for drawing inferences about contextual and text-based variables …” (a goal underscored by the very subtitle of his book Methods for Drawing Statistical Inferences From Texts and Transcripts). Last but not least, seventy years on, the references to punch-machines ring quaint.
  1.   CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS
The research scholar would like to focus on the Theoretical research. Theoretical research is as of now experiencing a restoration regardless of the colossal effect of naturalism in theory and a long history of proposed analyses being subjected to counterexample after counterexample. This recharged interest is because of various scholars who have reinterpreted the part of theoretical analysis in rationality, contending that it is practical as well as necessary. These scholars would consider themselves to be just restating old ideas. On the opposite, contemporary safeguards of reasonable analysis are more sophisticated than prior records, if simply because they expressly address some of the most squeezing reactions that prompted calculated research’s unique decrease. Theoretical analysis has had a long and revered history following back to the extremely roots of theory, however it tackled an especially overwhelming weight in the mid twentieth century when it was generally thought, taking after Carnap and others, that logical ideas must be determinable from the earlier and that it’ s philosophy’s employment to outfit the definitions. Be that as it may, in the 1950s and 1960s, W.V.O. Quine and Hilary Putnam persuaded numerous scholars this is a mistaken view. Quine and Putnam highlighted the cut-off points of from the earlier inquiry, noting that science some of the time topples even our most loved convictions. Generally, content analysis has frequently been considered as far as calculated research. In applied analysis, an idea is decided for research, and the research includes evaluating and counting its nearness. Otherwise called topical research [although this term is to some degree tricky, given its fluctuated definitions in current writing - see Palmquist, Carley, and Dale (1997) versus Smith (1992)], the emphasis here is on taking a gander at the event of chose terms inside a content or messages, despite the fact that the terms might be verifiable and express. While express terms clearly are anything but difficult to recognize, coding for understood terms and choosing their level of suggestion is convoluted by the need to construct judgments with respect to a to some degree subjective framework. To endeavour to restrict the subjectivity, then (and additionally to cut-off issues of unwavering quality and legitimacy), coding such understood terms, for the most part, includes the utilization of either a particular word reference or relevant interpretation rules. Also, at times, both instruments are utilized - a pattern reflected in late forms of the Harvard and Lasswell word references. Conceptual Analysis starts with recognizing research addresses and picking a specimen or tests. When picked, the content must be coded into reasonable substance classes. The procedure of coding is mind funda psychologically one of particular lessening. By decreasing the content to classes comprising of a word, set of words or expressions, the analyst can concentrate on, and code for, particular words or examples that are characteristic of the exploration question. A case of a theoretical research would be to inspect a few Clinton talks on human services, made amid the 1992 presidential battle, and code them for the presence of certain words. In taking a gander at these talks, the research inquiry may include inspecting the quantity of positive words used to portray Clinton’s proposed arrangement, and the quantity of negative words used to depict the present status of medicinal services in America. The analyst would be intrigued just in evaluating these words, not in looking at how they are connected, which is a component of social analysis. In reasonable analysis, the analyst essentially needs to analyse nearness regarding his/her exploration question, i.e. is there a more grounded nearness of positive or negative words utilized as for proposed or current social insurance arranges, individually.
  1.   STEPS FOR CONDUCTING CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS
1. Decide the level of analysis. 2. Decide how many concepts to code for. 3. Decide whether to code for existence or frequency or a concept. 4. Decide on how you will distinguish among concepts. 5. Develop rules for coding your texts. 6. Decide what to do with irrelevant information. 7. Code the texts. 8. Analyse your results. Once the research question has been set up, the analyst must make his/her coding decisions concerning the eight class coding steps demonstrated via Carley (1992) amid calculated analysis. Steps for Conducting Conceptual Analysis The accompanying discourse of steps that can be taken after to code a content or set of writings amid theoretical research use battle talks made by Bill Clinton amid the 1992 presidential campaign as an illustration. To peruse about every progression, click on the things in the rundown beneath:
  1. Decide the level of analysis.
To start with, the analyst must settle on the level of research. With the social insurance talks, to proceed with the illustration, the specialist must choose whether to code for a solitary word, for example, “modest”, or for sets of words or expressions, for example, “scope for everybody”.
  1. Decide how many concepts to code for.
The analyst should now choose what number of various ideas to code for. This includes building up a pre-characterized or intelligent arrangement of ideas and classes. The researcher must choose whether or not to code for each and every positive or negative word that shows up, or just certain ones that the analyst decides are most important to medicinal services. At that point, with this pre-characterized number set, the researcher needs to decide the amount of adaptability he/she permits him/herself when coding. The subject of whether the specialist codes just from this pre-characterized set or permits him/herself to include important classes excluded in the set as he/she discovers them in the content, must be replied. Deciding a specific number and set of ideas permits a researcher to inspect a content for certain things, keeping him/her on undertaking. In any case, presenting a level of coding adaptability permits new, vital material to be joined into the coding procedure that could have critical direction on one’s outcomes.
  1. Decide whether to code for existence or frequency of a concept.
After a specific number and set of ideas are decided for coding, the researcher must answer a key inquiry: would he say he is/she going to code for presence or recurrence? This is essential since it changes the coding procedure. At the point when coding for presence, ‘reasonable’ would just be checked once, regardless of how often it showed up. This would be an exceptionally funda psychological coding handle and would give the analyst an extremely restricted viewpoint of the content. Be that as it may, the quantity of times ‘modest’ shows up in a content may be more demonstrative of significance. Realizing that ‘cheap’ showed up 50 times, for instance, contrasted with 15 appearances of ‘scope for everybody’, may lead a specialist to translate that Clinton is attempting to offer his human services arrangement construct more in light of monetary advantages, not complete scope. Realizing that ‘cheap’ showed up, however not that it showed up 50 times, would not permit the researcher to make this understanding, paying little heed to whether it is substantial or not.
  1. Decide on how you will distinguish among concepts.
The analyst must next choose the level of speculation, i.e. whether ideas are to be coded precisely as they show up, or in the event that they can be recorded as the same notwithstanding when they show up in various structures. For instance, ‘costly’ may likewise show up as ‘cost’. The research needs to figure out whether the two words mean funda psychologically diverse things to him/her, or in the event that they are sufficiently comparable that they can be coded just like the same thing, i.e. ‘costly words’. In accordance with this, is the need to decide the level of suggestion one is going to permit? This involves more than inconspicuous contrasts in strained or spelling, as with ‘costly’ and ‘cost’. Determining the level of suggestion would permit the specialist to code for ‘costly’, as well as for words that infer ‘costly’. This could maybe incorporate specialized words, language, or political doublespeak, for example, ‘monetarily difficult’, that the researcher chooses does not justify a different classification, but rather is better spoken to under the class ‘costly’, because of its verifiable significance of ‘costly’.
  1. Develop rules for coding your texts.
In the wake of taking the speculation of ideas into thought, a researcher will need to make interpretation decides that will permit him/her to streamline and sort out the coding procedure so that he/she is coding for precisely what he/she needs to code for. Building up an arrangement of tenets helps the specialist protect that he/she is coding things reliably all through the content, similarly without fail. In the event that an analyst coded ‘monetarily difficult’ as a different classification from ‘costly’ in one section, then coded it under the umbrella of ‘costly’ when it happened in the following passage, his/her information would be invalid. The translations drawn from that information will along these lines be invalid too. Interpretation rules secure against this and give the coding procedure a critical level of consistency and rationality.
  1. Decide what to do with ‘irrelevant’ information.
The following decision a researcher must make includes immaterial data. The specialist must choose whether insignificant data ought to be disregarded (as Weber, 1990, recommends), or used to rethink and/or adjust the coding plan. On account of this case, words like ‘and’ and ‘the’, as they show up independent from anyone else, would be overlooked. They don’t add anything to the evaluation of words like ‘modest’ and ‘costly’ and can be dismissed without affecting the result of the coding.
  1. Code the texts.
Once these decisions about superfluous data are made, the following stride is to code the content. This is done either by hand, i.e. perusing through the content and physically recording idea events, or using different PC programs. Coding with a PC is one of contemporary theoretical research’s most prominent resources. By inputting one’s classifications, content research projects can without much of a stretch robotize the coding procedure and analyse tremendous measures of information, and a more extensive scope of writings, rapidly and effectively. Be that as it may, computerization is exceptionally subject to the specialist’s planning and class development. At the point when coding is done physically, a researcher can perceive mistakes much all the more effectively. A PC is just an apparatus and can just code taking into account the data it is given. This issue is most evident when coding for certain data, where class planning is vital for exact coding.
  1. Analyse your results.
Once the coding is done, the researcher looks at the information and endeavours to reach whatever determinations and speculations are conceivable. Obviously, before these can be drawn, the analyst must choose what to do with the data in the content that is not coded. One’s choices incorporate either erasing or skirting undesirable material, or survey all data as significant and critical and utilizing it to revaluate, reassess and maybe even change one’s coding plan. Moreover, given that the theoretical examiner is managing just with quantitative information, the levels of elucidation and generalizability are extremely restricted. The specialist can just extrapolate similarly as the information will permit. Be that as it may, it is conceivable to see patterns, for instance, that are demonstrative of much bigger thoughts. Utilizing the case from step three, if the idea ‘reasonable’ shows up 50 times, contrasted with 15 appearances of ‘scope for everybody’, then the researcher can pretty securely extrapolate that there appears to be a more noteworthy accentuation on the financial matters of the social insurance arrangement, instead of its widespread scope for all Americans. It must be remembered that theoretical analysis, while to a great degree valuable and compelling for giving this sort of data when done right, is constrained by its centre and the quantitative way of its research. To all the more completely investigate the connections that exist between these ideas, one must swing to social research.
  1.   RELATIONAL ANALYSIS
Relational analysis, like conceptual analysis, begins with the act of identifying concepts present in a given text or set of texts. However, relational analysis seeks to go beyond presence by exploring the relationship between the concepts identified. Relational analysis has also been termed semantic analysis (palmquist, Carley and Date, 1997). In other words, the focus of relational analysis is to look for semantic or meaningful relationship. Relational Analysis, as reasonable analysis, starts with the demonstration of recognizing ideas present in a given content or set of writings. Be that as it may, social analysis looks to go past nearness by investigating the connections between the ideas recognized. Social research has likewise been termed semantic analysis (Palmquist, Carley, and Dale, 1997). At the end of the day, the centre of social analysis is to search for semantic, or important, connections. Singular ideas, all by themselves, are seen as having no intrinsic importance. Or maybe, which means is a result of the connections among ideas in a content. Carley (1992) states that ideas are “ideational parts;” these bits can be considered as images which procure importance through their associations with different images. The sort of research that researcher utilize will differ altogether as indicated by their hypothetical approach. Key hypothetical methodologies that educate content analysis incorporate semantics and subjective science. Phonetic ways to deal with substance research centre analysis of writings on the level of an etymological unit, regularly single proviso units. One case of this sort of exploration is Gottschalk (1975), who created a robotized system which breaks down every statement in a content and relegates it a numerical score in light of a few enthusiastic/psychological scales. Another procedure is to code a content linguistically into statements furthermore, parts of discourse to set up a grid representation (Carley, 1990). Approaches that get from subjective science incorporate the formation of choice maps and psychological models. Choice maps endeavour to speak to the relationship(s) between thoughts, convictions, states of mind, and data accessible to a creator when settling on a choice inside a content. These connections can be spoken to as coherent, inferential, causal, successive, and scientific connections. Ordinarily, two of these connections are thought about in a solitary study and are divided as systems. For instance, Heise (1987) used logical and sequential links to examine symbolic interaction. This methodology is thought of as a more generalized cognitive mapping technique, rather than the more specific psychological models approach. Psychological models are gatherings or systems of interrelated ideas that are thought to reflect cognizant or intuitive view of reality. As per intellectual researchers, inner psychological structures are made as individuals draw deductions and assemble data about the world. Psychological models are a more particular way to deal with mapping in light of the fact that past extraction and correlation since they can be numerically and graphically broke down. Such models depend intensely on the utilization of PCs to divide also, build mapping representations. Ordinarily, concentrates on in light of this methodology take after five general steps: 1. Identifying ideas 2. Characterizing relationship sorts 3. Coding the content on the premise of 1 and 2 4. Coding the announcements 5. Graphically showing and numerically breaking down the subsequent maps To make the model, a researcher changes over a content into a guide of ideas and relations; the guide is then broke down on the level of ideas and proclamations, where an announcement comprises of two ideas and their relationship. (Carley, 1990) Asserts that this makes possible the comparison of a wide variety of maps, representing multiple sources, implicit and explicit information, as well as socially shared cognitions.
  1.   STEPS FOR CONDUCTING RELATIONAL ANALYSIS
The following discussion of the steps (or, perhaps more accurately, strategies) that can be followed to code a text or a set of texts during rational analysis.
  1. Identify the question.
  2. Choose a sample or samples for analysis.
  3. Determine the type of analysis.
  4. Reduce the text to categories and code for words or patterns.
  5. Explore the relationship between concepts (strength, sign, and direction).
  6. Code for relationship.
  7. Perform statistical analysis.
  8. Map out the representations.
  • Steps for Conducting Relational Analysis
The accompanying research of the strides (or, maybe all the more precisely, methodologies) that can be taken after to code a content or set of writings amid social analysis. These clarifications are joined by case of social analysis potential outcomes for proclamations made by Bill Clinton amid the 1998 hearings.
  1. Identify the Question.
The inquiry is vital in light of the fact that it demonstrates where you are going and why. Without an engaged inquiry, the idea sorts and choices open to understanding are boundless and along these lines the research hard to finish. Potential outcomes for the Hairy Hearings of 1998 may be: What did Bill Clinton say in the discourse? Alternately What solid data did he present to general society?
  1. Choose a sample or samples for analysis.
Once the inquiry has been recognized, the researcher must choose segments of content/discourse from the hearings in which Bill Clinton may have not told the whole truth or is clearly keeping down data. For social substance analysis, the essential thought is the amount of data to safeguard for research. One must be mindful so as not to restrict the outcomes thusly, but rather the analyst should likewise take uncommon consideration not to tackle so much that the coding procedure turns out to be too overwhelming and broad to supply advantageous results.
  1. Determine the type of analysis.
Once the specimen has been decided for research, it is important to figure out what sort or sorts of connections you might want to inspect. There are distinctive subcategories of social research that can be utilized to look at the connections in writings. In this illustration, we will utilize nearness analysis since it is worried with the co-event of unequivocal ideas in the content. In this case, we are not especially intrigued by influence extraction since we are attempting to get to the hard realities of what precisely was said as opposed to deciding the enthusiastic contemplations of speaker and recipients encompassing the discourse which might be unrecoverable. Once the subcategory of research is picked, the chose content must be audited to decide the level of analysis. The researcher must choose whether to code for a solitary word, for example, ‘maybe’, or for sets of words or expressions like “I may have overlooked”.
  1. Reduce the text to categories and code for words or patterns.
At the least complex level, a researcher can code just for presence. This is not to say that straightforwardness of system prompts oversimplified results. Numerous studies have effectively utilized this procedure. For instance, Palmquist (1990) did not endeavour to set up the connections among idea terms in the classrooms he contemplated; his study did, be that as it may take a gander at the adjustment within the sight of ideas through the span of the semester, looking at a guide analysis from the earliest starting point of the semester to one developed toward the end. Then again, the prerequisite of one’s particular research inquiry may require more profound levels of coding to safeguard more prominent point of interest for analysis. In connection to our amplified case, the analyst may code for how frequently Bill Clinton utilized words that were equivocal, held twofold implications, or left an opening for change or a ‘reassessment’. The specialist may likewise code for what words he utilized that have such a vague nature in connection to the significance of the data straightforwardly identified with those words.
  1. Explore the relationships between concepts (Strength, Sign & Direction).
When words are coded, the content can be broke down for the connections among the ideas put forward. There are three ideas which assume a focal part in investigating the relations among ideas in substance research.
  1. Code the relationships.
One of the principle contrasts between applied research and social analysis is that the announcements or connections between ideas are coded. Now, to proceed with our amplified case, it is critical to bring unique consideration with relegating worth to the connections with an end goal to figure out if the equivocal words in Bill Clinton’s discourse are just fillers, or hold data about the announcements he is making. Strength of Relationship: Refers to the extent to which two or more ideas are connected. These connections are most straightforward to divide, think about, and chart when all connections between ideas are thought to be equivalent. Be that as it may, allocating quality to connections holds a more prominent level of the subtle element found in the first content. Distinguishing quality of a relationship is key while figuring out if or not words like unless, maybe, or possibly are identified with a specific segment of content, expression, or thought. Sign of a Relationship: Refers to regardless of whether the ideas are decidedly or contrarily related. To show, the idea ‘bear’ is adversely identified with the idea ‘securities exchange’ in the same sense as the idea ‘bull’ is decidedly related. In this manner “it’s a bear business sector” could be coded to demonstrate a negative relationship amongst ‘bear’ and ‘market’. Another way to deal with coding for quality involves the making of particular classifications for twofold resistances. The above case underscores ‘bull’ as the refutation of ‘bear’, yet could be coded as being two separate classes, one positive and one negative. There has been little research to decide the advantages and liabilities of these varying procedures. Utilization of Sign coding for connections with respect to the hearings may be to see if or not the words under perception or being referred to were utilized unfavourably or as a part of support of the ideas (this is dubious, however vital to building up significance). Direction of the Relationship: Refers to the kind of relationship the classes display. Coding for this kind of data can be helpful in building up, for instance, the effect of new data in a basic leadership process. Different sorts of directional connections incorporate, ‘X suggests Y’, ‘X happens before Y’ and ‘if X then Y’, or basically the choice whether idea X is the ‘prime mover’ of Y or the other way around. On account of the 1998 hearings, the specialist may take note of that, ‘perhaps suggests question’, “maybe happens before proclamations of elucidation,” and “if potentially exists, then there is space for Clinton to change his position”. At times, ideas can be said to be bi-directional, or having measure up to impact. This is equal to disregarding directionality. Both methodologies are helpful, yet contrast in core interest. Coding all classifications as bi-directional is most helpful for exploratory studies where pre-coding may impact comes about, and is likewise most effortlessly robotized, or PC coded.
  1. Perform Statistical Analyses.
This progression includes directing factual researches of the information you’ve coded amid your social analysis. This may include investigating for contrasts or searching for connections among the variables you’ve distinguished in your study.
  1. Map out the Representations.
Notwithstanding measurable analysis, social research regularly prompts seeing the representations of the ideas and their relationship in a content (or crosswise over writings) in a graphical - or map - structure. Social research is likewise educated by an assortment of various hypothetical methodologies: phonetic substance analysis, choice mapping, and psychological models.
  1.           ADVANTAGES OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
Content Analysis offers a few points of interest to analyst who considers utilizing it. Specifically, content analysis:
  • Looks straightforwardly at correspondence by means of writings or transcripts, and consequently gets at the focal parts of social collaboration.
  • Can take into consideration both Quantitative and subjective operation.
  • Can give important verifiable/social bits of knowledge after some time through analysis of the content.
  • Allow closeness to content which can interchange between particular classifications and relationship furthermore measurably analysis the coded type of the content.
  • Can be utilized to translate content for purposes, for example, the advancement of master frameworks (since learning and standards can both be coded regarding unequivocal explanations about the relationship among ideas).
  • It is an unpretentious method for examining communications.
  • Provides bits of knowledge into complex models of human thought and dialect use.
  • It goes past the impressionistic perceptions about the marvels and can offer you some assistance with making a quantitative expression about the wonder i.e. express it in numbers, in rates, which will be more particular, and goal.
  • It is an unpretentious research method valuable to study delicate research points.
  • It is connection delicate and hence can prepare typical implications of information.
  • Though predominantly seen as a quantitative method, it can effectively capture qualitative content as well (Stempel, 1989, p. 121).
  • The connection affectability of the strategy will be valuable in articulating the subjective measurements, for example, for instance, the heading of scope of news things as great or unfavourable.
  • It is a safe method in the sense that if the researcher found that a portion of the necessary information was missing or incorrectly coded, it is possible to return to the text and supplement the missing data.   This is not always possible in experipsychological or survey research (Woodrum, 1984).
  • It can manage substantial volumes of information. Preparing might be arduous however recently PCs made the occupation genuinely simple.
  • It is a shoestring technique, which is commonly work concentrated and requires least capital venture.
    1.           DISADVANTAGES OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
Content analysis experiences a few detriments, both hypothetical and procedural, specifically content analysis:
  • Can be greatly tedious.
  • Is subject to expanded blunder, specific when social research is utilized to accomplish a larger amount of translation.
  • Is regularly without hypothetical base, or endeavours to generously to draw important deduction about the relationship and effects inferred in a study.
  • Is characteristically reductive, especially when managing complete writings.
  • Tends, again and again, to just comprise of word numbers.
  • Often neglects the connection that created the content, and additionally, the condition of thing after the content is delivered.
  • Can be hard to mechanize or modernized.
  • Is regularly without hypothetical base, or endeavours to generously.
  • Its deductions are restricted to the content of the content as it were. Additionally, images are handled and coded by attribution given by the specialist or coder. There is no surety that the sender or beneficiary has the same credited significance.
  • When it manages semantic contrasts or contrasts as to the implications of words, the discoveries can be less substantial and solid.
  • It is contended that content analysis which limits itself to checking the individual units and their recurrence of event, for example, for instance, the quantity of times ‘globalization’ showed up, might neglect to catch the importance or hugeness with which these images are utilized as a part of the writings divided.
  • The  reliability  and  validity  issues  in  content  analysis  still  remain  unresolved. (Krippendorff, 1980)
  • The  method  cannot  be  used  to  test  casual  relationships  between  variables. (Chadwick, et. al., 1984).
    1.          SELECTING THE DESCRIPTIVE DATA
The researcher has selected three books of Carl Rogers, 1. On Becoming a Person 2. A Way of being 3. Freedom to Learn. The research scholar finds these books show Carl Rogers broader views on Education, Counselling and other disciplines in the present context. The researcher has studied these three books in the context of research objectives and research questions i.e.  like experiential learning, features of a helping relationship, the process of becoming a  fully functioning person (as shown by Carl Rogers) concept of humanistic education, self-directed learning, student Centered learning, study Carl Rogers views on teaching and learning, significance of learning, creativity, and concept of Freedom To learn (as shown in his book Freedom To learn).
  1.          SELECTION OF THE BOOKS
The researcher has chosen Carl Rogers, the most compelling analyst in American history, the originator of client focused (non-order) treatment and the cutting edge father of humanistic instruction. He has had an effect the world over through his empathic vicinity, thorough research and initiation of 16 books and more than 200 expert articles. He got numerous privileged degrees and honours for his work from all through the world, including assignment for the Nobel Peace Prize, which as it happened, occurred on the day he kicked the bucket. He had an unprecedented perspective of human instinct, which drove him to begin a one of a kind psychotherapy and gave him an alternate perspective of training. Here, the researcher has chosen three expert works of Carl Rogers:
  1. On Becoming a Person,
  2. A Way of being
  3. Freedom to Learn.
Also, concentrated on and investigated it’s in the lights of research goals and addresses and infers instructive ramifications in more extensive terms/sense.
  1. On Becoming a Person
On Becoming a Person is an aggregation of addresses and compositions drafted via Carl Rogers somewhere around 1951 and 1961. The book is profoundly adroit and practically thoughtful in its clarification of how Rogers landed at his individual focused way to deal with psychotherapy. Real individual disclosures of Roger’s experience and bits of knowledge on human connections are given, just like an analysis of psychotherapy as a helping “relationship” between the specialist and customer. I was particularly hit with Rogers’ idea of consistency, which was examined finally. A man is compatible when they act as per what they really feel – on the off chance that they feel miserable, then it is correct that they shed tears. At the point when a man is incongruent with their actual sentiments they wear a veil and are in this manner expelled from and ‘unacceptant’ of their actual self. To the degree that somebody is ‘unacceptant’ of their actual self, they can’t be ‘acceptant’ of others. As indicated by Rogers, harmoniousness is required of all advisors – being truly acceptant of themselves liberates them to be acceptant of customers. The message that stays with me in the wake of perusing the book is Rogers’ thought that ‘turning into a man’ means being a work in advancement. We tend to consider identity characterized by particular qualities, attributes, and practices. Rogers sets that we are the entirety of our encounters, which stream in time; in this manner, our identity is not unbending but rather streaming also – we are persistently and dynamically turning into the individual we longing to be. It is the point at which we can’t turn into our optimal self that psychological misery is experienced. Rogers outlines the impacts of being ‘unacceptant’ of oneself as wearing a veil and building a divider. At the point when a man is ‘unacceptant’ of themselves, they stay insensible of their actual self (their emotions, recognitions, and viewpoints). As a result, they accept the identity attributes expected of them by their surroundings or society. I could relate this to my customer work, exhibiting exactly how pertinent the book is to my developing information base. Rogers clarifies that individuals wear a ‘veil’ before others as they dread others may see the genuine individual under the cover and reject them. Consequently, individuals can wind up wearing a remotely forced cover keeping in mind the end goal to avoid rubbing with noteworthy. By experience, when wears the veil, noteworthy others regard, love, acknowledge and even appreciate the cover, which bolsters their conviction that the genuine them would not be acknowledged. Living along these lines, a man fabricates an impervious divider that shrouds who they really are – even from themselves. The need to go similarly as concealing the ‘self’ from themselves originates from the apprehension of finding the profundities of their feelings and losing control of them. Once more, I can relate this to some of my customers, and to myself. Thinking about this has given me a more noteworthy comprehension of the psychological trouble experienced by the individuals who conceal their actual ‘self’ – it takes the majority of their quality and innovativeness to keep the cover and the divider set up. Rogers trusts that in a bona fide, acceptant and empathic remedial relationship the customer will feel sufficiently safe to gradually evacuate the veil and disassemble the divider until they are OK with and “acceptant” of themselves. This is Rogers’ meaning of ‘fruitful’ treatment. The tone and decision of words in the book are natural, and its improvement of thoughts misleadingly basic. Surely, Rogers demonstrates that the book was composed essentially for ‘common’ individuals. It is thusly in ‘plain English,’ with any convoluted ideas depicted in straightforward terms. Roger’s additionally utilizes analogies and selections of meetings to show his perceptions. Learning picked up from inspecting the book will encourage me with my guiding practice. Specifically, on the off chance that I acknowledge that I have an obligation to set up an association with my customers, then I can likewise acknowledge that my association with customers must be portrayed by validity (i.e. the capacity to be completely forthright, open and harmonious in self-exposure), acknowledgment (i.e. an unequivocal positive respect of the customer), and sympathy (i.e. the capacity to genuinely listen and comprehend the customers perceptual world rather than just marking their expressions). These three conditions empower the remedial relationship to illuminate and improve the helpful procedure. All at various times connections from which I infer delight and enthusiastic development are those including validity, acknowledgment and sympathy. On the off chance that individual connections of this kind can move me to statures of individual development and development, how comparably an honest to goodness, acceptant and empathic association with an advisor can move a customer to wind up a completely working individual who knows about their emotions and encounters and engaged to address their own particular incongruence. Over all, Roger’s amazing content – On Becoming a Person – has highlighted to me the significance of the relationship amongst advocate and customer inside the individual focused methodology. The late Carl Rogers, originator of the humanistic psychology development, altered psychotherapy with his idea of ‘Client-centred treatment’. His impact has spread over decades, however, that impact has turned out to be so much a piece of standard psychology that the cunning way of his work has just about been overlooked. Another presentation by Peter Kramer reveals insight into the noteworthiness of Dr Rogers’ work today. New revelations in the field of psychopharmacology, particularly that of the energizer Prozac, have generated a brisk fix drug unrest that has darkened the psychotherapeutic relationship. As the pendulum gradually swings back toward a valuation for the remedial experience, Dr Rogers’ ‘Client-centred treatment’ turns out to be especially convenient and essential.
  1. A Way of being
Carl Rogers, a colossal personality of psychological history, has here composed individual expositions - which read verging on like a journal - about his method for being which focus on realness, openness, sympathy, tenderness, and adoration. It is a book about being human, adoring oneself, cherishing others. It was totally awesome and has without a doubt altered the course of my studies. Rogers calls his approach a “home-prepared” brand of existentialism that follows in the strides of Kierkegaard and Martin Buber, two of my philosophical legends. This book verbalizes, in personal dialect, Roger’s pursuit to feel, to really feel, what it resemble to be a human. He needs to open up space for each of us to really give ourselves a chance to feel everything that everyone around us - family, companions, society, school, church, state, government, society, and so on and so forth - show us we have to stifle, overlook, and sidestep. When we look at another human, we’re not taking a gander at an object of study, a thing to be settled, a guinea pig, we’re taking a gander at an individual; a human with sentiments, harms, wishes, fears, yearnings, and everything else that we so regularly ignore about ourselves. Rogers requires a complete change of how we consider ourselves as well as other people - what we genuinely covet, underneath the surface, who we are, what harms us, and so forth. The researcher’s most loved part was entitled “Do We Really Need “A” reality?” In it, Rogers contends that there is no such thing as “a” reality - as though “the truth” was a steady idea, the same for all persons, static. He contends rather that there are the same number of various ‘substances’ as there are people. We every see and experience things in an unexpected way. This is an important acknowledgment we should have with a specific end goal to contemplate what’s happening in our connections. Individuals don’t see things the same. Things put forth themselves for every individual in somewhat, frequently funda psychologically, distinctive ways. Also, this isn’t simply alright! It is ideal. It makes life differing, intriguing, hazardous. We shouldn’t constrain all individuals to acclimatize to one perspective of things since that is scholarly fascism, however ought to rather try to hop into various perspectives, developing, changing, and learning with each other. Rogers imagines that all we know is the thing that we feel at every minute - and that is as well as can be expected case. His Pyrrhonian suspicion, and Nietzchean Perspectivism (both of which I’ve been impacted by rise here. Enough reasoning for the time being... The book closes with a perspective toward the future: “The World of Tomorrow and the Person of Tomorrow,” as the part is called. Rogers calls the Persons of Tomorrow the individuals who are open, willing to learn and change, tolerating of others, daring people, examiners of the present state of affairs and customary power, the individuals who settle on choices in light of their own thoroughly considered feelings and encounter and not the power of persons or books outside of them, people who need to act naturally and to help other people be who they are as well. It’s an excellent picture, and I have unwittingly been moving in these sorts of bearings in my own particular manners over the recent years or something like that. Perused this book in the event that you need to end up yourself. Like I said some time recently, it’s a long way from academic - it read like a journal, similar to a man who is journaling late around evening time without anyone else, feeling, with his entire heart and psyche, what it resemble to be a person.
  1. Freedom to Learn
This is the text that championed a revolutionary approach to education that changed the way we teach our children. Now, in the Third Edition, it’s challenging the status quo with twenty years of evidence that defies current thinking. Five exciting new chapters focus on issues of importance now and in the future--learning from children who love school; researching person- Centered issues in education; developing the administrator’s role as a facilitator; building discipline and classroom management with the learner; and person-Centered views of transforming schools. Freedom to Learn, Third Edition is written in the first person, with two goals in mind--to aid the development of the minds of children and young persons, and to encourage the kinds of adventurous enterprises being carried out daily by dedicated, caring teachers in creative classrooms and supportive schools throughout the nation. Humanistic education alive and well!! Did John Dewey start this lineage, or does it go back farther still? This book is both an introduction and an advanced course in the heart and soul of relating to students as individuals, not classes. Following Carl Roger’s death, H. Jerome Freiberg co-wrote this Third Edition at the invitation of Roger’s daughter. Freiberg keeps the best of the old and supplements it with up-to-date research. His touch is so deft and his philosophy so congruent with Roger’s that I had trouble telling one author’s voice from the other’s as they alternated first-person chapters. One chapter is a summary of Aspy and Roebuck’s Kid’s Don’t Learn from People They Don’t Like, a hard-to-find out-of-print book that provides some surprising (to me) statistical support for humanistic education. Freiberg also cites Arthur Combs, author of A Personal Approach to Teaching: Beliefs That Make a Difference, another out-of-print book that with Zen-like simplicity cuts through all the debate about teaching technique to reveal that it’s how teacher’s FEEL about students, not so much what they do, that creates healthy learning places for people to grow. I highly recommend Freedom To Learn, and it also contains a wealth of resources for teachers wishing to follow this “path with a heart.” I was very impressed with the honest questions, the hard to ask questions that Rogers asks about education. In the beginning chapter, he admits that there are disturbing questions worthy of great debate, questions whose answers will form the foundation for students and learners. What will education do to take the edge off of racial tension? How will education help prevent civil and world wars? Back in 1969, Carl Rogers saw some disturbing trends. He talked about the possible student revolts against this conservative and rigid institution which could be very harmful to the entire process. Some of his worst nightmares are taking effect today. School violence in our inner cities is sky rocketing with no end in sight. Child are losing respect for their teachers at a very young age. There seems to be a lot less respect for educators than there was 25 years ago when I was in school. Rogers was also concerned with profit-making corporations getting too much of a hand in education. This is a big concern these days with the society taking on more and more of a corporate feel. If Dr Rogers saw education at a crisis point in 1969, then where are we now?? In the book, CR also differentiates experiential (self-directed) learning from meaningless rote type learning, where there is no personal context for connection. To have freedom to learn, a person’s self-confidence and curiosity grows along with intense curiosity to learn more, to have initial learning build on itself to create something brand new. This book made me think of the unnecessary regimentation which still plagues much of public education. Students should be encouraged (like in the movie “Dead Poets Society”) to do their own dance, to fill their own sails with self-directed discovery. Rogers’ concept of congruence has a lot to do with what he is talking about here. The ability to be real in a relationship is much like the teacher being real in accepting the true needs of the student. It is only with empathic listening, not regimentation, with honestly instead of false airs of playing the education game, with a person-Centered approach to education and career related goals, not wishes imposed from the outside.....that, I believe, is what he is getting at. A teacher, he says, “must be a person to his students”, not a faceless embodiment of a curricular requirement nor a sterile tube through which knowledge is passed from one generation to the next.” He sums up his feelings about developing optimal climates for student learning, in a Person-Centered way: “If we are to have citizens who can live constructively in this kaleidoscopically changing world, we can only have them if we are willing for them to become self-starting, self-initiating learners. Finally, it has been my purpose to show that this kind of learner develops best, so far as we now know, in a growth- promoting, facilitative, relationship with a person.”
  1.          DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
In the logical field, there is at present a pattern towards the development of collaborations amongst analysts and witnesses and, thus, the development of a more aggregate learning. The new data and correspondence advancements, especially web, are making correspondence designs described by more elevated amounts of investment and exchange, which affect the work of social researchers. The expanded office of access to sources and information by looks into and the development of the procedure of logical dispersal were additionally highlighted. Albeit social exploration is as yet making utilization of conventional systems of information accumulation (perception, polls and meetings), research methodologies which join the inventive assets accessible from the virtual world have been exceedingly esteemed. Changes in systems for recording, putting away and dispersing data are significantly extending and altering researcher’ exercises. In information accumulation, the utilization of perception and/or meeting methods progressively incorporates the new varying media and computerized assets. New literary structures and typical representations on computerized situations are profoundly changing the methods for seeing and investigating the social world. The subjects’ representations and originations about their own particular reality, desires and practices are acknowledged in their oral, printed and body expressions, and the new advancements offer noteworthy limit for recording and breaking down information. The asset of triangulation and the improvement of research activities utilizing blended strategy show up as pertinent operational devices, considering the requirement for advancing in the customary procedures for information accumulation, handling and analysis. Dispute between analysts adjusted either subjective or to quantitative methods has been extreme, in spite of the fact that the present inclination is towards a developing common affirmation and to reconciliation between both methodologies. The scientific notions of research in sociologies has a tendency to expanding change by method for the associative utilization of different exploration systems coordinated in a same study. This is unquestionably a more compelling route for capturing the truth in a general public that consistently develops in many-sided quality. In this setting, we should consider a basic variable for the achievement of studies with a more prominent illustrative limit, considering both the hypothetical and methodological measurements: the fuse of a basic way to deal with exploration issues and to the research of their associations with the totality. It is worth further taking note of the pertinence of setting up a sufficient connection between exploration strategies and the reasonable suspicions that decide them. These focal inquiries, gained from the time of scholarly craftsmanship, keep their vital freshness in the new virtual situations of social exploration. The researcher has read all three selected books of Carl Rogers and used the   content analysis method for analysing the data as given below:
  • First Reading: During the first reading the researcher has gone through the all three books: On Becoming a Person, A Way of being and Freedom to Learn, written by Carl Rogers. Primary reading of the text only gave a Gestalt view of the text and acquaints the researcher with the main thrust of Carl Rogers’s ideas, theories, concepts, and views recurring in the selected texts.
  • Second Reading: The researcher during the second phase of reading of Carl Rogers’ selected works, located important content (Idea-Units).To analyse the Idea Units the researcher made a preliminary note of the categories to form Idea-group.
  • Third Reading: During the third phase of reading, the researcher has formed Ideas Units from selected works of Carl Rogers. An Idea Unit is set of words, having a meaningful comprehensibility. Every Idea Unit holds an independent meaning. This ‘meaning independency’ is the property of an Idea Unit enabling the researcher to introduce or remove an Idea Unit without affecting other Idea Units in particular content categories. An Idea Unit can be in the form of a sentence, quotation, and a set of sentences or a paragraph. However, it is not that the form of all Idea Units should remain the same throughout the study.
  • Fourth Reading: During the fourth phase of reading the researcher has determines the sample data for further analysis and interpretation. An Ideas group is a sub-division of content categories. When Idea Units are bunched keeping in view some common conceptual property, they can be sub-categorized under a content categories. This type of grouping facilitates the researcher to analyse a content category in its totality. A content category comprises of Ideas groups and an Ideas group comprises of Idea Unit.
  • Fifth Reading:  During the fifth phase of reading, the researcher has analysed and interpreted the selected content (Idea-Units) in the lights of philosophical, sociological, psychological and counselling point of view. First of all the researcher has selected content (Idea-Units), locating key words, giving overall meaning and then derived a message from the interpretation of that content (Idea- Units) in the context of Education, parallel to the Objective of Study as well as Study Questions.
The researcher has read all three selected books of Carl Rogers and used the   content analysis method for analysing the data as given below:
  • First Reading: During the first reading the researcher has gone through the all three books: On Becoming a Person, A Way of being and Freedom to Learn, written by Carl Rogers.
  • Second Reading: During the second phase of reading the researcher has selected important content from selected books.
  • Third Reading: During the third phase of reading, the researcher has studied Carl Rogers’s view, his theory of fully functioning person, client Centered therapy, helping relationship, creativity, student Centered learning, self-directed learning etc...
  • Fourth Reading: During the fourth phase reading the researcher has collected content from selected books in relation to objectives of study, then categories and classified that content in different ideas-unit and arranged them into alphabetical order.
  • Fifth Reading:  During the fifth phase of reading, the researcher has analysed and interpreted the selected content. In the lights of philosophical, sociological, psychological and counselling point of view. First of all the researcher has selected content, (ideas-units) locating key words, giving overall meaning and then derived a message from the interpretation of that content (ideas- units) in the context of education, parallel to the objective of study as well as study Questions.
4.6  SUMMARY This chapter has focussed on the matters of research methodologies that are present for the research scholar to employ to find the appropriate conclusions for the aforementioned research. In the chapter the research scholar has extensively elaborated the procedure that the research scholar would employ to find the objectives that are mentioned in chapter 1. In this chapter the research scholar has discussed content analysis and uses of content analysis. Content Analysis Method and the procedure undertaken by the researcher have been elaborative explain here. The chapter proclaims the need of evolving a procedure for interpretations as per the nature of the study. The chapter also defines the difference between the content analysis and relational analysis. The research scholar shows how the books of Carl Rogers’ were selected for the research. The next chapter delineates analysis, interpretations and educational implications.

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Retrieved December 22, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KdJeuZphwCIC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Stimulus-Response+School&ots=V_A69uBrMj&sig=fgdRj0rzBeNzc0UkhbUQvJoPA98#v=onepage&q&f=false Srikanth, C. (2015). Education in India. srikanth. Retrieved January 12, 2016, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=RF38CQAAQBAJ&pg=PA39&lpg=PA39&dq=%22+I.+To+give+a+knowledge+of+the+nature+of+the+child+II.+To%22&source=bl&ots=Tcj5162jEo&sig=lv0PzXcye_OrfIsxvFJsJJgHK5w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiS1KrKkuDLAhUWA44KHSUDA9QQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepag Stempel, G. (1989). Content Analysis. In G.H.Stempel, & B.H.Westley (Eds.), Research methods in mass communications. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. Retrieved March 18, 2015 Stone, P. J., Dunphy, D. C., Smith, M. S., & Ogilvie, D. M. (1966). The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis. (C. W. Roberts, Ed.) Cambridge: MIT press. Retrieved January 22, 2015 Swaim, E. E. (1974, August 24). B.F. Skinner and Carl R. Rogers on Behavior and Education. Oregon ASCD Curriculum Bulletin, p. 48. Retrieved August 20, 2015, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED098087.pdf Taviss, I. (1969, February). Changes in the form of alienation: The 1900's vs. the 1950's. American Sociological Review, pp. 45-67. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. Bristol: PA: Falmer. Retrieved January 16, 2015 The Gestalt Principles. (2014). Retrieved March 13, 2015, from http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/gestaltprinciples/gestaltprinc.htm Tolstoy, L. (1941). War and Peace (Vol. 3). London: Oxford University. Retrieved January 23, 2016 Unit-II Hormic School. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2016, from International Journal of Teacher Education and Research: http://med.ijter.com/UNIT-IIEP.pdf Vijayalakshmi, B., Devi Prasad, B., & Visweswara Rao, K. (1996). Trends in Social Work Literature: A content analysis of the Indian Journal of Social Work 1971-1990. Indian Journal of Social Work, 57(3), 442-460. Retrieved July 12, 2015 Wang, J. (1996). The siren songs of consumption: and analysis of foreign advertisements in two Mainland Chinese newspapers. Gazette, 3, pp. 201-219. Retrieved January 12, 2015 Weber, R. P. (1985). Basic Content Analysis. New Delhi: Sage. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Wertheimer, M. (1959). Productive Thinking. New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved February 13, 2014 Wertheimer, M. (1959). Productive Thinking. New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved February 14, 2014 What is Humanistic Psychology? (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2014, from The Association of Humanistic Psychology: https://www.ahpweb.org/about/new-vision/item/8-humanistic-psychology-overview.html Wilken, D. P. (Ed.). (2015). Revisiting Carl Rogers Theory of Personality. Journal Psyche. Retrieved January 22, 2016, from http://journalpsyche.org/revisiting-carl-rogers-theory-of-personality/ Wilson, A. (2011). How to be a Parent Champion and add magic to your family. Rochester: Develop Your Child CIC. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=v4FferbqGFIC&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=%22to+conducting+therapy+and+a+scientific+approach+to+evaluating%22&source=bl&ots=H5i_qk9Hqr&sig=91f4b51i_DDlDGBMrGk1CpMFxOk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwia8f_W1MDLAhUKm5QKHROMCwQQ6AEIHDAA#v=on Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. (1994). Mass media research: an introduction (4th ed.). California: Wadsworth. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Woodrum, E. (1984). Mainstreaming content analysis in social science: Methodological advantage-obstacles and solutions. Social Science Research, 2, pp. 1-9. Retrieved June 11, 2015 Work, P. G. (n.d.). Human Growth and Personality Development. Retrieved from Srimad Andavan Arts & Science College: http://www.andavancollege.ac.in/depts/msw/htmlfiles/mswnotes/hgpd.pdf Ysthename, O. (2014, October 24). Educational Psychology. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from www.Slideshare.net: http://www.slideshare.net/iheartohmar/educational-psychology-40689177 Yusof, K. M., Azli, N. A., Kosnin, A. M., Yusof, S. K., & Yusof, Y. M. (Eds.). (2012). Outcome-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Innovative Practices. Hershey: Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global. Retrieved January 14, 2014, from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=hwFORNLzchgC&pg=PA158&lpg=PA158&dq=%22with+existing+knowledge+and+experiences+(Jonassen,+1999).%22&source=bl&ots=7_MVZk84XJ&sig=9oXWuc5gy0YwMJNZQ8xs8fttEp0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj4tJaY_cDMAhWJCY4KHYnIDiYQ6AEIHDAA#v=onep                     Chapter 5 Analysis, Interpretations and EducationalImplications
 
Chapter - 5 Analysis, Interpretations and EducationalImplications
5.0 Introduction: In this chapter, the researcher has tried to analyse the intricacies of the books of Carl Rogers. The analysis and the interpretation of the Carl Rogers’ works shows the concealed and explicit ideas that are present in the psychological and sociological terms. The researcher has made an inquiry to figure out the educational implications of the ideas, thoughts and information given by Carl Rogers in his masterpiece works from the roots. The sage Carl Rogers has had a profound influence in changing the ways in which educational institutions engage in the teaching and learning process and hence made leaps and bounds progress. Rogers not only changed the course of psychology and education in the 1930s, but his ideas still are a force to reckon with in the 21st century. We have seen in the above chapters how the various theoreticians and philosophers convey the influential works and in them, Carl Rogers stands out as a shining star. This chapter will focus on the analytical, philosophical and educational aspects of the books of Carl Rogers. The chapter will focus on the major ideas provided in the three major works of Carl Rogers namely On Becoming a Person (1961,) Freedom to Learn (1969), A Way of Being (1980).
5.1  Therapeutic Approach of Carl R. Rogers’ Works, Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relations.
In light of a legitimate concern for adapting, in this manner, how additional remedial contemplations impact the differing qualities of elucidation found in psychotherapy, it appears to be productive to me to explore the connection amongst psychotherapy and humanities in the different ways to deal with psychotherapy. Possibly a near investigation of their particular anthropologies might demonstrate that there is less uniqueness on that level, and this would impressively reduce the weight of the client in coming to know the solidarity of psychotherapy. The address, therefore, turns out to be: How would we be able to do this? Psychotherapists sometimes explain their perspective of man. Most much of the time, it is implicitly comprehended by them in the plan of their perspective of psychotherapy. Their human studies would subsequently must be refined from their works through a procedure of surmising. This thusly would appear to call for a top to bottom investigation of in any event the real schools of psychotherapy preceding our having the capacity to study their particular anthropologies nearly. Such an inside and out study would begin with an investigation of a given creator’s perspective on psychotherapy, identity and interpersonal relations and from the different indications conveyed in his works one would accordingly need to sort out his fundamental perspective of a man which, since it is fundamental, would match with his essential goal in treatment. On the other hand, to put it all the more comprehensively, such an inside and out study would first need to consider the history and the systematics of an offered way to deal with treatment, the identity and interpersonal relations. That is, it would need to depict how these appeared and how they hang together ideally. No one but from there on might we be able to explain the perspective of the man suggested it. Once this was put in a position to audit the connection between its human sciences and its psychotherapy as additionally to assess the relative value of its human studies for its psychotherapy. On the off chance that this was accomplished in all major ways to deal with psychotherapy we may find that what gives off an impression of being hostile contrasts on the level of psychotherapy end up being significantly less so on the level of humanities. Rogers’s theory of personality asserts that every person has the ability to enjoy congruence, even though there are plenty of factors that make congruence difficult to achieve.  Rogers (1959) asserts: Congruence, [or] congruence of self and experience. . . is a basic concept . . . in which the individual appears to be revising his concept of self to bring it into congruence with his experience, accurately symbolized.  . . . When self-experiences are accurately symbolized, and are included in the self-concept in this accurately symbolized form, then the state is one of the congruence of self and experience.  (pp. 205-206) He continues: If this were completely true of all self-experiences, the individual would be a fully functioning person . . . . If it is true of some specific aspect of experience, such as the individuals’ experience in a given relationship or in a given moment of time, then we can say that the individual is to this degree in a state of congruence.  Other terms which are in a general way synonymous are these:  integrated, whole, genuine.  (p. 206) Congruence is the point at which a man encounters his own particular person in the same way that it could unbiasedly be seen. She builds her self-concept from material that truly happened. Her discernment of self, as self-concept, is educated by the self as her “own critical social other” (Rogers, 1959, p. 224) what’s more, or another self. In a perfect world, an individual considers of herself to this point, what’s more, moreover, the self she is in the procedure of getting to be as unequivocal esteemed what’s more, prized, whether on the other hand not she has gotten genuine prizing from others. Her self-attesting self-idea is compatible with her organismic experience. On the off chance that she is bona fide in her self-concept, she encounters flexibility in her way of being. On the off chance that there is a cacophony between the organismic experiences, the seen reality of an experience, what’s more, the self-idea, at that point an individual encounters incongruence. It can lead the self to esteem in or about itself something that is halfway, or something that is really conflicting with its self-completing propensity. In the event that a man prizes himself or is prized by others in ways that are most certainly not fulfilling to the life form in general – in ways that don’t open the self to the cognizant joining of all new encounters – the self creates restrictive types of self-attestation, which remain in pressure with the experience of unrestricted, entire living being assertion (Rogers, 1959). As an aftereffect of this adapted insistence, a man’s self-completing propensity is hindered; it can’t serve, as it in a perfect world does, as a touchstone to goodness. It is never pulverized; Rogers (1980) claims that the length of a person is living, the self-completing inclination is grinding away and challenges can be arranged. In any case, all together for a self to work completely, there must be coinciding between this inclination toward wholeness and the genuine experience of self (Rogers, 1959). On the off chance that somebody is completely working, her self-realizing is uninhibited, and she has the experience of living into her interesting potential through time (Rogers 1959; Rogers 1980). Rogers imagines a procedure by which a living being takes part in the genuine assertion of its fundamental openness to experience (Rogers 1959). Along these lines of living out of one’s cognizant, self-realizing focus can be stood out from a method for living more out of one’s judgment and survey one’s involvement in either ‘outright’ terms or in complete deliberation (Rogers, 1959, p. 205). A man who truly insists her completing potential, is capable, in any offered minute, to adjust the truths grounded as a general rule with the potential outcomes of her envisioned future, and after that demonstration, as indicated by this openness to an incorporated ordeal. Rogers is by all accounts depicting a relationship amongst finitude and unendingness like Anti-Climacus. Both Rogers and Against Climacus perceives the need to keep up a productive pressure between 27 reality and plausibility, grounded in the experience of the soul of self-actualization. Making a harmony amongst reality and plausibility, and living in a way that yields self-realization, can be an intricate accomplishment. It tends to be restricted by an assortment of social, natural, or organic components. Broadley (2011, p. 159) states that “the circumstances lived by numerous persons, presumably most persons, are not proper for full advancement of a number of their possibilities”. Numerous individuals’ social circumstances make it likely that they will encounter significant incongruence between their self-experience also, finish organismic experience.
5.2 Analysis, Interpretations and Educational Implications
Carl Rogers was a dynamic person whose ideas, thoughts, emotions and significant investigations were widely accepted in the fields even other than psychology. The researcher in the present chapter will try to delineate the analysis of the works of Carl Rogers on the terms of humanistic grounds and its applications in the field of education. Carl Rogers’ books and the acronyms used by the researcher to indicate in the following tables. On Becoming a Person (1961) = OBP Freedom to Learn (1969) = FTL A Way of Being (1980) = AWB Table 5.1 Carl Rogers’ terminology used in his works: 01 to 05
Sr. No Central concepts of Rogers’ theories/ quotations from books Keywords
1 Acceptance
Each person is an island unto himself, in a very real sense; and he can only build bridges to other islands if he is first of all willing to be himself and permitted to be himself. So I find that when I can accept another person, which means specifically accepting the feelings and attitudes and beliefs that he has as a real and vital part of him, then I am assisting him to become a person: and there seems to me great value in this. OBP (p 21) Bridge, permit to be himself, accept another person
Acceptance of the client by the therapist leads to an increased acceptance of self by the client.  OBP (p. 208) Acceptance, increase
The more the therapist perceives the client as a person rather than as object, the more the client will come to perceive himself as a person rather than an object. OBP (p 101) Perceive, Object, Person
In the course of therapy, an experiential and effective type of learning about self takes place in the client. OBP (p 207) Experiential, Effective learning
Roger believes that if a person is accepted, fully accepted, and in this acceptance there is no judgment, only compassion and sympathy, the individual is able to come to grips with himself, to develop the courage to give up his defenses and face his true self. OBP (Page no: 305) Fully Accepted, No judgement Compassion, Sympathy, True self
Once you come to close to a person, perceive his thoughts, his emotions, his feelings, he becomes not only understandable but good and desirable. OBP (p 307) Perceive, Feelings, Good and desirable
When the student perceive that they are free to follow their own goals, most of them invest more of themselves in their effort, work harder, and retain and use more of what they have learned, than in conventional courses. FTL (Page No-95) Follow goals, Work hard, Retain
A teacher can accept the student’s occasional apathy, his erratic desires to explore by roads of knowledge, as well as his disciplined efforts to achieve major goals.                                                                                                      FTL (Page No-109) Teacher, Apathy, Knowledge, Discipline
The facilitator’s prizing or acceptance of the learner is an operational expression of his essential confidence and trust in the capacity of the human organism. FTL (Page No; 109) Acceptance, Expression, Confidence, Trust
The student Centered teaching method does provide an ideal framework for learning; not just for the accumulation of facts, but more important, for learning about ourselves in relation to others. .  . FTL (Page No: 110) Student Centered, Framework, Retain.
The Facilitator who cares, who prizes , who trusts the learner, creates a climate for learning so different from the ordinary classroom that any resemblance is “purely coincidental.” (Page No: 110) Trust, Climate of learning
2 Actualizing / Actualizing tendency
We can say that there is in every organism, at whatever level, an underlying flow of movement toward constructive fulfilment of its inherent possibilities. In human beings, too, there is a natural tendency toward a more complex and complete development. The term that has most often been used for this is the “actualizing tendency, and it is present in all living organisms.” (Page no: 117-118) AWB Organism, Constructive fulfillment, Inherent possibilities, Actualizing tendency
The actualizing tendency can, of course, be thwarted or warped, but it cannot be destroy without destroying the organism.(example of bin potatoes)  AWB (Page no: 118) Actualizing tendency
Each human being has a directional tendency toward wholeness, toward actualization of his or her potentialities. AWB (Page no: 120) Directional tendency, Actualization.
When a person is functioning fully, there are no barriers, no inhibitions, which prevent the full experiencing of whatever is organismically present. This person is moving in the direction of wholeness, integration, a unified life. Consciousness is participating in this larger, creative, formative tendency. AWB (Page no: 128) Functioning fully, Direction of wholeness, Consciousness, Creative.
The state of empathy, or being empathic, is to perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy and with the emotional components and meanings which pertain thereto as if one were the person, but without ever losing the “as if” condition. Thus it means to sense the hurt or the pleasure of another as he senses it and to perceive the causes thereof as he perceives them, but without ever losing the recognition that it is as if I were hurt or pleased and so forth. If this “as if” quality is lost, then the state is one of identification. AWB (Page no: 140-141) Internal Empathy, ‘As if’ condition Recognition of emotion
3 Administration / Administrators
The conventional view:        (Page No-206-207)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers Administrator himself is responsible for organizing the available money, equipment, and people in such a way as to achieve the educational goal which he has in view. This mean that Administrator must motivate and direct his faculty, and through them the student. Administrator’s main function is to control the actions and to modify the behavior of all members of the school in such ways that the educational goal will be achieved. Response for organizing, Achieve Educational goal Control actions, Modify behaviour, Reach educational goal.
A Modern View:        (Page No-207-209)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers This theory (theory-y) the educational administration is responsible for organizing the resources of the institution-the teachers, the students, the Funds, the equipment and materials in such a way that all of the persons involved can work together toward defining and achieving their own educational goals. The main spring of the organization is the motivation for development and learning which is inherent in each person. Organising resources, Define achieving goal, Motivation for development
4 Attitudes
When persons find themselves sensitively and accurately understood, they develop a set of growth promoting or therapeutic attitudes toward themselves. AWB (Page No: 159) Sensitively and accurately understood, Attitude.
When man’s unique capacity of awareness is thus functioning freely and fully, we find that we have, not an animal whom we must fear, not a beast who must be controlled, but an organism able to achieve, through the remarkable integrative capacity of its central nervous system, a balanced, realistic, self-enhancing, other-enhancing behavior as a resultant of all these elements of awareness. OBP (Page no: 105) Capacity of awareness, Integrative capacity.
When man is less than fully man- when he denies to awareness various aspects of his experience- then indeed we have all too often reason to fear him and his behavior, as the present world situation testifies. But when is most fully man, when he is his complete organism, when awareness of experience, that peculiarly human attribute, is most fully operating, then he is to be trusted, then his behavior is constructive. OBP (Page no: 105) Denies awareness, Complete organism
The emotionally maladjusted person, the “neurotic,” is in difficulty first, because communication within himself has broken down, and second because, as a result of this, his communication with others has been damaged. OBP (Page no: 330) Emotionally maladjusted, Damaged communication
I believe most educators would agree that a high priority in education is to help individuals to acquire the learning, the information, and the personal growth that will enable them to deal more constructively with the “real world.” (Page No: 96-97)  A WAY OF BEING BY CARL ROGERS  Education, Acquire learning, Personal growth
If we accept as a basic fact of all human life that we live in separate realities; if we can see those differing realities as the most promising resource for learning in all the history of the world; if we can live together in order to learn from one another without fear; if we can do all this, then a new age could be dawning. And perhaps--- just perhaps--- humankind’s deep organic sensings are paving the way for just such a change. AWB (Page No: 108) Accepting people as they are, Organic sense, Change.
Individuals have within themselves vast resources for self- understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes, and self-directed behavior; these resources can be tapped if a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided.  AWB (Page No: 115) Self-concepts, Self-directed behaviour, Definable climate.
5 Caring
When I truly hear a person and the meanings that are important to him at that moment, hearing not simply his words, but him, and when i let him know that I have heard his own private personal meanings, many things happen.   (Page no: 10))  A WAY OF BEING BY CARL ROGERS  Being heard, Positive regard.
Prizing or loving and being prized or loved is experienced as very growth enhancing. a person who is loved appreciatively, not possessively, blooms and develops his own unique self. the person who loves non possessively is himself enriched. (Page no: 23) Caring A WAY OF BEING BY CARL ROGERS  Prizing, Love appreciably, Person enriched.
... I have mentioned -- an ability to listen empathically, a congruence or genuineness, an acceptance or prizing of the other-- when they are present in a relationship make for good communication and for constructive change in personality.  (Page No: 23) )  A WAY OF BEING BY CARL ROGERS  Listen sympathetically, Constructive change.
On the basis of my experience, I have found that if I can help bring about a climate marked by genuineness, prizing, and understanding, then exciting things happen. Persons and groups in such a climate move away from rigidity and toward flexibility, away from static living toward process living, away from dependence toward autonomy, away from defensiveness toward self-acceptance, away from being predictable toward an unpredictable creativity. They exhibit living proof of an actualizing tendency.  (Page No: 44)  )  A WAY OF BEING BY CARL ROGERS  Genuineness, Understanding, Flexibility, Self-acceptance, Actualizing tendency.
When I am exposed to a growth-promoting climate, I am able to develop a deep trust in myself, in individuals, and in entire groups. I love to create such an environment, in which persons, groups, and even plants can grow.  (Page No: 44)  )  A WAY OF BEING BY CARL ROGERS  Growth-promoting climate, Growth even for plants.
5.2.1 Explanation of the terms: 5.2.1.1  Acceptance Merriam-Webster Learner’s dictionary online (2016) describes ‘Acceptance’ as
A. An agreeing either expressly or by conduct to the act or offer of another so that a contract is concluded and the parties become legally bound
B. The quality or state of being accepted or acceptable. Carl Rogers  was a humanistic therapist who concurred with the primary presumptions of Abraham Maslow, yet added that for a man to ‘develop’, they require a situation that furnishes them with validity (openness and self-exposure), acknowledgment (being seen with unqualified positive respect), and compassion (being listened to and caught on). Without these, connections and sound identities won’t create as they ought to, much like a tree won’t develop without daylight and water. Rogers trusted that each individual can accomplish their objectives, wishes and cravings in life. At the point when, or rather in the event that they did as such, self-realization occurred. This was one of Carl Rogers most essential commitments to brain research and for a man to achieve their potential various elements must be fulfilled. Accepting the individual as of unconditional worth: whenever a teacher, parent, therapist, or other person with a facilitating function feels basically that this individual is of worth in his own right and in his own unfolding, no matter what his present condition or behaviour, he is fostering creativity. This attitude can probably be genuine only when the teacher, parent, etc., senses the potentialities of the individual and thus is able to have an unconditional faith in him, no matter what his present state. (Rogers C. , On Becoming a Person: A Therapists' View Of Psychotherapy, 1961, p. 34& 357) Also, the following statements show Rogers’ views on Acceptance: By acceptance I mean a warm regard for him his condition, his behavior, or his feelings. It means a respect and liking for him as a separate person, willingness for him to possess his own feelings in his own way. It means an acceptance of and regard for his attitudes of the moment, no matter how negative or positive, no matter how much they may contradict other attitudes he has held in the past. (Rogers C. , On Becoming a Person: A Therapists' View Of Psychotherapy, 1961, p. 34) When the person accepts himself, he is much freer to hear and understand and come close to the other. The Encounter Group:
  • The individual gains not only a better understanding of but a deeper acceptance of, himself.
  • The faults and deficiencies and weaknesses which he has hidden so carefully from others are not only no longer concealed, but prove to be a basis for a greater responsiveness and warmth from others.
  • When the person accepts himself, he is much freer to hear and understand and come close to the other. (So we find more understanding and closer relationships to spouses, children, co-workers and fellow students, growing out of this self-acceptance.)
  • Individuals can accept and use constructively both negative and positive feedback from other participants.
  • One major benefit if this group is that one can learn- how to adjust, how to behave, how to put in practice an innovative ideas and much more
  • Individuals evaluate themselves and their works through self-evaluation.
  • In this group, individuals are free to think. To express, to behave, to be
According to Carl Rogers, all these above steps involve examples of significant learning. (Rogers C. R., Freedom to Learn, 1969, p. 96)
5.2.1.2 Actualization / Actualizing tendency:  
  • Actualization
“The organism has one basic tendency and striving - to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism” (Rogers, 1951, p. 487). The researcher finds that Rogers dismisses the deterministic way of both analysis and behaviourism and kept up that we carry on as we do as a result of the way we see our circumstance. “As no one else can know how we perceive, we are the best experts on ourselves.” Carl Rogers (1959) trusted that people have one fundamental thought process, that is the propensity to self-realize - i.e. to satisfy one’s potential and accomplish the most elevated amount of ‘human-beingness’ we can. Like a bloom that will develop to its maximum capacity if the conditions are correct, however, which is compelled by its surroundings, so individuals will thrive and achieve their potential if their surroundings is adequate. Be that as it may, not at all like a blossom, the capability of the individual human is one of a kind, and we are intended to create in various routes as indicated by our identity. Rogers trusted that individuals are characteristically great and inventive. They get to be damaging just when a poor self-idea or outer limitations abrogate the esteeming procedure. Carl Rogers trusted that for a man to accomplish self-realization they should be in a condition of harmoniousness. The research scholar finds that this implies self-completion happens when a man’s ‘optimal self’ (i.e. who they might want to be) is harmonious with their genuine conduct (mental self-portrait). Rogers portrays a person who is realizing as a completely working individual. The primary determinant of whether we will get to be self-realized is youth experience. When persons find themselves sensitively and accurately understood, they develop a set of growth promoting or therapeutic attitudes toward themselves. (Let me explain :) (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980, p. 159)
  1. The non-evaluative and acceptant quality of the empathic climate enables persons, as we have seen, to take a prizing, caring attitude toward themselves.
  2. Being listened to by someone who understands makes it possible for persons to listen more accurately to themselves, with greater empathy toward their own visceral experiencing, their own vaguely felt meanings.
The individuals’ greater understanding of and prizing of themselves opens to them new facets of experience which become part of a more accurately based self-concept.   5.2.1.3 Administration / Administrators: The conventional view: (Rogers C. R., Freedom to Learn, 1969, pp. 206-207)
  •                They must be rewarded, punished through use of both the carrot and the stick- so they work toward the goal (which the administrator, or his board of trustees, or the state, has defined as “being educated.”
This view assumes that both teacher and student (but especially the student) are indifferent to achieving an educational goal and will only work toward this if a proper series of behavioral controls are instituted. A Modern View: (Rogers C. R., Freedom to Learn, 1969, pp. 207-209)
  •                The task of the administrator is to so arrange the organizational conditions and methods of operation that people can best achieve their own goals by also furthering the jointly defined goals of the institution.
  •                The administration finds that his work consists primarily of removing obstacles such as “red tape “of creating opportunities where teachers and students and administrators himself can freely use their potential, of encouraging growth and change, and of creating a climate in which each person can believe that his potential is valued, his capacity for responsibility is trusted, his creative abilities prized.
  •                The administrator has the task of using himself in just as fulfilling a way as he makes possible for his staff and students.
  •                He does not submerge himself, but uses his leadership qualities, his vision, his wider information, all the characteristics which have led to his being placed in a position of responsibility, as positive input in a living and changing organization.
  •                Part of his function is to serve as a catalyst in releasing the capacity of others, but he is failing in his task if he does not release and develop his own potential as well.
  •                He is in the business of growing persons, but he himself is one of those persons.
  •                The aim would be to bring such leaders into being on the administrative, faculty, and the student levels  - individuals who could listen, understand, accept, clarify, communicate – who could help either an individual or a group to experience more clearly its own current and changing aims, difficulties, desires, frustrations, antagonisms, so that he or they could be more effectively self-directing.
  •                The leader needs to grow into a person who can actually understand, and actually, accept very diverse views and feelings and can express his own views and feelings without imposing them on others.
  •                The in-service training would be essentially concerned with providing growth opportunities for persons who could then facilitate growth in other individuals or groups.
5.2.1.4 Attitudes that facilitate learning:
  • What are these qualities, these attitudes that facilitate learning?
Realness in the facilitator of learning: Maybe the most fundamental of these vital demeanours is realness or validity. At the point when the facilitator is a genuine individual, being what she is, going into an association with the learner without introducing a front or a façade, she is a great deal more prone to be viable. Prizing, acceptance, trust: There is another disposition that emerges in the individuals who are effective in encouraging learning… I consider it prizing the learner, prizing her emotions, her suppositions, and her individual. It is a watching over the learner, however a non-possessive minding. Empathic understanding: A further component that builds up an atmosphere for self-started experiential learning is vigorous comprehension. When the teacher has the ability to understand the student’s reactions from the inside, has a sensitive awareness of the way the process of education and learning seems to the student, then again the likelihood of significant learning is increased…. [Students feel deeply appreciative] when they are simply understood – not evaluated, not judged, and simply understood from their own point of view, not the teacher’s. (Rogers 1967 304-311) Characteristics of the Person- Centered approach/attitude or three conditions for a climate to be growth promoting. (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980, pp. 114-134) The first element could be called genuineness, realness, or congruence: The more the therapist is himself or herself in the relationship, putting up no professional front or personal facade, the greater is the likelihood that the client will change and grow in a constructive manner. The second attitude of importance in creating a climate for change is acceptance or caring, or prizing--- what I called “unconditional positive regard.”… The therapist is willing for the client to be whatever immediate feeling is going on--- confusion, resentment, fear, anger, courage, love, or pride. Such caring on the part of the therapist is non possessive. The therapist prizes the client with a total rather than a conditional way. The third facilitative aspect of the relationship is empathic understanding. This means that the therapist senses accurately the feelings and personal meanings that the client is experiencing and communicates this understanding to the client. When functioning best, the therapist is so much inside the private world of the other that he or she can clarify not only the meanings of which the client is aware but even those just below the level of awareness. The purposes and set up for free self-directed and creative learning: (Rogers C. R., Freedom to Learn, 1969, pp. 190-191) The purpose of the whole program is to provide a situation which:
  • Will restore, stimulate, and enhance the unquenchable curiosity which the student has as a small child. Customarily, by the time he reaches graduate school this curiosity has been dulled and blunted into a passive conformity;
  • Will encourage the student to choose his own interests and to develop these into mature and growth promoting professional goals;
  • Will provide all types of resources- the written word, the laboratory, the equipment for programmed learning, the informed human being, the relevant organizational experience, the relevant community experience- with which the student may nurture his interests. Thus, there will be included resources which give the student experience in working on human problems as they exist in their natural context as well as in the classroom and laboratory;
  • Will permit the student to make responsible choices as to his directions and to live responsibly with the consequences of his mistake choices as well as his sound ones;
  • Will give the student a participative role in forming and building the whole graduate program of which he is a part;
  • Will be primarily oriented toward the future problems of the science and profession rather than its past history or even the present accumulation of so-called ‘facts’;
  • Will be oriented toward a focus on the solution of significant scientific and professional problems rather than primarily upon methodological training in a discipline. The solution of significant problems always leads to interdisciplinary leanings where breakthroughs and advances are most likely;
  • Will provide close, human, communicative interaction between real persons- student and student, student and faculty, faculty and student;
  • Will, through a such interaction, focus on the real problems-personal and emotional as well as intellectual and professional-which confront the student in his work;
  • Will develop the student as a self-disciplined and critical learner able to evaluate his own contributions as well as those of others. Thus the student will work, not for the approval of others, but in terms of his own socialized and self-actualizing purposes;
  • Will enable the student to adapt intelligently, flexibly, and creatively to new problem situations in the future, problems undreamed of at the time of his graduate work;
  • Will enable students to make continuing, creative contributions to the solution of human problems which at this point threaten to abolish the human race. These contributions may be through the approach of pure scientific or through professional practice or through a combination of both;
  • Will enable the student to win acceptance as one of the group of qualified professionals who are attempting to cope with these significant and human concerns.
The researcher has mentioned the two types of learning already, Rogers described them as defining opposite ends of a continuum of meaning, feeling, and relevance. One end of the continuum, he represented by the following poignant observation: At one end of the scale is the kind of task psychologists sometimes set for the subjects—the learning of nonsense syllables? To memorize such items as baz, ent, nep, arl, lud and the like, is a difficult task. Because there is no meaning involved, these syllables are not easy to learn and are likely to be forgotten quickly. We frequently fail to recognize that much of the material presented to students in the classroom has, for the student, the same perplexing; meaningless quality that the list of nonsense syllables has for us. This is especially true for the underprivileged child whose background provides no context for the material with which he is confronted. But nearly every student finds that large portions of his curriculum are for him, meaningless. Thus education becomes the futile attempt to learn material which has no personal meaning. 5.2.1.5  Caring Affected by Carl Rogers, the atmosphere of the caring relationship gradually advanced to end up less authoritarian. He likewise advanced the term ‘counselling’ which compared better to he had of the specialist tolerant experience. He moreover added to the extension of psychotherapy by his non-order approach focused on the passionate parts of an issue as opposed to on their scholarly or obsessive angle. His first goal was to empower the individual to rediscover the importance of their life, their pride and self-regard keeping in mind the end goal to help them find the best bearing to take and to distinguish, if conceivable, their own particular arrangements. Once more, his thoughts definitely changed the set up request.
  1.                     Educational implications of these theories (Acceptance, Actualizing /Actualizing tendency, Administration, Administrators, Attitudes, Caring):
Utilization of this methodology in the classroom: The researcher would like to include The Assertive orderly arrangement which was initially created in 1976 with the point of overseeing classroom conduct. This arrangement has today taken the inside stage in dealing with the testing pupil conduct by considering pupils in charge of their own activity. Such a proactive methodology would help the teacher make a helpful environment, where pupils figure out how to settle on the right decision of conduct. This decision would then permit compelling instructing and adapting, together with scholarly and social development of pupils. The teacher and the pupil are dependably in contact, and this is imperative for compelling instructing. The classroom can be alluded to as a socio-specialized framework in hierarchical terms, where conveying the educational programs collaborates with the social necessities of the pupils (and teacher) to frame a reliant framework. Rogers gave extremely valuable methods for demonstrating sympathy toward pupils. He distinguished appreciation, validity and empathy as vital aptitudes of building great connections. These aptitudes can be shown when teachers associate with pupils. Here two persons are in contact, teachers show regard for pupils, when they esteem them, think about their prosperity and feel that every pupil is justified regardless of the time went through with him or her. Teachers ought to likewise demonstrate validity by not assuming parts or putting up pointless boundaries amongst themselves and pupils, therefore teachers ought to be open, legit and willing to impart their own experience to the pupils. It is moreover essential to be reliable in qualities and conduct, and not, for instance, saying one thing and doing the other. Empathy is indicated when a teacher appears to see how a pupil feel, so the teacher can see the world as the pupil see it. The more the teacher can see the world from the pupil’s viewpoint, the more probable the teacher can offer assistance. These three abilities when utilized by teachers affect well on demonstrating a sympathy toward pupils when instructing. At long last the Rogers’ worry of genuine positive respect is essential in this relationship. Pupils ought to trust that the teacher feels emphatically towards them. This ought to be unequivocal and not rely on upon the pupil satisfying every one of the things a teacher likes, for a perfect pupil. As beforehand said, the person-Centered methodology is established on the conviction that people can be trusted to tackle their own issues without the partner specifically getting included. This is accepted conceivable on the grounds that the person is the special case who truly comprehends the issue superior to anything any other person. The researcher finds that in optional schools, this methodology does not run down well with the reason of the assistant’s motivation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the assistant and client in this methodology is exceptionally vital and accommodative. A critical physical element in numerous classrooms is the beautifications in numerous types of works of art, and pictures on the dividers pruned plants and blooms. All these have essential parts in respecting the clients and making them feel agreeable in the classroom environment. The classroom sitting course of action deals with individual region. The tranquil environment in the classroom is critical for focus. They likewise feel required and esteemed. Despite that, the way both teachers and pupils identify with each other is more critical, for instance, if a teacher needs to make a worthy standard of conduct it is imperative that he or she tells pupils their sentiments and why norms are critical. The teacher ought to then look for the assessment of the pupils through permitting them to set their own norms. What is settled upon incorporates move to be made in the event of insubordination and the outcomes, however this ought not to comprise of standards cast in stone, and they ought to be adaptable to oblige new encounters. Additionally, it is critical that pupils learning and educating is client Centered so that their perspectives are mulled over on matters in regards to their training. At the point when pupils are a vital part of choices made they feel they have a part to play and the obligation connected. It is likewise great to permit vote based system to develop in schools which permits pupils to openly raise their worries and stresses, after which cure is looked for. This has the aftereffect of the pupils recognizing and regarding Person-Centered methodology and troublesome classroom conduct their own particular discernments. There is a sentiment security and worth by the pupils when their perspectives and thoughts are taken and regarded. This functions admirably for instance by conveying targets to the open, concurring how they could be accomplished, strategies, then again shows ways to deal with use and permitting pupils to express their desires and their fears. Finally taking everything into account, the relationship that exists in the person-Centered therapy between an assistant and a client is such that the client’s reality is the focal setting for being in the relationship. In a perfect world, it is trusted that after entering the person-Centered therapy, clients will encounter the three centre states of compatibility, unrestricted positive respect and empathy. A teacher can approach the administration of client conduct in a more proactive way through building a positive and a trusting relationship. The teacher sets up himself/herself as a teacher who thinks about the pupil’s prosperity all through school. This can offer assistance make an environment in which the client self-regard can thrive. The centre conditions, then associate with the clients states of worth, which kick begin a helping relationship in which change and development can then happen. What is of significance to the assistant is the foundation of a proper environment under which the self-mending process happens. In this manner, the person-Centered aide is not prone to offer instant arrangements or to guide the client to take after a specific adapting system. What the assistant does is benefit of a trusting relationship through which the value of a client is perceived and in this manner issues which are of concern are sorted out. Generally speaking, the client is expected to gangs the capacity to think of an answer to their issue, the assistant just goes about as an essential sidekick in the mending procedure. Table 5.2 Carl Rogers’ terminology used in his works: 05 to 10
Sr. No Central concepts of Rogers’ theories/ quotations from books Keywords
6 Client-Centered Therapy
“I believe it will have become evident why, for me, adjectives such as happy, contented, blissful, enjoyable, do not seem quite appropriate to any general description of this process I have called the good life, even though the person in this process would experience each one of these at the appropriate times. But adjectives which seem more generally fitting are adjectives such as enriching, exciting, rewarding, challenging, meaningful. This process of the good life is not, I am convinced, a life for the faint-fainthearted. It involves the stretching and growing of becoming more and more of one’s potentialities. It involves the courage to be. It means launching oneself fully into the stream of life. Yet the deeply exciting thing about human beings is that when the individual is inwardly free, he chooses as the good life this process of becoming.” ― Carl R. RogersOn Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy Humanism,  Inspirational life, Good life, Inwardly free, Growth
“The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I can change.” OBP Self-acceptance
“The degree to which I can create relationships, which facilitate the growth of others as separate persons, is a measure of the growth I have achieved in myself.” OBP Create relationships, Measure for growth
  “When a person realizes he has been deeply heard, his eyes moisten. I think in some real sense he is weeping for joy. It is as though he were saying, “Thank God, somebody heard me. Someone knows what it’s like to be me” Communication
“In my early professional years, I was asking the question: How can I treat, or cure, or change this person? Now I would phrase the question in this way: How can I provide a relationship which this person may use for his own personal growth?”  OBP Provide relationship, Personal growth.
I believe that the testing of the student’s achievements in order to see if he meets some criterion held by the teacher is directly contrary to the implications of therapy for significant learning. FTL Achievements, Believe, Contrary, Criterion, Directly, Implications, Learning, See, Significant, Student, Teacher, Testing, Therapy
7 Congruence
We have coined the term “congruence”... By this, we mean that the feelings the therapist is experiencing are available to him, available to his awareness, and he is able to live these feelings, be them, and able to communicate them if appropriate. No one fully achieves this condition, yet the more the therapist is able to listen acceptingly to what is going on within himself, and the more he is able to be the complexity of his feelings, without fear, the higher the degree of his congruence. (Page no: 61)  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON BY CARL ROGER Congruence, Awareness, Listen acceptingly, Without fear.
The more genuine and congruent the therapist in the relationship, the more probability there is that change in personality in the client will occur. (Page no: 62)  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON BY CARL ROGER Genuine, Change in client.
   I have used the term “congruence” to refer to this accurate matching of experience with awareness. It is when the therapist is fully and accurately aware of what he is experiencing at this moment in the relationship, that he is fully congruent. (Page no; 282)  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON BY CARL ROGER Experience of awareness,
Congruence is the term we have used to indicate an accurate matching of experiencing and awareness. It may ne still further extended to cover a matching of experience, awareness, and communication. (Page No: 339)  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON BY CARL ROGER Accurate awareness, Communication.
When there is incongruence between experience and awareness, it is usually spoken of as defensiveness or denial to awareness. When the incongruence is between awareness and communication it is usually thought of as falseness or deceit.(Page No:341) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON BY CARL ROGER Incongruence, Defensive or denial to awareness
8. Creativity
The best research organizations, in industry as well as in the academic world, have learned that creativity blossoms in an atmosphere of freedom. FTL (Page No-163) Blossoming or creativity, Atmosphere of freedom.
The person who is genuinely curious, with a childlike desire to find out about his field, about others areas of knowledge, about practical affairs, mechanical devices, new approaches to learning, about all of the universe which surrounds him-is also, I believe, the person most likely to become creative. FTL  (Page no: 192-193) Genuinely curious, Creative person.
9. Education
‘The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities that exist in the personal relationship between facilitator and learner’ (1990: 305). Freedom to Learn (1969) Attitudinal  qualities, Relationship.
The only man who educated is the man who has learned how to learn; the man who has learned how to adapt and change; the man who has realized that no knowledge is secure, that only the process of seeking knowledge gives a basis for security, Changingness, a reliance on process rather than upon static knowledge, is the only things that makes any sense as a goal for education in the modern world.       (Page No: 104)   BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers Learn how to learn, Changingness,
Facilitation of learning as the aim of Education, the way in which we might develop the learning man, the way in which we can learn to live as individuals in process. I see the facilitation of learning as the function which may hold constructive, tentative, changing, process answers to some of the deepest perplexities which beset man today.   (Page No: 105) BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers Facilitation of learning, Function of constructive.
The aim of education must be to develop individuals who are open to change. Only such a person’s can constructively meet the perplexities of a world in which problems spawn much faster than their answers. The goal of education must be to develop a society in which people can live more comfortably with change than rigidity.     (Page No: 304)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers Develop individuals, Solutions to perplexities.
In the coming world, the capacity to face the new appropriately is more important than the ability to know and repeat the old.  (Page No: 304)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers Capacity, Ability.
      Educators themselves must be open and flexible, effectively involved in the processes of change. They must be able both to conserve and convey the essential knowledge and values of the past and to welcome eagerly the innovations which are necessary to prepare for the unknown futures.                                                                                                    (Page No: 304)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers Open and flexible educators, Welcome innovations, Unknown future.
        A way must be found to develop, within the educational system as a whole, and in each component, a climate conducive to personal growth, a climate in which innovation is not frightening, in which the creative capacities of administrators, teachers, and students are nourished and expressed rather than stifled.                                                           (Page No: 304)   BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers Conducive personal growth, Creative capacities, Student nourished.
      A way must be found to develop a climate in the system in which the focus is not upon teaching, but on the facilitations of self-directed learning. Only thus we can develop the creative individual who is open to all of his experience; aware of it and accepting it, and continually in the process of changing. (And only this way we bring about the creative educational organization, which will also be continually in the process of changing.)  (Page No: 304)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN BY Carl Rogers Teaching focussed system, Creative individual, Process of change.
We possess a very considerable knowledge of the conditions which encourage self-initiated, significant, experiential, “gut-level” learning by the whole person. We do not frequently see these conditions put into effect because they mean a real revolution in our approach to education and revolutions are not for the timid.             (Page No: 105)    Book Freedom To Learn By Carl Rogers Knowledge of conditions, Revolution in approach.
Such learning involves the mind only. It is learning which takes place from the neck up. It does not involve feelings or personal meanings; it has no relevance for the whole person. (Rogers, 1969, pp. 3-4)   BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN
10 Empathy
“The third facilitative aspect of the relationship is empathic understanding. This means that the therapist senses accurately the feelings and personal meanings that the client is experiencing and communicates this understanding to the client. When functioning best, the therapist is so much inside the private world of the other that he or she can clarify not only the meanings of which the client is aware but even those just below the level of awareness. This kind of sensitive, active listening is exceedingly rare in our lives. We think we listen, but very rarely do we listen with real understanding, true empathy. Yet listening, of this very special kind, is one of the most potent forces for change that I know.” AWB (p 116) Empathic understanding, Clarify personal meanings, Sensitive.
“Every now and again, with me in a tangle of thought and feeling, screwed up in a web of mutually divergent lines of movement, with impulses from different parts of me, and me feeling the feeling of its being all too much and suchlike—then whomp, just like a sunbeam thrusting its way through cloudbanks and tangles of foliage to spread a circle of light on a tangle of forest paths, came some comment from you. [It was] clarity, even disentanglement, an additional twist to the picture, a putting in place. Then the consequence—the sense of moving on, the relaxation. These were sunbeams.” That such penetrating empathy is important for therapy is indicated by Fiedler’s research (3) in which items such as the following placed high in the description of relationships created by experienced therapists: The therapist is well able to understand the patient’s feelings....” AWB (p226) Tangle of thoughts, Relaxation, Understand.
“The state of empathy, or being empathic, is to perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy and with the emotional components and meanings which pertain thereto as if one were the person, but without ever losing the “as if” condition. This it means to sense the hurt or the pleasure of another as he senses it and to perceive the causes thereof as he perceives them, but without ever losing the recognition that it is as if I were hurt or pleased and so forth. If this “as if” quality is lost, then the state is one of identification. “ AWB (p 140) Empathy, Emotional component, Recognition.
When there is a sensitive empathy, however, the reaction in the learner follows something of this pattern,” At last someone understands how it feels and seems to me without wanting to analyze me or judge me. Now I can blossom and grow and learn.” FTL (p126-127) Sensitive empathy, No analysis, No judging.
5.2.2 Explanation of the terms 5.2.2.1  Client-Centered Therapy Client-Centered Therapy, which is otherwise called individual focused, non-order, or Rogerian treatment, is a directing methodology that requires the client to play a dynamic part in his or her treatment with the specialist being nondirective and strong. In client focused treatment, the client decides the course and heading of treatment, while the specialist clears up the client’s reactions to advance self-comprehension. The objectives of client focused treatment are expanded self-regard and openness to encounter. Client focused advisors work to help clients lead full existences of self-comprehension and decrease protectiveness, blame, and frailty. And additionally have more positive and agreeable associations with others, and an expanded ability to experience and express their sentiments. Client-Centered Therapy varies from different types of treatment since client focused treatment does not concentrate on remedial strategies. What’s most vital in client focused treatment is the nature of the relationship between the specialist and the client. Client focused treatment was not expected for a particular age gathering or subpopulation, yet has been utilized to treat a wide scope of individuals. It has been connected for use with individuals experiencing dejection, tension, liquor issue, subjective brokenness, schizophrenia, and identity issue. 5.2.2.2 Congruence A man’s optimal self may not be predictable with what really happens in life and encounters of the individual. Thus, a distinction may exist between a man’s optimal self and genuine experience. This is called incongruence. Where a man’s optimal self and real experience are steady or fundamentally the same as a condition of consistency exists. Once in a while, if at any point, does an aggregate condition of compatibility exist; all individuals encounter a specific measure of incongruence. Fig 5.1 Compatibility Circles Illustrating Self Actualization The improvement of harmoniousness is subject to unlimited positive respect. Carl Rogers trusted that for a man to accomplish self-realization they should be in a condition of harmoniousness. As indicated by Rogers, we need to feel, encounter and carry on in ways which are reliable with our mental self-portrait and which reflect what we might want to resemble our optimal self. The nearer our mental self-view and perfect self are to each other, the more predictable or harmonious we are and the higher our feeling of self-esteem. A man is said to be in a condition of incongruence on the off chance that a portion of the totality of their experience is inadmissible to them and is denied or contorted in the mental self-portrait. Incongruence is “an error between the genuine experience of the person and the self-photo of the individual seeing that it speaks to that experience. As we want to see ourselves in ways that are steady with our mental self-portrait, we may utilize safeguard systems like disavowal or restraint keeping in mind the end goal to feel less undermined by some of what we consider to be our undesirable emotions. A man whose self-idea is incongruent with her or his genuine sentiments and encounters will safeguard in light of the fact that reality harms. 5.2.2.3 Creativity I maintain that there is a desperate social need for the creative behaviour of creative people. ~ Carl Rogers (1954). Carl Rogers, a standout amongst the most persuasive of twentieth century clinicians, contended that there is an ‘edgy social requirement for the imaginative conduct of innovative people’. He thought the pace of progress is presently so quick that we should adjust innovatively to survive. His key focuses were: • Novelty originates from the novel characteristics of the person
• Creativity originates from our inclination to establish ourselves, to end up our possibilities.
• This imaginative potential is found in everyone except is frequently ‘profoundly covered under layer after layer of encrusted mental guards.’
The inward states of inventiveness There are three inward conditions that must be met for helpful imagination to come about. A. Openness to Experience See actually, genuinely and specifically, instead of acknowledging tradition or the originations of others. This is much harder to accomplish than it sounds and is the inverse of mental protectiveness. Be adaptable, self-trusting, and unhurried:
• Don’t think and see in classes ‘trees are green’ ‘school instruction is great’. Know. Consider things to be they truly are. Think and see for yourself.
• Think and see in a free and liquid way instead of in an unbending and limited way.
• Tolerate uncertainty where equivocalness exists
• Don’t compel conclusion (i.e. try not to hurry to an answer, or make your brain up too early)
B. Internal Locus of Evaluation This is the most basic state of inventiveness: you should have the capacity to believe your own particular judgment and taste, to assess things, including your own particular work, from your own qualities and perspective. This is difficult to do. Tutoring and socialization shows us that there are specialists to let us know what is great or terrible and we ought to hear them out. • Recognise your own particular likings and disliking • Ask: ‘Have I made something to fulfil me’?
• Do not surmise that since you have made something nobody has ever done some time recently, that you are silly, wrong, lost, or anomalous! (Van Gogh just sold one picture in his lifetime, and that was to his sibling.)
C. The capacity to toy with components and ideas The capacity to play suddenly with thoughts, hues, shapes, connections and so forth. The slant to investigate unreservedly. At the point when the above inward conditions (A, B, and C) happen, valuable innovativeness will happen. These conditions can’t be constrained; they have to develop in a steady domain. The External Conditions for Creativity By what method can instructors make the environment that will cultivate the imagination of their learners? Rogers composed that two components are vital: Psychological Safety Accept the individual as of unconditional worth. This will create a climate of safety, so the learner can discover his or her own ideas and approach. Psychological Freedom Authorize the individual complete opportunity of typical expression. They will be unable to do what they like, yet they can think or express what they like, so “typical” expression is constantly honest to goodness. This tolerance is not a delicate quality or liberality or consolation. It is consent to be free, which likewise implies one is mindful.   5.2.2.4 Education The strength of Rogers’ approach lies in part in his focus on relationship. As he once wrote, ‘The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities that exist in the personal relationship between facilitator and learner’ (1990: 305). Freedom to Learn (1969; 1983; 1993) is a classic statement of educational possibility in this respect. However, he had already begun to explore the notion of ‘student-Centered teaching’ in Client-Centered Therapy (1951: 384-429). There, as Barrett-Lennard (1998: 184) notes, he offered several hypothesized general principles. These included: We cannot teach another person directly; we can only facilitate his learning. The structure and organization of the self-appear to become more rigid under threat; to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat… The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which 1) threat to the self of the learner is reduced a minimum, and 2) differentiated perception of the field of experience is facilitated. In this, we can see something of Rogers’ debt to Dewey – but something else had been added in his particular concern with experience and selfhood. First, there is an interest in looking at the particular issues, questions and problems that participants bring (this is not a strongly curriculum-based orientation and has some parallels with the subsequent interest in self-direction in learning). Second, he draws on insights from more psychodynamic traditions of thinking (as did educators such as A. S. Neill and Homer Lane). Freedom to Learn brought together a number of existing papers, along with new material – including a fascinating account of ‘My way of facilitating a class’. Significantly, this exploration brings out the significant degree of preparation that Rogers involved himself in (including setting out aims, reading, workshop structure etc.) (Barrett-Lennard 1998: 186). Carl Rogers was a gifted teacher. His methodology developed from his introduction in balanced proficient experiences. He considered himself to be a facilitator – one who made the earth for engagement. This he may do through making a short (regularly provocative, info). Be that as it may, what he was likewise to underscore was the state of mind of the facilitator. There were ‘methods for being’ with others that cultivate investigation and experience – and these are more noteworthy than the strategies utilized. His paper ‘The interpersonal relationship in the assistance of learning’ is an essential explanation of this introduction (incorporated into Kirschenbaum and Henderson’s [1990] gathering and in Freedom to Learn). The peril in this is, obviously, of thinking less of the commitment of ‘educating’. There is a part for data transmission. Here Carl Rogers could be accused of distorting or neglecting, his own significant capacities as an instructor. His obvious accentuation on help and non-directiveness needs to put close by the master like status that he was concurred in instructing experiences. What shows up on the page as an inquiry or a welcome to investigate something can be experienced as the giving of knowledge by members in his classes. 5.2.2.5 Empathy Empathy has been depicted in various courses: strolling in another’s shoes, going into someone else’s casing of reference or being able to experience life as the other individual does by entering the individual’s universe of contemplations, sentiments, feelings and implications. In advising, empathy is an outflow of the respect and regard the advisor holds for the client whose encounters, possibly very unique in relation to that of the instructor. The client needs to feel “held”, comprehended and regarded. To hold a client remedially implies the advocate is proficient to acknowledge and bolster the client through any issues, concerns, issues she/he can bring. The capacity to understand another is improved by a ready mindfulness to outward appearances, non-verbal communication, signals, instinct, quiets et cetera. Sensitivity then again is not compassion. Sensitivity is feeling frustrated about somebody. It is to make distress in oneself because of the apparent feeling of another.
5.2.2.6 Educational implications of these theories (Client Centered Therapy, Congruence, Creativity, Education, Empathy)
Learning is regularly exhibited in this dualism of either student–Centered learning or teacher–Centered learning. In the truth of practice, the circumstance is less highly contrasting. A more helpful presentation of student–Centered learning is to see these terms as either end of a continuum, utilizing the three ideas routinely used to depict student–Centered learning (Fig. 5.2). Fig. 5.2 Student–Centered and teacher–Centered continuum Different ways to deal with educational programs plan likewise bolster the possibility of student decision and movement in learning, for instance, the systems–based approach, resource–based learning, and experiential/individual pertinence approach. A developing practice in course plan universally is the written work of learning results/goals concentrating on what the student will have the capacity to do, as opposed to on the substance being secured by the teacher (UCD Centre for Teaching and Learning 2005). This practice is a case of the move towards student–Centered learning in the educational programs and moves the accentuation on the learner rather than a scope model by the teacher. Carl Rogers re-emphasize the significance of this movement in accentuation. This is additionally reflected in definition, i.e. an accentuation on the procedure and skill, as opposed to content. Table 2 exhibits a few case of student–Centered learning results. Direct instruction approaches, as well as the design processes that support them, have been criticized for failing to reflect contemporary research and theory in teaching, learning, and technology. Learning systems are needed that encourage divergent reasoning, problem solving, and critical thinking. Student-centered learning environments have been touted as a means to support such processes. With the emergence of technology, many barriers to implementing innovative alternatives may be overcome. The purposes of this paper are to review and critically analyze research and theory related to technology-enhanced student-centered learning environments and to identify their foundations and assumptions. (Hannafin & Land, 1997) Table. 5.3 Learning Outcomes and Student–Centered Learning In analysing how you may take a gander at this by and by, it merits thinking how far up the continuum you can move inside the relevant boundaries in your educating circumstance. The next areas will exhibit a few thoughts for your practice to help you in making that movement. Table 5.4 Carl Rogers’ terminology used in his works: 10 to 15
Sr. No Central concepts of Rogers’ theories/ quotations from books Keywords
11 Evaluation Method  / Evaluation
Evaluation is always a threat, always creates a need for defensiveness, always means that some portion of experience must be denied to awareness. OBP Evaluation,
to live fully in each moment……. Existential living is to say that the self and personality emerge from experience, rather than experience being translated or twisted to fit preconceived self-structure. It means that one becomes a participant in and an observer of the ongoing process of organismic experience, rather than being in control of it… such living in the moment means an absence of rigidity, of tight organization, of the imposition of structure on experience. It means instead a maximum of adaptability, a discovery of structure in experience, a flowing, changing organization of self and personality…..it involves discovering the structure of experience in the process of living the experience. Most of us, on the other hand , bring a preformed structure and evaluation on our experience and never relinquish it, but cram and twist the experience to fit our preconceptions, annoyed at the fluid qualities which make it so unruly in fitting our carefully constructed pigeonholes…OBP (p188-189) Existential living, Experience, Adaptability,
1. Freedoms from tests in the sense that they may learn to rise above the tests (but that the test may be difficult, the grade curve rigorous, etc. or) 2. Freedom in the sense that they can avoid the test-our impression has been that most often students have chosen the first types of freedom. FTL (p 43-44) Freedom from tests,
12 Experience / Experiencing
No other person’s ideas, and none of my own ideas are as authoritative as my experience. It is to experience that I must return again and again, to discover a closer approximation to truth as it is in the process of becoming in me.  (Page no: 24) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Experience, Discover, Approximation and Truth.
Neither the bible nor the prophets- neither Freud nor research--- neither the revelations of God nor man--- can take precedence over my own direct experience. (Page no: 24) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Experience is better.
“To be that self which one truly is” (it implied that the individual moves toward living in an open, friendly, close relationship to his own experience. (Page no: 173) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Close relationship to experience.
The good life, from the point of view of my experience, is the process of movement in a direction which the human organism selects when it is inwardly free to move in any direction, and the general qualities of this selected direction appear to have certain universality. (Page no: 187) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Good life, Freedom of direction.
The real self is something which is comfortably discovered in one’s experiences, not something imposed upon it. OBP (Page no: 114) Real self, Not imposition
13 Facilitator / Facilitator of Learning
The teacher is attempting to develop a quality of climate in the classroom, and a quality of personal relationship with his students, which will permit these natural tendencies to come to their fruition.    (Page No: 115) Book Freedom To Learn Quality classroom, Natural tendencies.
Martin Buber, who says the good teacher “…must be a really existing man and he must be really present to his pupils; he educates through contact. Contact is the primary word of education”.  (Page No: 101)  BOOK Freedom To Learn Present to pupils, Educate through contact.
In such an educational community, students could find an excitement in intellectual and emotional discovery which would lead them to become lifelong learners. (Page No: 202-203) BOOK A WAY OF BEING Emotional discovery, Lifelong learners.
One important element which keeps people locked in their loneliness is the conviction that their real self-the inner self, the self that is hidden from others….. (Page No: 226)  BOOK A WAY OF BEING Loneliness, Hidden self.
The facilitator provides a psychological climate in which the learner is able to take responsible control. The facilitator also helps to de-emphasize static or content goals, and thus encourages a focus on the process, on experiencing the way in which learning takes place. (Page No: 302) BOOK A WAY OF BEING Facilitate psychological climate. Encourage focus.
The more the psychological climate of the classroom is person-cantered, the more are vital and creative learning fostered. (Page No: 310) BOOK A WAY OF BEING Vital creativeness, Learning fostered.
14 Free Will
“I believe it will have become evident why, for me, adjectives such as happy, contented, blissful, enjoyable, do not seem quite appropriate to any general description of this process I have called the good life, even though the person in this process would experience each one of these at the appropriate times. But adjectives which seem more generally fitting are adjectives such as enriching, exciting, rewarding, challenging, meaningful. This process of the good life is not, I am convinced, a life for the faint-fainthearted. It involves the stretching and growing of becoming more and more of one’s potentialities. It involves the courage to be. It means launching oneself fully into the stream of life. Yet the deeply exciting thing about human beings is that when the individual is inwardly free, he chooses as the good life this process of becoming.” ― Carl R. RogersOn Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy Blissful, Enjoyable, Enriching, Growing potentialities.
“the more I can keep a relationship free of judgment and evaluation, the more this will permit the other person to reach the point where he recognizes that the locus of evaluation, the center of responsibility, lies within himself.” ― Carl R. RogersOn Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy Life free of judgements, Himself at centre.
“I am less and less a person of influences in myself which operate beyond my ken in the realms of the unconscious. I am increasingly an architect of self. I am free to will and choose. I can, through accepting my individuality, my ‘isness,’ become more of my uniqueness, more of my potentiality.” ― Carl R. RogersPerson to Person: The Problem of Being Human Less influenced, Architect of self, Accepting own individuality.
15 Freedom
# Psychological freedom: when a teacher, parent, therapist or other facilitating person permits the individuals a complete freedom of symbolic expression, creativity is fostered. This permissiveness gives the individuals complete freedom to think, to feel, to be, whatever is most inward within himself. It fosters the openness, and the playful and spontaneous juggling of percepts, concepts, and meanings, which is a part of creativity. (page no:358) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Freedom of expression, Freedom to think, Spontaneous perceptions.
# The person who is free within himself, who is open to his experience, who has a sense of his own freedom and responsible choice, is not nearly so likely to be controlled by his environment as is the person who lacks these qualities.       (Page No-270) BOOK FREDOM TO LEARN Free from within, Freedom and responsible choice
  # Friedman in his book (1963, p.251) makes his topic “the problematic of modern man –the alienation, the divided nature, the unresolved tension between personal freedom and psychological compulsion which follow on the ‘the death of God.’ (Page No: 259- 260) BOOK FREDOM TO LEARN Alienation, Personal freedom, Psychological compulsion
   #   Man is not free, nor can he as a free man commit himself to some purpose since he is controlled by factors outside himself.   (Page No: 260) BOOK FREDOM TO LEARN Not free, Controlled by factors outside himself.
  # To give self-directed and freedom to children can clearly be a complete failure if it is simply a new “method”. Commitment and conviction are essential.                                                                                                                         (Page No-23)  BOOK FREDOM TO LEARN Self-directed freedom, Commitment and conviction.
# That everything can be taken from man but one thing; the last of the human freedoms-to choose one’s own attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way.” (page No:269) BOOK FREDOM TO LEARN Freedom to choose, Attitude.
5.2.3  Explanation of Terms 5.2.3.1 Evaluation/Evaluation Method As per Rogers, realizing which is debilitating to the self (e.g., new mentalities or viewpoints) are all the more effortlessly acclimatized when outer dangers are at the very least. One needs to learn things to have the capacity to assess anything. Self-started learning measures that appear to be significant to the individual premiums, regularly are enduring and pervasive. Self-assessment is a primary technique for surveying advancement or achievement. Rogers’ learning hypothesis applies fundamentally to grown-up learners and has affected different speculations of grown-up learning. There are different techniques than this subjective one, which may miss the mark from multiple points of view in connection to challenges and what is in question - however, “many are necessary and subjective estimation can seldom be done completely away with”. Evaluation Method:    (Rogers C. R., Freedom to Learn, 1969, pp. 43-44) The alternatives- Freedoms from tests in the sense that they may learn to rise above the tests (but that the test may be difficult, the grade curve rigorous, etc. or) Freedom in the sense that they can avoid the test-our impression has been that most often students have chosen the first types of freedom. The general setting in which evaluation takes place in this course is the following:
  1. Evaluation reflects as accurately as possible the instructor’s honest opinion. It does not indicate the absolute worth of the student’s work.
  2. An evaluation is made of the work, not the student as a person. A negative evaluation of work does not indicate that the student id bad, lazy, incompetent, stupid. It does not indicate the instructor’s like or dislike of the student.
  3. A student is not free from evaluation to the extent that the instructor withholds evaluation. He is free from it to the extent that he can accept himself as a person. He can listen to the evaluation. He can reject or accept its worth and rise above it.
  4. The student does not need evaluation to be motivated. That is, he does not work for grades. He works toward the best realization of himself.
The instructor does not feel a mission to grade everyone. His main function is to create an atmosphere in which students and instructors are free to make new discoveries about self and human behaviour. On the other hand, he respects the student’s maturity and ability to be free and not unduly influenced by his evaluation, therefore, he is not constrained to withhold evaluation. He doesn’t need to ‘pussyfoot’ about it. 5.2.3.2 Experience/ Experiencing Psychological maladjustment exists when the living being precludes mindfulness from securing noteworthy tangible and instinctive encounters, which thusly are not symbolized and composed into the gestalt of the self-structure. When this circumstance exists, there is an essential or a potential mental strain. Any experience which is conflicting with the association of the structure of the self might be seen as a danger, and the greater amount of these observations there are, the all the more unbendingly the self-structure is sorted out to look after itself. Under certain conditions, including essentially finish nonappearance of danger to the self-structure, encounters which are conflicting with it might be seen and analysed, and the structure of self-reconsidered to acclimatize and incorporate such encounters. At the point when the individual sees and acknowledges into one predictable and coordinated framework all her tangible and instinctive encounters, then she is essentially additionally comprehension of others and is all the more tolerating of others as particular people. As the individual sees and acknowledges into his self-structure a greater amount of his natural encounters, he finds that he is supplanting his present worth framework - construct widely in light of introjections which have been distortedly symbolized - with a proceeding with organismic esteeming process. 5.2.3.3 Facilitator/ Facilitator of Learning Rogers’ hypothesis hence sees the instructor as the key part during the time spent adapting, yet not as a mobile course book transmitting its substance, but rather as the facilitator of learning. The assistance here happens through the instructor’s states of mind in his own association with the clients. Rogers proposes three attitudinal qualities essential for facilitating practice (both in guiding and instruction). These purported centre conditions are): Realness: “It implies that he [the teacher] is acting naturally, not denying himself.”) The instructor must be a genuine individual mindful of his sentiments and ready to convey them suitably, regardless of how precisely does he feel. He ought not to be only a part in the play of training,” “a faceless epitome of a curricular prerequisite or a sterile tube through which information is gone from one era to the next.”) Prizing, acknowledgment, trust: This alludes to instructor’s thinking about the client and his acknowledgment of client’s emotions (one that bolster learning and in addition ones irritating it). It is the trust and prizing of his ability and capacities as a person. Compassion: Compassion means having the capacity to stroll in others shoes. This implies an educator can comprehend client’s point of view on the procedure on taking in and his responses from within. The intonation here is on comprehend, not pass judgment on or assess. Facilitation:   (Rogers C. R., Freedom to Learn, 1969, pp. 164-166)
  • The facilitator has much to do with setting the initial mood or climate of the group or class experience.
  • The facilitator helps to elicit and clarify the purposes of the individuals in the class as well as the more general purposes of the group.
  • He relies upon the desire of each student to implement those purposes which have meaning for him, as the motivational force behind significant learning.
  • He endeavours to organize and make easily available the widest possible range of resources for learning.
  • He regards himself as a flexible resource to be utilized by the group.
  • In responding to expressions in the classroom group, he accepts both the intellectual content and the emotionalized attitudes, endeavouring to give each aspect the approximate degree of emphasis which it has for the individual or the group.
  • He takes the initiative in sharing himself with the group his feeling as well as his thoughts-in ways which do not demand nor impose, but represent simply a personal sharing which students may take or leave.
  • Throughout the classroom experience, he remains alert to the expressions indicative of deep or strong feelings.
5.2.3.4 Free will While Rogers sees the common human condition as one of incongruence between self and experience, this does not minimize his ultimate belief in the autonomy of human beings. Rogers (1977, p15) sees the human being as: “capable of evaluating the outer and inner situation, understanding herself in its context, making constructive choices as to the next steps in life, and acting on those choices”. This illustrates a belief in agency and free will. While humans behave rationally, Rogers (1961, p.195) maintains that: “The tragedy for most of us is that our defences keep us from being aware of this rationality so that we are consciously moving in one direction, while organismically we are moving in another.” Unlike Freud, Rogers did not see conflict as inevitable and humans as basically destructive. It is only when “man is less than fully man”, not functioning freely, that he is to be feared (1961, p.105). The human capacity for awareness and the ability to symbolize gives us enormous power, but this awareness is a double-edged phenomenon: undistorted awareness can lead to full functioning and a rich life, while distortions in awareness lead to maladjustment and a multitude of destructive behaviors (Rogers, 1965). 5.2.3.5 Freedom (to learn) As an example of significant learning—the kind that illustrates his theory of freedom to learn—Rogers cited the informal notes kept by Barbara J. Shiel, a teacher, who out of despair and frustration decided to try a drastic experiment in promoting experiential learning in her sixth grade class. In the experiment, Mrs. Shiel introduced the concept of work contracts. These were ditto sheets that contained a list of all of the subjects the class was to study, along with a list of suggestions for study under each, and a space for students to write their plans in each area: As soon as the contract was made, the child began to study or work on his plan. He could work as long as he needed or wanted to work on a task or project. Because I was not free to discard the state-devised curriculum time schedule, I explained the weekly time-subject blocks to the children—this was to be a consideration in their planning. We also discussed sequential learning, especially in math, mastering a skill before proceeding to the next level of learning. They discovered the text provided an introduction to a skill, demonstrated the skill, and provided exercises to master it and tests to check achievement. When they felt they were ready to go on, they were free to do so. They set their own pace, began at their own level, and went as far as they were able or self-motivated to go. (Rogers, 1969, pp. 17-18) Since the evaluation was self-initiated and respected by the teacher, there was no need for cheating to achieve success. We discovered that “failure” is only a word, that there is a difference between “failure” and making a mistake, and that mistakes are a part of the learning process. (Rogers, 1969, p. 18) One cannot measure the difference in attitude, the increased interest, the growing pride in self-improvement, but one is aware that they exist. (Rogers, 1969, p. 19) 5.2.3.6 Educational implications of these theories: (Evaluation Method / Evaluation, Experience / Experiencing, Facilitator / Facilitator of Learning, Free will, Freedom) The Significance for Education: (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980, pp. 202-203)  what education might be like if we utilize the knowledge we have today.
  • It could build a climate of trust in which curiosity, the natural desire to learn, could be nourished and enhanced.
  • It could free students, faculty, and administrators alike to engage in a participatory mode of decision making about all aspects of learning.
  • It could develop a sense of community in which the destructive competition of today would be replaced by cooperation, respect for others, and mutual helpfulness.
  • It could be a place where students would come to prize themselves, would develop self-confidence and self-esteem.
  • It could be a situation in which both students and faculty would increasingly discover the source of values in themselves, coming to an awareness that the good life is within, not dependent on outside sources.
Characterize a facilitator of learning: (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980, pp. 270-273) Realness in the Facilitator of Learning: Perhaps the most basic of these essential attitudes is realness or genuineness. When the facilitator is a real person, being what he or she is, entering into relationships with the learners without presenting a front or a façade, the facilitator is much more likely to be effective. This means that the feelings that the facilitator is experiencing are available to his or her awareness, that he or she is able to live these feelings, to be them, and able to communicate them if appropriate. It means that the facilitator comes into a direct, personal encounter with the learners, meeting each of them on a person-to-person basis. It means that the facilitator is being, not denying himself or herself. The facilitator is present with the students. Prizing, Acceptance, Trust: There is another attitude that stands out in those who are successful in facilitating learning. I have observed this attitude; I have experienced it. Yet, it is hard to know what term to put into it, so I shall use several. I think of this attitude as a prizing of each learner, a prizing of his or her feelings, opinions, and person. It is a caring for the learner, but a non-possessive caring. It is an acceptance of this other individual as a separate person, a respect for the other as having worth in his or her own right. It is a basic trust---a belief that this other person is somehow fundamentally trustworthy. Whether we call it ‘prizing,’ ‘acceptance’, ‘trust’, or some other term, it shows up in a variety of observable ways. The facilitator who has a considerable degree of this attitude can be fully acceptant of the fear and hesitation of the students as they approach new problems as well as acceptant of the pupils’ satisfaction in achievement. Such a teacher can accept the students’ occasional apathy, their erratic desires to explore by roads of knowledge, as well as their disciplined efforts to achieve major goals. He or she can accept personal feelings that both disturb and promote learning--- rivalry with a sibling, hatred of authority, concern about personal adequacy. What I am describing is a prizing of the learners as imperfect human beings with many feelings, many potentialities. The facilitator’s prizing, or acceptance of the learners is an operational expression of his or her essential confidence and trust in the capacity of the human organism.     Empathic Understanding: A further element that established a climate for self-initiated, experiential learning is empathic understanding. When the teacher has the ability to understand each student’s reaction from the inside, has s sensitive awareness of how the process of education and learning seems to the student, then, again, the likelihood that significant learning will take place is increased. This kind of understanding is sharply different from the usual evaluative understanding, which follows the pattern of, “I understand what is wrong with you.” When there is a sensitive empathy, however, the reaction in the learner follows something of this pattern: “At last someone understands how it feels and seems to be me, without to analyse or judge me. Now I can blossom and grow and learn.” This attitude of standing in the students’ shoes, of viewing the world through their eyes, is almost unheard of in the classroom. But when the teacher responds in a way that makes the students feel understood—not judged or evaluated--- this has a tremendous impact. Perception of These Attitudes: There is still a further condition for learning from the whole person, which is especially important in education: the students must, to some extent, perceive that these attitudinal elements exist in the teacher. Students have been ‘conned’ for so long that a teacher who is real with them is usually seen for a time as simply exhibiting a new brand of phoniness. To have a teacher prize students in a non-judgmental way arouses the deepest disbelief. To have a teacher truly and warmly understand each student’s private world is so unbelievable that the students are certain they must not have heard correctly. Yet, the empathic response is probably the first element to get through, the first reaction that begins to convince the students that this is a new experience. Implication for Teacher Training (page No: 278-289) (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980, pp. 278-289) (We need a change, amounting almost to a revolution, in the training of our teachers. Unfortunately, most of teacher training institutions are highly traditional, stressing only cognitive learning and the methods by which it can be achieved.)  (Page No: 279) Aspy (1972) has shown that teachers can improve through in-service training. (Page No: 279) Another avenue would be to provide student teachers with ample opportunity for independent study. This would encourage teachers to rely no choice, rather than passivity, in their future teaching careers. (Page No: 279) When inner changes take place in the attitudes and self-concept of the person, then changes begin to show up in his or her interpersonal behavior. (Page No: 280) “Free university” type of teacher-training institution, in which the students would form their own curricula, participate in the facilitation of leaning, and find other means of evaluation than grades. (Page No: 283-284) The traditional Mode (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980, pp. 294-297) Its major characteristics as experienced by students and faculty: 
  1. The teachers are the possessors of knowledge, the students the expected recipients. The teachers are the experts; they know their fields. The students sit with poised pencil and notebook, waiting for the words of wisdom. There is a great difference in the status level between the instructors and the students.
  2. The lecture, or some means of verbal instruction, is the major means of getting knowledge into the recipients. The examination measures the extent to which the students have received it. These are the central elements of this kind of education.
  3. The teachers are the possessors of power, the students, and the ones who obey. (Administrators are also possessors of power, and both teachers and students are the ones who obey.) Control is always exercised downward.
  4. Rule by authority is the accepted policy in the classroom. New teachers are often advised, “Make sure you get control of your students on the very first day.” The authority figure—the instructor--- is very much the central figure in education. He or she may be greatly admired as a fountain of knowledge or may be despised, but the teacher is always the centre.
  5. Trust is at a minimum. Most notable is the teacher’s distrust of the students. The students cannot be expected to work satisfactorily without the teacher constantly supervising and checking on them. The students’ distrust of the teacher is more diffuse---- a lack of trust in the teacher’s motives, honesty, fairness, competence. There may be real rapport between an entertaining lecturer and those who are being entertained; there may be admiration for the instructor, but mutual trust is not a noticeable ingredient.
  6. The subjects (the students) are best governed by being kept in an intermittent or constant state of fear. Today there is not much physical punishment, but public criticism and ridicule and the students’ constant fear of failure are even more potent. In my experience, this state of fear appears to increase as we go up the educational ladder because the student has more to lose... Many graduate students have failed to receive their degrees because they have refused to obey or to conform to every wish of, their major professor. Their position is analogous to that of a slave, subject to the life-and-death power of the master.
  7. Democracy and its values are ignored and scorned in practice. Students do not participate in choosing their individual goals, curricula, or manner or working. They are chosen for them. Students have neither part in the choice of teaching personnel nor any voice in educational policy. Likewise, the teachers often have no choice in choosing their administrative officers. Teachers, too, often have no participation in forming educational policy. All this is a striking contrast to all the teaching about the virtues of democracy, the importance of the “free world,” and the like. The political parties of the school are in the most striking contrast to what is taught. While being taught that freedom and responsibility are the glorious features of “our democracy,” the students are experiencing themselves as powerless, as having little freedom, and as having almost no opportunity to exercise choice or carry responsibility.
  8. There is no place for whole persons in the educational system, only for their intellects.
The Fundamentals of a Person-Centered Learning: (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980, pp. 294-297)
  1. Precondition. The leaders, or persons who are perceived as authority figures in the situation, are sufficiently secure within themselves and in their relationship to others that they experience an essential trust in the capacity of others to think for themselves, to learn for themselves. If this precondition exists, then the following aspects become possible and tend to be implemented.
  2. The facilitative persons share with the others--- students, and possibly also parents or community members--- the responsibility for the learning process. Curricular planning, the mode of administration and operation, the funding, and the policy-making are all the responsibility of the particular group involved. Thus, a class may be responsible for its own curriculum, but the total group may be responsible for overall policy. In any case, the responsibility is shared.
  3. The facilitators provide learning resources--- from within themselves and their own experience, from books or other materials, or from community experiences. The learned are encouraged to add resources of which they have experience. The facilitator opens doors to resources outside the experience of the group.
  4. The students develop their own programs of learning, individually or in cooperation with others, exploring their own interests, facing this wealth of resources, they each make choices as to their own learning directions, and they carry the responsibility for the consequences of those choices.
  5. A facilitative learning climate is provided. In meeting of the class or of the school as a whole, an atmosphere of realness, of caring, and of understanding listening is evident. This climate may spring initially from the person who is perceived leader. As the learning process continues, it is more and more often provided by the learners for one another. Learning from one another becomes as important as leaning from books or films or community experiences.
  6. The focus of the leaning canter is primarily on fostering the continuing process of leaning. The content of learning, while significant, falls into a secondary place. Thus a course is successfully ended not when the students have “learned all they need to know,” but when they have made significant progress in learning how to learn what they want to know.
  7. The discipline necessary to reach the students’ goals is self-discipline and is recognized and accepted by the learners as being their individual responsibilities. Self-discipline replaces external discipline.
  8. The evaluation of the extent and significance of each students learning is made primarily by the learner himself or herself, although the self-evaluation may be influenced and enriched by caring feedback from other members of the group and from the facilitator.
In this growth- promoting climate, the learning tends to be deeper, proceeds at a more rapid rate, and is more pervasive in the life and behaviour of the students than learning acquired in the traditional classroom. This comes about because the direction of self chosen, the learning is self-initiated, and whole persons, with feelings and passions as well as intellect, are invested in the process.  (Rogers C. R., A Way of Being, 1980, pp. 299-301) Table 5.5 Carl Rogers’ terminology used in his works: 16 to 21
Sr. No Central concepts of Rogers’ theories/ quotations from books Keywords
16 Fully Functioning person
The process of functioning more fully: the person who is psychologically free moves in the direction of becoming a more fully functioning person. He is more able to live fully in and with each and all of his feelings and reactions. He makes increasing use of all his organic equipment to sense, as accurately as possible, the existential situation within and without. He makes use of all the information his nervous system can thus supply, using it in awareness, but recognizing that his total organism may be, and often is wiser than his awareness. He is more able to permit his total organism to function freely in all its complexity in selecting, from the multitude of possibilities, that behavior which in this moment of time will be most generally and genuinely satisfying. (Page no; 191) BOOK: ON BECOMING A PERSON Psychologically free person, Makes sense of things, Awareness, Free function, Multitude of possibilities.
The process of the fully functioning person is seen by Rogers as a challenge: “This process is not, I am convinced, a life for the faint-hearted. It involves the stretching and growing of becoming more and more of one’s potentialities. It involves the courage to be.” OBP Fully functioning person, Growing of one’s potentialities
17 Goals
The first such value dimension involves a preference for a responsible, moral, self-restrained participation in life, appreciating and conserving what man has attained. OBP (p 164-165) Participating in life, Conserving what is attained.
    The second places stress upon delight in vigorous action for the overcoming of obstacles. It involves a confident initiation of change, either in resolving personal and social problems or in overcoming obstacles in the natural world. Stresses upon delight, Overcoming of obstacles.
   The third dimension stresses the value of a self-sufficient inner life with a rich and heightened self-awareness. Control over persons and things is rejected in favor of a deep and sympathetic insight into self and others. Stresses on inner-life, Control over persons.
   The fourth underlying dimension values receptivity to persons and to nature. Inspiration is seen as coming from a source outside the self, and the person lives and develops in devoted responsiveness to this source. Values receptivity, Devoted responsiveness
    The fifth and final dimension stresses sensuous enjoyment, self-enjoyment. The simple pleasures of life, abandonment to the moment, a relaxed openness to life, are valued.  (Page No-164-166) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Sensuous enjoyment, Relaxed openness.
18 Good life Concept
The good life is a process, not a state of being. Good life as process and not a state of being
The direction which constitutes the good life is that which is selected by the total organism when there is psychological freedom to move in any direction. Total organism, Freedom to move
According to Carl Rogers-The good life, from the point of view of my experience, is the process of movement in a direction which the human organism selects when it is inwardly free to move in any direction, and the general qualities of this selected direction appear to a certain university. (Page-186-187) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Human organism, Inwardly free,
19 ‘Hearing’ in interpersonal communication
Interpersonal communication:
  1. I Like To Hear
  2. I Like To be Heard
  3. When I Can Not Hear
  4. When Others Do Not Understand
  5. I Want To Be Real
  6. Communicating The Realness In Me
  7. Encountering Realness In Others
  8. My Failure To Be Real
  9. Unleashing Freedom For Others
  10. Accepting And Giving Love
  11. I am More Able To Appreciate Others
I Value Interpersonal Communication And Relationships. Freedom to Learn (Page No-222-226)
‘Hearing’ is understanding. Hearing leads to appreciation.
20 Learning
One person can teach it to another, providing each has adequate motivation and ability. But in the significant learning which takes place in therapy, one person cannot teach another.   (page-204-205) Motivation, Ability.
The teaching would destroy the learning. (page-204-205)
The most that one person can do to further it in another, is to create certain condition which make learning possible. It cannot be compelled.  By Kierkegaard (page-204-205) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Conditional instruction/ teaching
By significant learning, I mean learning which is more  than an accumulation of facts. It is learning which makes a difference-in the individual’s behavior, in the course of action he chooses in the future, in his attitudes and in his personality. It is a pervasive learning which is not just an accretion of knowledge, but which interpenetrates with portion of his existence. (By Carl Rogers page no-280-281) More than accumulation of facts. Accretion of knowledge.
As Herbert Hoover says of high school students—”You simply cannot expect kids of those ages to determine the sort of education they need unless they have some guidance.”  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Guidance, Determination.
Max Lerner says --” All that a school can ever hope to do equip the student with tools which he can later use to become an educated man” (page no-293-294)  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Teaching, Educated man.
Learning which involves a change in self-organization in the perception of oneself-is threatening and tends to be resisted. Any learning which arises from dilemma is painful and threatening since the two beliefs cannot openly co-exist, and any learning which emerges from the contradiction involves a definite change in the structure of self.    (Page No: 159)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN Change in self-organization, Dilemma is an obstruction in learning,
Human beings have a natural potentiality for learning. Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the student as having relevance for his own purposes When an individual has a goal he wishes to achieve and he sees the material available to him as relevant to achieving that goal, learning takes place with great rapidity. (Page No: 158)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN
5.2.4  Explanation of Terms 5.2.4.1  Fully Functioning Person Ideal improvement, alluded to underneath in recommendation 14, results in a specific procedure as opposed to static state. Rogers depicts this as the great life, where the life form ceaselessly expects to satisfy its maximum capacity. He recorded the qualities of a completely working individual (Rogers 1961):
  • A growing openness to experience: – they move far from preventiveness and have no requirement for subception (a perceptual safeguard that includes unknowingly applying techniques to keep an alarming boost from entering cognizance).
  • An increasing existential lifestyle:  – living every minute completely – not misshaping the minute to fit identity or self-idea, however, permitting identity and self-idea to radiate from the experience. This outcomes in fervour, brave, versatility, resistance, suddenness and an absence of unbending nature and proposes an establishment of trust. “To open one’s soul to what is going on now, and find in that present procedure whatever structure it seems to have” (Rogers 1961)
  • Expanding organismic trust – they believe their own particular judgment and their capacity to pick conduct that is fitting for every minute. They don’t depend on existing codes and social standards, yet assume that as they are interested in encounters they will have the capacity to believe their own particular feeling of good and bad.
  • Freedom of choice– not being shackled by the limitations that impact an incongruent individual, they can settle on a more extensive scope of decisions all the more smoothly. They trust that they assume a part in deciding their own conduct thus feel in charge of their own conduct.
  • Creativity – it takes after that they will feel all the more liberated to be innovative. They will likewise be more imaginative in the way they adjust to their own circumstances without feeling a need to accommodate.
  • Reliability and constructiveness– they can be trusted to act valuably. A person who is interested in all their needs will have the capacity to keep up a harmony between them. Indeed, even forceful needs will be coordinated and adjusted by natural goodness in harmonious people.
  • A rich full life – he depicts the life of the completely working individual as rich, full and energizing and recommends that they encounter delight and agony, affection and tragedy, apprehension and fearlessness all the more seriously. Rogers’ depiction of the great life:
  1.                     Goals:
  • A major aspect of person-Centered therapy is the belief that the therapist should not chose the goals of the client, but instead help the client define and clarify their own goals. Goals should be expected to change as the client progresses through counselling. Goals, as suggested by Carl Rogers suggests to Create the conditions necessary for positive growth, Develop openness to new experiences, trust in themselves, internal source of evaluation, and willingness to continue growing. Increase the independence and integration of the client, Focus on the person, not the problem.
A major aspect of person-Centered therapy is the belief that the therapist should not chose the goals of the client, but instead help the client define and clarify their own goals. Goals should be expected to change as the client progresses through counselling. 5.2.4.3 Good life concept “When I look at the world I’m pessimistic, but when I look at people I am optimistic.” “The very essence of the creative is its novelty, and hence we have no standard by which to judge it” (Rogers, 1961, p. 351). A goal that most people seek to attain, the good life as described by Rogers is achieved by the person fulfilling certain principles. In his studies, Rogers found that there are commonalities among those people who are fully functional. These are: (Wilken, 2015)
  • An acceptance of all experiences including those that are new.
  • An existential lifestyle, in which each moment is appreciated and lived to its fullest.
  • A trust level with one’s own decisions.
  • Increasing freedom of choice
  • Creativity and adaptability without necessarily conforming.
  • Reliability and constructiveness in their dealings with others.
  • A preference for living a rich, full life.
  • These traits are fluid in their expression with the person being capable of self-actualizing them.
Carl Rogers accepts that people have their own particular inward assets to take a stab at great life course. Keeping in mind the end goal to develop, people need to comprehend and utilize their assets. Overcoming torment and deterrents profitably can fortify furthermore, even grow people’s inward assets. At the point when people know and value their inward power, they will be secure and turn out to be more confident. Carl’s perspective of actualisation was some individual turning into a completely working individual who carried on with the great life. This was described by a few variables, which incorporated the accompanying. They were interested in experience. They were interested in the truth of the inclination, perspectives and thoughts of both themselves and other individuals. They believed their own life form. They believed their sentiments, drives and encounters. This implied, whilst still particularly open to learning, they turned out to be all the more tolerating of themselves. They could live in the without a moment’s hesitation. They encountered ‘existential living’ and were completely present at the time. They coupled this with having the capacity to arrange and shape their future. They had an inside locus of control and assessment. They lived in a way that was consistent with their qualities and continued asking: “Am I living in a way which is deeply satisfying for me, and which truly expresses me?” They were willing to consider life to be a procedure – as opposed to as a destination. This implied valuing the experience of living, learning and adoring. Life is a procedure of “getting to be” and appreciating the excursion towards satisfaction. 5.2.4.4 Hearing’ in interpersonal communication When in doubt, Listen. That was Rogers’ guidance for the individuals why should willing investigate what it resembles to be someone else. He utilized the term empathic comprehension to depict the minding aptitude of incidentally dismissing our perspectives and values and of going into a different universe’s without preference. It is a dynamic procedure of looking to hear alternate’s considerations, emotions, tones, and implications as though they were our own. This engaged style of listening is depicted well in Leo Tolstoy (1941)‘s War and Peace: Natasha, leaning on her elbow, the expression on her face continually changing with the story, watched Pierre, never taking her eyes off of him, and seemed to be experiencing with him all that he described. Not only her look but her exclamations and the brief questions she put showed Pierre that she understood just what he wanted to convey. Empathic listening is non-judgmental: Rogers respected judgment, assessment, and evaluation as significant boundaries to interpersonal correspondence. Maintaining a strategic distance from the common inclination to affirm or object to what is heard is the absolute most troublesome undertaking confronted by the normal audience. Advocates must beat the additional propensity to translate or analyse. Rogers thought it was an exercise in futility to be suspicious or wonder, “What does he truly mean?” People get the most help when we expect they are sharing their reality as it truly appears to them and acknowledge what they need to say at face esteem. 5.2.4.5 Learning Rogers distinguished two types of learning: cognitive (meaningless) and experiential (significant). The previous relates to scholarly information, for example, learning vocabulary or augmentation tables and the last alludes to connected information, for example, finding out about motors with a specific end goal to repair an auto. The way to the refinement is that experiential learning addresses the necessities and needs of the learner. Rogers records these characteristics of experiential learning: individual contribution, self-started, assessed by the learner, and pervasive impacts on learner. To Rogers, experiential learning is proportionate to individual change and development. Rogers feels that every single person have a characteristic affinity to take in; the part of the instructor is to encourage such learning. (Culatta, Experiential Learning (Carl Rogers), 2015) To Rogers, experiential learning is equivalent to personal change and growth. Rogers feels that all human beings have a natural propensity to learn; the role of the teacher is to facilitate such learning. This includes: (1) setting a positive climate for learning, (2) clarifying the purposes of the learner(s), (3) organizing and making available learning resources, (4) balancing intellectual and emotional components of learning, and (5) sharing feelings and thoughts with learners but not dominating. According to Rogers, learning is facilitated when: (1) the student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction, (2) it is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems, and (3) self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success. Rogers< also emphasizes the importance of learning to learn and an openness to change.  
5.2.4.6 Educational implications of these theories (Fully Functioning person, Goals, Good Life concept, ‘Hearing’ in interpersonal communication, Learning)
The utilization of student–centred learning has all the earmarks of being reflective of today’s general public where decision and popular government are vital ideas, however, is it a powerful way to deal with learning? Checked on a few studies on student–centred learning and found that generally it was a compelling methodology. A six-year study in Helsinki, which thought about customary and enacting guideline, found that the actuating bunch grew better study aptitudes and seeing, however, were slower in their concentrate at first. Similarly, Hall and Saunders found that students had expanded interest, inspiration and grades in a first year data innovation course. Also, 94% of the students would prescribe it to others over the more customary methodology. Students in a UK University expounded on the effect of student–centred learning on them, i.e. they felt there was more regard for the student in this approach, it was additionally fascinating, energizing, and it supported their confidence Student–centred learning, in spite of its prevalence, is not without its commentators. The primary evaluate of student–centred learning is its emphasis on the individual learner. What’s more, there are a few difficulties in its usage, i.e. the assets expected to execute it, the conviction arrangement of the students and staff, and students’ absence of commonality with the term. Rogers’ portrays that student–centred learning, in the School framework, can be in peril of concentrating totally on the individual learner and considered to its great does not take the requirements of the entire class. Table 5.6 Carl Rogers’ terminology used in his works: 21 to 25
Sr. No Central concepts of Rogers’ theories/ quotations from books Keywords
21 Person / person Centered approach
The facilitator provides a psychological climate in which the learner is able to take responsible control. The facilitator also helps to de-emphasize static or content goals, and thus encourages a focus on the process, on experiencing the way in which learning takes place. (Page No: 302) BOOK A WAY OF BEING Psychological climate, Responsible control.
The more the psychological climate of the classroom is person-Centered, the more are vital and creative learning fostered. (Page No: 310) BOOK A WAY OF BEING Psychological conducive climate Creative learning foster.
22 Relationship
The teacher’s efforts were develop a relationship, an atmosphere, which was conducive to self-motivated, self-actualizing, significant learning. (Page No-292-293) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Develop relationship, Self-actualizing, Significant learning.
Once you come close to a person, perceive his thoughts, his emotions, his feelings, he becomes not only understandable but good and desirable. (Page No-305-306) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Perceive thoughts and emotions.
Learning as it takes place in therapy is a total, organismic, frequently non –verbal type of thing which may or may not follow the same principles as the intellectual learning of trivial material which has little relevance to the self. (Page no: 86) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Organismic learning, Intellectual learning, Relevance of self.
I have found that the more that I can be genuine in the relationship; the more helpful it will be... It is only by providing the genuine reality which is in me, that the other person can successfully seek for the reality in him.(page no:33-34) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Genuine in relationship, Reality.
23 Resources
Our task as facilitators of learning to tap that motivation, to discover what  challenges are real for the young  person, and to provide the opportunity for him to meet those challenges.      (Page No: 131) FROM BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN Facilitators of learning, Provide opportunity.
Instead of spending great blocks of time organizing lesson plans and lectures, he concentrates on providing all kinds of resources which will give his students experiential learning relevant to their needs. Providing resources, Experiential learning.
He also concentrates on making such resources clearly available by thing through and simplifying the practical and psychological steps which the students must go through in order to utilize the resources. Simplifying the practical, Utilize the resources
In speaking of resources, I am thinking not only of the usual academic resources—books, articles, work space, laboratory room and equipment, tools maps, films, recordings, and the like. I am also thinking of human resources- persons who might contribute to the knowledge of the student.    (Page No: 131) FROM BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN Academic resources, Contribute knowledge
Most important however in this respect is the teacher himself as a resource. He makes himself and his special knowledge and experience clearly available to the students, but he does not impose himself on them. Teacher himself as a resource, Availability of resources, No imposition.
24 Responsibility
Carl Rogers paraphrasing Douglas McGregor’s ideas, putting them in an educational context. FROM BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN The conventional view:        (Page No-206-207) FROM BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN
  • Administrator himself is responsible for organizing the available money, equipment, and people in such a way as to achieve the educational goal which he has in view.
  • This mean that Administrator must motivate and direct his faculty, and through them the student.
  • Administrator’s main function is to control the actions and to modify the behavior of all members of the school in such ways that the educational goal will be achieved.
Administrator as organizer, Control, Modify the behaviour.
A Modern View:        (Page No-207-209) FROM BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN This theory (theory-y) the educational administration is responsible for organizing the resources of the institution-the teachers, the students, the Funds, the equipment and materials in such a way that all of the persons involved can work together toward defining and achieving their own educational goals. Defining and achieving educational goals.
The main spring of the organization is the motivation for development and learning which is inherent in each person. The task of the administrator is to so arrange the organizational conditions and methods of operation that people can best achieve their own goals by also furthering the jointly defined goals of the institution. Motivation, Development of inherent learning by administrator.
25 Self
“The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I can change.”― Carl R. Rogers paradox, self-awareness, self-improvement
“I’m not perfect... But I’m enough.” Believe in one’s self.
“When the other person is hurting, confused, troubled, anxious, alienated, terrified; or when he or she is doubtful of self-worth, uncertain as to identity, then understanding is called for. The gentle and sensitive companionship of an empathic stance… provides illumination and healing. In such situations, deep understanding is, I believe, the most precious gift one can give to another.” From OBP Empathy, Help those who need it the most.
“It becomes easier for me to accept myself as a decidedly imperfect person, who by no means functions at all times in the way in which I would like to function. This must seem to some like a very strange direction in which to move. It seems to me to have value because the curious paradox is that when I accept myself as I am, then I change.”  Carl R. RogersOn Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy Accepting ‘self’ if one is imperfect person,
5.2.5  Explanation of the Terms 5.2.5.1 Person-Centered Approach The person-centered approach is based on the theory and philosophy of Carl Rogers. It is a non-directive approach to being with another; that believes in the others potential and ability to make the right choices for him or herself, regardless of the therapist’s own values, beliefs and ideas. A person centred process involves listening, thinking together, coaching, sharing ideas, and seeking feedback.  This process is ongoing to make sure each person is supported towards their personal goals, even as they evolve and change. The ultimate aim is to understand what each individual person wants and needs to live their own, personally defined, good life. Initially portrayed as non-order, this treatment moved far from the possibility that the advisor was the master and towards a hypothesis that believed the intrinsic inclination (known as the actualising propensity) of people to discover the satisfaction of their own possibilities. A critical piece of this hypothesis is that in a specific mental environment, the satisfaction of individual possibilities incorporates friendliness, they should be with other people and a yearning to know and be known by other individuals. It likewise incorporates being interested in experience, being trusting and reliable, being interested about the world, being imaginative and caring. The psychological environment portrayed by Rogers was one where a man felt free from risk, both physically and mentally. This environment could be accomplished while being involved with a man who was profoundly understanding (empathic), tolerating (having unlimited positive respect) and certified (compatible). Albeit at first created as a way to deal with psychotherapy (in the end getting to be known as customer/individual focused treatment/directing), Rogers and his partners came to trust that their thoughts could be exchanged to different territories where individuals were seeing someone. For instance, educating, administration, childcare, understanding, consideration, struggle determination. Today there are numerous individuals who, in spite of the fact that not functioning as psychotherapists and advisors, utilize the work of Rogers as managing standards in their everyday work and connections. A person centred process involves listening, thinking together, coaching, sharing ideas, and seeking feedback.  This process is ongoing to make sure each person is supported towards their personal goals, even as they evolve and change. The ultimate aim is to understand what each individual person wants and needs to live their own, personally defined, good life. At one level, Rogers’ hypothesis and work is extremely easy to depict. The same number of individuals would verify, both those utilizing the methodology and those functioning as individual specialists/advisors, it can be extremely hard to put into practice on the grounds that the methodology does not utilize procedures, but rather depends on the individual characteristics of the specialist/individual to construct a non-judgemental and empathic relationship. 5.2.5.2 Relationship Relationships are a big part of us all. That’s why a person centred practice also recognises and involves other people who make a difference in someone’s life – family, friends, and the community. It is most successful when friends and family can support the process, and help identify and develop the person’s strengths.
  • Belonging in an assortment of connections and participations.
  • Being respected for your history, endowments, and capacities really communicated through having a scope of esteemed social parts.
  • Sharing ordinary places conventional spots with different motives in living, working, learning, and playing together with regular group settings.
  • Contributing your own blessings to have a beneficial outcome to others.
  • Choosing and having control over your own particular life in matters little and huge and picking up insight after some time and through encounters for future choices.
What these cases have made me understand is that all relationships are restricted to some extent, on the grounds that they exist in a world that is contingent. Time, physical area, the impact of different relationships, work requests, even the climate, are all contingent variables of the world that will affect both members in any relationship, and cannot be overlooked. In my feeling, it is not just as Rogers was incognizant in regards to such impacts (he plainly acknowledged a ‘conditional’ world as the one that gives individuals the selves they have), yet rather that he does not represent them adequately in his hypothesis. He frequently paints the helpful space as an abstract element, while the researcher feels we should recall to see the advisor’s room as being as much part of what lies past its entryway as it is partitioned from it. Similarly, the hypothesis appears to neglect the way that while it might be workable for an experienced psychotherapist to accomplish a substantial level of ‘unlimited quality’, we should surely accept that no specialist will ever have the capacity to reliably accomplish complete unconditional positive regard. While the researcher is certain Rogers knew that advisors (counting himself) were as human as their customers, his hypothesis expect that their shortcomings, suppositions and personal problems would not enter the helpful space. Genuine relationships, be that as it may, dislike reading material cases, and even the most experienced advocate must be not able prevent his or her own self from influencing a relationship with a customer somehow. As the hypothesis is intended to be connected to genuine individuals, the researcher feels this ought to have been considered to a greater degree. It is likewise incomprehensible that a hypothesis taking into account centre ‘conditions’ requires an ‘unconditional’ attitude with respect to the specialist. We could clarify that Rogers particularly characterizes this ‘unconditionality’ as an endeavour on the specialist’s part to counter existing states of worth, but even thus, there is by all accounts a hazy area of understanding here. By making it a state of his ‘specific sort of relationship’, the researcher feels Rogers has undermined the planned unconditionality to some degree. There is another path in which Rogers’ hypothesis is confounding. At last, both the ‘self as perceived and the ‘genuine self’ are a piece of the same reality of experience. While we could view the ‘self as saw’ as a dynamic build of the brain created from encounters after some time, those encounters are as much a part of the physical world that is really experienced by the ‘genuine self’. On this level, we could contend that while there might be incongruence between perception and real involvement in a man, regardless they have a place with the same reality, rather than existing as particular universes, genuine or envisioned. This contention might be excessively philosophical to explore legitimately here, yet the researcher feels it merits saying as a frail point in the theory. Likewise, Rogers’ hypothesis does not appear to incorporate any clarification for why distinctive people feel contrastingly about various encounters. Utilizing the case of the young man pulled in to others young men in (Sanders, 2006, p18), Rogers may clarify how the negative regard of his folks in connection to this lead to certain states of worth. What he doesn’t explain, however, is the place the underlying appreciation for different young men (rather than young ladies) originates from. Maybe his hypothesis is not expected to go so far as clarifying fundamental inspiration for conduct similarly as Freud depicts the ‘delight guideline’ (Freud, 1910; Pervin,1993, p69), however, the researcher feels that in this sense it is lacking. Lastly, the researcher’s surmise that the six centre conditions alone don’t go sufficiently far in setting out what is required for development to come to fruition through helpful relationship. Thus, the researcher would suggest that we consider another condition: that one individual must choose to look for help and another choose to give it. We could contend that in requiring mental contact, Rogers suggests that the contact has been looked for, however, this ought to have been unmistakably expressed. All relationships are a commitment by two gatherings, and the researcher feels that when a customer requests help in a counselling relationship, they have at some level settled on a choice to do as such. Without this, the psychological contact cannot be built up as Rogers considered fundamental, and the therapeutic relationship would not exist. Therefore we could say that a customer looking for help should likewise need the change they look for. Despite the fact that this might be accepted to underlie the individual focused methodology, it is never communicated in solid terms. While we can acknowledge Rogers’ thought that as life forms we are all instinctively headed to self-change, the researcher trust we should go further in saying that we as individuals have both an ability to help ourselves, and the flexibility to do the opposite.     5.2.5.3 Resources In Rogers’ own words: Carl R. Rogers. A Way of Being. 1980. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, pp.115-116. Individuals have within themselves vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes, and self-directed behaviour; these resources can be tapped if a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided. There are three conditions that must be present in order for a climate to be growth promoting. These conditions apply whether we are speaking of the relationship between therapist and client, parent and child, leader and group, teacher and student, or administrator and staff. The conditions apply, in fact, in any situation in which the development of the person is a goal. He understood then that in the event that he could give certain conditions to the customer in a non-judgmental manner, making a relationship that depended on warmth, (positive respect), validity and sympathy that those conditions without anyone else’s input were adequate to permit the customer to reach their own particular inward resources. He called these ‘centre conditions’. As a youngster, we totally need to fit in and be acknowledged for survival. We will do this regardless of the fact that it requires us closing off from what is honest to goodness in us - we will, if vital stifle our inward feeling self and internal resources. However, our internal identity does not vanish. It is still there, despite the fact that we may stifle it so much that we overlook it and trust that we truly are the individual we are going about as. The outcome is that we create regions of disjointedness. Without knowing it, we are not being straightforward. This can bring about all of us sorts of issues from tension or sorrow to bad dreams, to winding up being destructive to individuals we wish to love. Rogerian guiding attempts to reconnect individuals with their internal feeling self and their inward resources. It attempts to individuals to again get to be certifiable. This outcome is in an extraordinarily expanded sentiment aliveness, imagination, instinct et cetera. Carl Rogers said that if the advocate notwithstanding for one moment questioned that the customer had the resources inside themselves, then the guiding procedure was lost. Numerous years back, I myself did treatment with a decent advisor who, despite the fact that not Rogerian, 95% of the time went about as on the off chance that she might have been. In the 5% of the time when she dreaded for me and needed me to become quicker than I was, she would give me exhortation or let me know what to do. Self-uncertainty would plummet. I had not worked out the answer. I would go into a discomfort for a long while. I trust Rogers was so right. Given the right conditions, each of us can locate our own inward resources and the answers that are ideal for us around then. Be that as it may, it is a delicate procedure. An instructor who has confidence in their own particular inward resources will have confidence in the customer’s and that confidence will be felt by the customer. Rogerian guiding contrasts from most different sorts of advising in that the advisor does not immediate the customer by any means. It is non-order treatment. As opposed to an arrangement of thoughts to outline the advising, the instructor has essentially themselves. 5.2.5.4 Responsibility Responsibility for self. The individual focused specialist, deliberately maintains a strategic distance from control over, or basic leadership, for the customer so that the customer gets to be in charge of himself or herself. This progressions the force relationship amongst specialist and customer by putting the control over basic leadership, and in addition the responsibility for choices, in the hands of the customer. Experiential freedom. Rogers felt that it was insignificant regardless of whether individuals truly had through and through freedom. We feel, especially as though we do. This is not to say, obviously, that we are allowed to do anything by any means: We are encompassed by a deterministic universe, so that, fold my arms as much as I prefer, I won’t fly like Superman. It implies that we feel free when decisions are accessible to us. Rogers says that the completely working individual recognizes that sentiment freedom, and assumes liability for his decisions. Rogers’ thought that experience - and one’s elucidation of experience - is the thing that structures identity, likewise conveys the presumption that an adjustment in experience - or an adjustment in the view of experience - can achieve an adjustment in identity. Besides, he expressed that individuals have the capacity and responsibility to enhance themselves and work to end up who they need to be (what he calls ‘perfect self’). This idealistic perspective of the world was a significant change in the famous thinking about the time. So far, numerous analysts had concentrated on the issues, taking a gander at useless families or aggravated kids. Along these lines, Rogers’ claim that individuals can be solid, ground breaking persons, was met with much feedback - which is not amazing! From his perceptions, Carl Rogers presumed that passionate and mental issues were the exemption, not the guideline, and much of the time these issues could be overcome. 5.2.5.5 Self The human organism’s ‘phenomenal field’ includes all experiences available at a given moment, both conscious and unconscious (Rogers, 1959). As development occurs, a portion of this field becomes differentiated and this becomes the person’s ‘self” (Hall & Gardner, 1985); Rogers, 1959. The ‘self’ is a central construct in this theory. It develops through interactions with others and involves awareness of being and functioning. The self-concept is “the organized set of characteristics that the individual perceives as peculiar to himself/herself” (Ryckmann, 1993, p. 106). It is based largely on the social evaluations he/she has experienced. These focal thoughts were upheld by a few suppositions about the way of the individual. To start with, individuals are persuaded toward self-completion, as expressed above. Human beings also have personal power, or “vast resources for self-understanding, for altering self-concept, his attitudes, and his self-directed behavior” (Rogers, 1978, p. 7). Issues emerge for individuals for whom this individual force is lessened or confined because of control from others, either clear, (for example, military law) or secretive, (for example, discovering one’s self in a manipulative relationship). The suggestion for putting so much power solidly upon the individual is incredible; including the potential for individual, social, and political change on the off chance that all persons are allowed the inalienable capacity to move toward self-completion. As noted above, Rogers connected this hypothesis both inside the psychotherapeutic holder, and in the fields of training, business, and government. In any case, the supremacy of the force of the individual and how that power can be acknowledged and improved through the psychotherapeutic relationship is major to the greater part of the courses in which individual focused methodologies have been connected. Notwithstanding the issues that emerge when individual force is reduced, disparities between an apparent Ideal Self and a Real Self may prompt mental misery. The Ideal Self is a self-idea held by a person that could possibly precisely reflect reality. On the off chance that one’s Ideal Self and Real Self are in arrangement, mental consistency is available. On the off chance that the Ideal Self is lopsided with the Real Self, incongruence happens and is for the most part communicated through mental pain. On the off chance that the individual faintly sees such an incongruence in himself, then a pressure state happens which is known as nervousness. The incongruence need not be strongly seen. It is sufficient that it is subceived—that is, separated as debilitating to the self with no familiarity with the substance of the risk. Such anxiety is often seen in therapy as the individual approaches awareness of some element of his experience which is in sharp contradiction to his self-concept. (Rogers, 1989, p. 223)
5.2.5.6 Educational implications of these theories (Person-Centered Approach, Relationship, Resources, Responsibility, Self)
The Assertive order arrangement was initially created in 1976 with the point of overseeing classroom conduct. This arrangement has today taken the middle stage in dealing with the testing student conduct by considering clients in charge of their own activity. Such a proactive methodology would help the instructor make a helpful environment, where students figure out how to settle on the right decision of conduct. This decision would then permit successful instructing and adapting, together with scholastic and social development of students. The instructor and the student are dependably in contact, and this is critical for successful instructing. The classroom can be alluded to as a socio-specialized framework in authoritative terms, where conveying the educational programs communicates with the social requirements of the students (and instructor) to shape an associated framework. Rogers gave exceptionally helpful methods for demonstrating sympathy toward students. He recognized admiration, validity and compassion as critical aptitudes of building great connections. Table 5.7 Carl Rogers’ terminology used in his works: 26 to 30
Sr. No Central concepts of Rogers’ theories/ quotations from books Keywords
26 Socialization
Socialization: FROM BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON When we are able to free the individual from defensiveness, so that he is open to the wide range of his own needs, as well as the wide range of environmental and social demands, his reactions may be trusted to be positive, forward-moving, constructive….as he becomes more fully himself, he will become more realistically socialized. (Page No: 194) Freedom from defensiveness, Realistically socialized.
27 Teaching
Our whole culture through custom, through the law through the effortsss of labor unions and management, through the attitudes of parents and teachers-is deeply committed to keeping young people away from any touch with real problems.    (Page No-293)  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Teaching is fostering attitudes.
Student Centered Teaching or Non Directed Teaching  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON
Rogers wanted student to think independently, creatively; he wanted students to become deeply involved with their very persons, their very selves, hoping that this might lead to the “reconstruction” of the person-in the Dewey sense of the term-the person’s outlook, attitudes, values, behavior. This would be a true reconstruction of experience; it would be learning in a real sense. (Page No-302-303) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Think independently, Reconstruction of self.
Carl Rogers didn’t want the course to end in an examination based on textbooks and lectures, followed by the traditional end term grade, which generally means completion and forgetting. (Page No-302-303) BOOK: ON BECOMING A PERSON No exam after courses.
Rogers had expressed the belief almost from the outset of the course that no one can teach anyone else anything. But thinking, this student insisted, begins at the fork in the road, the famed dilemma set up by Dewey. As we reach the fork in the road, we do not know which road to take if we are to reach our destination; and then we begin to examine the situation. Thinking stats at that point. (Page No-302-303)  BOOK: ON BECOMING A PERSON Examine the situation.
Teaching means “To Instruct. Personally, I am not much interested in instructing another in what he should know or think. “To impart knowledge or skill.”  My reaction is, why not be more efficient, using a book or programmed learning? “To make to know.” Here my hackles rise. I have no wish to make anyone know something. “To show, guide, directed”. As I see it too many people have been shown, guided, directed. So I come to the conclusion that I do mean what I said. Teaching is. For me, a relatively unimportant and vastly overvalued activity.                (Page No: 103)       BOOK:  FREEDOM TO LEARN To instruct personally, Impart knowledge, Teaching is. For me, a relatively unimportant and vastly overvalued activity.
Teaching is, For me, a relatively unimportant and vastly overvalued activity.
The only man who educated is the man who has learned how to learn; the man who has learned how to adapt and change; the man who has realized that no knowledge is secure, that only the process of seeking knowledge gives a basis for security, Changingness, a reliance on process rather than upon static knowledge, is the only things that makes any sense as a goal for education in the modern world. (Page No: 104   BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN How to learn, Process rather than static knowledge, Knowledge brings security.
28 Trust
There is no beast in man. There is only man in man, and this we have been able to release. (Page no: 105)   BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Realize the ‘Man’ in man.
#When man’s unique capacity of awareness is thus functioning feely and fully, we find that we have, not an animal whom we must fear, not a beast who must be controlled, but an organism able to achieve, through the remarkable integrative capacity of its central nervous system, a balanced, realistic, self-enhancing, other enhancing behavior as a resultant of all these elements of awareness. (Page no: 105)  BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Function freely, Elements of awareness.
#When man is less than fully man--- when he denies to awareness various aspects of his experience --- then indeed we have all too often reason to fear him and his behavior, as the present world situation testifies. But when he is most fully man when he is his complete organism, when awareness of experience, that peculiarly human attribute, is most fully operating, then he is to be trusted, then his behavior is constructive. (Page no: 105) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Denial leads to stasis, Fully opening, Behaviour is constructive.
#Human nature: the basic nature of human being, when functioning freely, is constructive and trustworthy….. When we are able to free the individual from defensiveness, so that he is open to the wide range of his own needs, as well as the wide range of environmental and social demands, his reactions may be trusted to be positive, forward-moving, constructive….as he becomes more fully himself, he will become more realistically socialized. (Page No: 194) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Constructive and trustworthy, Fully himself. Realistically socialized
29 Unconditional Positive Regard
The therapist experiences a warm caring for the client--- a caring which is not possessive, which demands no personal gratification. It is an atmosphere which simply demonstrates “I care”; not “I care for you if you behave thus and so.”Standal has termed this attitude “unconditional positive Regard,” since it has no conditions of worth attach to it. I have often used the term “acceptance” to describe this aspect of the therapeutic climate. Therapist should be warm and caring, ‘Acceptance’ as therapeutic climate.
It involves as much feeling of acceptance for the client’s expression of negative, “bad,” painful, fearful, and abnormal feelings as for his expression of “good,” positive, mature, confident and social feelings. It involves an acceptance of and a caring for the client as a separate person, with permission for him to have his own feelings and experiences, and to find his own meanings in them. To the degree that the therapist can provide this safety-creating climate of unconditional positive regard, significant learning is likely to take place. (Page no: 283-284)  BOOK ONBECOMING A PERSON Acceptance of negative by therapist, Safety-creating climate, Unconditional positive regard.
30 Values
A value is to bring about general acceptance of a body of standard and attitudes characteristic of college bred men and women in the American community… Value in general acceptance.
The impact of the college experience is ….to socialized the individual, to refine, polish, or ‘shape up’ his values so that he can fit comfortably into the ranks of American college alumni. (Page No-169) BOOK ON BECOMING A PERSON Socialize the individual.
Charles Morries (1956)on value  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN Charles Morries points out that value is a term we employ in different ways. We use it to refer to the tendency of any living beings to show preference, in their action, for one kind of object or objective rather than another. This preferential behaviour he calls “operative Values”. It need not involve any cognitive or conceptual thinking. It is simply the value choice which is indicated behaviorally when the organism selects one objects, reject another. When the earthworm, placed in a simple y maze, chooses the smooth arm of the y instead of the path which is paved with sandpaper, he is indicating an operative value. Operative values, Cognitive and conceptual thinking. Choice of values.
A second use of the term might be called “conceived values”. This is the preference of the individual for symbolized objects. Usually, in such a choice, there is anticipations or foresight of the outcome of behavior, directed toward such a symbolized object. A preference for “Honesty is the best policy” is such a conceived value. Conceived values, “Honesty is the best policy”
#   Modern man no longer trusts religion or science or philosophy nor any system of beliefs to give him his values, he may find an organismic valuing base within himself which, if he can learn again to be in touch with it, will prove to be an organized, adaptive, and social approach to the perplexing value issues which face all of us.           (Page No: 255)  BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN Organismic values in within himself
# Man has within him an organismic basis for valuing. to the extent that he can be freely in touch with this valuing process in himself, he will behave in ways which are self-enhancing.   (Page No: 256) BOOK FREEDOM TO LEARN Self-enhancing, Free thinking.
5.2.6  Explanation of the Terms 5.2.6.1 Unconditional Positive Regard Unconditional Positive Regard, an idea created by the humanistic analyst Carl Rogers, is the fundamental acknowledgment and backing of a man paying little mind to what the individual says or does, particularly with regards to client focused therapy. Its organizer, Carl Rogers, writes: The central hypothesis of this approach can be briefly stated. It is that the individual has within him or herself vast resources for self-understanding, for altering her or his self-concept, attitudes, and self-directed behavior—and that these resources can be tapped if only a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided. (Rogers C. R., Client-centered Approach to Therapy, 1968) Rogers trusted that genuine positive respect is key for solid advancement and attempted to set up it as a restorative part. Through giving unrestricted positive respect, humanistic specialists look to help their clients acknowledge and assume liability for themselves. Humanistic analysts trust that by demonstrating the client unlimited constructive respect and acknowledgment, the advisor is giving the most ideal conditions to self-awareness to the client. By definition, it is key in any helping relationship to have a reckoning for change. In the advising relationship, that expectation presents as Hope—a confidence that something great and constructive will create to realize useful change in the client’s identity. Along these lines, unlimited constructive respect implies that the specialist has and demonstrates general acknowledgment of the client by putting aside their very own conclusions and predispositions. The principle variable in unequivocal constructive respect is the capacity to segregate practices from the individual who shows them. Rogers gives this portrayal and individual experience: For me, it expresses the primary theme of my whole professional life, as that theme has been clarified through experience, interaction with others, and research. This theme has been utilized and found effective in many different areas until the broad label ‘a person-Centered approach’ seems the most descriptive. The central hypothesis of this approach can be briefly stated. It is that the individual has within him or herself vast resources for self-understanding, for altering her or his self-concept, attitudes, and self-directed behavior--and that these resources can be tapped if only a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided. (Rogers C. R., Client-centered Approach to Therapy, 1968) 5.2.6.2 Educational implications of these theories (Unconditional Positive Regard) Unconditional positive regard This is a non-judgmental warmth or acknowledgment. This is the ability of communicating with a profound and real watching over the customer as a man. This implies the customer can feel got humane which is non-undermining. There is no judgment of the customer’s emotions, musings, and conduct whether great or awful. In spite of the fact that it is unrealistic to constrain friendship (however we can imagine if deceptive), it is conceivable, however to feel for the customer, consider them to be being able to coordinate their own life and act towards them likewise. This shows trust in the customer’s capacity and propensity to complete. Helpers impart through their conduct that they esteem customers as they are and in this way can feel free in communicating emotions and experience without taking a chance with the loss of the helper’s acknowledgment. The helper will acknowledge and regard the customer as an individual without regard to race, religion, political, sexual or individual foundation. As indicated by Rogers this condition is condensed in this way: “to the extent that the therapist finds himself experiencing a warm acceptance of each aspect of a client’s experience as being a part of that client, he is experiencing unconditional positive regard” (Rogers, 1957, p. 98). Therefore, despite the fact that it may not be a simple stride to take at first, the Helper ought to have the capacity to acknowledge the customer without looking to affirm his or her conduct, tolerating the customer as a man of worth. Contended on the conspicuous troublesome of aggregate unconditionality. Absolute unconditionally was seen as difficult to accomplish. Regardless of the fact that it were conceivable, it would be liable to be broken. 5.3 Summary Carl R. Rogers, who has given his lifetime to practice and research in advising or psychotherapy, has built up a way to deal with instruction got from this experience and research. This methodology is based upon a positive origination of the way of man. Human persons, as they are knowledgeable about Rogers’ customer focused treatment, are essentially balanced, associated, forward-moving, and sensible. They are dynamic and proactive, notwithstanding being receptive to jolts in their surroundings. They are essentially helpful, productive, and reliable. Introverted feelings - envy, antagonistic vibe, intensity do exist, yet they are cautious responses to danger and the disappointment of more fundamental driving forces for adoration, having a place, and security. These positive limits and propensities are parts of the single essential inspiration toward the realization of the individual’s possibilities, or toward self-completion. The drive toward self-realization is not just an unfurling from within, programmed and without respect to the earth. Or maybe it requires certain conditions in the event that it is to show itself and lead to the advancement of a self-actualizing or completely working individual. These conditions are sure fundamental demeanours showed by other individuals in their associations with the person. Three noteworthy states of mind or conditions have been distinguished also, characterized, and scales for their estimation have been produced on the premise of experience and research in directing or psychotherapy. They are empathic understanding; appreciation, trust, or positive respect; and validity, coinciding, or realness. Self-actualizing or completely working individuals have various attributes which can be depicted, in spite of the fact that they incorporate in a unitary association with the individual: (1) These individuals are interested in all their encounters since they are free from protectiveness. (2) They live in an existential mode, encountering every snippet of life once again. They are adaptable and versatile, changing with new encounters after some time. (3) Their life forms are reliable advisers for fulfilling conduct, subsequent to, being interested in all their encounters, these individuals join every significant date in their conduct. On the off chance that any information are missing, openness to restorative input prompts adjustment of conduct and toward more prominent fulfilment of the requirement for self-completion. On the off chance that one is completely working, one’s locus of assessment is inner, instead of outer, despite the fact that one will obviously be impacted by outer components. One’s qualities are one’s own, at the same time, are not as a matter, of course, particular or one of a kind, since one shares the fundamental inspiration and need of the species. Among the regular qualities (which add to the survival of the species and in addition of the individual) are realness, affectability to and comprehension of others, and acknowledgment of and admiration for others- - that is, the conditions for the advancement of self-actualizing persons. There are various ramifications of the idea of the completely working individual: (1) One who is completely working is an inventive individual since inventiveness is encouraged by the touchy openness to encounter. (2) Since one is free from preventiveness, one’s essentially positive outlook will show itself; one is useful and dependable. (3) One is trustworthy, however, not as a matter, of course, unsurprising, since one will react to the interesting example of inside and outer boosts at every minute. (4) One is free, and not decided. Despite the fact that the flexibility determinism issue is unpredictable, there is a sense in which completely working people pick and experience flexibility despite the fact that their conduct is decided, subsequent to being interested in all components in the circumstance, they will carry on as it were that will fulfill and self-actualizing. The objective of training is or ought to be the improvement of completely working or self-actualizing persons. Just such persons can survive and subsequently make conceivable the survival of mankind - in a quickly changing world described by strains among races, countries, and different gatherings. The completely working individual is versatile and has figured out how to learn. To instruct toward a completely working individual requires that training stop concentrating on conferring actualities, data, and learning, that it go past the targets of improvement of the judgment or of intuition persons, to sympathy toward the advancement of the fullness of feeling, enthusiastic, and interpersonal relationship characteristics of people. The entirety, individual must be instructed. Learning identified with the improvement of the entire individual is huge learning, learning which is close to home and experiential and which has any kind of effect in the individual. The individual doesn’t need to be spurred toward critical learning- - the inspiration is natural in the drive toward self-completion. Huge learning happens when the learner sees the topic as significant for his or her own particular purposes. Huge learning for those whose self-ideas are shaped may require an adjustment in the self- association, and this might undermine, however, in such cases learning is encouraged when outer dangers to the self are at the very least. Flexibility from danger empowers the learner to investigate, to separate, to experiment with new thoughts, to change. Huge learning is encouraged by experiential association with genuine issues. Start of the procedure and interest in it by the learner cultivates huge learning. Self-assessment, as opposed to outside feedback and assessment, cultivates autonomy, imagination, and self-dependence. Noteworthy learning, including every one of these components, is figuring out how to learn. Huge learning includes the entire individual and requires that we change our centre in training from cognizance to a blend of the psychological and the full of feeling, and from instructing and the educator to learning and the learner. The educator turns into the facilitator of learning by giving the conditions to self-started, self-directed learning. *****************************                                      

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