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Customer Attitudes Towards Mobile Advertising

8676 words (35 pages) Dissertation

9th Dec 2019 Dissertation Reference this

Tags: Advertising


In the era of information communication technology (ICT) outbreaks, there is a sharp increase in the number of people using cell phone in every single day all over the world, in particular, in Hochiminh city which is the largest city and also one of the country’s most important cultural and educational centers in Vietnam. Many of Vietnamese businesses have been catching up with this trend with the purpose of maximizing their profit by using advertisements on mobile so as to grow the volume of the products and services sold. This study aims at releasing more aspects of the customer’s attitude towards mobile advertising in Ho Chi Minh City. Through which marketers can have a look into the real scenario of the customer’s attitude on mobile advertising. The study is used secondary data only with a conceptual framework outlined to do the research. There are four main distinguish factors hypothesized: entertainment, informativeness, irritation, credibility which have huge influence on consumer’ attitude. This research has been using data surveyed basing on the previous studies of many Vietnamese and foreigners having the same topic to analyze more specifically on the case of Hochiminh city. Hence, these selected data have been analyzed to find out the lack of some factors in the previous studies and also have some recommendations for marketing strategies to launch several effective applications on mobile device. The result presents the importance of mobile advertising for a product or service, yet users haven’t clearly expressed their positiveness. The surprising factors directly affect consumer attitude are credibility and entertainment in the advertisements in good ways. In the other hand, irritation causes negative attitude. With the limitations of tools required, also some suggestions are provided for further studies. However, this brief research could help businesses make right decisions and generate more strategic plans for sustainable development of businesses in today competitive market.






After several intensive months embracing myself with my dissertation, I am writing this note to thanks for all of supports during that hard time. It has been a focusing period of time self-study to complete my last assignment in university. The dissertation definitely has had big impact on me on account of broadening my specialized knowledge at business. Now, I wish to give my gratitude for these who have supported me with both spiritual and physical to overcome this term.

Firstly, I want to give sincere thanks to my mates from my university since their enthusiastic collaboration. You were always willing there to supported me in need. I particularly want to show my appreciation to my supervisor_Dr. Nguyen Xuan Minh for his devoted help for all the chances I had to study further at my university’s library.

Hence, I would like to express gratitude on my tutors_ mr Nguyen Hung Cuong for his valuable instruction. You kindly educated me with solid foundation knowledge in order to have the right direction in finishing my dissertation successfully.

Eventually, I would also like to thank to my parents for their sympathy and counsel. You are always there for me. Finally, my friends are always surrounded by and support me by deliberating over our problems and findings.







Tables of content

I. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………….6

1.1 Background ……………………………………………………………..6

1.2 Research questions ………………………………………………….7                  1.3 Purpose……………………………………………………….7

II. LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………..8

2.1 Attitude………………………………………………………..8

2.2 Mobile advertising …………………………………………………….9

2.3 Company’s attitude towards mobile advertising ……………10

2.4 Consumer’s attitude towards mobile advertising……………11   2.5 Informativeness…………………………………………….. 13

2.6 Entertainment…………………………………………………………..13   2.7 Irritation…………………………………………………………………..14

2.8 Credibility………………………………………………………………..15

III. MOTHOEDOLOGY……………………………………………………………..15

3.1 Research framework………………………………………………..15                 3.2 Data collection method……………………………………………..16

IV. RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS ……………………………………………….17

4.1 Descriptive statistics  ………………………………………………..17

4.2 Data analysis……………………………………………………………19

4.3 Discussion……………………………………………………21

V. CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………23                 5.1 Summary and contribution…………………………………………23                                          5.2 Managerial implications……………………………………………..24                                                         5.3 Limitation and further research …………………………………..25

VI. LIST OF REFERENCES………………………………………………………..25


















1.1 Background

Many of expertises argued that the strong relationship between using portable device habit and doing shopping has led to the consequence that impulse entrepreneurs to penetrate into the market to understand how to so as to do business more successfully ( Javid, Namin, Noorai, 2012). Mobile devices these days play a vital role not only for people development in many fields, but also in doing business with the purpose of doing marketing online. Many economists believe that doing marketing on mobile device has been considering as an effective mode of marketing to create new circumstances at the fastest speed, regardless the geography problems for doing businesses. It’s absolutely a big chance that any enterprises want to take advantage of. Just well over 2.1 billion commercials are shown on movable devices every day (Kemp, 2012). With large level of expansion, mobile adverts could conveniently approach audience, places and careers (Wilska, 2003). For the purpose of attracting more customers and increase the good influences of advertisements, tons of studies about the relationship of consumer attitudes and mobile adverts have been carried on in plenty of places, but in HoChiMInh city, Vietnam.

While, following the development of all over the world, in Vietnam, just well over 50 %of resident is using mobile phones with an award trend in the near future (2015). This apparently led to the change of customer’s habits over the time. Here is a convincing proof to illustrate that Vietnamese have the habit of using mobile device for almost of their time in a day (4,5h/day), moreover, half of them are using mobile for shopping online.

So, there is a big difference between mobile advertising and traditional ones. Whilst the traditional marketing like adverts on Tv or streets events tend to approach target groups who affected by the crowd, mobile advertising aims at every single person. Moreover, the advertisements through the mobile phones can send to their consumers at the right time at any social status, individual preferences, and location. It is obviously essential to do a research on the effects of advertising attribute on consumer attitudes. With basic foundation of previous studies, this finding is developed and expanded by doing a research on consumer’s attitude in HoChiMinh City. Then the result would be evaluated on the influence Vietnamese consumer buying decision. Additional findings regarding to market of Vietnam mobile users are also proposed basing on the five hypotheses highlighted in previous studies.

This paper consists of five main sections including the (I) Introduction, (II) Literature Review, (III) Research Methods, (IV) Results and Analysis, and (V) Conclusion.


1.2 Research question

a. what are the customer’s attitude to mobile advertising?

b. What are the factors of mobile advertising affecting customer‘s attitude?

c. How these factors influence on customer’s attitude?


1.3 Purpose

This research aims at three main objectives: firstly, to identify factors affecting Vietnamese attitudes toward mobile advertising, particularly in HochiMInh city. Secondly, this measures the effectiveness of mobile advertising and determines which factors are the most important to success of mobile advertising. Finally, after the determined factor is identified, advertisers, marketing manager, strategic planners could apply in many cases: website and mobile applications (Tsang, Ho, & Liang, 2004) so as to create more effective marketing strategies and advertising designs to apply it in Hochiminh city, Vietnam’s market successfully.


Many of definitions of the concepts of mobile marketing have been gone through out the time. Mobile marketing is a form of using wireless technology to approach target customers by sending integrated messages of a product or a service in a direct way (Altuna and Konuk (2009), Plavini and Durgesh (2011).

Yang (Yang, 2007) stated that because of its mobility features, this would be easily popular as the internet marketing. To catch up with the future development, there are many kinds of mobile advertising has been changing. According to Tsang et al (2004), mobile websites and in mobile applications are the two most common kinds of recent advertising, so that this research will mainly concentrate on. Mobile advertisements operate as a system of interactions between businesses and consumers. Step by step and in order, these are following activities: Businesses take advantage of the factors of the mobile advertising to promote the brand and to approach closer to their target customer. Through agencies, they propose advertising ideas and let them create ads on the company’s website, or create an interesting shopping app on the phone with unexpected promotion to attract customers. Last but not least, the advertisement will come to potential consumers.

 2.1 Attitudes

In psychology, attitude inhere person. They are very complex with tons of tones which are stated through experiences. Attitude has an impact on individual’s decision, and actions responded to challenges, and rewards (Business Dictionary). According to Tsang et al (2004), attitude is a psychological state to establish the way they get from surround environment and show them how to react. For the purpose of earning the highest profit of any business, understanding their customer attitude is a must do. Here we can see on the chart, the theory ABC model of Solomon (2008) relating to attitude:

It comprises the three elements: affect, behavior, and cognition, which emphasizes the interrelationship among knowing, feeling and doing. When it comes to business, Affect can be understood by the negative or positive feelings of a consumer about products, while behavior causes motive to urge customers to do take action. The definition of cognition in business can clearly perceived that is consumer’s believes in a product. These factors have very strong interrelationships. Keep moving to future trend, there are also lost of theories about attitude such as Aaker, Kumar and Day (2000) to renovate the idea of Solomon with more specific factors to an object: cognitive compares with knowledge, affective vs liking and intention or action.



2.2 Mobile advertising

It’s a form of advertising through mobile devices or wireless marketing. It also argued as messages for business to transfer to customer (B2C) (Okazaki & Charles, 2008). Mobile advertising can be text ads through SMS, or banner adverts which inserted in mobile websites, downloadable applications or mobile games with the aim of strengthening companies’ brand identity, particularly, integrated marketing communication strategies. Many of previous researches exposed the huge effect of consumer feelings on mobile promotions on the final decision to buy goods (Churchill & Iacobucci, 2002; Okazaki, 2004; Radder, Grandcolas, & Deakins, 2005; Yang, 2007). On the other hand, in order to boost the good effect of each other on target consumer, mobile promotions should wisely combine with traditional tools (Kavassalis et al., 2003), although both of them are new concepts in the commercial operation. Hence consumers would properly prefer spending time getting own integrated approach on cellphone and have intention to comfortably see surprising mobile advertisements appeared (Bauer et al., 2005).


2.3 Company’s Attitude towards Mobile Advertising

Company’s attitude is just one link in the chain of mobile advertising toward consumer’s mood. Following the trend of Technology development, brand manager would do marketing campaigns through the advertising agency. By their general ideas, the mobile advertising network might serve as a distributor to release advertisements on portable websites or applications to their target customers (Le et al., 2014). Through these unique channels, marketer could analyze their customer attitude for their products. By this, they could have a better understanding about customer, as a consequence, they could go further to achieve their goals in each stages of their company brand health check. Mobile advertising comes along with the sharp development of IT would bring huge benefit for even small companies in the future.


2.4 Customers’ Attitude towards Mobile Advertising

Many of previous researches presented the strong coherent of customer’ mindset towards mobile commercials and responses to precise adverts. According to MacKenzie & Lutz (1989), consumer’s attitude cause an essential control on advertising effectiveness on account of the relationships between attitudes associated and mobile advertising is absolutely positive (Ajzen and Fishbein (1980). On the contrary, in the research of Le and Nguyen (2014), he argued that not many users have good feelings on incidental advertisements exposed; though they cannot deny strong impacts of mobile commercials. Audiences would be eager to watch the advertisements and easily influenced to attract on products on the condition that advertisement must contains appealing messages, especially; focusing on credibility and entertainment. This study uses various dimensions to evaluate customer attitudes towards advertising via mobile devices. Agreeing with this point, Saeed et al. (2013) have found that at first glance, consumers commonly have an unfavorable feeling toward the advertisements. This research highlighted the different people would response differently upon receiving the mobile advertising. Strongly depends on message characteristics, advertising on mobile devices have an eternal result on attitude. There are some emotional sectors (Informativeness, Entertainment and Irritation) influencing on how shoppers evaluate the quality of an advertising (Ducoffe, 1996). Furthermore, general attitudes also revealed consumers’ assessments in this finding. In order to strengthen this, in 2001, Cyberspace advertisements vs. other media channels (Bracket & Carr, 2001) examined on one more factors (Credibility).


Table 1

Previous studies of attitudes toward advertising



Factors affecting attitude toward advertising


Advertising value and advertising on the web (Ducoffe, 1996) Informativeness, Entertainment, Irritation
Attitudes toward mobile advertising: a study of mobile web display and mobile app display advertising( tri dinh le and bao-tran ho nguyen, 2014) Informativeness, Entertainment, Credibility
Are we measuring the same attitude? Understanding media effects attitudes towards advertising (Tan & Chia, 2007) Materialism, Good for economy
Customer’s Attitude Towards Mobile Advertising in Bangladesh(Sheikh Majedul Huq1 , S. M. Shahedul Alam1 , Md. Nekmahmud1 , Mst. Shuly Aktar1 , S. M. Shamiul Alam2, 2015) Entertainment, Informationess, Irritation, Credibility and Incentive
Public attitudes toward advertising: More favourable than you might think (Shavitt, Lowrey, & Haefner, 1998) Enjoyment and indignity, Trustworthiness or usefulness of ad content, Demographic Segments
This research will focus on four hypothesized factors: Informativeness, Entertainment, Credibility and Irritation in Vietnam Informativeness, Entertainment, Credibility and Irritation
The influence of consumer socialisation variables on attitude toward advertising: A comparison of African-American and Caucasians (Bush, Smith, & Martin, 1999) Parental communication, Peer communication, Mass media, Gender, Race
The impact of mobile advertising on Vietnamese consumer buying decision( Vo Thi Huong Giang,2015) Credibility, Informativeness, Entertainment, Irritation
The influence of personalisation in affecting consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising in China (Xu, 2007 Entertainment, Credibility, Personalisation
Yousif (2012) Information, the excitement and attraction, credibility


2.5 Informativeness

Ducoffe (1996) defined informativeness as the good way to transfer product alternatives to please consumers’ satisfaction which is the main reason for information quality in mobile advertisement which straightly influence on consumers’ perceptions about company’s products and services (Usta, 2009). Daugherty et al (2008) and Okazaki(2005) argued that Informativeness was one of the four basic elements Wong et al. (2008)  which is one of the most vital duty; indeed, it does not only help transmit beneficial and practical facts but also provide helpful offers due to the fact that it contains clear product’s information, provide relevant and up-to-date information (Bracket & Carr, 2001) Apparently, advertisements’ informativeness is a crucial ingredient affecting consumers’ comfort and their emotions(Ducoffe (1996). Previous researches have proved the importance of informativeness as a basic factor in advertising.


2.6 Entertainment

To describe understandably the brief definition of entertainment, thinking of the feelings of joyfulness and happiness in individuals. The value of the advertisement is pertaining to people’s feeling of enjoyment (Shavitt et al., 1998). To support this opinion, McQuail (1983) prescribed entertainment likely “the ability to fulfill an audience’s needs for escapism, diversion, enjoyment, or emotional joyfulness”. Entertainment is an essentially critical part in marketing (Katterbach, 2002). Hence, companies rapidly make the most of this to catch consumers’ interests with the very short and amusing messages (Katterbach, 2002). Consequently, the message’s content must be succinct and humorous so as to immediately capture consumers’ first glance (Kalakota & Robinson, 2002). Amusement factor in advertising can help consumers for releasing emotions and enjoy fulfillment (Ducoffe, 1996). Haghirian & Dickinger(2004) argued this also add more value and grow customer loyalty in purchasing product. In mobile advertising, we can’t deny the existence of optimistic connection between entertainment and consumer’s attitude in researching the topic of how integrated factors in mobile commercial impact on attitude (Xu, 2007; Haghiriran et al., 2005; Tsang et al., 2004; Zabadi et al., 2012). Report by Shavitt, Lowrey, & Haefner (1998) has illustrated that people’s enjoyment for advertisements are the primary reason of their general attitudes toward advertising.


2.7 Irritation

Irritation can describe as distinguish levels of emotion: annoyed, impatient, or a little bit angry (Ducoffe, 1996). Information from mobile advertising may confuse the recipient and cause misunderstanding or overwhelming the consumer (Stewart & Pavlou, 2002). Annoyance, unhappiness, and brief intolerance might be results of irritation in advertising (Aaker & Bruzzone, 1985). Additionally, one of reasons makes consumers perceive advertisements unpleasantly and uncomfortably is using unappealing, annoying, insulting and deceitful advertising methods (Ducoffe, 1996).  Another type of mobile advertising that annoys people is unwanted messages, normally namely spam (Dickinger et al., 2004). Altuna et al (2009) stated that irritation brings about the only unfavorable component of consumer attitudes towards mobile advertising. Thus Ercis (2011) explained that buyers criticized mostly for irritation issue. In the research of Brackett & Carrs (2001), they contributed more evidences to reinforce the link between consumers’ awareness of the frustration and consumers’ psychology towards an advertisement.




2.8 Credibility

In advertisements, Mackenzie & Lutz (1989) clarified credibility is as a scope of consumers’ belief in what exactly sellers spread around their trademark. In addition, the outstanding feature of online shopping on mobile phone apparently assists consumers to make final decision of willing to pay for product relies on involvement they gain from the advertising channel in the past or even could base on preceding reviews (Christensen, 2013). Tons of various factors might cause effects on the credibility of an advertisement, particularly; the company’s image (Goldsmith et al., 2000). Islam, Kang, & Yang (2013) concurred with the view that the higher believability consumers noticed the higher advertising benefit spread. Credibility element in advertisement is one of the perceptual factors in the extent to which the consumer acknowledge claims made for the brand name of any businesses. Basing on many fundamental researches, analysts Brackett (2001) has identified the positive association between consumer insight of the trustworthiness and consumer sense towards the advertisement.


3.1 Research Framework and Hypotheses

Counting on the advanced model of previous theories about consumer reaction toward internet, web or mobile advertising (Javid et al., 2012; Haghirian et al., 2005; Tsang et al., 2004 & Ducoffe, 1996), the framework is created. The four key factors includes entertainment, informativeness, irritation and credibility will be applied to measure Vietnamese consumer insight toward mobile advertising in HoChiMinh city,Vietnam and then to analyze the impact of mobile advertising on customer attitude by those responses.

As can be seen from the framework, the connection between visibly principal aspects and attitudes toward mobile advertising are built up by the provided hypotheses:

H1: Informativeness has a positive impact on feelings toward mobile advertising.

H2: Also, entertainment has a good effect on psychology toward mobile advertising.

H3: Whilst, Irritation has a negative influence on emotions toward mobile advertising.

H4: Credibility has a good impact on sense toward mobile advertising

3.2 Methods and data collection

Documentary analysis from previous researches where quantitative method is used, then qualitative method is highly recommended to investigate deeply through this investigation to response the research demands.

Secondary data was the only source to use so this study almost relies on from prior piece of writings and coherent correlated publications. In particular, figures interpreted comes from Tri Dinh Le and Bao-Tran Ho Nguyen (2014) with the familiar topic: attitudes toward mobile advertising: a study of mobile web display and mobile app display advertising should be helpful. Taking advantage of the social media through common channel such as: Faceboook, ZingMe, Zalo, and also paper-based questionnaires, they distributed 250 questionnaires to their Vietnamese target customer who spend much time on using mobile phone. However; only 5% of the respondent is not appropriate. The date base on these 95% remaining would be analyzed to match the purpose of this study. Eventually, they analyzed collected data by utilizing SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), descriptive exploration, factor evaluation, Pearson correlation test, Regression analysis*,and analysis of variance (ANOVA) This study wills mainly use these data from two sources from Vietnam and also consults several researches about the same topics of foreigners to analyze so as to match with the topic. This point might present as a drawback in inefficient data using in this study.



4.1 Descriptive Statistics

Base on some general background information (age, gender, income and education) with jest well under 300 respondents in this survey which is represent for nearly 8 million of Ho Chi Minh’s population. Here is the result of previous study:

As we can see from the table, the number of female respondents is much more than men and both of them are from 18-40. Most of them are in university or graduate from university and has lower than 10 million VietnamDong (VND) per month (about 500 USD). Moreover, this study aimed at people who have at least one mobile device with a variety of using cellphone habits. Since, it is significant enough to exam consumers’ reactions for advertising on portable device in this study. These participants will present partly in this study to find out how several factors of mobile advertising effect on consumers.

As we can see from the Table 1, there were tons of researches mentioned about this topic with different factors which are reliable enough to use for this study. In this study, Informativeness, entertainment, credibility and irritation are used to suitably match with the purpose of the topic.

4.2 Data analysis from previous studies

For the factors Informativeness, this study exam the feelings of audiences while receiving mobile advertising  with some items “ Positive attitude’’,’’ negative attitude’’, ‘’ product advertisement’’. ‘‘Positive Emotions,’ most respondents with Mean equals 2.52) expressed the neutral emotion. To be more precise, the number of respondents for negative emotions is much far more positive emotions. When it comes to the item ‘’ Product advertisement,’ respondents agree to receive useful product facts from the adverts, with a mean of 3.19. However, this figure did not clearly show the feeling of positive or negative of the consumer. Majority of the participants have a very neutral feeling for the conclusion of  ‘‘making purchasing decisions through ad information’’, shown by the mean of 2.81.

In the Rotated factor matrix, there are three remaining factors analyzed. After collecting data from the questionnaire, they are applied in this model. Credibility goes first and then Irritation and ranking the last is Entertainment. On the condition that which factor is not satisfied would be removed.

According to Rotated factor matrix the hypothesis H1 “Informativeness has positive effect on attitudes toward mobile advertising” is kicked out.

Table 2 (source from Tri Dinh Le and Bao-Tran Ho Nguyen)

As prediction, there is a strong relationship between three factors, the Pearson correlation is the appropriate method to use. As we can see from the table, the three factors have positive relationship to each other.

Table 3(source from Tri Dinh Le and Bao-Tran Ho Nguyen)

Regression Analysis was chosen to measure the quality prediction. The independence of each factor would clearly show by the multiple correlation coefficients. A numerous association coefficient of 0.563 was not too high yet higher the average. Some factor independently affected each other. The R-square presented as a large gap between the variance of the dependence and this is 31.7% in this study.

Table 4 showed the correlation and regression as a proof to accept the hypotheses H2 and H4. These figures also lead to the result of the small dependent of each factor. Entertainment and Credibility, basing on the figure analyzed, witnessed a positive influence on purchaser’s attitudes, while Irritation with 0.386, exceeding the value of 0.05 shows a negative effect.

Table 4(source from Tri Dinh Le and Bao-Tran Ho Nguyen)

4.3 Discussion 

From the data analyzed, in general, we can say that most of mobile users have neutral attitudes with informativeness factor. Though they found that the mobile advertising help them have more information about the product and some seasonal promotions as well, users do not show positive emotions when they receive advertisements. However, the definition of positive and negative in this case is not really suitable rather than the more favorable perception. Information, in this case is such a basic factor for any advertisements but not cause a positive impact on consumer’s attitude. Informativeness in this case, actually has a great impact on consumer’s attitude on account of solid foundation of advertisement’s content. Audiences, in contrast, don’t express a good feeling on this factor, but it is noticeably a must have item in advertisement. Having the same ideas with Shavitt et al., (1998), this study supported the neutral but favorable effect on mobile advertising.

Actually, to predict the attitude of users, Credibility and Entertainment are the main factors. This result is far more different from previous researches mentioned in the literature review. Some reasons could be found. Mainly focusing on the entertainment and credibility due to the fact that these factors will be firstly catching the customer’ eyes by joyful images, or even emotional moments with reputation brand. Company, in reality, does not transmit enough information because consumers are familiar with the small size and shorten information of mobile advertisements. Credibility, in this study, is the most significant factor influence on mobile users’ attitude. The same result is provided in Bangladesh (Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, & Becker, 2006). Consequently, this result might depend on other factors like: cultural, economic condition of a country. Credibility help build the advertisements believable to mobile users. This raises a duty for any companies to build up their credibility because if consumer don’t trust the information delivered, company gain nothing behind this. In addition, researches have proved that mobile advert is less reliable than other types of advertisement. Hence, marketers and advertising creators should pay more attention to their target audiences in building their reputation. With the thought of loving braded goods, Vietnamese, especially, Saigonese have a huge interest of buying famous items. This could lead to the reason for the first ranking of credibility. The fact is that when people receive a reliable advertisement from a good brand, they will be more willing to watch. In other hands, the credibility would grow if the company claims with good performance in the past and also have a bright prospective action in the future (Herbig and Milewicz, 1995). This force advertiser draws attention on using brand, celebrity or promotion to catch the customer attraction.

Entertainment is ranking the second, affecting attitude toward advertising. Consumers love funny, joyful advertisements simply because, for sometimes, it make them relax and easy to be in mind the product brand. In Hochiminh city, very crowded city in Vietnam, there are tons of stresses facing every single day make this factor is apparently prominent. In fact, this factor significantly contributes to the successful of advertisements. If an advertisement can cause a good effect on people enjoyment, it would be watch for so many times. For instance, as we can see from Facebook channel, there is a large number of people sharing and giving comments on the funny video or advertisements with the aim of entertainment. Marketers and advertising creators, perceive this advantage of entertainment, should put into advertisements to attract the engagement of audiences.

Last but not least, the factor irritation as the result of data analyzed, irritation experienced a negative impact on shopper’s emotion. However; this was also an important factor in advertising according to Mrs. Bartos’ (1981) survey.  It might cause a side effect of appealing users. Explanation for this could be human psychology presents that people would easer attract by something adorable or on the contrast, very annoying. Perceiving this instinct action, marketers and others consultant apply it successfully in marketing campaigns, strategic plans of advertising.

In general, with factors mentioned above, each has different impact on consumer’s attitude. Informativeness has neutral effect yet it could be considered as basic and essential factor of an advertisement. Without information, mobile advertising is similar to convey no purpose. When it comes to Entertainment and credibility which present as positive attitude, apparently are the strongest impacts on the way to direct customer to involve in mobile advertisement. To be more specific, credibility, is the highest influence, which challenging consumer’ belief in a product or service. Eventually, irritation, though it has a negative effect, it is also vital in understanding psychology of buyer when they receive an advertisement.


5.1 Summary and contributions

Keep growing significantly with unpredictable speed like social and economic development, mobile advertising, especially, message are more and more essential in marketing campaign for any business in  Vietnamese economy these days. This study aims at determining which factors effect on consumer belief by analyzing and investigating data collected from respondents. Basing on the conclusion of previous researches, this study once again confirmed the effect of four factors (i.e., entertainment, informativeness, irritation and credibility) and also find out the most significant factor among them toward attitude are credibility and entertainment. Two remaining factors are important to decide the basic quality of mobile advertising.

According to data collected, several of common characteristics such as gender, age, education level, occupation, monthly income have a little impact on Vietnamese customers’ attitude on portable advertisements. These results extend the literature and support results of other studies (Javid et al., 2012, Wanmo Koo, 2010; Okazaki, 2005a; Tsang et al., 2004).Therefore, understanding consumers’ attitude is indispensible, notably toward the potentially developing in mobile industry in Vietnam. The findings also provide a constructive suggestion in marketing strategies planning for companies who want to have higher profits in selling product.


5.2 Managerial Implications

With results from this study, Vietnamese companies can apply for their effective marketing strategies. As credibility is the most convinced factors influencing on attitudes of purchasers, it evidently demonstrates that consumers’ perceptions for reliability sector is obviously aware. Indeed, delivering a credible and convincing content to targeting audiences is a certain thing in communication process. Marketers urge to determine to send believable information to consumers. The content should be specific and trustful data such as price, brand, country-of-origin, location, etc. To be more attractive, promotion of mobile advertising is always eye-catching and draws a good impression of consumer (entertainment). When it comes to others factors, they are also need to combined with the most important one (informativeness) for a successful mobile advertising. Appealing information must be goes joyfulness and faith simply because; joyfulness makes customer stay and credibility make them take into consideration of buying the products. The price must be reasonable but also ensure of the quality. For instance, services should be ensured to show the process and completion on time may help business to build trust. Because it is very difficult to build and also regain customers’ trust, marketers had better audit the credibility before delivering them to consumer. Although Vietnamese consumers dislike the irritation factors, it proposed that marketers can make more attempt in order to improve efficiency of these messages. To be more precise, the factor irritation help to get know well about the function of permission-based marketing in building trust of mobile advertising. Christensen (2013) stated that private issues make success for efficient mobile advertising. One more essential key is targeting potential consumers at the right time and right place to impulse consumers in purchasing the advertised product. Subjective expression likes “very”, “extremely”, and “best” in advertisement messages should be avoided. As the clear result from this study, three positive factors must be enhanced for the purpose of eliminating the side effect of irritation in advertising messages. For that reason, to adapt with Vietnamese market, entertainment, informativeness, irritation and credibility are all noticed, particularly, the two strong impact sectors: credibility and entertainment to finally guarantee that Vietnamese buyers have a positive attitudes toward mobile adverts.


5.3 Limitation and future research

As the result is showed to analyze the topic questions, there are also some remaining shortcomings and recommendations for further findings. Firstly, this study used only secondary data (mainly based on previous data collected with similar topic) to analyze so it might lead to the lack of data to go with the issues recommend. Secondly, only focusing on consumer attitudes variable on account of limited factors of mobile advertising. Since, in the further research, writer could mention more changeable method of researching and constructs to investigate/formulate consumer buying behavior. The third drawback of this study is just about the specific case of HoChiMinh city in order that future researches would expand the places analyzed and accumulated material from other nations or cross-cultural contrast of patterns could be recognized also. Finally, there was no specific case of product or service indicated and embraced in this finding.



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* Multiple Regression Analysis: Being use to predict factors affect consumer’s attitude, multiple linear regressions is that method to use. Particularly, to predict independent variables off each factor on attitude and each other as well. It also helps explain the total variance. This measure is suitable for the requirement of this study.


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