Tourism is frequently and justifiably described as a major phenomenon of modern times. Since 1950 the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide has increased spectacularly, from just 25 million to over 924 million in 2008. Representing an average annual growth of 7 % a year (Sharpley, R., 2004; and WTO – World Tourism Organisation, 2009).
International tourism generated US$ 856 billion in 2007, representing 30% of the world’s exports of services for the related year. Under the influence of the recent global economic recession, tourism demand has significantly slowed down in the past few months. Notably in the second half of 2008 growth came to stagnation with the number of international arrivals declining slightly – a trend which is expected to continue in 2009 and probably beyond, if the economy does not show signal of reaction (WTO – World Tourism Organisation, 2009).
Regardless of the current actual global recession, it is undeniable the importance of the tourism activity for the world economy, mutual understanding of nations, personal growth and development, just to mention a few benefits that tourism brings in.
The hospitality industry, as a segment of the tourism industry, plays a major role in this economic activity (King, 1995). Being accommodation the biggest percentage in tourism expenditure, in average of 34% of the total expenditure per trip (Sharpley, R., 2004).
The success of the hospitality industry, relies massively on the quality of the service delivered and customer satisfaction. The index of the measurement of both, quality service and customer satisfaction, will widely influence on occupancy rates, hence, on the profitability of the company (Holloway, JC, 1998; Solomon et al, 2006).
Therefore, justifying the need for a reliable model of assessment of customer satisfaction and service quality that would better adapt to the hospitality field, which at present still have a lack of agreement.
1.2 Research Title
The measurement of service quality and customer satisfaction in the hospitality industry: a case study of the Plaza Crowne Hotel.
1.3 Research Background
For Cardozo (1965), cited by Williams and Uysal (2003), marketing researches in the consumer satisfaction field started in the early 60’s. The subject had a relevant increase in popularity by organisations and researchers only in the 80’s, when organisations, in an attempt to try to keep itselves in the marketplace, started paying substantial attention on customer’s expectations demands.
1.4 Research Aims
The aim of this project is to analyse customer satisfaction and service quality measurement, using the SERVQUAL model, within The Plaza Crowne Hotel – Kansas City (USA), based upon the hotel’s own data against the highlighted gaps within the model.
1.5 Research Objectives
In order to achieve the specified aim it will be necessary to:
Conduct a review of service quality and customer satisfaction;
Illustrate The Plaza Crowne Hotel’s current customer satisfaction and service quality measurement model to identify its positive and negative aspects;
Conduct an initial diagnosis of the key issues presented in the Crown Plaza data, examining the hotel’s past assessments in order to identify areas of failure;
Analyse the SERVQUAL model focusing on the hospitality industry;
Identify and critically recommend suitable quality measurement practices to apply within The Plaza Crowne Hotel, if necessary;
To Kotler et al (1996), nowadays companies need to change their view and attitude in the marketplace and adopt a more customer centred philosophy, in order to keep competitive and profitable. Customers are changing their behaviour towards consumption, becoming more challenging to companies to attend their expectations, as they are increasingly aware of their rights, expect more than they used to, and know exactly what they want when purchasing a product or service. This increase in consumers expectation naturally leads to the need of a higher quality in costumer services delivery.
Customer satisfaction and quality service became priority for companies worldwide. They are believed to generate repeated business, therefore increased profit margin. The hospitality industry is paying close attention to it. Hampton’s Inn, a well know resort in Florida, has developed a 100% satisfaction guarantee program that promises its customers no charge unless they are completely satisfied. Other companies such as Sheraton Hotels has implemented a employees’ reward system for superior services to guests, the Sheraton Guests Satisfaction System (SGSS). Hilton International has adopted as a primary goal its customers satisfaction with global diversity. Moreover, organisations are increasingly becoming adept of rewarding its employees with bonuses, incentives and salary rise, just to mention a few actions to improve service. (Oh, 1997).
Therefore, marketing researchers are constantly developing and improving models of measuring customers satisfaction and quality service. Among many measurement models and theories, this dissertation will focus on the analysis of the 5 Gaps Model developed by Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml also called The Servqual Model.
2.2 Defining Service
Service is any act or performance that one firm can offer to a costumer, its nature is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. The service production may or may not be tied to a physical product (Kotler, P, 2003).
Addittionaly, Gronroos (1990) cited by Hsu et al (2001, p.18) defines service as “an activity or series of activities of more or less intangible nature that normally, but not necessarily, takes place in interactions between the costumer and services employees and/or physical resources or goods and/or systems of the service provider, which are provided as solutions to customer’s problems”.
From the consumer’s optic, service is nothing else than the experience lived in the whole process of this transaction (Hsu et al, 2001).
Moreover, it was noted that services have four major characteristics that greatly affect the way it is delivered and its marketing programme. Which are: intangibility, inseparability, variability, and perishability (Kotler, 2003).
Bellow the four charactecristics are briefly explained in the light of Kotler (2003) and Hsu et al (2001):
Intangibility relates to the extent that services cannot be tried in anyway before they are actually purchased and delivered. The only thing that can be done to reduce uncertainty is to look for evidences of service quality;
Inseparability is the relation that services are typically produced and consumed simultaneously. The person who provides the service, is actually part of the service purchased, therefore the importance of the interaction of providers and customers;
Variability occurs because services depend on who provides, when and where, one experience is never exactly equal the other. As people are the means through service production, personal problems, mood, knowledge of the job and many other factors can interfer and widely vary the service;
Perishability means that services cannot be stored as we can do with manufactured products, because services are produced and consumed simultaneously. As an example, in a hotel, a room that was not occupied yesterday, cannot be sold anymore as time does not goes backwards.
For Cook (2002) the increased global competition has made many organisations realised that they cannot compete only in price. Therefore companies are developing their own strategy in providing superior customer care to differentiate their products and services.
“Surveys suggest that service-driven companies can charge up to 9 per cent more for the products and services they provide. They grow twice as fast as the average company and have the potential to gain up to 6 per cent market share” (Cook, 2002, p.1).
2.3 Defining customer satisfaction and quality service
Peter Drucker cited by Cook (2002, p.1), once said: “There is only one valid definition of business purpose: to create a customer (…) an organisation’s ability to remain in business is a function of its competitiveness and its ability to win customers from the competition. The customer is the foundation of the business and keeps it in existence”.
Customer satisfaction relates to the personal opinion and result of customers’ assessment of a service based on a comparison of their expectations and actual perceptions of the service delivered (Clark, G.; and Johnston, R., 2005).
According to Lancaster et al (2002) from the customer’s point of view, service is judged by the mix of customers’ previous experiences and their perception of the outcome of the service. The service experience is the customer’s direct experience of the service process and concerns the way the customer is dealt with by the service provider. The result for the customer of the service delivered is described by the term service outcome. (Lancaster, G. et al, 2002).
“Service quality is more often used to mean different things. Some managers use the term to mean how the customer is treated. This is perhaps more accurately called quality of service, as opposed to service quality, which can mean the entirety of outcome and experience” (Clark, G.; and Johnston, R., 2005, p.108).
Van Looy (et al, 2003) differentiates service quality and customer satisfaction stating that “service quality is a form of attitude representing a long-run, overall evaluation, whereas satisfaction represents a more short-term, transaction-specific judgement. The level of customer satisfaction is the result of a customer’s comparison of the service quality expected in a given service encounter with perceived service quality. This also means that satisfaction assessments require customer experience while quality does not “(p.124).
2.4 Benefits of service quality
Kotler (1996) has listed many benefits that an organisation enjoys as a prize for delivering service quality. As listed bellow:
Retaining customers – high quality builds loyal customers and creates positive word of mouth.
Avoidance of price competition – “the PIMS data show that firms in the top third in quality could charge 5% to 6% higher than those in the bottom third. High quality can help to avoid price competition and help to maximise potential revenue” (p.363).
Retention of good employees – employees appreciate working in operations that are well managed and produce quality services and products. When an organisation operates in high quality, it decreases turn over rates, hence, retaining good employees. Additionally, recruiting is easier and training costs are reduced.
Reduction of costs – which are divided in three categories of costs: Internal costs – are those associated with correcting problems discovered by the firm before the product reaches the costumers; External costs – are associated with errors that the costumers experience; Quality system costs – are costs viewed as investments in the future of the company to ensure that customers return. (Kotler, 1996)
2.5 Benefits of a customer-centred organisation
An excellent service provides many benefits to an organisation, Cook (2002) has listed what some of the best-practice organisations have gain on focusing on the customer. “Differentiate itself from the competition; improve its image in the eyes of the customer; minimise price sensitivity; improve profitability; increase customer satisfaction and retention; achieve a maximum number of advocates for the company; enhance its reputation; ensure products and services are delivered ‘right first time’; improve staff morale; increase employee satisfaction and retention; increase productivity; reduce costs; encourage employee participation; create a reputation for being a caring, customer-oriented company; foster internal customer/supplier relationships; bring about continuous improvements to the operation of the company” ( p.24).
2.6 Importance of customer relationship management (CRM)
Customers perceive service quality through everyday aspect of their contact with the company. In improving the quality of its service therefore an organisation needs to develop a strategy bearing in mind all aspects of the relationship with its clients. (Cook, 2002)
Customers often do not perceive the service they receive from an organisation as a complete entity. Attention to detail is a key tool of the organisation’s relationship with the customer “such as an incorrectly addressed letter, a lengthy delay in receiving an e-mail response, a service which turns out to be different to how it was originally advertised, which forms customers’ impressions” (Cook, 2002, p.24).
CRM involves managing the customer relationship across all its interfaces with the company as one entire process. A CRM system can help identify sales prospects from existing or potential customer databases. It also can assist with all aspects of the sale and service being provided, eg offering online access to order status and a single view of the customer status when the sale is complete. It can collect information about the customer and the queries that he or she made. It can also monitor customer-usage patterns, so abnormal patterns or a reduction in use can be identified. Hotels systems can store any peculiarity or requests made by guests, such as preferences for smoking or non-smoking rooms, higher or lower floors etc. (Cook, 2002 and Lancaster et al, 2002).
Ernst and Young found elements that are essentially important for organisations to build a CRM framework. First basic step is to accumulate systematic knowledge of its markets and costumers. This could be made by complex IT systems, that are designed to store, manager and analyse informations about customer’s value. With this tool organisations can access business informations regard theier costumers, and also predict consumer’s behaviour. Enabling organisations to share informations across departments, and automatically update this informations by tracking loyalty cards costumers, any time they make a purchase or request the company’s service,for example (Cook, 2002).
CRM systems helps companies to target theier segments, and also to analyse the information flow throughout the company. Making easier to identify its costumers needs, and more importantly, shows the best way to approach its most profitable clients. The more information a company holds about its costumer’s the best is the knowledge built, as it helps refines consumer segmentation and individual needs. In this particular case, data about costumers life-style is very helpful (Cook, 2002).
Selling involves taking a proactive approach towards costumers, rather than a reactive. For instance, hotels can treat their most profitable business guests with special offers on their holidays. To finish the CRM framework, is essential to hold a service, providing an after-sales which should be measured to individual needs (Cook, 2002).
2.7 Importance of performance measurement and a programme development
“You cannot manage what you can not measure” (Kelvin Anon, www.dti.gov.uk/quality/performance). According to Cook (2002) and Williams (2002) managers braves the way through customer satisfaction measurement. A measurement programme starts with a clear definition of objectives, budget and timeline. Moreover, for this task to be performed and achieve its highest level of success, it is necessary the full commitment and willingness of top management to act on the results founded.
A starting point should be to decide which part of customer satisfaction the company is most concerned to measure. Is also important to be aware that expectations and satisfaction levels can widely vary between the costumers of a company, therefore, the need to identify market segments. For example, the different needs of a businesses and tourists guest of a hotel. (Cook, 2002; Laws, 2004; Williams, 2002)
According to Clark and Johnston (2005) performance measurement is costly. Few organisations have calculated just how much time and energy they spend on measuring their performance and its value for money relation. Two useful tests of a performance measure are, first, what is its purpose and, second, what systems are in place to support or achieve that purpose. There are four main purposes or reasons to take measurement: communication, motivation, control and improvement within the company.
In the endless improvement process, measuring performance is an important task in order to identify and track progress in harmony with the organisations’ goals; identify areas and opportunities for improvement; and compare performance with internal and external standards (www.dti.gov.uk/quality/performance).
According to the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) the main reasons of measuring performance is:
- “To ensure customer requirements have been met
- To be able to set sensible objectives and comply with them
- To provide standards for establishing comparisons
- To provide visibility and a “scoreboard” for people to monitor their own performance level
- To highlight quality problems and determine areas for priority attention
- To provide feedback for driving the improvement effort” (retrieved from
2.8 The SERVQUAL model
The Servqual model was developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, and has been one of the most popular service quality measurement instrument since then. The model was designed to measure those components of service that generate satisfaction within five dimensions (Ryan and Saleh,1991; Lee et al, 2004; Johns et al, 2004).
Originally the researchers conducted a focus group studies with service providers and costumers, and as a result they came up with a list of ten determinants or dimensions of service quality which are: reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding/knowing the customer and tangibles, (Van Looy, B et al, 2003; Parasuraman et al, 1990; Ryan and Saleh,1991) which will be briefly explained bellow:
Tangibles – the appearance of physical facilities, the personnel, the tools or equipment used to provide the service and communication material. Guests of a hotel look for details of the building, web sites and reservation systems for instance.
Reliability – consistency of performance and dependability. This means that the firm performs the service correctly the first time and that the firm honours its promises.
Responsiveness – the willingness to help the customers and to provide prompt service.
Competence – knowledge, ability and possession of the right skills to perform the job.
Access – degree of approachability of service providers.
Courtesy – use of good manners, politeness, friendliness, smiling during the service.
Communication – ability to successfully communicate with costumers, keep them informed.
Understanding – degree of interest of employees to know the costumers needs and wants.
Assurance – knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence.
Empathy – caring, individualized attention to customers. (Van Looy, B et al, 2003; Parasuraman et al, 1990; Ryan and Saleh,1991)
Later on, in another attempt of improving their models they found a high degree of correlation between communication, competence, courtesy, credibility and security. They therefore, merged them into one dimension, which they called assurance. Similarly they found a high correlation between access and understanding which they merged into empathy. Thus compacting the dimensions of service quality in five which are: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy (Van Looy, B et al, 2003; Dabholkar et al 2000).
The diagram bellow was originally made to suit the quality service measurement and customer satisfaction of a car repair garage. Which can be easily adapted to any other service organisation, surely including any hotels to be more precise.
The SERVQUAL identified gaps between clients and organisations perceptions of attributes of service perceived, and also between customers expectations and perceptions of the service actually delivered (Ryan and Saleh,1991; Landrigan, 1999). This has led to the well known and widely used 5 gaps of service quality:
Gap 1: Consumer expectations versus management perception
CEO’s and managers often fail to realise what consumers expect of a service and which features needs to be pursued to deliver a high-quality service. When management does not understand what their customers want, a gap 1 exists.
Very often, organisations research to find out what are their markets needs and wants, but later can occur a divergence. When customer needs change but the product remains the same, gap 1 increases, as the service becomes less attractive (Parasuraman etal, 1991).
Gap 2: Management perception versus service quality specifications
A gap 2 situation occurs when managers know their customers needs, but do not deliver it, either for unwillingness or incapability. Reasons for gap 2 to happen could be inadequate commitment to service quality, absence of goal setting, lack of perception of feasibility, and lack of standardization. The pursuit to achieve short-term profits refrain companies to invest in equipments and people, causing service quality issues (Parasuraman etal, 1991).
Gap3: Service quality specifications versus service delivery
Gap 3 occurs when employees are unwilling or unable to deliver the appropriate service that was specified by management. In this case managers understand their customers needs, develop strategies and tasks to fulfil these needs, but in the moment of employee and costumer interaction it does not occur (Parasuraman etal, 1991).
Gap 3 could be minimised through training and development, rewarding and internal marketing campaigns. Human resources department plays a major role in this task.
Gap 4: Service delivery versus external communications
A company creates gap 4 when it promises more than it can deliver, creating disappointments to its customers. Good sense and ethic when advertising should be primordial in any circumstances (Parasuraman etal, 1991). The image of a company that cheats or lies to its costumers leads to an extremely bad reputation and negative word of mouth.
Gap 5: Expected service versus perceived service
Last but not least, gap 5 is a function of the other gaps. It pictures the difference among expected quality and perceived quality. If any of the other 4 gaps increases or decreases, gap 5 will follow it (Parasuraman etal, 1991).
The diagram below represents the 5 gaps model of quality service.
2.9 Criticisms and limitations of the SERVQUAL
According to Oh (1997) the use of the difference of the scores contributes to discrepancies and errors, affecting the reliability and valididyt of the model. Such finding suggests that caution has to be taken when using the scores, and that additional work is essential to the development of measures of assessing the quality of services.
In addition it is also noticeable that the SERVQUAL lacks in ties with statistics, economics and even psychology theories, therefore many arguments has formed a doubtful opinion regards its relaibility.
2.10 Other service quality and costumer satisfaction measurement models
Obviously, the SERVQUAL is not the only model available to measure service quality and costumer satisfaction. Indeed, there is a range of variety of models out there. Some of them will be quickly explained in this study.
2.10.1 The expectancy-disconfirmation model (EDM)
The principle of expectancy theory was early stated by Lewin (1938) who hypothesized that individuals make decisions on the most appropriate action to take based on their expectations of the outcomes of that action. After being reviewed by many researchers, the model developed to two processes: the formation of expectations and the disconfirmation/ confirmation of the expectations through performance evaluations (Oh, 1997; available at http://proquest.umi.com.newdc.oum.edu.my/pqdweb).
3.1 Research Process
This research will include several components of different character, promoting the approach to new problems, providing bibliographic survey, offering a selection of methodologies, as well as providing a critical analysis of results (Saunders, et al, 2003).
In order for the aims of this research to be met it is necessary to gain an understanding of the practices of the service quality and customer satisfaction assessments applied within The Crowne Plaza Hotel (please see appendix II). This data will be given by one manager of the company, and will be adapted for a experimental application of the SERVQUAL model.
The research and development will comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to build knowledge accumulation, including not only the practices of the service quality and customer satisfaction assessments model researched but how would be applied within The Crowne Plaza Hotel in order to achieve competitive advantage and business success.
The purpose of the literature review is theoretically discussing ideas that exist about the given topic. Data sources, such as library catalogues and indexes will be scanned for secondary data. This will produce a list of journals and newspaper articles, published books and internet sources (Saunders, et al, 2003).
The secondary research will be complemented by primary research, through questionnaires and interviews with stakeholders of the organization in question.
In case of interviews and questionnaires, the manager cooperating with this research will be fully informed about the, methods and intended possible uses of the research, what their participation in the project entails, the strict confidentiality, and academic purpose only (Bell, 1999).
The project proposes to use analytical and theoretical framework, which extends descriptive research, making suggestions of why and how practices of the service quality and customer satisfaction assessments plays an important role in the competitive advantage, profitability and success of the firm (Yin, 2003).
A method of both, quantitative and qualitative approach will be applied in order to examine values, attitudes and perceptions aspects of the research subject. (Flick, 2003)
The departure point will be deductive, with the observation of the SERVQUAL model, fed by the organisation information’s collected where conclusions will be critically evaluated against facts.
Moreover, a phenomenological philosophy will be implemented, applying a case study approach, since this kind of research methodology is ideally suited to investigate the insights into the service quality and customer satisfaction in theory and practice (Yin, 2003).
The data collected for this research was taken between the months of January, February and March 2009, it consists of 380 customer satisfaction surveys, applied by the hotel. This surveys were answered by guests, either on the check-out or on the hotel web site, after their stay in the hotel. At the time of the data collection, was common practice of the hotel’s front desk manager to put the weekly result together and send to all hotel departments, so they could have a picture of the guest’s feedback.
3.2 Research Theories
In order to achieve this reaserch objectives it will be necessary to apply many reaserch theories that reinforces the reliability of it. The theories used in this research will be briefly explained one by one.
3.2.1 Case study
According to Robson (2002:178) cited by Saunders et al, 2003, p.93), a case study is “a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evedence”. A case study approach is recommended to those reasearchs that essentially aims to explain ‘why’, ‘how’ such phenomenon occurs, as well as in research that includes surveys (Saunders, 2003; Yin,2003).
A case study is also a scientific way of explore an existing theory, which is one of the main objectives of this research, as is analysing the use of SERVQUAL (Saunders, 2003).
3.2.2 Descriptive studies
In order to have a clear picture of the scenario studied is essentially important to describe with accuration every data collected. As cited by Saunders et al (2003, p.97), Robson, 2002:59 describes the objective of descriptive research as ‘ to portray an accurate profile of persons, events or situations’.
3.2.3 Deductive method
Complementing the case study approach, a deductive method could be simply described as way of what we would think of a scientific research or theory, moving from theory to practice (Bailey, 2006; Cottrell, 2005; Saunders, 2003).
“It involves the development of a theory that is subjected to a rigorous test” (Saunders, 2003, p. 86). The deductive method has many characteristics. “First, there is the search to explain casual relationships between variables” (Saunders, 2003, p. 86). Then, hypothesis development, followed by hypothesis testing, normally using quantitative data, but could also being backed up by qualitative data.
3.2.4 Quantitative data
On the other hand quantitative research apply measurements and normally considered as better than qualitative research. Ghauri and Gronhaug (2005; p. 109) explains that “the difference between quantitative and qualitative methods and approach is not just a question of quantification, but also a reflection of different perspectives on knowledge and research objectives”.
A method of qualitative approach will be applied in order to examine values, attitudes, and perceptions aspects of the research subject.
3.2.5 Qualitative data
A narrative analysis process was implemented to interpret the data that were collected from the research portion of this project. Thomas (2003; p.1) argues that “Qualitative methods involves a researcher describing kinds of characteristics of people and events without comparing events in terms of measurements or amounts”
3.3 Research Design
The survey consists of a questionnaire of 44 questions (picked by the hotel’s own customer satisfaction survey) related to the quality of the service provided by the hotel. The guests (sample = 380) will answer the questions according to their perception of the service received, whilst the managers (sample = 4) will answer the questions according to what they expect the overall of the guests to answer.
The answers will range between score 1 to score 5. Being 1 the best degree of satisfaction and 5 the worst degree of dissatisfaction, (Saleh and Ryan, 1991) having some variations as follows:
Score 1: very satisfied / definitely would / much more than you paid / much better / excellent / yes
Score 2: somewhat satisfied / probably would / somewhat more than you paid / somewhat better / very good
Score 3: neither / might or might not / about what you paid / about the same / good
Score 4: somewhat dissatisfied / probably would not / somewhat lees than you paid / somewhat worse / fair
Score 5: very dissatisfied / definitely would not / much less than you paid / much worse / terrible / no
In the data analysis, each question will be illustrated with a comparative graphic between the perceptions of the guests, with the expectations of the managers highlighted in the text.
4.1 Company review
The Crowne Plaza Hotel – Kansas City, is part of the Intercontinental Hotels Group (IHG). The IHG is an American hotel group that owns 7 hotel brands, among them are the Intercontinental Hotels and Resorts, Holliday Inn and Holliday Inn Express, Hotel Indigo, Staybridge Suits, and Candlewood Suits. The group has more than 620,000 guests rooms, in 4,200 hotels worldwide, spread across nearly 100 countries. The hotels are either owned or leased, or is franchised, or just managed by the group (www.ihgplc.com).
The Crowne Plaza Hotels brand alone has 83,170 guest rooms among 349 hotels, and it is located in nearly 50 countries (IHG annual report 2007). “With a clear vision for the business – to become the most preferred, admired and successful hotel company in the world. The group wants their brands to be the most sought after in the industry (…)” (IHG annual report 2003, p.2). It is currently growing, with 126 hotels in the pipeline, the Crowne Plaza Hotel is expecting to add 36,362 guest rooms to its portfolio by 2010. (IHG annual report 2007). It “was recently recognised by Lodging Hospitality Magazine as one of the industries top growing brands” (www.ihgplc.com).
The brand nominates itself as a value for money hotel, and is designed for business and leisure travellers, offering simple elegance and facilities for business meetings, with conference rooms and business technology to attend the needs of the business traveller, as well as fitness centre and swimming pool for the leisure times. It’s buildings are located in major urban centres, gateway cities and resort destinations. (www.ihgplc.com)
The IHG is aware that to enhance its business growth, it has to focus on high-quality reputation, therefore they developed a culture that supports these corporate aspiration, creating the Great Hotels Guest Love Progamme, that has as its main goal to provide excellent service level to its guest worldwide. As well as keeping an attractive reputation to its brands, not only to the guests, but also to possible investors, employees and business partners (IHG annual report 2007).
The IHG has an internal audit committee that is responsible for quality assurance of its hotels processes. This supervision pays special attention to spot new and emerging risks in the extent that is more concerned to the financial risks that it could experience, looking after its shareholders interests (IHG annual report 2007).
4.2 Data Analysis
The data analysis of this research will be based on the 5 dimensions of the SERVQUAL components. Instead of comparing expectations against perceptions of guest’s, as seen in the original model, it was made a slightly change of the model, to adapt this research to the data acquired, the comparison of the guest’s perceptions of the service will be made against 3 manager’s expectations for the service delivered.
The questionnaire, as previously explained, was divided on the 5 dimensions of quality service (tangibles, responsiveness, empathy, assurance and reliability) in order to be more didatic. Each dimension will be commented in relation to the questions that had most relevance, or shown more difference or proximity between expectations and perceptions.
When appropriate some questions will show the expectation of all managers; in others only the opinion of the manager in charge of the department concerned with the matter.
The data analysis will use graphs, charts, interview with the managers and also some literature review, when suitable. The interview was conducted with only one manager, that served as a speaker person to the others. It was an informal interview, where the manager was asked to comment some of the most interesting results. It was not used a previous manufactured questionnaire.
The tangible aspect of the surveys relates to anything that concerns the appearance of physical facilities, the tools or equipment used to provide the service and communication material. To analyse the service received, guests look for details of the building, web sites and reservation systems for example. The physical aspect is the most obvious and easier to spot defection, therefore, to correct as well (Van Looy, B et al, 2003; Parasuraman et al, 1990; Ryan and Saleh,1991).
Overall physical conditions of the hotel
“At the time these service quality surveys were applied, the physical conditions of the hotel was the biggest concern among every manager of the company. As the hotel was going through a structural refurbishment, we were receiving an increased amount of complaints regarding the work in progress in most areas of the building” (interview with Bezerra, 2009).
For this question all the 3 managers collaborating with this research were expecting that the majority of the answers were going to score 5. Which ironically, was the least scored, with only 49 people choosing the most dissatisfied answer. Score 1 was the second least scored with 53 people choosing it. In third place came score 2, with 80 guests. Score 4 coming next with 90 people. And last, with majority of votes score 3 had 107 people voting for it.
With this rather surprising result we could conclude that although people were not happy with the troubles and chaos caused by the refurbishment work, this did not affected their perceptions of the quality of the building itself. Moreover, this result might have come positive because all guests surveyed are regular costumers (interview with Bezerra, 2009).
The hotel exterior was not affected by the refurbishment, as the work was only done internally at the time of the survey. The building of 25 floors maintain its original glass exterior and has a modern appearance (interview with Bezerra, 2009).
The 3 managers all shared the same opnion that most guests were going to choose score 2 as their perceptions. It actually came up that score 3 was the most popular answer again, with 141 people going for it. Second most voted was score 2 with 81 people. In third place came score 4 with 71 votes. Fourth was score 1, with 65 affirming that they are delighted with the features of the external building. Only 20 people out of 380 were terribly disappointed with the exterior of the building.
As one of the most affected area by the refurbshiment, the lobby and reception area surely was not being expected to cause a great impression on the guests. With part of the ceiling being repaired and carpet being replaced, management was pretty much aware of the dissatisfaction of the guests (interview with Bezerra, 2009).
Although, the works caused much disruption and complaints, one more time the results surprised. The housekeeping manager was betting on a little understanding from the costumers, and expected that the majority would vote for score 4, whilst managers from the maintenance and reception departments were expecting most people to be terribly dissatisfied and choose the score 5, which in fact happened, with 113 people voting for it. But the surprise came as it was expected much more than only 29,7% of the people surveyed to choose score 5. In second, came score 3, with 87 votes. As if it could not get more unpredictable, a good 74 voted for score 1. Score 4 came up in fourth place with 69 votes. And last, score 2 with 35 votes.
The surprising results was commented by the housekeeping manager, as probably “a result of the previous experiences as the survey is only made by guests holding the hotel loyalty card, or even a look beyond the refurbishment, as if the guests were trying to judge how the area would look good after the work done” (interview with Bezerra, 2009).
Still influenced by the refurbishment, this question is surely affected too. In fact the refurbishment took place in order to give a “new atmosphere” and fresh appearance to the hotel. As it had been a little while since the last up-dates in the features of the building. As mentioned before, features such as carpet and ceiling for example were in need of a fresh appearance (interview with Bezerra, 2009).
Once more, managers shared the same opnion and were “betting” in score 4 as the most popular perception among guests. In fact, they nearly got the right hunch. Score 4 came as the second most popular answer, with 93 people voting for it. Score 3 was the most popular, with 109 people. 76 guests answered score 5. Score 1 came up with 60 votes, and score 2 with 41 people.
“Crowne Plaza is positioned as The Place to Meet and with good reason. Nearly 80 percent of our customers are business travelers, and business meetings are a primary driver of room revenues. Our goal is to provide the best experience in the industry for meeting planners and attendees” (ihg.com/development).
The Crowne Plaza developed marketing programs to ensure successful meetings and satisfied meeting planners (including a 2-Hour RFP Response Guarantee, a designated Crowne Meetings Director, an itemized Daily Meeting Debrief). In order to reach business executives who are the decision-makers in choosing meeting venues the hotel built a sucessfull partnership with the PGA Tour. To capture attention of this audience, Crowne Plaza Hotels & Resorts launched its first national television advertising campaign in April 2007 (ihg.com/development).
Crowne Plaza Hotels make sure that its facilities works as an extended office to its business guests. Such effort has been enjoying great success winning many hospitality awards in this category (ihg.com/annual_report).
As one of the most important tool for business and personal daily activities, the Plaza Crowne invests a lot of effort in its internet connexion, security, and facilities (Interview with Bezerra, 2009).
The managers interviwed had a relatively high expectation of this subject, as it is a feature of every hotel that is taken for granted. The housekeeping manager, obviously the most concerned, was expecting that majority of guests would choose score 1. The results came up as the housekeping manager had thought with 112 guests sharing the best opinion of the cleanliness of the habitations (Interview with Bezerra, 2009).
In the opinion of the managers, the guest’s rooms and furnishings are in a good state of conservation and offers the same level of comfort of other hotels in the same category. Taking into consideration that the hotel belongs to a chain of well-known hotels, this is another feature that is also taken for granted by the costumers (Interview with Bezerra, 2009).
Indeed, all managers had a good guess, although just the reception manager actually got it right, but as we can notice that the margem of difference is as little as 1.8%, representing on 7 votes of difference.
New mattresses were bought by the hotel about 3 months before the survey was made, consequentely, this made managers be more confident about the guests satisfaction in this matter, which in fact had extremely positive results. (interview with Bezerra, 2009).
As one of the main features in the hotel being engaged in the refurbishment, the carpet conditions was also one of the source of complaints and concern for the managers. The complaints were normally made not because of the condition of the carpet itself, but because of the disruption caused by the work. Although it did not last too long, but for some days, some areas of the hotel were disrupted, causing disappointments to the guests that wished to use such areas. (Interview with Bezerra, 2009)
“Quality employees are hard to find and hard to keep, which is why we offer training and retention programs to assist Crowne Plaza hotels in attracting loyal people whose individual drive and talents take guest service to the next level” (Crowne Plaza annual report 2007).
The reliability dimension of service is related with the degree of consistency of performance effectiveness and dependability. This measures and analyses if the firm performs the service correctly the first time and that honours its promises. This service dimension is closely linked with customer relationship management (CRM) therefore, it is extremely important to build a reliable image in order to acquire customer’s trust and retention (Ryan and Saleh,1991; Lee et al, 2004; Johns et al, 2004).
This was a peculiar result as guests perceptions appear to be nearly equally divided. It is a shame that was not possible get to know or talk with guests to hear what they have to say about this question. Why their opinions were so different from each other? What kind of different experiences did they have? Was it all about disappointments with the refurbishment? Maybe not. Managers seems to point out the refurbishment as the major cause of dissatisfaction, however, reliability is not based on a temporary problem or event that prevents a company to function well. In contrary reliability consists of the long run service effectiveness ( Parassuraman et al, 1990).
As part of a chain, the Crowne Plaza Hotels offers standardised services, most guests are constantly travelling and staying in other branches. In a way that is almost impossible to do not compare each stay with past experiences. “Once more, we blame the refurbishment for the negative results above” (interview with Bezerra, 2009).
The overall service experience summirises the whole objective of the SERVQUAL. As noticed managers expectations were low compared to what the hotel has achieved (awards for good service quality). As leaders of the company, managers should not have such a low expectancy of the service that they are providing.
“Priority Club Rewards Voted Program of the Year two years running by the Freddie Awards and Global Traveler magazine, the IHG loyalty program, Priority Club Rewards, is the largest in the hotel industry — serving more than 33 million members worldwide. And it’s no wonder, as there are no blackout dates and points can be redeemed at any hotel in the world that accepts the American Express Card. IHG prides itself on the renowned Priority Club Rewards program, recognizing our greatest value is driving consumers to IHG hotels” (ihg.com/development)
One important point that is closely related to the successful Priority Club Program of the hotel is their equally successful web site and 24 hours booking system. With the power of its advanced reservation’s system and the efficiencies of its revenue optimization programs, the hotel does not need a full reservations team, benefiting the whole company’s operations for freeing staff to other duties (ihg.com/development). Unfortunately, the hotel customer survey failed to include questions regarding their web site and booking system, consequentely refrain to get to know customers opinion and possibly score even higher.
Responsiveness of the service is concerned with the employees willingness to help the customers and to provide prompt service. This dimension is closely related with the degree of motivation and job satisfaction of the employee. As intangible as service is, this aspect may vary greatly from employee to employee, or even depending on the mood and good will of the person in the time of the service delivery, which should not occur. In addition, it also depends on how busy the employee is at the moment, and how much time and patience a costumer is willing to wait for the delivery of the service. (Ryan and Saleh,1991; Lee et al, 2004; Johns et al, 2004).
Obviously this question relates to the general responsiveness of the service as a whole. Although the majority of guests had a positive answer, 25.7% of the guests had concerns (total of score 4 and 5) which still a big stake with a negative impression.
Here is the key point where an organisation can make the difference and take competitive advantage among competitors. Whether or not the company will delight or only satisfy its customers. Companies that think ahead and has a proactive behaviour tends to delight and win costumers loyalty, with some even becoming “advocates” of the company, spreading positive word of mouth which is the best kind of free marketing (Kotler, 2003).
Assurance is the dimension of service quality that measures the degree of knowledge of the job and courtesy of employees, and also their ability to inspire trust and confidence to costumers (Van Looy, B et al, 2003; Parasuraman et al, 1990; Ryan and Saleh,1991; Kotler, 2003).
The check-in experience is the first personal contact that guests have with the hotel during their stay, therefore, of extreme importance, as they say “the first impression stays”. The check-in will influence whether the relationship between guest and hotel is successful or not.
Subject to multiples interpretations of what do they want to analyse when asking of safety and security, this question could be related with physical security (threat of robbery, terrorism etc.) or security and safety related to errors, the degree of trust in the employees actions, for instance.
In simple words the meaning of empathy is the capability of an indivual to put himself or herself in another person’s situation, is to bring costumer’s problem to yourself, and try to solve the situation as if your own. Degree of caring, individualized attention to customers (Van Looy, B et al, 2003; Parasuraman et al, 1990; Ryan and Saleh,1991).
“Conveniently situated in the heart of downtown Kansas City's Power & Light Entertainment District adjacent to the Bartle Hall Kansas City Convention Center, this luxurious Crowne Plaza Hotel offers stunning views of historic downtown Kansas City. The Crowne Plaza Kansas City is located within walking distance to the Power & Light District, H&R Block and the new Sprint Center Arena. Within minutes to Kemper Arena, American Royal, River Market, Crowne Center and the County Club Plaza, the Crowne Plaza Hotel is centrally located to all retail and entertainment venues Kansas City has to offer”(http://www.ichotelsgroup.com/h/d/cp/1/en/hotel/MKCWS/welcome?start=1).
Surprisingly this question of the survey came up with a rather strange result, as not only managers but nobody would argue against the evidences, that the convenience and accessibility of the hotel is one of its best charachteristics. Not sure what would make a guest rate it poorly in this aspect, it could be left for misinterpretation of the question, traffic jams around the area (which obviously is beyond control of the hotel) or simply the hotel is far away from the area that the guest needed to go whilst staying in the city (Interview with Bezerra, 2009).
In the globalization era companies face a bigger challenge towards their attitude in the marketplace. Increasingly, they need to adapt a more customer centred philosophy, in order to gain and maintain competitive advantage. Customers expectations are harder to attend as they are increasingly aware of their rights and also have whatchdogs entities on their side, such as Ofcom (Kotler, 1996).
With the growing demand of customers in what relates to quality of products and services purchased, different ways of analysing, improving and measuring these aspects has been developed. Among many other service quality measurement models, the SERVQUAL has appeared as one of the most used in the literature. It had prove to be versatile enough to be used in any service industry, and also very easy to apply, thanks to its didatic characteristics.
The customer satisfaction survey applied by the Crowne Plaza Kansas City hotel is not based in any theory model, but was easily converted to comply with the SERVQUAL features. As a matter of fact, it did have all the service dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) used by the SERVQUAL, but it was not clearly spotted as in the model.
The tangible aspect of the model had a massive influence in the survey, as a refurbishment work was taking place in the hotel at the time that the survey was being conducted. The five dimensions are interrelated, which means that although the refurbishment belongs to the tangible dimension, its course of action had a great influence in the other dimensions results of customer’s perceptions, leading to a result that could be subject to a distorced overall perception.
The refurbishment was a great source of dissatisfaction among guests and because of that also concerned the managers. What suggests that if the survey was made in another time, before or after the refurbishment, it would be achieved different results, likely to be more positive.
The hotel has a great reputation for business which makes their fame for. “Crowne Plaza is positioned as The Place to Meet and with good reason. Nearly 80 percent of our customers are business travelers, and business meetings are a primary driver of room revenues. Our goal is to provide the best experience in the industry for meeting planners and attendees” (ihg.com/development).
The hotel has winning many awards for meeting service quality (www.ichotelsgroup.com/h/d/cp/1/en/hotel/MKCWS?hotelCode=MKCWS) and also for its booking system, strangely the hotel’s customer satisfaction questionnaire does not include any question related to it. As an important asset of the company, it would have been vital to have feedback about it.
In summary, the hotel’s service quality measurement model (please, see appendix II) is generally good, however, the measurement process and analysis would highly benefit if it was included some features from the SERVQUAL, such as the 5 gap’s analysis. Moreover, to get to know exactly what the reasons for dissatisfaction (beyond the refurbishment) from those regular costumers would be of great benefit as well.
The survey was done in a company based in America, which obviously limited the data gathering process, relying on third parties for the acquisition of these datas. Also because of that it was not possible to include interviews with guests. Restricting the enrichment and accuracy of the results perceived.
In addition, the survey focused only in the analisys of the dimensions of the service quality, highlighting the 5th gap of the SERVQUAL, which consists in the analysis of the expected service versus perceived service (Parasuraman etal, 1991).
On top of that, rather than comparing expectations against perceptions of guest’s, as seen in the original model, it was made a slightly change of the model, to adapt this research to the data acquired, the comparison of the guest’s perceptions of the service was made against 3 manager’s expectations for the service delivered.
As the booking system and web site is an important asset of the company, it was essential to have feedback related to it, which controversely the hotel failed to include in the questionnaire. Refraining to get to know customers opinion and even score higher in the survey.
For the enrichment of the hotel’s customer satisfaction programme, it would be interesting to analyse the gaps between spectations and actual perceptions of the costumers. To include in the questionnaire a space for customers to write the reason of their dissatisfactions. Moreover, the company would highly benefit from the survey if started to take more action based on to the results, rather than do it just as an operational obligation.
5.4 Field for further research
As in scientific research is necessary to focus and narrow down the subject researched, hence, this dissertation has many other fields and aspects that was not included.
There would be many place for further attempts to enlarge knowledge and give a broader picture of the subject researched. That would be: to analyse in the prism of the 5 gaps of service; involve spectations and perceptions of guests.
5.5 Ethics in research
Research ethics is mainly concerned on the rights of those people who contributes and or become subject of the study. Wells (1994: 248) cited by Saunders (2003, p.129) ”defines ‘ethics in terms of a code of behaviour appropriate to academics and the conduct of research’”. The course of research should be guided by a code of ethics, providing a statement of principles and procedures that may be followed.
In this study the interviews and questionnaires, given by the manager cooperating with this research will be used of academic purpose only.
Bailey, S (2006) Academic writing: a handbook for international students, (2nd edn), Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.
Bell, J (1999) Doing your research project, (3rd edn), Open University Press, Berkshire.
Berry, L; Parasuraman, A; and Zeithaml, V (1990) Quality service, Free Press, New York.
Berry, L; Parasuraman, A (1991) Marketing services: competing through quality, Free Press, New York.
Clark, G; and Johnston, R (2005) Service Operations Management: improving service delivery, (2nd edn), Pearson Education, Essex.
Cook, S (2002) Customer Care Excellence, (4th edn), Kogan Page Limited, London.
Cottrell, S (2005) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument, Palgrave MacMillan, Hampshire.
Cram, T (2001) Customers that count, Pearson Education Limited, London.
Crowne Plaza facsheet available at: http://www.ihgplc.com/files/pdf/factsheets/factsheet_crowneplaza.pdf; retrieved on: 15/06/09.
Dabholkar, P A; Shepherd C D; and Thorpe, D I (2000), A Comprehensive Framework for Service Quality: An Investigation of Critical Conceptual and Measurement Issues Through a Longitudinal Study, Journal of Retailing, 76 (2), 139–173.
Flick, U (2003) An introduction to qualitative research (2nd edn), Sage Publications, London.
Ghauri, P N and Grounhau K. (2005) Research methods in business studies: a practical guide. 3rd Ed. New York: Finacial Times Prentice Hall.
Holloway, JC (1998) The Business of Tourism, (5th edn), Addison Wesley Longman Publishing, New York.
Hsu, CHC and Powers, T.F (2001) Marketing Hospitality, 3rd edn), Wiley e-book, USA.
Interview with: Luciana Bezerra, Housekeeping Manager, Crowne Plaza Hotel Kansas City, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Johns, N; Avci, T; and Osman, K (2004), Measuring service quality of travel agents: evidence from Northern Cyprus, The service industry journal, Vol.24, No 3, May 2004, pp. 82-100.
John, A and Uysal, M (2003), Introduction, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, Vol.4, No 3/4, 2003, pp. 1-5.
King, C. A. (1995), What is hospitality, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol.14,No 3-4, pp.219-234.
Kotler, P.; Bowen J. and Mackens J.C. (1996) Marketing for Hospitality & Tourism, Pearson Education, New Jersey
Kotler, P. (2003) Marketing Management, (11th edn), Pearson Education, New Jersey.
Lancaster, G; Massingham, L; and Ashford, R (2002) Essentials of Marketing, (4th edn), McGraw-Hill Education, Berkshire.
Landrigan, M (1999) Improving your measurement of customer satisfaction: a guide to creating, conducting, analysing and reporting customer satisfaction measurement programs. Journal of consumer marketing, Vol. 16, No 4, pp.1-4.
Laws, E. (2004), Improving tourism and hospitality services, CABI Publishing, London.
Lee, Y; Lee,Y; Lee, K; Park, D; Moon, H (2004) Exploring the role of service value in the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, Vol. 5 (1), pp.67- 86.
Oh, H. (1997) Structural assessments of the customer satisfaction and service quality models with lodging services: EDM, SERVQUAL, and SERVPERF, Doctor of Philosophy dissertation; available at
Saunder, M; Lewis, P; Thornhill, A (2003) Research methods for business students, (3rd edn), Pearson education, London.
Sharpley, R. (2004) The tourism business: an introduction, (2nd edn), Business Education Publishers, Sunderland.
Ryan, C; Saleh, F (1991) Analysing service quality in the hospitality industry using the SERVQUAL model, The services industry journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp.324-343.
Solomon, M; Marshall, G; and Stuart, E (2006) Marketing: real people, real choices, (4th edn), Pearson Education, New Jersey.
Thomas R. M. (2003) Blending qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.
Van Looy, B; Gemmel, Paul; Van Dierdnock, R (2003) Services management: an integrated approach, (2nd edn), Pearson education, Essex.
Intercontinental Hotels Group available at: (http://www.ihgplc.com/index.asp?pageid=407) retrieved on: 15/06/09.
Intercontinental Hotels Group Annual Report (2003) available at: http://www.ihgplc.com/files/reports/ar2003/downloads/AnnualReview2003.pdf ; retrieved on: 05/04/09.
Intercontinental Hotels Group Annual Report (2007) available at: http://www.ihgplc.com/files/reports/ar2007/downloads/AnnualReview2007.pdf ; retrieved on: 05/04/09.
International tourism challenged by deteriorating world economy, World Tourism Organisation [on line] Available from
Performance measurement, Department of Trade and Industry [on line] Available from URL:http://www.dti.gov.uk/quality/performance; (retrieved on: 16/05/09).
Williams, A (2002), Understanding the hospitality consumer, Butterworth-Heinemann, London.
Yin, R K (2003) Case study research: design and methods, (3rd edn), SAGE Publications, London.
Andaleeb, S S (2001), Service quality perceptions and patient satisfaction: a study of hospitals in a developing country, Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 52 No.9, pp.1359-70.
Babakus, E and Boller, G W (1992), "An empirical assessment of SERVQUAL scale", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 24 pp.253-68.
Baker, S; Bradley, P; Huyton, J, (2004) Principles of hotel front office operations, (2nd Edn), Thomson Learning, London.
Dick, Alan S., and Kunal Basu (1994), Customer Loyalty: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp.99–113.
Ekinci, Y; Riley, M; and Fife-Schaw (1998), Which school of thought? The dimensions of resort hotel quality. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 63-67.
Fornell, Claes (1992), A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience, Journal of Marketing, 56 (1), 6–21.
Francis Buttle, 1996, SERVQUAL: review, critique, research agenda, European Journal of Marketing, Vol.30, Issue 1, pp.8-31
Hayes, B E (1997), Measuring customer satisfaction: survey design, use, and statistical analysis methods. ASQC Quality Press, Milwaukee, Wiscosin.
Henig-Thurau, T (2000), Relationship marketing: gaining competitive advantage through customer satisfaction and customer retention: with 24 tables. Springer, Berlin.
Hill, N and Alexander, J (2000), Handbook of customer satisfaction and loyalty measurement (2nd Edn) Gower, Aldershot.
Kandampully, J; Mok, C; and Sparks, B A (2001), Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure. Haworth Hospitality Press, New York.
McCabe, D; Rosenbaum, M S; and Yurchisin, J (2007), Perceived Service Quality and Shopping Motivations: A Dynamic Relationship, Services Marketing Quarterly, 29 (1), 1-21.
Reid, R D (2006), Hospitality Marketing Management. John Wiley & Sons. Inc., Hoboken.
Woodruff, R B and Gardial, S F (1998), Know your customer new approaches to understanding customer value and satisfaction, Blackwell, Malden, Massachussets.
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
Related ContentAll Tags
Content relating to: "Customer Satisfaction"
Customer Satisfaction can be defined as a quantifiable measurement of how satisfied a customer is with a supplier’s product or service, or the overall experience they had when dealing with the company. Customer satisfaction is often measured using surveys, ratings, and reviews.
Customer Satisfaction in Banking
The objective of this research is to identify the determinants of customer satisfaction in a centralized service delivery environment in the Aruban Banking Industry....
Causes and Strategies for Aggressive Customers
INTRODUCTION Tourism and hotel industry is growing among other world industries due to its significant impacts on the social and economic development of a region or country (Avelini, 2003, p. 130). Th...
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: