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Does Online Engagement Matter in E-Learning?

Info: 8047 words (32 pages) Dissertation
Published: 17th Feb 2022

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Tagged: EducationTechnology


This study aims to investigate the impact of online engagement on the new generations. With the progressive innovation of information technology such as social media and web technology, the impact of online engagement is becoming important. Literature has been suggested that new generations (i.e. generations’ Y and Z) grow up with highly sophisticated media and computer environment and will be more technological-savvy. To address this research goal, a total of 349 participants were recruited in this research. The findings suggest that there is a significant relationship between online engagement and performance in the new generations using social media and web technology for e-learning. This research concludes that with the appropriately use of social media and web technology, and carefully design the online course environment and assessments, there is a significant positive impact on the new generation’s academic performance.

Keywords: e-learning, web technology, social media, online engagement

1. Introduction

E-learning has been discussed widely in the field of higher education and professional training (Warren, 2018; Moore, 2014). E-learning development’s purpose is to support the process of learning in a constructive manner; it is particularly important that students are able to utilize their knowledge and facilitate the process of sharing knowledge (Barzilai-Nahon and Mason, 2010) through an e-learning platform.

Internet/web technology has a great influence on our education and training environment, as well as our social life and work activities (Bolliger and Shepherd, 2018; Astin, 1985; Moore, 2013).  Interactive learning using social media allows effective training for professionals by providing the opportunity for interaction in any work environment.

Nowadays, many universities and workplaces apply e-learning education and training as a cost-effective, easy-to-access, flexible approach. The web and social media technology are increasingly utilized and integrated with e-learning applications to improve social learning and knowledge sharing processes. This research discusses role of e-learning and applies modern social media and web technology in a higher education institute.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Online Engagement

Online Engagement has become a critical focus of attention in a competitive higher education environment (Bolliger and Shepherd, 2018). Many institutions have focused themselves in this online education market sector. Quality assurance has been raised significantly attention for the universities to demonstrate that they add value and enhance the quality of student experience through online teaching strategies such use of technological tools, assessment design for the online teaching and learning, create value added and enhance the quality of the student experience through monitoring and continuous improvement (Dixson et al., 2016). The focus of online engagement has identified with the growth of Y & Z Generations. Many of these generations are technological oriented. Most are highly engaged with online media such as social media (e.g. Facebook).

However, literature suggests that what students do during their university experience is more important than which institution they attend (Kuh, 2002; Krause, 2005; Dixson et al., 2016). A study suggests that student involvement contents that contributes to a range of outcomes including satisfaction, persistence, academic achievements (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005). Stovall (2003) also recommended that engagement is measured by “students’ time on task and their willingness to participate for the activities”. This is also confirmed by other researchers (Krause and Coates, 2008) that the “quality of effort of students themselves devote to educationally purposeful activities that contribute directly to desired outcomes”.

Fredericks and McCoskey (2012) suggested that online engagement can be classified as behavioral engagement that students’ participation in online learning activities that includes behavior rules, engaging virtual classroom as required. Social media literature also suggests that online engagement refers to the learning behaviors that are important for high performance, which may include communication and working as teams with peers (Dixson et al., 2016).

2.2 Constructivist Theory

Constructivist learning has some basis in cognitive learning as a result of the mental construction of a situation. Constructivism, in its most basic form, is piecing together new information with information already known to the student.

The constructivist standpoint is that students have their own opinions and views and will derive their own understanding from a situation.  Central to the constructivist methodology, are three principles (Milne & Taylor, 1995, p. 40):

  • learning involves mental construction of knowledge by individuals, rather than absorption from external sources;
  • the ‘concept of absolute truth’ is replaced with the ‘concept of viability’; and
  • knowledge construction is a social and cultural process mediated by language.

Organizations face the challenge of sustainable e-learning development in the long run (Barbera et al., 2012), as it becomes a global issue. Social, economic, and environmental factors are critical to e-learning development and government strategies. Many researchers and studies have adopted e-learning to maintain a competitive advantage and address a larger scale of global issues (Kaplan, 2010; Anderson, 2007; Driscoll, 2012; Rosenberg, 2001). To this point, this study is particularly interested to explore sustainable development in e-learning in the generations Y and Z? E-learning have benefited traditional classroom learning in number ways, including: 1) building knowledge networks by linking learning resources to a set of competences and 2) improving social networking and building virtual community by better identifying and managing learners’ needs, work context, expertise contributions.

There are four critical are identified in education and the evolution of e-learning design and strategy (Driscoll, 2012; Barbera et al., 2012; Wong, 2009). This research will focus on in adopting the e-learning Model. The components of the e-learning model from pedagogical, technological, process and measurements: include: quality of educational material, usability of e-learning system, information sharing, and overall effectiveness of e-learning outcomes.

Measurement outcome

Pedagogical dimension

Technological dimension

Process dimension

Figure 1: e-Learning Model

Pedagogical dimension – quality of educational materials

The pedagogical dimension of the e-learning model concerns content, audience, goals, media analyses, teaching and learning design approach, and organization of the e-learning environment (Barbera et al., 2012; Driscoll, 2002). Quality of educational material is a key element in the pedagogy dimension. It is vital for the acquisition of knowledge and skills that content be reflected in relevant materials and curricula. The learning environment must be a safe and flexible one that provides adequate resources and facilities.

To determine the quality of content material, two elements—accuracy and significance—will need to be considered (Moore et al., 2001). Accuracy refers to the need for content to be valid and reliable. This means that content must be accurate, relevant, appropriate, complete, and up-to-date throughout all the materials. Significance refers to the need of the content to reflect significant concepts, models, principles, theories or skills in the discipline. In other words, the content must contribute to the field, and the materials must offer an innovative method.  To deliver effective learning materials, e-learning design can be subdivided into three stages (Grosseck, 2009, pg.3):

  • Informative stage – provides the information, program specifications, module handbooks and timetables, reading lists, exam questions, and links to external resources.
  • Integrative stage – provides users with more dynamic interaction and communication to substitute for face-to-face activity, including group discussions, recorded video lectures, online exercises, and formative and summative assessments.
  • Transformation stage – provides the users with an online learning community, access to resources and technologies in innovative and collaborative ways, multimedia simulations, and online seminars with invited experts.

Information and resources can be retrieved easily, no need to redistribute, saving time and energy in researching and managing information; compatibility of the diversity of new technologies increase in modalities of use and the heterogeneity of didactic practices and of types of formation; the ability to create digital content (e.g. media and video-casting).

Furthermore, the ethical considerations of e-learning relate to social and political influences, cultural diversity, bias, geographical diversity, learner diversity, information accessibility, etiquette, and legal issues (Barbera et al., 2012; Kaplan, 2010). This institutional issue is also added to the concerns with administrative and academic affairs, and student services related to e-learning.

Technological dimension – e-learning tool

Innovation in technology and increasing global access to the internet is leading inevitably to a seamless world of e-learning. Research shows that adult learning in professional training has increased dramatically and will so even more in the coming years, thanks to e-learning (Barbera et al., 2012; Driscoll, 2002; Garrison and Kanuka, 2004). Technology has been perceived as a part of environment management. Past studies have suggested that a higher percentage of younger generations use the internet for school, work, and leisure (Driscoll, 2002). The research showed that 79% of people believe that the internet has a positive influence on learners’ outcomes, whereas 60% believe that using e-learning tools have improved their relationships with teachers/trainers (Driscoll, 2002). Further research has shown that students expect 24/7 service for their education, the availability of teaching support, the quality of service, and availability of materials and authority of decision making (Barbera et al., 2012). In addition, online help and tutorials as well as other emerging forms are essential for e-learning. Americans have adopted e-learning quickly because self-directed, personalized, on-demand, specific, peer-to-peer learning meets many of the cultural drivers already in place. E-learning designs need to allow users to skim or skip content they are already familiar with and allow them to go deeper into materials when necessary.

From a technological perspective, technological dimensions include “evaluation, interface design, resource support, management, ethical and the institution” (Kaplan, 2010). The technological dimension of the e-learning model reviews the issues of technology infrastructure in e-learning environments (Barbera et al., 2012; Garrison and Kanuka, 2004;). This includes infrastructure planning, hardware and software, and user interface design.

Interface design is one of the most important factors in the technological dimension, as the overall design of the e-learning system is concerned with site design, navigation, web content design, and usability (Wong, 2009). The evaluation for e-learning includes both the assessment of learners and the evaluation of the instruction and learning environment (Grosseck, 2009, p. 3; Kaplan, 2010):

  • Internet based learning makes it easier and faster to access information, when and where it is needed;
  • The integration of plug-in applications makes Web 2.0 technology more user-oriented;
  • Users and social bookmarking services have more opportunities for information sharing and collaboration;
  • Authenticated users have the capability to control and manage resources;
  • Ability to share accumulated experiences (blogs, micro-blogs, wikis, Flickr, YouTube) and resources;
  • Compatibility with educational fields and existing contextual dynamics;

Web 2.0 is the second-generation of web-based technology and user-centered services which provide a more sustainable learning environment than the traditional face-to-face learning setting. The increased cost effectiveness (such as reduced space (e.g. class-room, buildings)), decrease in paper use for teaching materials, and reduced cost of travelling have had a significant, positive environmental impact. The advantages of online learning using web, internet, and mobile technologies allow users to generate and share content/information (Garrison and Kanuka, 2004). This collaborative effort is a new way to overcome the limitations of the traditional face-to-face teaching and learning approaches (Zhang et al., 2004). All helpful tools such as gamification tools, social networking sites, pro-casts, wikis, blogs, participations, tagging, wikipedia, instant communication tools, e-profiles, e-portfolios, and the integration of a range of mobile technologies and applications expand the classroom to the virtual world and allow everyone to participate in a true virtual classroom (Kietzmann et al., 2011).

Itmazi and Tmeizeh (2008) suggests that e-learning is a tool used to enhance and support the traditional learning system, and can be used in blended e-learning, which endeavors to combine synchronous e-learning, asynchronous e-learning, and traditional face-to-face learning.  Using social media tools such as Twitter, Facebook, Myspace, and other collaborative interactive tools allows for knowledge sharing. Leaners are also able to construct new knowledge through interactive communication and timed information sharing.

Process dimension – information sharing

Organizations and universities face the challenge of ensuring that quality teaching and training meets the needs of professionals and students so as to satisfy their learning requirements. It has been suggested that teachers should instill the concept of lifelong learning into their students, and that the best way to do this is to have commitment to and enthusiasm for learning itself. One of the most important criteria in learning is that students should take on the responsibility of learning. Past research has suggested that constructivist self-regulated learning is one of the most useful approaches for adults and online learning (Wong, 2009).

The Technology-Values-Behaviour theory describes that there are different perceptions in behaviour and values between the net-generation and baby boomers. It has been illustrated that young knowledge workers exhibit fundamental differences in the use of information, personal interactions, and social values compared to baby boomers (Barzilai-Nahon & Mason, 2010, p.4). The distinguishing aspects in this generation of knowledge workers is multitasking, as well as experiential, collaborative, adaptive, and direct behaviours (Maris et al., 2018).

From an organizational perspective, knowledge constitutes a valuable asset and entails sustainable competitive advantages and organizational growth (Wong, 2009). E-learning tools in tandem with social media tools allow for the propagation of knowledge sharing activities. This is particularly useful for collaborative environments. Previous research has suggested that professional workers tend to share knowledge with their colleagues in e-learning environments, which provides positive effects on organizational culture. Social media tools provide positive group discussions and collaboration. Research has shown that ideas generated from this knowledge sharing are superior to those generated in a traditional, face-to-face environment (Zhang et al., 2004). It has been suggested that this e-learning environment allows contributors to have time to re-think and research before they contribute (Garrison and Kanuka, 2004). In a face-to-face learning environment, negative risks consequences such as resistance and isolation occur in knowledge sharing. To promote knowledge sharing and remove knowledge sharing obstacles, organizations should employ effective e-learning platforms and social media applications to encourage discovery and knowledge sharing.

Learning processes have historically been based on the metaphor of acquisition (relating to an individual’s ability to construct and acquire knowledge) (Nonaka, 2009), whilst recent models have introduced participation as the metaphorical basis. The constructivist standpoint is that learners have their own opinions and views and will derive their own understanding from a situation (Wong, 2009). Central to the constructivist methodology are three principles (Wong, 2009; Garrison and Kanuka, 2004):

  1. Learning involves the mental construction of knowledge by individuals, rather than absorption from external sources
  2. The concept of ‘absolute truth’ is replaced with the concept of ‘viability’
  3. Knowledge construction is a social and cultural process mediated by language

Constructivist methodology encourages a teaching and learning process approach that gives learners the opportunity to participate in a learning community where the instructor is not the only source of information and knowledge (Nonaka, 2009). The literature suggests that constructivism’s self-regulated learning involves allowing leaners to develop their own theories, and through a series of cycles of reflection and reconstruction to develop a solution (Wong, 2009). This interpretation is similar to the definition of the self-regulating learning approach by Zimmerman and Schunk (5), as “the degree that students are meta-cognitively, motivationally and behaviourally active participants in their own learning process” (Puustinen and Pulkkinen, 2001). This is particularly suitable to e-learning. Learning process design is critical to learning outcomes. Technology supports a range of online activities such as using the blended learning approach (e.g. case studies, reflective online tasks, individual group projects, ongoing online discussions, literature reviews, research projects, portfolio activities). Computers can be seen as receptacles in which knowledge can be stored and from which it can be easily retrieved. Hence, they play a major role in e-learning.

Many organizations have adopted e-learning to supplement their strategies in educating their employees (Maris et al., 2018; Clark & Mayer, 2011). The growth rate of e-learning in government has been 11% per year on average since 2004 (Barbera et al., 2012). However, it has been suggested that there remains a need for traditional learning in some workplaces such as hospital settings (Triola et al., 2012). It has been suggested that the aim of e-learning is to support the process of learning in a constructive manner. In addition, in order to enhance the benefits of e-learning, the community of learners needs to be structured, as they have information and knowledge which needs to be structured in order to facilitate the process of sharing knowledge (Clark & Mayer, 2011).

Measurement dimension – learning outcomes

There are many benefits of e-learning for future sustainability. These include the increased quality of teaching and learning effects, environmental benefits such as reduced costs for education providers and students by reducing travel and lodging, and reduced production and distribution cost of materials and building fees (Itmazi & Tmeizeh, 2008; Clark & Mayer, 2011). Effective measurements of learning outcomes that encompass hard (e.g. knowledge and technical) and soft (e.g. attitude) skills are linked to learning goals and positive participation in society. Huynh (2005) suggested that the measurement of learners’ performance should be altered when applying e-learning tools (Clark & Mayer, 2011).

Wong (2009) explored how the constructivist e-learning approach affected university students’ learning outcomes. Their findings showed high levels of students’ expectations on every construct. The results also showed that students who used the constructivist approach in e-learning had better learning outcomes and knowledge development than learners who used the traditional approach. Wong (2009) also suggested that there is a strong relationship between constructivist self-regulating factors (i.e. motivation, desire to develop understanding, level of understanding that is progressively refined over time, reflection and reconstruction to stimulate learning, and developmental constraints on learning). The study found that the constructivist self-regulating approach is best suited for research-based assignments, adult training and professional setting for improving learning outcomes (Wong, 2009).

3. Research Design

In this study, constructivist theory was deployed for assessments for the context of online courses. Data was directly collected from the Moodle statistics and survey. Aggregate data and statistics can provide meaningful findings for the online engagement research.  The assessment task was designed and formulated from Yang and Yuen (2010) suggestions and constructivist theory. Table 1 provides a summary of learning environment and the assessment tasks.

As indicated in Table 1, the assessment is designed to test the student’s understanding of the different aspects of information systems and accounting studies. To achieve the learning objective, students are tested the different aspects of the given topics, conduct research, provide discussions, and suggest solutions and their personal opinions. In relation to create ownership of learning and problem solving, students are also allowed freely choosing a topic related to their interests. Further, the constructivist theory suggests that the assignments have been designed to develop the student’s ability to critically review literature, evaluate a real-world scenario, undertake research into possible solutions, then select the solution that provides a best fit for the organization and justify the decision. The assignments should be designed to provide students with practical skills as well as an understanding of the information systems and auditing issues that are relevant regardless of their chosen career paths. The constructivist model is recommended to allow different aspects and solutions to solve for problem solving. Therefore, the assessment task should be designed for students to provide their personal opinions and solutions to solve the problem. Further the conditions of the learning environment should be very similar to the real-life.

It is recommended that the assessment task that students are required conduct research (state-of-practice and state-of-art), evaluate a real-world scenario, and provide opinions and solutions to the problems identified. During the learning process, students can discuss with their group members. They can post their questions and comments via the discussion broad, the interactive course website to allow an interactives learning. To provide guidance for student learning, an overview of the assessment task is given during the lecture time. Regular feedback, consultation time and online engagement are available to guide the student in the learning process. The courses are advanced subjects in Information Systems and Auditing. Students are further building their knowledge in the disciplines.

Further, they are encouraged to choose one of the given topics which they are be interested and have prior knowledge. Virtual discussion forums are also designed to provide for their social interactions. Students use virtual communication tools such mobile apps, email, Moodle tool, online forums, Skype, Google Docs for communications. The assignments were given that allowed students to work in groups or as individuals. This is designed to suit their learning strategies. For instance, some students preferred working individually whereas others prefer working in groups.  The students can a fully integrated social media and web technologies for the online engagement e-learning while others mainly use the traditional methods such as face-to-face. Next section will be discussed the impact of social media and technologies on student learning outcomes and online engagement.

Table 1: Learning Environment Design and Assessment Tasks

Learning environment design Assessment task
Organize a small assessment task to achieve overall learning objective Test the student’s understanding of the different aspects of information systems and accounting studies.
Ownership of learning and problem solving Undertake the ownership to conduct research in relevant accounting topics
Task must closely related to real life Ability to critically review literature, evaluate a real-world scenario, undertake research into possible solutions, then select the solution.
Allows different aspects or solutions to solve the assessment task/problem Free to provide personal opinions and solutions to the problems that are identified.
The learning environment should be very similar to the real-life environment Evaluate a real-world scenario
Allows interactive learning Teamwork is allowed. Post their questions and comments via the discussion broad, the interactive learning system.
Guidance should be provided Overview of the assessment task, regular feedback, online engagement, and consultation time are available.
Building on the students’ prior knowledge Students are encouraged to choose one of the given topics which they are be interested and have prior knowledge.
Opportunity for social interaction Students can conduct virtual discussion forums their assignments.
Communication with peers and others Communication tools such as Facebook, Twitter, email, Moodle Announcements, Online forums and chatrooms, mobile messaging, Skype are deployed.
Allows alternatives of learning strategies The assignments are given that allow students to work in groups or as individuals.

4. Implementation

To develop online engagement using social media and internet technologies, a summary of the online strategies for in Table 2. The online teaching includes virtual classroom using Moodle, PowerPoint lecture notes, lecture recordings, videos, readings, industry news and forums, self-revision tutorials. Due to the programs accreditation requirements, the virtual classroom is not deployed in Auditing and participants are required to attended all lectures with no additional videos are provided to them. Both courses are at the advanced level and the generations Y and Z participants are familiar with the university online learning system, Web and social technologies. Participants use self-direct guides and videos for the software training. Online discussion forums, online quizzes, and cloud platform (e.g. google drive) are implemented for the assessments.  To create online engagement for learning, badges are given for incentive purpose. Social media tool such as Facebook are used to create the peer virtual community. The open forums are also providing a triangulation (multi-dimensional discussions) virtual learning community. Facebook, Twitter, Moodle announcement, email, online fourms/ chatrooms, Skype and mobile messaging are used for the communications and consultations.

Table 2: Online Strategies

Purposes Strategies Accounting Information Systems (AIS) Auditing
Standard Teaching Virtual classroom using Moodle tool x Traditional face-to-face class
  Lecture notes PowerPoints x x
  Lecture recording (standard two hours audio recording from lectures x  


(prerecorded short summaries of lectures to replace standard lectures)

x x
  Readings x x
  Industry news / forums x x
  Self-revision tutorials x x
Software training Self-directed guides and videos x x
Assessment Forums


(Q&A and General)



(Q&A discussion forums: students need to submit their answers before seeing others)



(General discussion forums: students view other answers before submitting their own)

  Online Quiz x x
  Written assignment


Google docs

Online engagement Badges x  
Virtual community Peer learning forums using Facebook x  
  Open forums (triangulation learning) x  
Communications Announcement x x
  Email x x
  Online chat rooms x  
  Skype x  
  Twitter x  
  Facebook x  
  Mobile messaging x  

AIS and Auditing participants are given a range of online tool to use for the assessments. Table 3 shows the assessment tasks, percentages of assessment and technological tools to support these assessments. Note that both groups have similar assessment tasks and participants are required to complete software assignments (ie. SPA and ACL). The only different is that there is no written assignment for the auditing course.

Table 3 Assessment tasks and online tool

Assessment task AIS Auditing Online tool
Online quizzes 10% 20% Online quiz
Software Assignment 14% SAP (Individual) 20% ACL (Team) Study guide and prerecorded videos
Participation 10% Participation in Discussion Forums 10% Participation in Discussion Forums Online forum
Written Assignment 10% individual & 6% team none Google drive /docs
Final exam 50% 50% None
Total 100% 100%  

5. Findings and Discussions

The study was conducted in one of the Australian public universities. A total of students participated in this study whereas 157 students in AIS and 192 in Auditing. Table 4 illustrates the gender distributions. There were 49 students were male and 108 were female in AIS. Auditing had 57 male students and 135 female students.

Table 4 Gender

  Accounting Information Systems Auditing
Male 49 57
Female 107 135

Table 5 shows the distribution of age. Majority of students are between 20 and 25 years old. Auditing course is the final year subject, students are general are required to complete many pre-requisite courses.

Table 5 Age

  Accounting Information Systems Auditing
19 or below 3
20-21 66 58
22-23 69 91
24-25 15 32
26 or above 4 11

Interesting results show that approximately 98% AIS participants have three or more years experiences in social media (see Table 6 and Figure 2). About 2% participants have two years or less in using social media whereas about 28% have experience in web technology for e-learning. Figure 2 provides a chart view of the data distribution.

Table 6: Experience in using social media and web technology for e-learning – AIS
  Social Media Web technology for e-learning
  Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
  Less than 1 years 1 0.6% 4 2.5%
1-2 years 2 1.3% 40 25.5%
3-4 years 35 22.3% 83 52.9%
5-6 years 89 56.7% 28 17.8%
7 years or above 30 19.1% 2 1.3%
Total 157 100% 157 100. %

Figure 2: Experience in using social media and web technologies for e-learning – AIS

Table 7 and Figure 3 show the similar results with the Auditing course. Approximately 97% participants have experience in social media between more than three years’ experience whereas 69% participants have more than three years’ experience in web technology for e-learning.  In other words, all participants have experience in using social media and e-learning technology for e-learning.

Table 7: Experience in using social media and web technology for e-learning – Auditing
  Social media Web technologies for e-learning
  Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
  Less than 1 years 2 1% 8 4.2%
1-2 years 4 2.1% 51 26.6%
3-4 years 52 27.1% 103 53.6%
5-6 years 104 54.2% 29 15.1%
7 years or above 30 15.6% 1 0.5%
Total 192 100% 192 100%

Figure 3: Experience in using social media and web technology for e-learning – Auditing

Table 7 shows that there is a significant relationship between students’ performance and social media (r=0.698, p<0.01). This illustrates that the more experience in using social media, the better performance can be achieved. Similar finding in web technology for e-learning (r=0.664, p<0.01). There is also strong a relationship between experience in social media and web technology for e-learning (r=0.768, p<0.01). Comparing Auditing course, the similar findings are found in the relationship between performance and social media (r=0.773, p<0.01), as well as web technologies for e-learning (r=0.677, p<0.01). There is also a strong relationship between social media and web technology for e-learning (n=0.789, p<0.01). The overall results suggest that the more experience in using social media and web technology for e-learning, the higher performance can be achieved.

Table 7: Relationships between AIS students results, social media and web technology for e-learning

  Social Media Web technology for e-learning
AIS students’ performance .698** .664**
Auditing student performance .773** .677**
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The most interesting finding in this study is that there is an important relationship between students’ results and online engagement (r=.919, p<0.01) (see Table 8). The results also support the online engagement literature and constructivist theory. The generations Y and Z are mostly technological oriented, they are highly engaged online media including social media. These findings confirm the research question and hypotheses. In other words, with the appropriate designing online engagement, the better performance can be achieved. Interestingly, the results show in Table 8 that there is no relationship between auditing performance and online engagement. This is due to the auditing participants did not provide online engagement learning environment.  Auditing courses use the traditional face-to-face learning approach with no online engagement activity or tool to support (e.g. social media).

Table 8: Relationship between AIS students’ results and online engagement

  Online Engagement
AIS performance .919**
Auditing performance .134
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Despite the interesting findings, there are some limitations in this research. Firstly, the sample size can be larger to provide a better view of the total population. Secondly, the university setting might not the best way representing the real-world practice. To have better control conditions, a control group can be adopted in the future study. Thirdly, the assessment tasks can be more consistent between courses. Fourth, selection of sample can be randomized. Finally, a repeat and/or longitude study can be conducted to further validate the results. Demographic data and cross-sectional research can be used for validity and reliability.

6. Conclusion

This paper explored how online engagement create new ways to improve performance for new generations. To sum up, e-learning as a form of learning has been emerging over the past few decades, and there are a lot of organizations that have applied e-learning as a main stream source of learning (Maris et al., 2018).
There is no doubt that social media and internet web technologies are the powerful tools for online engagement, but we should take precautions to ensure that it will not replace traditional face-to-face interaction, especially with the older generations, as practical experience is ultimately necessary for effective performance. There are a range of emerging software and social networking tools that are being investigated for utilization in training and knowledge sharing. This study demonstrates that social media and web technology can be used effectively for online engagement and better performance in the Generations Y and Z.

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