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Dissertation on Perm Region Chemical Industry

Info: 32407 words (130 pages) Dissertation
Published: 9th Jun 2021

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Tagged: ChemistryTechnology

Research on Technology Platform Construction of Perm Region Chemical Materials Industry


Chemical materials as a basis for new materials is an important part, with the impact on development process of the national economy and social development, has become a country valued as an international competitive, that is also an important indicator.

From a global perspective, Russia's chemical industry is in the advanced stage of the transitional period, with USA, Japan and Europe, which are high developed chemical materials countries, and with other regions in comparison to some industries still have a long way.

Perm region of Russia is one of the old industrial base in the Urals and national materials industrial base, and chemical industry plays an important role in its economy as a whole, there has been made an encouraging progress, and has a good industrial base; however, due to a variety of resources, technology integration, technical delays for various reasons, such as delays because of different reasons, that all don’t create regional advantages for further development.

Based on this, the Perm region, combined with chemical material industry, from a technical perspective and the situation of demand and supply analysis of problems, found that hinder its development was at the root of docking technology supply and demand side, do not form a flexible docking mechanism.

Combining problems, there were found a solution, taking in account two aspects of necessity and feasibility of constructing "Perm region chemical material industry technology platform".

In detail, the main part of the article discusses the nature of the platform, mechanism and logical structure, organizational structure, operational system and strategy selection etc., finally put forward a number of policy recommendations for Perm region technology platform.

Perm region technology platform is adopted by its structures, integrating all resources, technology integration improvement, enhancing the competitiveness of Perm region chemical material industries and achieving leap-forward development.

Keywords: Technological Platforms; Regional Economy; Chemical Industry


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Topic background and research significance

1.1.1 Topic background

Industrial complex is the basis of sustainable development of the country and its regions, because here is the main added value and a significant focus of the working population.

Chemical complex, in turn, plays the role of the Foundation and determines the pace of development of a significant number of other industries that use chemical products in their work.

A characteristic feature of the modern chemical complex of Russia is export oriented production, which is occupied mainly by the production of ammonia, methanol, mineral fertilizers, synthetic rubber and various other products.

Meanwhile, from year to year is the reduction in the production of high-tech products for domestic consumption. This is due, primarily, with the closing high-tech industries, use in their activities chemical products deep processing and a General decline in production growth rates.

The reasons for the strengthening of negative trends in the chemical industry are the slow renewal of fixed assets, physical and moral depreciation of technological equipment, rising prices for raw materials and energy.

The situation is aggravated by the shortage of investment resources in the absence of organizational and economic mechanisms of attracting. The outflow of qualified personnel from the industrial complex as a whole was reflected negatively on the level of scientific and technological developments and their implementation in chemical industry.

Chemical sub-complex, as part of the industrial complex of territorial management, is a multilevel body, which is also subject to objective laws, in connection with which it is necessary to systematically approach the management of its development. Problems of increase of efficiency of functioning of the chemical industry are closely linked with the General state of various systems, such as power supply system or the system of resourcing.

These areas at the present stage of development are characterized by technical and technological backwardness, high degree of depreciation of fixed assets, inefficient use of fuel and energy resources, annual growth rates, which is a destabilizing factor, having a negative impact on the realization of the economic entity competitive advantage.

Overall, the problems accumulated in the past decades play a moderating role in attracting investment in the industry in connection with which there is a steady decline of micro-, mezo-, and macroeconomic indicators.

The static nature of the organizational-economic mechanism of management of development of the chemical complex, the inconsistency of its principle of adaptability to a changing environment lead to the need to identify the most effective subject management and search of effective models and measures for improvement of management tools development of the chemical complex enterprises. Such models include the technology platform. All this causes the relevance of the chosen research topic.

1.1.2 Research significance

The practical significance of the study is that the conclusions and recommendations obtained in the thesis can serve as a theoretical and methodological basis for further research in the field of development of regional technology platforms in order to enhance their functioning efficiency and can be applied in practice in the management of the development of industries.

It justifies features of management of technology platform (chemical) as an economic system in modern conditions. A systematic approach helped to identify the characteristics of the technology platform, to define the determining elements, internal and external communications.

The results are useful in the theory of regional industrial technological platforms. Based on the analysis of the current state of the Russian chemical industry was determined by its importance for Russia; resource security; the institutionalization of chemical production; chemical industry; technological level. There were indicated factors of formation of technological platforms in the chemical complex of the region.

Developed model of formation of strategy of development of the technological platform of chemical sector in the region. These findings are necessary for the formation of industrial policy of Russia in General. Theoretical and methodical provisions, obtained in the course of the study, can be used in the development program for the construction of technological platforms in the chemical industry in the Perm region.

1.2 Literature review

1.2.1 Domestic (Russian) research status

Among the Russian scientists who made a significant contribution to the development of organizational-economic mechanisms of management of industrial complex there should be noted L. I. Abalkin, A. G. Aganbegyan, S. Glazyev, Y. M. Gokhberg, A. G. Granberg, A. I. Dobrynin, V.V. Ivanter, N. D. Kondratyev, V. N. Leksina, O. Pchelintseva S., B. S. Horev, I. N. Shapkina, A. M. Shvetsov. Problems of development of the enterprises of a chemical complex in the regions and Russia in General is discussed by M. G. Vasiliev, C. B. Ivanova, L. I. Koshkina, A. M. Petrov, B. A. Sitnov, K. A. Titov etc. The problems of management of investment projects in the regions studied by V. Afanasiev, N. Veselova, G. Birman, A. Bazilevich, S. Smolyak, V. Shapiro, I. Mazura, etc. Works N. Ivanov, B., Kostynuk, A. Krutik, V. Livshits, V. Magnitskii, etc., were used in the study of the assessment of efficiency of regional investment projects. Issues of cluster development of the Russian economy over the past years in the number of scientists and researchers: Yu. G. Lavrikova, T. B. Batueva, D. V. Grushevsky, E. A. Borodin, V. V. Kopylov, etc. Depending on the kind of cluster in the literature presents various definitions of clusters. Within the industry distinguish innovative industrial clusters. The term refers to the organization of the group of companies whose members provide and implement innovative activities aimed at the development, production and distribution of innovative and high-tech продукции2. According to A. A. Alekseev , T. V. Kolosova, “the innovation cluster is an Association of enterprises, which allows to use the advantages of innovation capacity and production as of two methods of coordinate systems, allowing you to more quickly, efficiently and effectively to transfer (transformation) of new knowledge, scientific discoveries and inventions”[43,44]. It is assumed that the complex solution of problems of innovative development of industrial complex can serve as an efficient policy at both the Federal and regional level [45]. It is necessary to develop an integrative program of strategic development of individual regions based on clustering the space of regional economic relations. The most important element of the cluster principle of development of the region is the continuous work on establishing linkages between all stakeholders: enterprises, government agencies, service and research organizations [46]. Sustainable development innovation clusters crucially depend on access to advanced sources of scientific knowledge and modern technologies, as well as the capabilities of the concentration of considerable amounts of financial resources. Decisive role in the process of innovation orientation of the cluster is the presence of well-developed infrastructure of intellectual and financial capital [47]. The cluster approach as a tool of formation of effective structure of innovation industrial complexes significantly transform the nature of the interaction between all participants in the processes of economic development authorities, businesses, scientific and educational institutions, financial, commercial, transport and other organizations.

1.2.2 Foreign research status

Developing of specialized areas based on the competitive advantages of doing the classics of economic theory and regional economy was researched by V. Kristaller, K. Lancaster, A. Lesh, R. Lucas, B. Olin, M. Porter, D. Ricardo, A. Smith, I. F. Tynan, E. Heckscher. Issues of management of investment projects at various levels engaged economists such as I. Ansoff, G. Birman, K. Kern, T. Piters, A. Strickland, A. Thompson, P. Fisher, W. Sharpe, S. Schmidt and others. The scope of the strategic forms of inter-firm interactions are now fairly well understood. For example, the most discussed at the present time form strategic cooperation between companies [48] – strategic alliances have been studied with completely different sides. Sluitz etc. [49] examined the causes of the successes and failures of alliances, Gulati [50] dealt with their formation and functioning; Hemel and Prahalad [51] considered the nature of alliances and the reasons for joining them through the prism of competition. In a separate category should be allocated to research on the analysis of the portfolio of strategic alliances [52]. More recent studies [53] were aimed at study of the system aspects of alliances - learning, knowledge management and so on. Under strategic forms of inter-firm interactions, it should also be mentioned about the study, Nohria [54], which pays a lot of attention to global strategic Affairs, and covers such categories as "strategic blocks and strategic groups". Network forms of interaction of companies also attracted the attention of a group of scientists from the unit of industrial marketing [55]. Their research focused on the analysis of network structures [56], the study of network dynamics [57, 58] and networks [59-64]. A lot of attention was also given to attitudinal and cognitive aspects [65, 66, 67]. The analysis of joint ventures, the authors paid attention to the impact of the industry on the efficiency of formation of joint ventures [68] and monitoring of their activities [69]. But most attention was still paid to issues of performance and stability of this form of joint activities [70-81]. In the process of studying inter-firm interaction forms scientists have also paid a lot of attention to the reasons for the merger. The main reasons for the unification of the activities of the companies is to increase their competitiveness. And if you pay attention to the timeline the above studies, it becomes clearly evident that the sphere of scientific interests is developing from industrial to post-industrial logic. So, if the earlier studies were conducted in the framework of the resource approach (when to front out separation costs and the pooling of resources), the study of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century focus on the more relevant in the context of highly uncertain economic circumstances factors such as the sharing of risks, sharing information, knowledge management and innovation. This tendency confirms the thesis that in modern conditions the basis of strategic competitive advantages is the ability to generate innovation are new knowledge. However, as mentioned earlier, in contrast to other forms of cooperation between companies, technological platforms – as a mechanism of cooperation – from a theoretical point of view, currently, are poorly studied. There are only a small number of scientific publications on this topic [82-87, 90], which largely focused on exploring the phenomenon of the platforms and do not affect the issues of their functioning. As for the works of foreign authors, they are a technology platform in General understand either the platform open source software (particularly its development) [88], or sort of IT ecosystem to enhance the compatibility of different software [89]. In this work the technological platform will be considered as a tool of interaction between the state, private and scientific sector. However, a large number of scientific papers devoted to industry has not solved all the theoretical problems associated with the management of the industrial complex as an economic system. Analysis of various sources revealed the unresolved problems of management of development of the chemical complex enterprises. Implementation of investment projects in a particular region taking into account the environment and regional specificity, require individual consideration. Thus, the practical significance of such research to economic practice led to the choice of topic, formulation of goals and objectives of the present study.

1.3 Research content and research methods

1.3.1 Research content

The thesis consists of introduction, four chapters, conclusion, list of references. In the introduction justified the relevance of the research topic, defines the purpose and tasks, object and subject of research, reveals the scientific novelty and practical significance of the work. The second Chapter describes the basic theoretical framework and relevant concepts of development of the industry, including the concept of technological platform, the theory of technology and technological innovation. In the third Chapter analyzes economic development of the chemical complex of the Perm region, the estimated activity of the enterprises of the chemical complex and the proposed investment project on construction of a technological platform chemical complex in Perm region. In the fourth Chapter developed and proposed model of the construction technology platform of the chemical industry, defined preconditions, opportunities and feasibility of this model. In particular, developed a regime model, the mechanism of action, strategic objectives have been identified. The fifth Chapter presents examples of existing technological platforms for Russia and assessed the effectiveness of their activities. The conclusion contains the main conclusions and results obtained in the study.

1.3.2 Research method

Theoretical and methodological basis of research were the works of domestic and foreign scientists devoted to problems of development management of regional industrial complexes in the chemical industry and the implementation of projects to create technology platforms. In the process of the study used a combination of methods: abstract-logical, statistical and economic analysis and synthesis, system analysis, comparison of the studied indicators, expert assessments, methods of grouping and summarizing. The study included the data of Federal and regional departments of statistics, financial data provided by the enterprises of the chemical industry and reports on the activities of technological platforms; publications and monographs devoted to the problems of management of development of chemical industry; materials reflecting the state of chemical complex in Perm region. Used Federal and regional normative legal acts, regulating the activities of state, regional and local authorities in relation to enterprises of the chemical industry.

1.4 Thesis framework

Безымянный — копия  

Chapter 2 Basic concepts and theoretical foundations

The technology platform is a communication tool aimed at intensifying efforts to create promising commercial technologies, new products (services) to attract additional resources for research and development through the participation of all stakeholders (business, science, government, civil society), improvement of normative-legal base in the field of scientific-technological and innovative development. In the 2011-2016 years were established 36 Russian technology platforms with the participation of a wide range of stakeholders (leading research and educational institutions, large and medium industrial enterprises, small businesses, associations). In total, the participants of the Russian technological platform include more than 3,500 organizations [41]. The technological platform formed by the most promising directions of scientific-technological development of the Russian business.

2.1 Research of relevant concepts

2.1.1 Definition of chemical materials industry

In order to explore the question of the construction of public (state) technology platform in the Perm region we need some appropriate concepts and theoretical foundations. (1) New chemical materials One of the most important areas that determines the development of all sectors of industry, construction, medicine and services is new materials. Changing ways of life of humanity is associated with the discovery and production of new materials. Materials – this stage of our civilization, and new content – a springboard to leap into the future, changing the face of our existence. When we talk about the criteria that determine priority, critical technologies (quality of life, safety, competitiveness, etc.), one of the most important criteria is this characterization of technology as the ability to radically change, to “flip” the entire structure of production, and possibly social conditions of human life. Such technologies will probably include information technology, biotechnology, genetic engineering. These technologies include technology and new materials. According to expert estimates, in the next 20 years 90% of the materials will be replaced by fundamentally new ones that will lead to a revolution in various fields of technology. About the prospects of work on new materials is evidenced by the fact that almost 22% of the world's patents are granted for inventions in this area. This is also evidenced by the growth dynamics of the world markets of the main types of new materials. Especially notable is the progress in developing the production of inorganic materials – ceramics, materials for microelectronics, etc. Solid scientific groundwork of the Russian scientists and their dedicated work in a severe financial situation allows Russia to still maintain a sufficiently high scientific and technical potential in this field of research. Comparative evaluation of independent experts shows that in the field of new materials has the overall high level of priority and achievement in specific areas. Most high level research in composites, polymers and super-hard materials, slightly lower on ceramic materials, but not in one direction, Russia has no significant gap with the world level, and for each of these areas is development, not inferior to the world. According to the Group on the revision of the national critical technologies USA at the White house the possibility of Russia in the field of technology of materials in a number of areas equal opportunities in industrialized countries. Thus, in Russia the saved database design, development and production of new materials. In 33 regions of Russia successfully employs approximately 200 research teams capable of developing new materials and technologies of their production at the level meeting modern requirements. Since it is impossible to cover all problems in one report, will be given only a few examples of promising areas of development in the field of chemical materials and achievements of Russian scientists in these areas, which on a global level [28]. (2) Chemical materials The chemical materials have not only complete substitutes, but also new and different types of raw materials required to meet the needs-and the needs of the national economy. Expanding not only the raw material base of social production, but also more efficiently and effectively used, maintained, and replenished (fuel, energy, mineral) resources. Production intensives, material and energy consumption reduces, product quality improves. In these areas acts and other item chemical - introduction of chemical methods and processes: increase the proportion of chemical technology in production processes provides a more effective and rational distribution of the means of labor and therefore of capital investments. Thus, the solution of problems of chemization of the national economy becomes systemically in-target program for the development of the chemical industry [13]. Chemical materials are superior to natural in quality, cheapness, durability. Chemistry creates new materials not present in nature, creates a substance with desired properties. Appear substances that exist in nature, new technologies appear. It creates the progress of various branches of industry and agriculture, improve household living conditions, quality of medical services, etc. In turn life requires science to solve those or other problems, directs the movement of scientific thought. This complexity of the chemical industry and science with other fields of human activity a defining feature of modern chemistry. It is called by the term "use of chemicals". Chemization is the use of new substances, chemical processes and methods of analysis in various fields of practical human activity.   (3) Chemical industry in Russia Petrochemical industry is a key sector of the chemical industry in Russia. This is largely due to the crucial role of refining industry in the economy of the country. Educational institutions annually produce tens of thousands of experts-petrochemists. The state also allocates large sums of money to sponsor research in this area. Annual sales of all petrochemical production is more than 500 billion rubles. Russia is among the ten leaders in the production of ammonia. In the world structure of production of ammonia, its share is about 10%. The largest producers of ammonia on the territory of our country – JSC "Toliattiazot" (Samara region), JSC "Novomoskovsk joint stock company "Azot", JSC "Akron" (Novgorod region) [40]. At present, our country is one of the world's largest exporter of ammonia. Exported an average of 25% of the total ammonia production, accounting for about 16% of world exports [42]. An important part of the industry is the production of fertilizers. On the territory of Russia are very large deposits of raw materials for this industry. Manufacturing resources to the production of chemical fertilizers is also well developed. During Soviet times, to improve the effectiveness of fertilizer worked best scientists, who made many fundamental discoveries in this field. Because of this, Russia is one of the most important exporters of fertilizers. The production of medicines and their components is a very promising direction. Currently, this industry does not cover Russian needs, and the establishment of many drugs have not even been established. Therefore, each year, foreign investors, including large chemical companies, are investing in the development of this industry. However, a significant increase in production volumes and product quality, according to analysts, will happen at best in ten years. (4) Chemical industry in the world The most developed chemical industry in Germany, the UK and the USA. That is, among European countries the most advanced are typically the States that have contributed to the development of chemistry as a science. In the case of the US this is due to the favorable conditions for the development of the chemistry and pharmacology: a good economic situation, the presence of large natural resources and a developed transportation system, attract the best specialists from other countries. In particular, among five concerns with the highest profit there are two companies from Germany, two from UK and one from USA.

2.1.2 Government economic policy in the sphere of technologies and innovations

The main document defining state policy in the field of innovation, is the Strategy of innovative development of the Russian Federation for the period till 2020, the implementation of which is expected to qualitatively change the structure of the economy [29]. The Strategy envisages a system of measures:

  • development of personnel potential in the sphere of education, science, technology and innovation;
  • increase of innovative activity of business and to accelerate the emergence of new innovative companies;
  • ultra wide introduction in activity of state bodies of modern innovative technologies;
  • the formation of a balanced and steadily developing sector of research and development;
  • to ensure the openness of the national innovative system and economy, as well as Russia's integration into the world processes of creation and use of innovations;
  • proactive implementation of innovation policy undertaken by public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation and municipal formations.

The strategy is aimed at achieving some key targets set in the Strategy and in the decree of the President "On long-term state economic policy" [30]. In particular, the share of organizations, implementing technological innovation, by 2020 should be not less than 25%, the share of exports of Russian high-tech goods in total world exports of high-tech products will be 2% in 2020, the share of high-technology and knowledge-intensive industries to GDP by 2018 will increase 1.3 times compared with 2011 [1]. The strategy will be implemented taking into account the sectoral priorities of technological development defined by the President of the Russian Federation, and the main legislative acts in this sphere [11]. The main mechanism of implementation of the Strategy are the state programs of the Russian Federation scientific and technological orientation, such as "Economic development and innovative economy", "Development of science and technology", "education Development", "Development of industry and increasing its competitiveness", as well as a number of other. Thus according to the selected priority industry areas special programs, the implementation of which is closely linked with the implementation of the events Strategy. In particular, such a program is "Comprehensive program of biotechnology development in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020", the aim of which is the output of Russia to the leading position in the development of biotechnology and the creation of the globally competitive sector of Bioeconomy.

2.2 Theory of technological innovations

(1) Definition of technical innovation Scientific and technological innovation (innovations) is a continuous process of creative activity, aimed at creation of new products and/or services, technologies and materials, as well as new organizational forms, with scientific and technical novelty and to meet a new social or individual needs. The end result of innovation – materialization and industrial development of innovations, which can be technical and scientific activities or marketing research to identify unmet needs. The term "innovation" appeared in research studies in the nineteenth century and literally means "the introduction of some elements of one culture into another". In the 30-ies of XX century Schumpeter first used the concept of "innovation", meaning it changes with the aim of implementation and use of new types of consumer goods, new production means, markets and forms of organization in industry. At the same time. Schumpeter the main role of the driving force of economic development of the society is given to the introduction of innovations in the economy of the state [23]. (2) Reviews for technical innovation Technological innovation represents the final result of innovative activity, has been embodied in the form of a new or significantly improved products or services introduced into the market, new or improved processes or ways of production (transfer) of services used in practice. Innovation is considered implemented if it is introduced in the market or in production process. In industry and services distinguish between two types of technological innovation: product and process. Product innovations involve the development and implementation of technologically new or improved products. The introduction of a new product is defined as a radical product innovation, if it concerns the product, the intended scope of which is, the functional characteristics, properties, design or materials and components to significantly set it apart from previously released products. Such innovations can be based on fundamentally new technologies or on a combination of existing technologies in their new application. Technological improvement of the product (incremental product innovation) affect the already existing product, quality or cost characteristics which were markedly improved by the use of more efficient components and materials, a partial change of one or several technical subsystems (for complex products). Process innovation is the development of technologically new or significantly improved production methods, including methods of transmission products. Innovations of this kind may be based on the use of new production equipment, new methods of organization of the production process or their combination, and using the results of research and development. These innovations are usually aimed at increasing production efficiency or transfer of an existing on the enterprise, but can be used also for the production and supply of technologically new or improved products that cannot be produced or delivered using conventional production methods.

2.3 Concept of industry innovation development

In recent decades, innovation has become a major factor of socio-economic development. Becoming more powerful impetus to the progressive transformation of the economy and social relations, innovations are associated with the satisfaction of social needs: the goods and services of high quality, they allow you to raise the standard of living of the population. Almost all modern economic processes or is caused or accompanied by innovation. Innovation sector includes the branches of material production and services. The manufacturing sector is the engineering industry, with its inexhaustible reserve of innovative transformations. Meanwhile, the production efficiency depends directly on the innovation process. A significant role is played by social policy. State rate of preserving and increasing jobs in the industry reduces the motivation to innovate, which in most cases is aimed at increasing productivity and, hence, the release of the workers. Before the statists face a dilemma: maintaining the current employment or the effective innovative industry. The fact of the presence of state capital in enterprises of the industrial sector adversely affects the ability to innovate. Private companies are much more willing to go public and semi-public development and implementation of industrial innovations. However, the state plays a decisive role in the innovative development: creates the business space, strictly control their members. Moreover, during the economic crisis, the state is the only hope for business for the salvation. Traditional by Western standards, market support institutions, innovation activities are in a nascent stage. The real number of active business angels and venture funds in hundreds of times lower than in the countries that occupy the first place in the key ratings of innovative development. Russia in all the global rankings of innovative development is in the lower tiers. The main reason is the quality of the institutional environment and state institutions, i.e., critical to conducting standard business activities, the factors that are so important for business innovation.

2.4 Theory of industrial cluster

The theory of clusters developed by foreign economists, among them well – known scientist M. Porter. To domestic scientists, examining this theory include A. P. Gradova, V. Obelia, etc [12]. Despite the fact that the interest in clusters as an effective tool for improving the competitiveness has increased mainly in the last quarter of the twentieth century, itself the cluster approach is not a new phenomenon. Developments in this direction were made in the XIX century. So, for example, in his work "the Isolated state in its relation to agriculture and national economy" (1826) I. Thunen considered spatial mathematical model of the successive systems of agriculture in the form of concentric circles located around the big cities and providing low transportation cost [31]. English economist of the second half of the XIX century by A. Marshall as the factors responsible for the increase of efficiency of export-oriented economy, identified skilled labor, the involvement of related industries and specialization of business entities [16]. However, if in the XIX century the development of the concept of cluster economy took place in the framework of an industrial approach, today the Central idea of competitiveness. Over the past decade, an increasing interest among professionals in the field of economic geography, as well as economists and policymakers invokes the theme of local industrial agglomeration and specialization. Among the many ideas and concepts that emerged under this new approach, the most important are the work of Michael Porter, devoted to the clusters. His theory of clusters has become a recognized concept in the field of knowledge, and the cluster model of Porter is used in the formulation of economic policy worldwide, as a tool for improving the competitiveness of the economy, region or country as a whole [21]. http://www.12manage.com/images/picture_porter_diamond.gif Fig. 1 Porter’s Model A cluster is a specific subject of competition and Porter defined them as "a group of geographically neighbouring interconnected companies and supporting organizations operating in a certain area, characterized by common activities and complementary to each other". M. Porter believes that clusters can affect competitiveness in three areas:

  1. enhance the performance of firms and industries;
  2. create opportunities for innovation and industrial growth;
  3. stimulate and facilitate new business formation that supports innovation and expansion of the cluster.

Some authors have attempted to develop a typology of clusters based on the evolution process of their formation. S. Rosenfeld identifies three types of clusters: "running", "idle", "potential" [22]. E. Limer considered clusters with a high level of correlation in the analysis of the export trade at the national level. French scientists I. Tolenado and D. Soulier used the term "dies" to describe a group of technology sectors. The formation was explained by the dependence of one sector from another on the technological level [32] [24]. Thus are a more narrow interpretation of the cluster being based on one of the criteria of emergence of a cluster on the need to create technological linkages between industries and economic sectors to realize their potential benefits. The cluster approach is also used in the development of Swedish theorists. They cluster theory is mainly formed on the structure of the national economy, but rather, on the linkages of major Swedish multinational corporations. Here the clusters are based on the thesis of E. Dahmen "blocks of development". The basis for the development of competitive success Dahmen is the link between the ability of one sector to develop and ability to make progress in the other. Development should occur in stages, or "vertical action" within one sector with other sectors that will provide the opportunity for gaining a competitive edge [9]. The most modern theory of competitiveness based on clusters developed by V. Feldman. The advantages of this theory lies in the fact that they are based on extensive empirical studies of diversification forms in different countries. The essence of the theory is the following. Diversification is often followed by the matrix of the "input-output" or contacts between industries linked by relations of supply and acquisition. This is consistent with the mechanisms that lead to the formation of clusters. Moreover, the most viable clusters of innovative activity are formed on the basis of diversification. Modern policies to stimulate industrial-innovative activity uses various approaches to identify industrial clusters. In most cases, the industries included in the clusters are grouped based on the extent of inter-sectoral flows of products and knowledge, and including:

  • technology flows due to the purchase of products and intermediate goods in other industries, as well as the interaction between their producers and users;
  • technical interaction, as expressed in patenting, development of patents, the use of scientific results in several related industries, as well as in joint research projects;
  • staff mobility between the segments of the cluster to disseminate the best achievements control.

2.5 Concept and characteristics of technological platforms

What is a technology platform? According to the European experience, "European technology platform" is a term proposed by the European Commission for the designation of thematic areas in which the formulated or will be formulated, the scientific and technical priorities in the 7th framework program of the European Union. Within these areas it is expected to allocate significant amounts of funding for various research works, directly connected with their practical implementation by enterprises of small and medium business and industry. Feature of technology platforms in the European Union is their formation on the basis of the analysis of the potential demand of consumers and market advanced technologies, production requirements, etc., which involves carrying out research work to achieve the goals and strategies for sustainable and resource-renewable development of modern society. The European Concept of technology platforms allows us to provide:

  • selection of strategic research directions;
  • analysis of market potential of technologies;
  • integrating the viewpoints of all stakeholders: government, industry, academia, regulatory authorities, users and consumers;
  • active involvement of all countries of the European Union;
  • mobilization of public and private funding sources.

Technology platform was established on mutual basis by combining intellectual and financial resources of the European Union and Europe's largest industrial producer and financial resources to enhance research required to meet the needs of modern industrial production. As a rule, the formation of a technological platform is initiated by a large European business, various industry associations, industrial, producers, etc., representatives of which are the so-called top-level Group. To develop technology platform initiators to form an Advisory Committee, which includes representatives of the European Commission, academia, small and medium-sized businesses, organizations and consumers ' associations, various non-profit state Association, etc. At the same time formed a National support group of representatives of the interested countries and regions. For the development of the scientific component of the technology platform Scientific Council shall be established, composed of leading experts on the subject, representing academic and applied science. The main tasks created by the European technology platforms are:

  • propaganda and promotion of new technology platforms, their goals and objectives, relevant technological platforms in European society and in the structures of the European Union;
  • develop a strategic research plan ― the main document, which proves, in what ways, why, for what purpose and in what time frame is necessary to conduct research within the technological platform;
  • development of implementation plan of the technology platform.

The technology platform is a communication tool aimed at intensifying efforts to creation of promising commercial technologies, new products/services and to attract additional resources for research and development through the participation of all stakeholders (state, business and science), improving normative-legal base in the field of scientific-technological and innovative development. As mentioned, the subjects of the technological platform are the state, business and science. The state participates in the face of their authorities or specially created institutions with specific expertise. The business is also involved, through their authorized management bodies (founders/shareholders, Board of Directors, management Board, General Director, etc.). Science is represented by various unions, such as research institutes, laboratories, communities, unions, etc. Interaction of subjects of the technological platform is intended to ensure the development and implementation of long-term (strategic) priorities in the scale of certain sectors of the economy for their innovative breakthrough development and the economy in General. Consider the interaction may also be implemented under a public private partnership. Interaction of subjects of the technological platform leads to different benefits: (1) The potential benefits of the state:

  • define medium and long - term priorities of scientific and technological policies;
  • concentration on certain directions of economic modernization of private and public resources;
  • coordination of R & d financed from budgetary funds;
  • identification of directions for improvement of regulation, including industry;
  • improving conditions for the spread of advanced technologies;
  • increases the efficiency of major state companies;
  • increase of budget expenditures.

(2) Business receives the following benefits:

  • improvement of environment for innovations, stimulation of demand for innovative products;
  • improve the quality of training taking into account necessary technological competencies;
  • financial support of implementation of innovative projects;
  • new opportunities for technological upgrading and expansion of the planning horizon;
  • capability to produce fundamentally new products;
  • opportunities for the selection of partners, selection of contractors;
  • political support on the world markets, the possibility of forming international alliances in areas characterized by high risks and require the pooling of resources;
  • support and public attention, the expansion of demand for innovative goods (works, services).

(3) The benefits of science from the technological platforms are:

  • involvement of business to partnership with scientific organizations, demonstrative effect on business, the expansion of demand for business R & d;
  • extension of competencies of interest to the business (training, engineering, design, long-term planning);
  • inclusion of small firms, created by scientific-education institutions, the network of subcontracting;
  • filling in "gaps" applied science;
  • formation of new cooperation in scientific sector;
  • establishing centers of scientific expertise, including unit-level scientific and educational organizations;
  • capacity building for the implementation of complex projects with multiple participants.

For participation in the technological platform necessary to develop a participation plan, and then comes its implementation. As part of the development plan, it is recommended to perform the following preparatory work: a) Identifying relevant technological platforms among the technological platforms included in the list approved by the Government Commission on high technologies and innovations. The evaluation of compliance of directions of activity of technological platforms for the company priority areas of technological development, it is recommended to carry out project-based implementation of the technology platforms and their strategic research programmes. b) Determination of areas, including research and development, commercialization of their results, training and qualification of scientific and technical personnel, for which the company is interested to coordinate and/or undertake cooperation with other participants of relevant technological platforms. c) The definition of the goals and objectives of the company's participation in the activities of the relevant technology platforms, including on the basis of the goals and objectives of the program of innovative development of the company. Plan development in the technology platform is performed in the following order: a) Definition of performers, responsible for the development of the plan. Preparation of schedule of works for the development of the plan. b) Development of the draft plan. The provision of opportunities for familiarization with the project plan for all stakeholders in the relevant technological platforms (project location on the page where you put the passport of the program of innovative development on the web platform page, his email, etc.). c) Awareness of relevant technological platforms about the main directions of research and development, envisaged to be implemented in the framework of the program of innovative development of the company, providing the opportunity to familiarise with the program of innovative development of the c or passport program to all interested participants of the relevant technology platforms (online platform page, his email, etc.). d) Collection of specialized technological platforms for the revision of the draft plan. Finalization of the draft plan taking into account the proposals of the relevant technology platforms. e) Joint meetings with representatives from company and industry-specific technology platforms for discussion and approval of the project plan. f) Awareness of relevant technological platforms on the outcome of the development of the draft plan. The provision of opportunities for familiarization with a finalized project plan for core technology platforms. g) Approval of plan for participation of joint-stock companies with state participation (state corporations, Federal state unitary enterprise), implements the program of innovative development, in the activities of technological platforms in the priority for the company areas of technological development. h) Monitoring the progress of implementation of the plan. The technology platform has a coordinator, an organization which provides organizational and information support of interaction of subjects of the technological platform. For example, in the framework of the technological platform "medicine of the future," the coordinator is a Public educational institution of higher professional education "Siberian state medical University", "BioIndustry and bioresources ― Biotech-2030" coordinator ― JSC "RT-Biotehprom". The course of implementing activities of technology platforms is:

  • development a strategic research program providing for determination of medium - and long-term priorities in research and development, to build mechanisms of scientific-industrial cooperation;
  • the formation of training programs, determining the directions and principles for the development of standards, certification system, implementation of measures on development of innovative infrastructure;
  • development of a program for the introduction and dissemination of advanced technologies in the relevant sectors of the Russian economy defining the various mechanisms and sources of funding, commitments of technological platform participants;
  • creating an organizational structure that ensure the necessary conditions for the implementation of interaction between enterprises, scientific and educational organizations.

2.6 Existing Russian technology platforms and analysis of their activities

In Russia there are 36 technology platforms (TP) in 13 areas of scientific and technological development, including in the most promising directions approved by the President of the Russian Federation. The distribution of TP groups are presented in table 1. Table 1. The distribution of technological platforms for groups

The name of the group technology platforms
1 Medical and biotechnology
2 Information and communication technology
3 Photonics
4 Aerospace technology
5 Nuclear and radiation technologies
6 Energy
7 Transport technology
8 Technologies of metallurgy and new materials
9 Natural resource extraction and oil and gas processing
10 Electronics and engineering technology
11 Environmental development
12 Industrial technology
13 Agriculture and food industry

Presented in table platforms have become expert platforms on a national scale, with expert councils and other bodies, including representatives of leading businesses and organizations. All TP participants includes more than 3000 organizations (including universities (18%), academic institutions (21%), manufacturing enterprises (38%), etc.). By creating a technology platform every sector of the economy, business, scientific community and financial institutions together develop long-term development strategy of innovation and improving the competitiveness of domestic products. From these positions it is necessary to evaluate economic and social efficiency, the ultimate performance of technology platforms.

2.6.1 Technology platform "Bioindustry and Bioresources – Biotech-2030" (TP "Biotech-2030")

TP "Biotech-2030" was established in April 2011. Initiators and founders of the Moscow state University. M. V. Lomonosov, biological faculty, OJSC RT-biotechprom. Participants: over 150 companies-participants. Mainly research organisations and universities (54%). A feature of this TP is a significant representation of professional associations – 9% (Fig. 2). (1) Strategic research agenda of the technological platform is focused on the following tasks:

  • creation of infrastructure for biotechnology development in Russia;
  • development and implementation of priority innovative and investment projects in biotechnology;
  • large-scale deployment of bio-industry in the regions of Russia in all biotechnology sectors;
  • support the development of the life Sciences;
  • the creation of a modern educational programmes and vocational training system in the field of biotechnology;
  • maintenance and development of bioresource potential of the Russian Federation as the basis of BioIndustry;
  • solving urgent socio-economic, energy, environmental and other problems of the country by methods and means of biotechnology;
  • integration of Russian scientific community in the field of biotechnology in the world Bioeconomy;
  • improving the legal, economic, informational and organizational basis for biotechnology development.

C:\Users\КК\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Word\Безымянный.jpg Fig. 2. The distribution of TP "Biotech-2030" by type of organization (2) The main work and TP projects in the field of research and development is concentrated in the following areas of concern:

  • research aimed at using the potential of microbial biodiversity for the development of industrial biotechnology;
  • development of the methodology of metabolic engineering of industrial microorganisms;
  • development of new biotechnological methods to improve the functional properties and quality control of food;
  • biotechnological methods of creating new varieties of agricultural plants and breeds of animals;
  • innovative biological products for agriculture;
  • development of scientific basics for the production of biocompatible and biodegradable materials for medicine based on natural analogues and derivatives of biopolymers;
  • development of scientific bases of new generation technology soil bioremediation, biotechnological cleaning of the water basin, air emissions;
  • exploring the application of membrane technology in biotechnological processes using as raw material;
  • development of new biocatalytic processes for industrial applications;
  • development of scientific-technological bases of conversion of non-food renewable biomass plants and phototrophic organisms in raw materials for pharmaceutical, food and chemical industry.

(3) The major activities for commercialization of technology and to improve the control mechanisms of the rights to results of intellectual activity:

  • interaction with development institutions, aimed at scaling up financial support for innovative projects in the field of biotechnology in the early stages of innovation "pre-seed" and "seeding";
  • professional scientific and technical expertise with the aim of selecting innovative projects in the field of biotechnology for the provision on a grant basis, including line Russian Foundation for technological development and an interest-free loan, financing for the implementation of R & D programs of medium and large enterprises in the Bioeconomy;
  • regular monitoring of the industry, the subsequent analysis and expert assistance to companies of the biotechnology direction in the preparation of applications for subsidies for payment of percent on loans for technical re-equipment, the inclusion of this tool in preparing state programmes;
  • interaction with the Executive authorities and the relevant authorities for improving the system of export support in terms of promotion on foreign markets of biotechnology products;
  • elaboration and submission of proposals for the creation and implementation of new biotechnology companies by developing a network of innovation infrastructure, including prototyping centers, pilot, experimental-industrial companies, centers of technologies of application of biotech products, technology transfer centers, centers of collective access to equipment, etc.;
  • preparation of proposals for the creation of the modern flexible experimental base focused on mass introduction of biotechnological products in the industry;
  • preparation of proposals for possible mechanisms of stimulation of demand for biotechnological products.

(4) Measures in the field of training and development of scientific and technical personnel: Development of training Programmes for managers "Basics of biotechnology" in collaboration with the biotechnological business incubator of Moscow state University in partnership with the biological faculty of Moscow state University.   (5) The results are:

  • development of a "Comprehensive program of biotechnology development in Russia up to 2020, BIO-2020" jointly with the TP "medicine of the Future" and "Bioenergy" (the Program was approved by the Chairman of the Government 24.04 2012);
  • the establishment of an effectively functioning expert groups TP "biotech-2030";
  • maintain professional and technical expertise relevant innovation projects commissioned by development institutions and private applicants;
  • revision of the state program "Development of industry and increasing its competitiveness" (Ministry of industry and trade of the Russian Federation), "the Development of agriculture and regulation of markets of agricultural products, raw materials and food for 2013-2020" (Ministry of agriculture of the Russian Federation) in relation to activities Coordination of the program "BIO-2020";
  • legislative initiatives: development of proposals for changes in legislation and normative legal acts (PPA), encourage the use of modern biotechnology;
  • presentation of results of activities of the TA and ongoing projects at the highest state level meeting on issues of innovative development of economic sectors (in terms of agriculture and energy) under the leadership of D. A. Medvedev, 17.08.2012.
  • representation of TP and its members on the Russian and international public arena:
    • participated in professional industry events (Russian and international) – international Convention BIO-2012 (Boston);
    • carrying out of own activities (VII international Symposium "EU–Russia: cooperation in biotechnology, agriculture, forestry and food in the 7th framework programme");
    • preparation of analytical, informational and promotional materials; and media activities;

• international scientific and business cooperation – representation of interests of Russian companies and developers in their relations with foreign partners, using the infrastructure of the CLIB. Cooperation with similar foreign institutions in the EU and the world, regional and national structures (ETP Sustainable Chemistry, ETP Forestry, CLIB2021, EuropaBio, etc.); • formation of a scientific and technical state policy jointly with the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation, in the framework of implementation of the Federal target program "Research and development on priority directions of development of scientific-technological complex of Russia"; • development of training Programmes for managers "Basics of biotechnology" in cooperation with the biotechnological business incubator of Moscow state University in partnership with the biological faculty of Moscow state University; • regular monitoring and selection of innovative projects in the sphere of its competence; • participation in the formation of regional clusters in biotechnology.

2.6.2 Assessment of the quality and effectiveness of technology platforms

To estimate the efficiency (effectiveness) of the activities of technological platforms should be approached, given the depth, quality and scientific validity of the conducted organizational and management change. The analysis includes: a) compliance Evaluation Methodological materials of Ministry of economic development for the preparation of the Strategic research program, including the assessment of fulfillment of requirements to the reporting form TP b) Assessment of qualitative and quantitative indicators, declare TP in their plans for activities and development. In accordance with section 3, Methodological materials, Strategic research agenda technology platforms each must contain at least 6 sections: • Section 1 "Current development trends of markets and technologies in the sphere of activities of the platform", • Section 2, "the Forecast of development of markets and technologies in the sphere of activities of the platform", • Section 3, "Areas of research and development, the most promising development in the framework of the platform", • Section 4 "the plan of works and projects of the platform in the field of research and development", • Section 5, "steps to commercialize the technology and to improve the control mechanisms of the rights to results of intellectual activity", • Section 6 "Measures in the field of training and development of scientific and engineering personnel". The evaluation was conducted in all of these sections. Each section was evaluated on a scale from 0 to 5. The maximum score is 30. Thus, the final evaluation of the strategic research program for 2016 as follows: Tab. 2. Evaluation of strategic research programs of technology platforms in categories (for 2016)

Technology Platform Total 1 2 3 4 5 6
TP 1 28,5 5 5 4,5 5 4,5 4,5
TP 2 17,5 2 2,25 4 5 1,25 3
TP 3 23,5 2,75 3,75 5 5 4 3
TP 4 (no data) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TP 5 13,25 1,5 1 3,75 5 0 2
TP 6 16,25 2,25 0,75 3,5 5 2,25 2,5
TP 7 2,5 0 0 0 2,5 0 0
TP 8 16,5 3,25 3,25 4 3,75 1,25 1
TP 9 22,5 5 3,5 4 4 3 3
TP 10 10,25 1,75 2 4 2,5 0 0
TP 11 17,25 3,25 2 2,5 5 1 3,5
TP 12 18 2,75 2,75 4 5 2,5 1
TP 13 7,75 3,25 1 1,25 2,25 0 0
TP 14 8 0,5 0,5 4,5 2,5 0 0
TP 15 20 2 2 5 5 1 5
TP 16 14 4,25 2,75 1,5 4,75 0 0,75
TP 17 18,5 2,25 4,25 4 4 3 1
TP 18 (no data) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TP 19 5 0 0 0 5 0 0
TP 20 22 4,25 4,25 5 2,5 5 1
TP 21 20,5 2 3,75 4,75 5 2,5 2,5
TP 22 17,5 1,75 2,75 4 5 0 4
TP 23 9 1 0 0 5 1,25 1,75
TP 24 15 2,5 3,5 4 5 0 0
TP 25 10,5 2 0,5 3 5 0 0
TP 26 26,75 3,75 4 4,25 4,75 5 5
TP 27 12,75 1,5 2,25 3,75 4,5 0,75 0
TP 28 21,5 3,5 4 4 4,5 2,75 2,75
TP 29 22,75 3,75 2,75 5 5 2,5 3,75
TP 30 25 4,25 4 5 5 3,75 3
TP 31 17,75 2 2,25 2,75 5 3,75 2
TP 32 26,75 5 5 4 5 3,75 4
TP 33 12,25 1,5 1,75 1 4 2 2
TP 34 21,5 3,25 0 5 4,5 3,75 5
TP 35 9,5 2,75 1,25 1,5 4 0 0
TP 36 (New) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Based on the evaluation presented in the table it is possible to allocate groups: 1. The group with leading indicator: TP 1 Medicine of the future TP 26 Microwave technology TP 32 Technology of food industry of AIC - healthy food TP 30 Textile and light industry TP 3 Bioenergy TP 29 Modeling and operation of high-technology systems TP 9 National space technological platform TP 20 New polymer composite materials and technologies TP 28 Technologies of ecological development TP 34 Integrated safety of industry and energy TP 21 Materials and technologies of metallurgy TP 15 Environmentally friendly thermal power of high efficiency 2. The group with average rating of the indicator: TP 17 Small-scale distributed power TP 12 Controlled thermonuclear fusion TP 31 Ecologically clean transport "Green car" TP 2 Bio-Industry and bio-resources - BioTech2030 TP 22 Technological platform of solid minerals TP 11 Closed nuclear fuel cycle with reactors on fast neutrons TP 8 Aviation mobility and aviation technologies TP 6 Innovation laser, optical and optoelectronic technologies – Photonics TP 24 Deep processing of hydrocarbon resources TP 16 Promising renewable energy technologies TP 5 National supercomputer technological platform TP 27 Development of the ocean TP 33 Light and reliable design TP 25 Technologies of mechatronics, embedded control systems, radio frequency identification and robotics TP 10 National information satellite system 3. The group with a low rating: TP 35 Construction and architecture TP 23 Technology of extraction and use of hydrocarbons TP 14 Intellectual energy system of Russia TP 13 Radiation technology TP 19 Speed intellectual railway transport TP 7 Development of Russian led technology TP 4 National software platform TP 18 Use of innovative technologies to improve construction efficiency, maintenance and safety of roads and Railways

2.6.3 SWOT analysis of the development of technological platforms in Russia

  • Building relationships at one of the axial lines of the innovation system "universities, scientific organisations and industry".
  • The growth of competencies of employees of universities and research organizations in priority areas of economic development.
  • Combining elements of the national innovation system in a holistic "innovation loop"
  • The lack of preparedness of stakeholders to implement long-term integrated initiatives.
  • The complexity of the methodological approaches to determining the order of formation and functioning of the TP.
  • Long time lag between the creation of the TP and the first results and the consequent lack of motivation of the participants.
  • The complexity of monitoring and evaluating the performance of TP because of their long-term nature.
  • Lack of information about the TP, the potential participants and the resulting formation of misconceptions and unrealistic expectations, reducing the number of real participants
  • A consensus of key participants about trends and tools for the development of appropriate sectors of the economy.
  • Strengthening in a short period of the competences of Russian companies in the field of innovation management.
  • Whether the state has many levers to support TP.
  • The possibility of initiating a government TP in strategically important areas.
  • Coordination, partial interpenetration or integration of the mechanisms of TP in the Federal target programs.
  • Use public order to support platforms, either direct (the government makes an order to develop and manufacture products) or indirect (guarantee sales of future products through possible adjustment of the order at the end of the functioning of the TP).
  • Increased demand for innovative products and creating new markets.
  • Involvement of stakeholders to develop innovative policy in the relevant areas, development of road maps.
  • Replication of the Russian practice of TP in the CIS countries.
  • Organization of interaction of Russian and European TP.
  • The inability of the industry to form long-term demand for results of R & D due to lack of business competencies in the field of innovation management.
  • The mixing of business interests to the formal participation with the aim of obtaining financial support.
  • Minimize the participation of companies in the support under pressure of the existing schemes for the allocation of resources.
  • The threat from imports (Russian businesses may withdraw from the waiting for the results of TP and start buying foreign technology).
  • The selection of projects according to formal criteria that do not reflect market needs and prospects of scientific and technological development.
  • The threat of low quality of governance due to lack of experience of such initiatives from authorities.
  • Formation of R & d topics on the basis of the achieved scientific results, and not the needs of the market.
  • Incomplete coverage of the innovation cycle – from research to production – in some TP.
  • Limited opportunities for borrowing the missing technology abroad and related threats to the economic security.
  • Outflow of resources of the state and business of TP in the conditions of growing economic problems.
  • High cost of TP because of the complexity of the procedures of their formation and functioning.

2.7 Chapter conclusion

Over the past decade, an increasing interest among professionals in the field of economic geography, as well as economists and policymakers invokes the theme of local industrial agglomeration and specialization. The theory of clusters, Porter has become a recognized concept in the field of knowledge, and the cluster model of Porter is used in the formulation of economic policy worldwide, as a tool for improving the competitiveness of the economy, region or country as a whole. The theory of M. Porter continues to evolve. If Porter’s model is the basis for identifying clusters considers only geographical or territorial proximity, at the present time, more and more researchers are inclined to think about the diversity of types of clusters. Summarizing the results of the analysis and reporting technology platforms to the most developed parts include the action plan, from the point of view of their quantity and compliance with the development direction of TP. The least developed is the analysis of the market from the point of view of presence of participants of TP, and blocks related to the availability, analysis of personnel potential of the industry and the action plan for the preparation and development of scientific and technical personnel.

Chapter 3 Concept of European technology platforms

In the late nineties – early two-thousand years the European Commission (EC) in the framework of the "Lisbon strategy"1 was formed a system of scientific research programs "European Research Area", which has become a basic guiding principle for all research communities, and identified the future development of the European Union (EU) in this direction. The main purpose of European research has been successful the output of the final product to the European and world market. Scientific research is only part of the innovation process, whereas the commercialization of an innovative product requires solving a complex of tasks: questions of financing the implementation of legislative procedures, the resolution of administrative issues. These barriers become more complex in the interaction at the supranational level, when investors, research institutes and manufacturing facilities were located in different EU member States. All of this resulted in delays, and sometimes complete cessation of scientific research, thereby delaying or completely stopping the process of introducing product to the market. Many innovations did not bring the expected profits or never entered the market, as this product (in connection with the untimely marketing and sociological research) there was no demand. To address existing barriers have been created by the European technology platforms, which were quickly and efficiently to help European research and development in the resolution of problems such as:

  • delivery of innovation to European citizens;
  • create a competitive market for European companies;
  • smaller profits from large investments in research, it was expected by the investors.

The European technology platform (ETP) was not something new for the EU, they are already not the first year quite successfully existed at the national level in many EU member States. In addition to the experience of the national technological platforms (TP) were supranational projects, such as "EURIKA"2. Therefore, one important task in the creation of the ETP was to establish a General principle on the basis of the experience of TP. The European technology platform become the main TRANS-European mission-oriented tool aimed at strengthening the capacity of Europe to organize and to innovate.

3.1 The establishment and operation of European technology platforms

ETP represent the site, established on mutual basis by combining intellectual and financial resources of the EU and Europe's largest industrial producer, which is developing a strategy for the development of the scientific and technical fields, which then becomes the basis for specific programs and projects of the Seventh framework program of scientific research EC3 (FP7), and is also reflected in national programs. ETP stakeholders are not only scientists and research institutions but also many other stakeholders: regulatory agencies, industrial enterprises, ministries, companies, consumer groups, etc. The creation of ETP's happening "from below" based on "bottom up" principle, under the guidance of the EC. As a rule, the formation of the ETP initiated a major European business, various industry associations industrial manufacturers, who have had successful experience in commercialization of scientific research and development. For the development of the ETP, the initiators of the platform to form the Advisory Committee, which includes representatives of the EC, the scientific community, small and medium-sized businesses, organizations and consumers ' associations, various non-profit organizations, etc. At the same time formed a National support group of representatives of the interested countries and regions. For the development of the scientific component of the ETP is created a Scientific Council, composed of leading experts on the subject, representing academic and applied science. The effect of ETP is based on horizontal principles, including:

  • openness, transparency and information accessibility. Each ETP should ensure free access of all groups of interests without dominance of any narrow group and lobbying. In 2004, formulated a kind of "code of ethics" ETP providing for rotation of membership of Advisory Committee;
  • regular meetings of the participants of ETP, open access for new members, the creation of a web site. On average, governing bodies, going 4 times a year, horizontal and vertical working groups – 7-8 times a year, in most ETP plenary meeting annually. Provides wide information availability of the results of operations of ETP to all stakeholders. For this purpose, regular meetings are held between the leaders of the ETP with the European Commissioner for science, research and innovation, conferences and seminars with participation of representatives of the EC, member countries of the EU, regional authorities and international organizations, on the web site of the EC provides detailed information on the activities of the ETP.

3.2 The stages of activities of European technology platforms

The activities of the ETP usually consists of three stages: In the first stage (creation), the stakeholders, led by industry and business prepare a document containing "strategic vision" of specific technologies, as well as medium and long-term development of TP, which is updated periodically. In the second stage of developing the Strategic research plan, formulating medium - and long-term priorities for research (the main document, which proves, in what ways, why, for what purpose and in what time frame is necessary to conduct research within a specific TP). The development of a Strategic plan is coordinated by the Advisory Committee, which involved the participants of the ETP. The ad hoc group communication "mirror group" represent the interests of member countries in the area of selecting priorities. At the same time determine the policy on the practical implementation of the Strategy, describing the Plan to implement the necessary mechanisms and defining the requirements of future markets. Part of the implementation Plan (or separate document) is a "road map" indicating the specific time and financial parameters, divided by periods. In the third stage the Strategic plan is implemented largely through the funding mechanisms of the Seventh framework program and structural funds EC4. When this Strategy is used by EC to determine priorities in the preparation of research applications for investments within the framework of the FP7. Strategy formation is open public discussions. The strategy does not formulate a specific research programs, this task is performed by competent organizations in the public and private sectors.

3.3 The role of the European Commission in European technology platforms

The European Commission plays an important role as a regulator and catalyst for the development of ETP, and is directly involved in determining key European issues and challenges that should be resolved by creating appropriate technological platforms. Provides consistent experience: the legislative bodies of the EU member States in the development of a General framework for ETP; financial institutions such as the structural funds, the framework program and the European Investment Bank for productive investment; departments of the EC in order to implement a coordinated policy in the field of ETP. The European Commission has sought to improve the coordination of state investment in all member States, as well as with EUREKA and other similar organizations, avoiding unnecessary duplication of investment. Also, the EC provides direct support to research institutions and academies, in collaboration with the other participants of the innovation process. The functions of the EC include the comparison and analysis of the financing of specific projects implemented with the help of platforms, and providing incentive funding for further initiatives in the framework of these platforms; conducting an annual review of the ETP, results of operations, continued action plans, strategic programs of research and further development of proposals for their refinement on the basis of the analysis.

3.4 Financing of European technology platforms

At the initial stage of the formation of the ETP organizational costs borne by the EC. However, due to the lack of clear criteria for granting support, there are large differences in the amount of funding ETP. In the later stages of the action ETP the main source of their funding is private sector. To Finance areas selected ETP, you can use the financial schemes supporting collaborative research FP7, additional national sources, including national and regional programs, the funds of the European Investment Bank, etc. To support high-risk projects, the European Commission and the European Investment Bank has created a separate program for funding large projects at EU level. In addition, to implement the Strategy of ETP can be financed by the funds from the EU Structural funds. A large part of the ETP was created with funding from the FP7 "Investing in research", but these projects are coming to completion. One part of the ETP received legal status as non-profit organizations operating on the basis of membership dues, some of them began to build a database of research projects carried out by their members. Based on another part of the ETP was formed public-private partnerships - "joint technology initiatives". The remaining ETP ceased to exist and function only in the form of "initiatives".

3.5 The creation of Joint technological initiatives

"Joint technology initiatives" (JTI) is a relatively new mechanism for the implementation of FP7 projects, which is a public-private partnership. STI are formed in cases when the scope of the research goals and the resources to justify the creation of long-term partnerships between the public and private sector. At the moment, JTI established in the field of computer systems, nanotechnology, medicine and renewable energy. Joint technology initiatives, in contrast to standard projects in FP7 are large-scale projects, which cover one or a small number of selected aspects of research in their field and combine private sector investment, national and supranational funding, including a grant from FP7 and loan Finance from the European Investment Bank. Joint technology initiatives operate on the principles of FP7 (calls for proposals, their evaluation, project selection, negotiation and signing of contracts between the project participants, report on the results). Created cooperative structure must meet the following criteria: to represent an area of technology that are strategically important for Europe, with clearly defined outcomes; activities should be aimed at overcoming market failures; the result of its activities should be a high-tech product with high added value; industry should be ready to take on the long-term financial obligations and to provide satisfactory evidence that the existing mechanisms do not achieve the desired results without creating a JTI.

3.6 Results of the activities of the EU and other countries on the creation and development of TP

To date, ETP became an effective tool of not only organizations investing in R&D (Research & Development), and planning priorities. It should be emphasized that the European Commission does not own or manage ETP. They are independent organizations, created on the initiative of major industrial companies, research centres and public research organizations on a mutual basis by combining intellectual and financial resources of the EU and big business. Thus, the ETP provides:

  • choosing areas of R&D and analysis of market potential taking into account the interests of government, industry, academia, users and consumers that later become the basis for concrete projects RP VII;
  • the mobilization of public and private sources R&D.

In Europe and the United States created more than 50 national TP (NTP). They reaffirmed their importance as modern tools for the successful creation and implementation of national strategies medium-term macro-investments in the development and implementation of modern and advanced high technology. Supported the creation of the TP in Latin America, particularly in the Arctic, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. Currently operates 36 ETP in the following sectors:

  • energy — 7 (Biofuels, SmartGrids, TPwind, Photovoltaics, ZEP, SNETR, RNC);
  • information and communication technology — 9 (ARTEMIS, ENIAC, JSJ, Net!Works, NEN, NESSI, EUROP, EPoSS, Photonics21);
  • bioeconomy and medicine — 6 (FABRE TP, Food, GaH, NanoMedicine, Plants, Forestry);
  • manufacturing and processes — 9 (ECTR, ESTEP, ETP SMR, Manufuture, FTC, WSSTP, SusChem, EuMat, Judustrial Safety);
  • transport — 5 (ACARE, ERRAC, ERTRAC, Waterborne, ESTP.)

These programs join the following European initiatives: Joint Technology, Initiatives, Lead Market, Strategic Energy Technology, Plan, Public Private Partnerships. It should be noted that 36 active TP in Europe are at different stages of development — some have already started to function, others converted into private-public partnerships. Some ETP have flexible enough structures that hold together the annual meetings, others create legal structures with membership fees, etc. it is For US there can be cited the example of the national initiative on nanotechnology, agricultural, biological Sciences, energy in Idaho, there are realized a program on alternative energy, software, communications technology, new materials and nanotechnology. In studies in Idaho participating research institutes companies Hewlett Packard, Micron Technology, Geo Energetic laboratory, North Wind, Idaho state University (Idaho State University).  

3.7 Formation of Russian TP on the basis of European TP

Russian TP are formed on the European model, however, note a few characteristic features: if in Western Europe the mechanism of financing of innovative projects (framework programs) appeared to create a mechanism for coordination for planning studies, in Russia, everything happens in reverse order: first we created a technology platform and funding issues remain open indefinitely. Not largely worked and the administration of TP at all stages of their life cycle, starting with the mechanism of "start" and further efficient activity [91]. Therefore, a need for more theoretical and methodological work on strategic management of TP, which must include:

  • risk management;
  • formation of culture of business cooperation;
  • cooperation of science, education and industry under the patronage of the state, etc.

It should be noted that as a tool for scientific-technical and industrial policy of the TA focused on achieving synergies through the balance of interests of different groups of stakeholders in formulating a long-term vision key areas of development and aims at obtaining a leadership position in breakthrough areas of science and industry. It is known that economic interests are the most important success factor in a market economy. In most definitions of "technology platforms" are terms that directly points to the paramount importance of cooperation of stakeholders, the importance of establishing an effective communication mechanism in the formation of the platform. On that basis is productive consideration of the management of technological platforms in terms of the concept of stakeholders (stakeholder concept) [92]. Developing the logic of stakeholder theory, it can be concluded that the technological platform can be considered as a kind of Corporation that represent specific organizational and communication mechanism targeted development, covering the relationship of various stakeholders related to the solution of certain scientific and technical strategic objectives to create competitive products. In actual practice, the formation of RTP, there are many questions, the answers to which can be found on the basis of the concepts of the present theory, for example: identification of stakeholders, their importance and interests of each of the stakeholders; the definition of "target, or the center" a stakeholder at a particular platform, resources and influence. it should be emphasized the value of participation in the support of small businesses, are able to generate and create original innovative technology. In terms of practical use of the tools of the theory of stakeholders with regard to the formation and functioning of technological platforms can be considered the following models [94]: 1. The model of Mitchell (identify the significance of stakeholders), allowing to establish the strategic interests of each stakeholder, determine its significance for management, especially for prioritizing the relationship, the formation of the matrix of the stakeholders of the project and the degree of involvement in relationships. 2. Balance model of the resource relationships, aimed at optimizing the resource sharing, identifying asymmetric relations between management and stakeholders, the various structural imbalances between partners, creating the opportunity for balance purposes with the interests of the parties, determining the degree of impact of achieving each objective on the satisfaction of stakeholder interests, etc. 3. Network model, concentrating attention on the presentation of participants of a technological platform and its environment in the form of a network of stakeholders, providing the opportunity to identify adverse mediators, prediction of traffic flows of various resources (financial, information, labor, material, energy, etc.). Thus, the Russian TP is focused on technological modernization of the economy, improving the competitiveness of individual industries, the rapid spread in the sectors of new technologies; development of a set of "breakthrough" technologies for the emergence of new high-tech markets. They can also give good results in the development of a "no technology" that link a set of technologies together and make the product with high degree of satisfaction of a particular need [93]. The logic of formation of technological platforms, based on different forms of interaction between government and business [91], including public-private partnerships, and interest in the achievement of socially important results, suggests the need for a detailed study of the conditions of convergence of economic and political interests of these participants, Central participants in strategic programs. RTP management should provide optimal conditions for productive interaction between participants of the platform in the process of Strategy formation and strategy implementation. The governing body is created by the Coordinator of the Program, generates plans and schedules the development of the program, seeking to attract the widest possible range of stakeholders – representatives of science and business structures. The powers of the permanent and temporary working bodies of TP is also conducting various workshops, methodological and organizational workshops, expert surveys, interviews and other works, the ability to access work-related content and outcomes through the publication of basic information on the online platform page and other publications. Fundamental are issues of discussion and approval of interim and final results, the procedures for the approval and adoption of the draft program for participants of TP, dispute resolution, intellectual property protection, as well as monitoring the progress of the program. So, in order to mobilize objectively existing in Russia scientific and technical potential in terms of sectoral sanctions from Western countries with not only long-standing competitive advantages, the current in the power controlled containment of technological development of domestic scientific-industrial complex, and in connection with the imbalance of the commodity and manufacturing sectors of the economy, important in an accelerated mode to focus on overcoming the crisis situation. One of the tools of problem solving can serve a positive view of the possibilities of using technological platforms have mechanisms for increasing the effectiveness of cooperation efforts of numerous groups that can be stakeholders in achieving branding and business goals. The implementation of strategic programs approved by the Russian government technological platforms appropriate for a broader coverage in the media, to expand the number of their members, to strengthen measures of motivation for innovative initiatives. It is important to transfer management of the RTP in terms of self-developing system [96].

3.8 Chapter conclusion

It should be emphasized that ETP do not themselves engaged in research work, as it often seems. Their conceptual mission and main tasks consist of performing functions of management: formalization of an integrated vision for research in a given direction and providing a concentration of needed resources. The dominant funding of R & d and industrial development to meet business management. A special place a technology platform was held in the VII framework program (FP7), which, in accordance with the principles of the Treaty of Lisbon, consolidated all research initiatives of the European Union to enhance competitiveness of European research, educational and innovation spheres for 38 areas, of which some platforms are moved to the level of joint technology initiatives [97]. The main disadvantages of operation: - small scale cooperation and coordination of TA at the European space and outside; - insufficient attention to cooperation with third countries; - insufficient level of participation of representatives of various organizations representing the interests of consumers; - limited participation of the countries members of the EU in the ETP varies depending on the situation in the country and the level of representation, so the countries involved, not all ETP. In turn, not all ETP are presented at national level in member countries. Not always there is a systemic cooperation between national and European TP, and member countries use different approaches to coordinating their national TP. The European technology platform was created in the European Union as a tool aimed at the development of innovation and commercialization of research and development, competitiveness and living standards of EU citizens. After going through all the stages of development from creation to final product, ETP showed himself not only as a tool for innovative development, but also as a platform for solving the European economic and social problems through legislative, organizational, economic and technological tools. The European Institute of the formation of the ETP was officially accepted in Russia only in the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century. The decision to develop the concepts of technological platforms for the Russian Federation was adopted in August 2010 by the government Commission on high technologies and innovations under the leadership of Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Based on the model of the ETP, the Ministry of economic development and the Ministry of education and science has established the appropriate legislative framework for the establishment of the Russian technology platforms (RTP), which concept is outlined in "Procedure of forming the list of technological platforms" [95]. Russian technological platform is considered as an important tool of the state scientific-technical and innovation policy, and are formed on the basis of the mechanism of public-private partnerships.

Chapter 4 Condition and development features of chemical industry in the Perm region

4.1 Current situation of chemical industry

Perm region is among 15 Russian regions — leaders in terms of GRP and industrial production (2.6% of the industrial output of the Russian Federation). The economy of the Perm region is predominantly industrial, the share of industry in GRP reaches 44% (in Russia — 31%), this region is similar to adjacent regions of the Urals and the most industrial regions of the Urals and the Volga region (Udmurtia, Tatarstan). In the diversified structure of the economy is dominated by export - resource industries: oil, chemical, titanium, and magnesium, pulp and paper industry, which have shifted to the world market since the mid 1990-ies. A dominant role in these industries plays a big business, as the Federal represented the oil company OAO "LUKOIL", the chemical company, OJSC "Uralkali", one of the leading paper manufacturers in the country JSC "Solikamskbumprom" and "AVISMA" branch of JSC "VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation " producing titanium sponge and magnesium for the world's leading aircraft manufacturing company. The industry of the Perm region until the middle of 2008 developed in an exceptionally favorable macroeconomic conditions. Quickly growing domestic demand – both consumer and investment. Expanded opportunities for external financing of enterprises: real interest rates on Bank loans decreased. The growth of prices for main export products significantly outpaced the dynamics of prices of imports. Grew and foreign investment in the economy of the Perm region, including foreign direct investment in manufacturing industries [33]. Among the negative factors of industrial development in this period can be attributed to continuing high inflation, the real exchange-rate appreciation, rapid growth of expenses for payment of labor, etc. The pace of industrial growth in the region outpaced the national average. Chemical complex is the basic segment of Perm industry, affecting the level of national and regional competitiveness and growth rate of the economy as a whole. In the Perm region chemical industry ranks second in the structure of industrial production of the region, with production capacity equal 180127,6 billion in 2015. The share of chemical industry in the structure of industrial production of the region amounts to 24%. Chemical (and petrochemical) industry of the Perm region are 37 enterprises employing more than 33 thousand people. In the chemical industry generated 25% of the profit of the enterprises of the Perm region leading organizations complex on the territory of Perm region are: LLC "Lukoilpermnefteorgsintez", LLC "Permneftegazpererabotka", CJSC "SIBUR-Chimprom", JSC "Uralkali", JSC "Silvinit", JSC "Metafrax", JSC "Azot", JSC "Mineral fertilizers", JSC "Berezniki soda plant", OJSC "Galogen, OJSC "Sorbent", OJSC "Beraton". The chemical industry in the region is one of the leading. The share of exports of products of this industry is over 55%, of which mineral products – more than 33%. Chemical complex in the Perm region develops mainly in two main areas: potassium-magnesium and nitric industry. Potassium-magnesium industry develops on the basis of the largest Verkhnekamskoe potassium-magnesium salts, the reserves of which according to expert estimates of over 50 billion tons a Monopoly on data mining of salts is JSC "Uralkali", the main type of its products – potash. In General, the production of mineral fertilizers in Perm region retains a strong position, slight variations in the direction of lower production volumes related to the internal reasons (Fig. 3). 1 Fig. 3. Production of mineral fertilizers in Perm region, thousands tons.   In addition, the region presents a wide range of industries other inorganic chemical products. Among them are: JSC "Kamteks-Chimprom", JSC "Ashland Msp", OJSC "Berezniki Soda", JSC "Henkel-PEMOS", JSC "Halogen", JSC "Sorbent", JSC "Permskie poliefiry", JSC "Kamteks-Poliefiry", LLC "Soda-chlorate", JSC "Karbokam", LLC "Rosplast", etc. At the same time, the region is actively developing petrochemical industry has a very wide range of chemical industries, and represented a number of companies: CJSC "SIBUR-Chimprom", JSC "Uralorgsintez", LLC "Uralchimprom", LLC "FLEK", LLC "Perm chemical company". Thus, in the Perm region chemical industry developed in several directions: fertilizers, chemistry of hydrocarbons, other production (plastics, synthetic materials, rubber, paint substances, etc.). The dominant role in this, of course, belongs to the production of mineral fertilizers. 1 Fig. 4. The index of chemical production in Perm region (in % to previous year)   Dynamics of the index of chemical manufacture shows the dependence of the whole industry from the production of mineral fertilizers (Fig. 4). The turnover of the chemical industry on average is more than 160 000 million rubles per year (Fig. 5). 1 Fig. 5. The turnover of the chemical industry in Perm region, million rubles. The chemical industry of the Perm region are the largest taxpayers, contributing significant funds to the revenues of the regional budget. Can’t say about pharmaceutical industry of the region. The major share in this market are imported drug products (over 75%). The market structure is characterized by a predominance of the pharmaceutical products of Russian producers in market segments with low added value, segments with a high value of the busy preparations of foreign manufacturers. The result is a shortage of funds for research and development work (1-2% of revenue). Thus, the pharmaceutical industry is almost not present in international markets. The export is less than 1% [24]. Among the main enterprises in the Perm region can be called Perm scientific production Association "Biomed", JSC "Medisorb".

4.2 Influence of the external environment

Chemical manufacturing in Russia as a whole has a high competitiveness in the domestic market and the average competitiveness in the world market. However, in terms of sectoral distribution, competitiveness is very different.

4.2.1 Impact of WTO on chemical industry of Perm region

By the time of Russia's accession to the WTO the level of tariff protection for mineral products was at the level not exceeding the end associated rate: weighted average rate submitted in the product category by 0.03% lower than required by WTO commitments [5]. For some products the tariff rate will decrease, but this decrease cannot be considered significant (average by 3.55%). If we consider the development of the chemical industry sector, the following should be noted. The production of mineral fertilizers Russia's accession to the WTO has had a generally positive effect, stimulating the increase of production volumes and commissioning of new competitive capacities. Chemistry of hydrocarbons, closely related to the development of the oil industry, largely export-oriented and dependent on foreign companies, making the necessary alignment of export and domestic prices. The production of many synthetic products, plastics and rubber is characterized by low competitiveness, limited range, use of outdated technologies with high costs, which requires the introduction of new capacity for the retention of existing foreign markets. Can watch the high import dependence in the pharmaceuticals segment, despite the large number of local manufacturers producing modern medicines. The pharmaceutical industry is completely import-dependent, which requires changes in the structure of the internal market as a whole. Table 3. The effect of WTO on the development of the chemical industry

Chemical industry Positive effect Negative effect [40] The internal causes of the growth/ recession
Mineral fertilizers High competitiveness on the world market; a high proportion of export In a number of commodity positions reduced rates of import tariff (on average by 3.55%) The finding of the unique deposits of mineral raw materials
Chemistry of hydrocarbons The reduction of import duties on technological equipment and technologies; increase the flow of foreign investment into the sector Dependence on foreign companies: foreign participation are significant – 23% A high proportion of exports, determine the export and domestic prices
Pharmaceutical industry Obvious necessity of increasing the efficiency of production through changes in the structure of the product assortment in the direction of technologically sophisticated, high-tech and innovative products High import dependence (the share of imported products on the Russian market – more than 75%; the export of medicines – less than 1%) The market structure is characterized by a predominance of Russian producers in market segments with low added value, segments with high value busy branded manufacturers
Other chemical industry (polymers, chemical fibers, etc.) A high proportion of exports of the country (over 70%) The dependence of the domestic market of certain types of polymers; - low competitiveness of products, a limited range, the use of outdated technologies, high costs The lack of input of new capacities, so that there is a refocus on the domestic market, leaving foreign markets

4.2.2 Impact of economic sanctions on the chemical industry of Perm region

The confrontation between Russia and the West, which intensified the economic sanctions, has many causes. The deepening and sharpening of the contradictions associated with the complexity of the main concepts emerged by the beginning of the XXI century world order, strengthening of the struggle for natural resources, scientific and technical capabilities, areas, but the most important is human potential. Scientists estimate that humanity has entered a period of global crisis of late industrialism and neo-liberalism; there is every reason to assume that its protracted nature and the high degree of entropy further development. When it starts to dominate a special kind of administrative activity management, which is able, as the experience of economically developed countries, to consolidate the society and to determine the correct vector of development. In seeking to weaken the influence of Russia, political elite of Western countries, using its technological leadership, economic sanctions against key sectors of the economy – financial, oil and defense, a ban on supplies of dual-use goods, restrict access to technologies necessary for modernization of industries. The sanctions are aimed not only at slowing technical development, but also the decline in hydrocarbon production is the main export positions in the trade balance of Russia. In response to Western sanctions, the Russian Government called for the development of measures on import substitution in defense and other industries, including industry, to ensure food security. But the disparity in technological leadership arose much earlier, as most advanced technology is the property of the United States, Germany, France, UK, Japan or countries under their strong influence. Russia is inferior in most positions and the consequences of the limitations of the transfer of Western technology, the transition from raw materials to production model of the economy needed mega-projects that include mechanisms for attracting business opportunities. Unfortunately, the invention of new "breakthrough" forms of action in response to the challenges of modernity have neither the time nor radically new ideas. It is also obvious that does not make sense to ignore the proven experience in the creation of the European research area, which is Central to the concept of European technology platforms (ETP) efficiently used in the solution of tasks vital to improve competitiveness and economic growth. The imposition of economic sanctions in the first phase (first and second packages of sanctions) were largely symbolic in nature and resulted in the tightening of the visa regime, the ban on entry and freezing of assets of several Russian officials and businessmen, etc. On the economy itself and in the chemical industry, these measures are not affected. The third package of sanctions mainly affects the oil and gas industry: restrictions on the supply of specialized equipment and technologies (for the development of hard recoverable reserves). In addition, the sanctions have affected several tens of kinds of products of the oil industry. Including mobile drilling rigs, floating drilling rigs, offshore platforms, equipment for the development of the Arctic shelf and shale oil and gas reserves. These sanctions prevent the development of fields on which oil can be extracted in the future, replacing falling production of traditional fields. Thus, this package of sanctions affects one of the sectors of the chemical industry, namely the chemistry of hydrocarbons, based in particular on products of the petroleum industry (table. 4). Table 4. The impact of economic sanctions on the development of the chemical industry

Industry Negative effect Threats Prospects of development
Chemistry of hydrocarbons Dependence on foreign companies The decline in the share of exports Maintaining the level of exports; the search for new partners
Pharmaceutical industry Dependence on import market Restrictions on the import of certain drugs Creation of competitive production on the domestic market; the increase in the share of exports
Other chemical production (polymers, chemical fibers, etc.) Sanctions had no impact Deep integration into the international economy in the case management restrictions will lead to negative consequences Individual measures are not effective, a comprehensive program of procedures in terms of sanctions

Sanctions did not affect the production associated with inorganic chemical products (fertilizers). However, other sectors were under serious threat. In particular, the pharmaceutical market, being entirely import-dependent, in the current environment requires significant structural changes. In addition, chemical production of organic origin, in particular those based on oil and gas raw materials, require the maintenance of a stable level of exports through the establishment of new partner States. A number of chemical industries (polymers, chemical fibers, etc.), despite the fact that the sanctions do not directly have any impact on their activities, should enhance the competitiveness of their products, to find a way to implement modern technologies to reduce costs in order to retain the existing position on foreign markets in the chemical industry as a whole.

4.3 Problems and prospects of development of Chemical industry in Perm region

(1) Problems The main problems of the chemical industry are: - technological backwardness and high wear and tear of fixed assets, limit the level of capacity utilization the most important types of chemical and petrochemical products; infrastructure and resource constraints; - decrease price competitiveness in connection with the rising prices of raw materials, electricity and railway tariffs. (2) Priorities The main priorities of industrial policy in the chemical complex are: - material and energy-saving technologies of processing of hydrocarbonic raw materials, - the production of a wide range of import-substituting synthetic and functional materials, including new generation, - technology of production of organic fertilizers and resource-saving low-tonnage chemical products. (3) Activities the implementation of the policy Activities in the field of implementation of industrial policy in the framework of this effort, the following activities: 1. Consultations "Power-Business" on problems of development of the program of development of Chemical industry, at both the regional and Federal level; 2. Cooperation in the development, adoption and implementation of industrial policy of development of the Chemical complex; 3. The development of a sub-program for the development of the Chemical complex; 4. The involvement of Federal financial resources through participation of the Perm region contests and programs, namely, State program "Development of industry and increasing its competitiveness", interaction with development institutions and financial-credit institutions at both regional and Federal level. (4) Measures of state support To ensure the development of the competitiveness of the chemical industry to ensure the production of innovative, competitive products require the following set of measures. Namely, the measures of state support in the implementation of investment projects, besides subsidizing R & D. Priority of industrial policy of the Perm region - the development of the Chemical complex. (5) Aims of the sub-program The aim of the sub-program is the development of the competitiveness of the chemical industry to ensure the production of innovative, competitive products that can replace imported counterparts and to ensure effective compliance of production, quality and range of chemical industry products. (6) Objectives of the sub-program The objectives of the program include: - encourage depth of processing of raw materials (oil, gas); - provision of technical re-equipment and modernization of existing and creation of new economically efficient and ecologically safe production; - development of export potential and domestic market of chemical products; organizational and structural development of the chemical complex in the direction of increasing the production of high-tech products, products with high added value; - improving the efficiency and innovative potential of enterprises of chemical complex; - improving the technical and economic level of production at the expense of the reconstruction, modernization and new construction; - expansion of production of chemical industry products with high added value; - reduction of specific consumption of raw materials, energy and labor resources to the production of chemical and petrochemical products; - deeper processing of hydrocarbon and mineral resources based on the latest technologies, including through effective use of associated petroleum gas; - development of nano-technologies and the extension of their use to obtain materials with specific performance properties, are widely used practically in all spheres of activities; stimulating investment in the development of the chemical industry through the application of the regulatory functions of the state on the basis of public-private partnerships; - introduction of environmentally safe technologies to reduce waste output and specific emissions of harmful substances into air and water basins, as well as automated systems of control over the environment; - providing enterprises with highly qualified personnel at the expense of the greater involvement of new experts and retraining of workers of the chemical industry.

4.4 Chapter conclusion

The success of the industries in the region depends not only on the enterprises and organizations, its components, but also on the state of the institutional environment in which they develop, a regional tax system, investment climate, public support, etc. in Addition, the determining factor becomes the Federal installations and priorities that form the General conditions and principles for the development of the region as a whole, individual sectors of the economy. It should be noted that in modern conditions all subjects aimed at the creation and implementation of government programs in all spheres of public life, including the economic, in which is implemented an impressive set of measures aimed at the achievement of some outcome indicators. However, no program can’t be absolute in a constantly changing economic reality. In this regard, the necessary adjustments of the selected strategic approach. On this basis, it is important to propose and justify a set of principles of regional policy, allowing to improve the control system of the chemical industry in the Perm region, to bring it into line with current economic realities (table. 5). Table 5. The principles of regional policy and the priorities in the development of the chemical industry of the Perm region

Chemical Industry Principles Priorities Results
Production of mineral fertilizers The principle of public-private partnerships Through the development of mutually beneficial conditions of cooperation with the largest taxpayers in the Perm region it is possible to obtain benefits for the companies and the budget of the region Maintaining existing indicators and the increase in volumes of extraction of mineral raw materials
Chemistry of hydrocarbons The principle of modernization Overcoming technical and technological dependence on foreign countries, search of new partners (not related to sanctions), the creation of its own competitive industries There is the incentive for a sharp rise in gasoline prices in the domestic market
Pharmaceutical industry Import substitution; The principle of protectionism; Support of studies and research Troubleshooting the following phenomena: import dependence (the share of Russian producers is less than 1%), low quality products. The creation of own competitive production These measures will create its own market of pharmaceutical products, avoid the possible impact of sanctions
Chemical industry in General The principle of clustering Creation of chemical (petrochemical) cluster in the region Will create an effective mechanism to control the chemical industry in the region

Approaches based on the proposed principles will help to harmonize the development of the chemical industry in General (the totality of the sectors and sub-sectors), following the criterion of balance. In particular, in addition to maintain the leading position on the fertilizer market should develop a strategic investment policy for the development of chemical industries based on hydrocarbons. In addition, perspective can be considered the development of the private pharmaceutical market. An advantage of the Perm region is the presence of almost all possible types of raw materials for the chemical industry. In the region represented by almost all types of chemical production that tells about the huge potential for development on this basis of competent investment policy, the implementation of the principles of import substitution, public-private partnerships and clustering.

Chapter 5 Formation of technology platform for chemical industry of Perm region

  The purpose of the technology platform is the concentration of intellectual, financial and administrative resources, aimed at creating conditions for the technical modernization and essential increase of competitiveness through the rapid implementation in chemical industry advanced, including "breakthrough" processes and technologies for processing various types of raw materials, a high-tech innovative production of a full cycle.

5.1 Features of technological platform

The activities of technology platforms in the Russian Federation actively supported by the government. Key areas of such support are: - Linking the state programs of the Russian Federation of the scientific-technological orientation, including Federal target programs, technological platforms; - Decree of the President of the government of the Russian Federation was requested to provide a linkage to the technological frameworks of the state programs of the Russian Federation [39]; - Alignment of state programs with the activities of technological platforms will also be supported through amendments to existing Federal targeted programs and in developing the new Federal target programs; - The involvement of technology platforms of state-owned companies implementing innovative development programs; - Participation in the activities of technological platforms is foreseen in the framework of the innovative development programs of the 60 largest state-owned companies implementing innovative development programs. Successful experience in bringing technology platforms to the formation of subjects of state-supported research and development already gained in the framework of the Federal target program "Research and development on priority directions of development of scientific-technological complex of Russia". In 2012 with the aim of supporting activities of technology platforms Ministry of education and science undertook the collection of sentences on the subject of exploratory research carried out in the interests of technological platforms in the framework of the Federal target program. By collecting proposals were announced tenders for conducting specific scientific research. The volume allocated to the Ministry of education and science of budgetary funds on the subject of applied research for technological platforms totally more than 3 billion rubles for 490 contracts with technology platforms. This work will continue in the framework of the Federal target program "Research and development on priority directions of development of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2014-2020". Program funding for 2014-2020 is 239,03 billion rubles, of which Federal funds are 202,24 billion rubles, means of off – budget sources are 36,79 billion rubles. The Russian technological development Fund provides interest-free loans for the implementation of innovative projects of technological platforms. The Fund concentrates its work on supporting the 13 priority technological platforms, approved by the Supervisory Board of the Fund. For the purposes of the methodical providing of preparation of these plans the Ministry of economic development has developed training materials for their development.

5.2 Demonstration of platform formation

A technological platform is created to address the most fundamental problems in science, manufacturing, technology and innovation, in the aggregate for the chemical industry to a higher technological level, corresponding to the global and national challenges in the medium and long term. The technology platform aims to become the main principle for joint activities of all stakeholders, to create an environment of communication between the state, enterprises, academia, Universities, the commercial sector and public authorities, form of cooperation of participants of a technological platform aimed at carrying out joint developments and commercialization of their results.

5.2.1 Necessity of platform formation

(1) Macro level The formation of "Technology platforms" can be considered as a possible auxiliary tool in the implementation of national priorities of scientific and technological development and development of scientific and production ties. While some of the platforms will allow to clarify the priorities in the framework of existing instruments of state support of innovation. Based on the other will form a new research and production cooperation that will clarify the structure and mechanisms of realization of budgetary target programs implemented on terms of public-private partnerships. First, a technological platform is a way of mobilizing the efforts of all stakeholders - different agencies, business, the scientific community to achieve the ultimate goals for selected strategic priority areas. Second, the mechanism for harmonization and coordination of efforts of various departments, state corporations and the infrastructure monopolies, regions, etc., taken by them within the framework of existing mechanisms for the implementation of national science and technology policy – Federal target programs, sectoral strategies and programs, enterprise development programs, etc. Mechanism for harmonization and coordination through the use of process mapping, determining the hierarchy of goals, the formulation of indicators of achievement, setting a specific timeframe, and, most importantly, the distribution of responsibilities between the parties. Thirdly, the way of implementing effective public-private partnerships, the development of ideology, laid down in the VIP projects. It should be noted that TP can serve as a tool for the implementation of any direction within a particular national priority, not priorities in General, because it is too complex and multi-task [15]. (2) Micro level The present structure of the domestic chemical and petrochemical production and exports of oil products and petrochemicals is significantly different from the structure of domestic demand. Commodity (product) the production structure of the majority of Russian oil and chemical industries was formed in the late 1980-ies and all least meets current demand structure, both external and internal market. It should be added that a substantial part of chemical equipment left over from Soviet times, manufactures products that does not match the current international standards. For the industry of petrochemical and organic synthesis in the structure of domestic consumption prevails, the demand for high value added products –high-tech products: plastic products, tyres, paintwork, synthetic fibers, chemical protection, catalysts, rubber products, surface-active substances. In Russia do not exist as a separate production, and the whole sub-sector, which could meet the demand for these products is insufficient petrochemical raw materials for its production, low share of high-tech products of petrochemical and organic synthesis, such as special varieties of polymers, surfactants and modern. the Lag of the characteristics of the domestic polymer composite materials and their processing technologies of the world level more than 20 years. A comparison of the commodity structure of Russian export and import shows that the country is exported mainly chemical products of low added value and imports of high value - added products ranging from synthetic resins and plastics to products, and chemical fibers and yarns. In the commodity structure of production do not exist many progressive varieties of products, the most popular both in the world and in the Russian market. Shipped for export to 40% produced in Russia, chemical and petrochemical products, among which the main role is played by products of raw purpose, low and medium stages. Often, after appropriate processing, it returns to Russia in the form of high-tech products. Existing refineries and petrochemical plants do not meet modern environmental requirements and their functioning associated with obtaining significant quantities of emissions and waste. These industries are a significant source of environmental pollution. In terms of gross emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere chemical complex occupies tenth place among the industries, on the wastewater discharges into natural surface waters - second place. Significantly, that at lower degrees of redistribution of raw materials the domestic production, refining and petrochemical industries due to lower energy prices, has a cost advantage relative to many of its foreign counterparts, but in the case of approximation of domestic prices and tariffs for gas and electricity to the global level - while maintaining the old technologies - this advantage will be lost. In addition, on a global scale we can talk about the declining values of the price attractiveness compared to the quality of products and the growth of solvency of consumers. As a result, the ongoing structural changes in the global market of chemical and petrochemical products, the emergence of new strong players in the traditional markets for Russian products, complicate the position of Russian companies in the struggle for markets. The solution to these problems is possible towards the creation of an interrelated set of fundamentally new processes and catalyst industries for processing carbon-containing raw material with the Union in the framework of the technological platform of the efforts of the organizations specializing in research and development, applied research institutes and companies, catalyst plants, engineering companies, members of the business community. The volume covered by the chemical processing of carbonaceous raw materials, including up to high repartitions, their decisive influence on the level of technological development in General, and necessitate the development of this technology platform and delivered its objectives. The relevance of the technology platform increases substantially in connection with the modernization of the Russian economy, the transition from raw orientation to manufacturing of downstream products with high added value. Within this technological platform is planned to develop the complex technology of deep processing of carbonaceous raw materials and creating conditions for resource and energy saving in industries of chemical complex of Russia. A consequence of the implementation platform will be the emergence of new sectors of the market of catalysts, creation elements of the industry for the chemical processing of natural and associated petroleum gas, a complete reform of the industry of processing heavy oils and oil fractions into motor fuels and feedstock for petrochemical industry that will result in a significant increase in efficiency and a substantial increase in the level of technological processes. (3) Universities, institutions and research centers Currently across the country is organizational stage of formation of the management bodies (management companies), the mechanism of enrollment and inclusion of applicants in the program of technological platforms. It is expected that the technological platforms as a tool and communication platform for the implementation of innovative projects in technological development of the country will be expanded. Universities are involved in programs and projects of formation of innovative economy of Russia, including technology platforms, which are the communication platform for long-term technology forecasting and technology road mapping. The platform involves the development of different industry segments of the national economy to solve the problems of food security, healthy nutrition and environmental management. Any organization engaged in research work, it is important to say about their projects on similar research sites.

5.2.2 Potential benefits

There are potential benefits in the medium term for active participants of technological platforms. (1) Government The potential benefits of the state:

  • Defining medium and long-term priorities of science and technology policy
  • Concentration on priority areas of economic modernization of private and public resources
  • Coordination of R & d financed from budget funds
  • Identifying directions for improvement of regulation, including branch
  • Improving conditions for the spread of advanced technologies
  • Improving the efficiency of large state-owned companies
  • Improving the effectiveness of budget expenditures.

(2) Companies The potential business benefits of:

  • Improvement of environment for innovations, stimulation of demand for innovative products
  • Improve the quality of training taking into account necessary technological competencies
  • Financial support of innovative projects
  • New possibilities for technological modernization and broadening of the planning horizon
  • Opportunities for the production of fundamentally new products
  • Increasing opportunities for choice of partners, selection of best contractors
  • Political support on the world markets, the possibility of forming international alliances in areas characterized by high risks and require the pooling of resources
  • Support and attention of the public, the expansion of demand for innovative products (services).

(3) Science The potential benefits of science:

  • Involvement of business to partnership with scientific organizations, demonstrative effect on business, broadening of business demand for R & D
  • Extension of the competences of interest to the business (training, engineering, design, long-term forecasting)
  • Inclusion of small firms, created by scientific-education institutions, the network of subcontracting
  • Filling the "gaps" applied science
  • Formation of new cooperation in scientific sector
  • Formation of competence centres, including unit-level scientific and scientific-educational organizations
  • Developing the capacity to implement complex projects with multiple participants.

5.3. Platform formation

5.3.1 Mechanism of the platform and logical structure

As known, to ensure effective communication between participants of the innovation process uses a number of tools. Among them are gaining popularity of the technology platforms. Technology platform actively and successfully operate in the EU, the purpose of which is to unite efforts of representatives of business, science and government in the development of long-term priorities of scientific and technological development; the development of a strategic program of research and development and their implementation [4]. Note that the technology platform is a term proposed by the European Commission for the designation of thematic areas in which the formulated or will be formulated priorities of the EU. In the context of these areas it is planned to allocate significant amounts of funding for various research works that are directly related to their practical implementation by enterprises of small and medium business and industry. The implementation of technology platforms allows us to provide: the choice of strategic science directions; analysis of market potential of technologies; consideration of the viewpoints of all stakeholders: government, industry, academia, regulatory authorities, users and consumers; and active involvement of all stakeholders in the innovation process; the mobilization of public and private sources of funding. The efficacy of the mechanism of technological platforms for innovative development of the region is determined by several factors: a focus on specific tasks of business development or public sector; strong business representation in management platform; clear and transparent "rules of the game" for all participants, openness of the platform for "entry" of new members [18]. In addition, among the factors determining the success of the platform include: a clear "focus" technology platform; multi-structural control within the platform, strong leadership and representation of the business at the level of its top management, the representation of state governing bodies; clear and transparent "rules of the game"; the individuality of each platform, open platform for "entry" of new members. The process of formation of technological platforms is quite complicated. The analysis of special literature and practice of formation of technological platforms has allowed to propose the following mechanism for the formation of a regional technology platform (Fig. 6). C:\Users\КК\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Word\431.jpg Fig. 6. The mechanism of the formation of a regional technology platform This mechanism involves several elements: subject structure: initiators of the formation of a regional technology platform and state Executive bodies responsible for the creation of technological platforms in the country; - stages of formation of regional technological platforms: development of the project of formation of regional technological platforms; consideration of the request of the initiators of the creation of technological platforms; preparation of proposals on approval of the list and amendments to it; prepare information and analytical materials about the activities of technological platforms; preparation of proposals for government support measures and facilitating an effective implementation of technological plat-forms; promote the dissemination of best practices for the formation and implementation of technological platforms (the basis here taken steps in accordance with [35]); - project development stages the formation of regional technological platforms: analysis of the potential region for the formation of a technological platform on the basis of the developed techniques; identification of propulsive sectors of the region's economic development; the formation of the list the establishment of technological platforms in the region; the selection of regional platforms for inclusion in the project; the determination of the regional coordinator of the technological platform. In General, the peculiarity of this mechanism is that the formation of regional technological platforms takes into account specific features of regions identified based on the methodology of the assessment of their capacity and selection of priority directions of development of the regional economy takes place in the framework of public-private partnership taking into account the interests of stakeholders of the innovation development of the region, which allows to increase the productivity and effectiveness of communication between them. Thus, the active use of technology platforms in Russian regions will allow to unite efforts of government, business, science and education for the implementation of priority directions of innovative development of the region; to increase the influence of business and society to identify and implement key areas of scientific and technological development aimed at problem solving, are particularly important for economic and social development of the region; to provide a clear focus on selected priorities for the satisfaction of important social needs, the strategic objectives of business development, the priority of state interests; and, of course, to mobilize resources and efforts of participants, primarily on the development of those sectors of the market of innovations and technologies that are most promising from the point of view of the magnitude of the impact on the regional economy and can be developed within the framework of a regional technology platform.

5.3.2 Organizational structure of platform formation

At the present time in Russia the technology platform is just beginning to organize their work and are poorly structured, including is unexamined organizational structure, responsibilities of technology platform participants and their powers. European technology platforms have extensive experience and various projects, however, there are differences with the Russian technology platforms, because the objectives of these platforms vary. Developed the optimal structure of the technology platform based on the experience of European technology platforms (Fig. 7). This figure shows the platform structure applied to the peculiarities of the Russian technology platform. All processes involved in the functional model of interaction of participants of the platform are divided into two groups: primary and secondary. The main process is divided into: · The unit of strategic management processes; · Block of operational activities. 432 Fig. 7. An overview of the relationship of top-level processes Group processes, strategic Platform management includes the processes that ensure the development of strategic objectives and their subsequent implementation. Planning and implementation of programs is the main mechanism of implementation of the Strategy Platform. The program is a set of targets and measures aimed at their achievement. Each program is planned and executed in one or more of the strategic goals of the Platform. The program is planned for a certain period, after which the analysis achieved the goals set out in the platform strategy. At the operational level to achieve the objectives of the program, there are planning to implement innovative projects, which are the basis for the formation of a portfolio of projects. To further manage the portfolio of projects and directly manage the projects themselves. Ancillary processes include:

  • Monitoring performance of the Platform
  • Administration of the Platform
  • Expert support
  • Monitoring the external environment
  • Interact with other Platforms and the external environment.

432-1 Fig. 8. The structure of the technological Platform A feature of this structure is its flexibility in terms of the significant flow of projects in the framework of the Technological platform. This Platform structure is a hierarchical matrix structure of the management Platform. The organizational structure of the Platform includes a steering Committee, Advisory Council, Directorate of Platforms and Working groups on certain subjects. The management Committee develops and approves the Strategy of development of the Technology platform. In this strategy should contain certain strategic objectives, the implementation of which will achieve the desired results of the technological platform. Under each strategic objective creates a separate program Committee that oversees the implementation of innovative projects under the strategic objectives of the technological platform. The leaders of each of the programming Committee are part of the program management Office. This structure is designed to control the implementation of the overall strategy of the technology platform in General and the operational coordination of the program committees for the adjustment of the implementation of various innovative projects. However, some projects may have as their objective the implementation of several strategic objectives of the technological platform. Therefore, for the purposes of operational control the implementation of innovative projects creates a Project office, which leads projects in areas of Working groups and their intergroup interaction. The program management office and Project office are included in the Directorate. The Directorate is the operational level of Strategy implementation. It also includes Administration and Expert-analytical Department which is engaged in selection of innovative projects and their preparation for making the final decision to invest. Selected at the primary level projects are considered at the Expert Council and if approved, they are included in the Strategy Committee and go for implementation.

5.3.3 Meaning of platform formation

Technology platform acts primarily specific communication tool aimed at intensifying efforts to develop advanced technologies, new products, and attract additional resources for research and development based on the participation of all interested parties – stakeholders of innovation development. Stakeholders innovative development of the region can be regulatory structures at different levels;

  • business structures, represented by large, medium and small enterprises throughout the chain of production;
  • representatives of the structures for transfer and commercialization of technologies;
  • government agencies and regional management bodies and authorities;
  • research institutes and universities;

financial institutions, including private banks, investment funds, venture capital funds, clubs of business angels, etc.; civil society, including non-governmental organizations, associations of consumers and other users of technology. The study showed that the formation of technology platforms useful in regions where there is at least a small Foundation for the development of the sphere of knowledge generation. It is argued that technological platforms have the potential for solving problems of innovative development of regions, as it is aimed at priority development of promising innovation-oriented sectors of the regional economy. This conclusion is confirmed by the results obtained by the author in the analysis of foreign experience of formation of technological platforms, which also showed that the technology platform performs several functions:

  • information and communication (getting to know the participants of the platform among themselves, exchange of information, the formation of a working relationship, respect for consensus of opinion on various issues of innovation);
  • stimulating (motivating the participants of the platform to more intense activity the innovative activity);
  • integrating (merging parties for the implementation of joint innovation projects);
  • the broadcasting (transfer proposals to the government on innovation policy, the elimination of various barriers to innovation, the formation of mechanisms of implementation of innovation).

In addition, a technological platform designed and effectively functioning in the region, able to support fine-tuning a more efficient mechanism of investments with attraction of means of private business and improve the regional investment climate in General, which characterizes another feature – image. In addition, the Union on the same site interested in innovative region development entities has a positive impact on the creation of conditions for intellectual property protection, the development of human and educational potential of the region for the requirements of the propulsive sectors of the regional economy, thereby enhancing the competence and professionalism of members of the technology platform. On this basis, the regional technology platform is considered from the perspective of symbiosis forms of partnership (mainly public-private) stakeholders of the innovation development of the region, ways of mobilizing their capacities and tools to ensure their effective interaction at all stages of the innovation cycle. In General, the functioning of the technological platform in the region enhances the effectiveness of coordination between regional agencies at different stages of the innovation process, increase of motivation of the initiators and participants of the research and development work, the formation of the regional market of innovation.

5.4 Strategy analysis of technology platform

5.4.1 Strategic goals and principles of the management

(1) Strategic goals Towards long-term goals include:

  • creation of a complex of innovative technologies of processing of raw materials for comprehensive modernization of chemical and petrochemical plants and the transition of industry to a new level of development;
  • maintaining a high level of technology of processing resources and the competitiveness of the chemical industry on a global level.

(2) Management principles Creation of technological platforms is a complex process requiring consideration of many factors. It is not enough just to create an organization that unites government, business and science, require special management approaches for its successful operation. 441 Figure 9. Organizational structure of management of the Technological platform   As the basis of development of the Technological platform proposes a common implementation of the technology platforms of the European Union and positively proven organizational structure shown in figure 9, which is a horizontally oriented adaptive ("rolling") system, which combines the linear - functional and project management structure. Inter-branch scientific-technical Council is the highest scientific expert on the technology platform and consists of elected members among the leading specialists of organizations participating in the direction of its implementation. The composition of the interdisciplinary scientific-technical Council mandatory includes representatives of the Coordinator and Head of the scientific organization of the technological platform. Inter-branch scientific-technical Council elected by the Chairman and determines with the agreement of the Coordinator and Head of the scientific organization forms working groups. Head scientific organization of the technological platform is the link with the expert and scientific community. The coordinator determines the forms and methods of technical management of the platform. Coordinator of technological platform provides its relationship with the Federal Executive authorities, local authorities, other public, social and political structures, civil and business community. For the operational management of technology platform Coordinator forms the coordinating Council shall establish an Executive group and forms a coordination group. The rules of the election of bodies formed a technological platform that will be reflected in the Regulations. In coordination with the Executive authorities, state corporations, integrated, and political structures of the technological platform form the Supervisory Board, which includes government officials, representatives of state organizations, ministries and departments, public and large private companies, development institutions, leading experts, etc. The Supervisory Board carries out independent monitoring of the implementation of Technology platforms and can support its implementation in the promotion of solutions, projects, legislative changes, dissemination of information materials and other mechanisms of influence in making political and economic decisions by public authorities on the profile of the platform prepared by the Inter-branch scientific-technical Council and/or the Coordinator of the platform. This flexible organizational structure characterized by the absence of bureaucratic regulation of the activities of the management bodies and detailed division of labor by type of work, decentralization of decision-making and individual responsibility of each member of platform for the overall performance. In such a structure, as a rule, the upper level of the hierarchy occupied by professionals. In addition, this system will allow relatively easy to change its shape to adapt to changing conditions; to focus on accelerated implementation of complex and strategic programs that solve complex problems and to develop internal management departments on temporary basis for the period of the solution, the project implementation program. The proposed governance structure will allow specific independent and qualified professionals to work directly with clients. The linear parts of the structure make decisions and help inform functional and linear in the design and preparation of the relevant program and plans for making specific decisions. Functional units report their decision to the Executive through the Coordinator, they carried out all technical training; prepare solutions, freeing up line managers from planning, etc. Project management of the technological platform is focused on ensuring effective management of parallel execution of several major projects, while respecting the autonomy of the aggregate of individual projects, the managers of specific projects responsible for timely and quality development and implementation. Are the management structure will ensure rapid decision making and implementation of actions to address them, the rational combination of linear and functional relationships; the stability of authority and personal responsibility of each participant of the technology platform for the overall performance, a professional solution of the tasks.

5.4.2 Implementation of platform activities

In the course of implementing activities of technology platforms is: • development of a strategic research program providing for determination of medium - and long-term priorities in research and development, building mechanisms of scientific-industrial cooperation; • development of training programs, determining the directions and principles for the development of standards, certification system, implementation of measures on development of innovative infrastructure; • development of a program for the introduction and dissemination of advanced technologies in the relevant sectors of the Russian economy defining the various mechanisms and sources of funding, commitments of technological platform participants; • creating an organizational structure that ensure the necessary conditions for the implementation of interaction between enterprises, scientific and educational organizations. In the framework of technological platforms development of proposals aimed at improvement of regulation in scientific-technological and innovative sphere, including in part: • clarify the topics of R & D supported by the state of improvement of mechanisms of innovative activity stimulation; • improvement of technical regulation; • determination of perspective requirements to quality characteristics of production (services) purchased for state needs; • clarification of the innovative development programs of large companies with state participation; • clarification of the directions and principles of support of state development institutes, scientific-technical and innovation activities; • improving educational standards; • determination of directions of international scientific-technological cooperation. The technological platform is a multi-stakeholder (universities, research organizations, industrial enterprises, authorities, etc.) for the solution of strategic tasks of scientific and technological development of the industries and sectors of the Russian economy, which include technological platform. The participants of the technology platform coordinating action and cooperation with each other on a pre-competitive stage applied research and development.

5.5 Analysis of the mechanism of technology platform work

5.5.1 Principles of formation of technological platforms

Binding technology platforms to 6 regions of the country (mainly Central Russia and to a much lesser extent to the Siberian Federal district and the northwestern Federal district) is evidence of the uselessness of the approach the initiation of technology platforms implemented at the Federal level by the principle of "up – down". More productive is the principle of creating requests for the creation of technology platforms "down – up" [25] [26], when initiatives come from the regions to the Federal center (Fig.10). 451 Fig.10. The proposed mechanism for the collection of proposals for the establishment of technology platforms with involvement of subjects of the Russian Federation. The mechanism of formation and implementation of the Technological platform defines clear and transparent "rules of the game" for all participants, and openness to the "entry" of new partners from both research organizations and educational institutions, and organizations of producers and consumers, which ensures that no additional restrictions on competition in the Russian market in the field of competences of the technology platform. Members of the technology platform on the principles of voluntary Association can be organizations and enterprises of any form of ownership, government, educational and other institutions, professional associations, associations of non-governmental organizations, non-profit partnerships that share the goals and objectives of the Platform as an essential tool for the implementation of national priorities of scientific and technological development and development of scientific and industrial relations, clarifying the directions of state and business to support innovation and forming new scientific-industrial cooperation. Members of the Technology platform can be foreign partners, and, in consultation with the Coordinator allowed the Technological platform joining individuals. individuals can be associate members of the technology platform.

5.5.2 Description of the main actions for the creation and maintenance of the technology platform.

Within 3 months after the institutionalization of the technological platform there should be developed, Regulations of its functioning and composition of the main events for the formation of coordinating bodies, forms and methods of technical management of the platform, the mechanisms for its connection with the Federal bodies of Executive power, bodies of local government, other state, public and political structures, civil and business community, etc.; identified a list of priority projects and stakeholders for the implementation of the proposed activities, their cooperation within the technology platform with a clear distribution of responsibilities for individual areas within the formation and functioning of technological platforms. In the same nature the creation of Inter-branch scientific and technical Council composed of key members of the technology platform, creating employment, and coordinating Executive groups with the formation of the steering Committee of the platform. Not later than 6 months from the stipulated period should be made implementation schedule the major activities, highlighting calendar dates of specific stages. In addition, the first stage of implementation of the technological platform (1st calendar year from the time of its institutionalization) should be developed: • strategic research agenda and road map for defining the medium - and long-term priorities in research and development, as well as forming mechanisms of scientific-industrial cooperation of the participants of the technological platform; • mechanisms and sources of funding of planned activities and obligations of participants of a technological platform aimed at the achievement of goals and objectives; • projects of programs, curricula and educational programs for training specialists and managerial staff, to attract and retain enterprises and organizations – participants of the technological platform promising young specialists and scientists, as well as mechanisms for their implementation in the field of competences of the project; • proposals for the main directions and principles for the development of standards and qualification system of polymer composite materials, certification of production and products; • a comprehensive plan for the development of innovation infrastructure in the field of polymer composite materials, components for their production enterprises and organizations – participants of the technological platform; • strategic and phased program for implementation and development of the proposed technologies in the relevant sectors of the Russian economy • proposals aimed at improvement of regulation in scientific - technological and innovative sphere, and also a plan for the development of proposals for improving state regulation in the development technologies supported under the technology platform.

5.6 Support of environmental management system

To basic quality system standards and environmental management include the international standards: ISO 9001 – quality standard, ISO 14001 – environmental, OHSAS 18001 – health and safety. One of the most promising directions of increasing competitiveness and sustainability of enterprises can be environmental management system integrated quality management system of industrial cluster. On the one hand, it will provide the necessary level of standardization and to bring the management system of Russian enterprises to the level of industrialized countries, on the other hand to increase the competitive advantage of the enterprises included in the cluster on the domestic and international market. Standardized management systems are focused on a single strategy and achieving related goals, confirm the stability, purposeful set of interconnected types of activity (sequence of works), and the transparency of business processes and define value for the customer. Environmental management, with its inherent consistency and consistency in addressing environmental problems, should be the basis for management of the cluster, lead to the fullest use of resources and cooperation to reduce the negative impact on the environment. This advantage allows businesses to compete successfully in the international market, attract long-term investment.

5.7 Chapter conclusion

Perm region is characterized by the presence of a sufficiently developed plants, a large number of scientific organizations, higher educational institutions, quite powerful banking institutions. The creation and development of technology platforms involves the presence of four conditions: 1) strategic challenges that require the collective effort of production companies, research organizations and the state; 2) the need to establish scientific and industrial ties; 3) addressing sectoral and departmental barriers; 4) efficient intellectual potential, the resource. Also, don't discount the value of expected benefits from cooperation private efforts of various agents from their participation in the technological platform. The formation and implementation of technological platforms aimed at solving a number of important tasks. Crucial in this row is the problem of formation and development of intellectual resources, development of creative. An important element of the development process and implementation of the technological platform should be scientific, objectively reasonable prediction, on the basis of which developed a strategic research planning. Under any scenario in the course of study applications for the development and implementation of the technological platform necessary to calculate the possible economic, social or other positive result. It is possible and necessary to distinguish between external and internal criteria of efficiency of technological platforms. External criteria are needed to evaluate the technology platform for the state, inner – for those industrial, scientific, educational, and other companies and organizations who participate in the development and implementation of technology platforms.

Research conclusion

What is happening in Russia changes in line with global trends determine the adjustment to the goals and objectives of the development strategies of individual regions, aimed at increasing their competitiveness, taking into consideration historical, economic, geopolitical and infrastructure features. Natural resources of the Perm region serve as the fundamental basis for the creation of cluster formations as an intensive factor of development towards the creation of innovation infrastructure. Thus, the chemical industry is traditionally considered one of the most important activities in the region. The concept of technological platform, suffers in foreign and in domestic science. Under existing interpretations of the observed system, network, structural nature of the platforms. Slightly-developed institutional framework of technological platforms. However, the technology platform is a system of mutually beneficial relationship within a given spatial agglomeration, to apply and to resolve the inconsistency of the interrelated effects of competition and cooperation to achieve a synergistic effect (the benefits of positive activities). The advantages and limitations of such entities derive from the essential characteristics and the determined set of conditions, resources and factors necessary for the formation and effective functioning of such structures, that is potential. The advantage of the region is set to the natural resource component. Russia has 33 % of world reserves. Natural advantage in the future can add to the set of relative advantages of technological platforms. Different kinds of benefits largely explain the perception of technological platforms as an effective instrument of increase of competitiveness of regional and national economy, improving welfare and accelerating technical progress and improving innovation systems. The technological platform allows to maintain the advantage due to the hardening internal links. Cooperation and collaboration are not the only advantages. They can be: this sustainable system of dissemination of new technologies, knowledge, products (technological chain); positive reputation of participants (brand); favorable location (financial institutions, sources of information, research, consultancy centres); internal specialization and standardization (international standards of management and environmental standards). In overcoming constraints to development of technological platforms in the region, the role of the state, primarily because it is necessary to establish programs aimed at addressing infrastructural and other constraints; the important work to remove the system. In this respect direct support of the chemical industry will lead to improvements in the development of the chemical cluster in the region. Noted the benefits of creating a technology platform have a direct impact on the development of competitive relations in the region and increase its level of competitiveness. The development of the chemical technology platform will lead to effective integration into the Russian and international market, increase of investment attractiveness of the Perm region, and in the future – to increase financial investments in industry and development of innovative component.


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