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History and Mission of St Jude Children's Research Hospital

7029 words (28 pages) Dissertation

9th Dec 2019 Dissertation Reference this

Tags: HistoryMedical

St Jude Children Research hospital was started by Danny Thomas. Mr. Thomas had a dream of one day opening a hospital to treat children who did not have to pay regardless of their race, religion, creed, color, or ability to pay. His dream became a reality when he opened the door on February, 1942 (stjude, 2017). St Jude Children Research hospital treats children’s and adults with cancer and other chronic illness. With the opening of the children’s research hospital, the survival rate has increased from less than 4 percent to 20 percent (stjude, 2017)

Section 1

Danny Thomas had a dream that a hospital would one day open and treat children of all different race, creed, color, religion or ability to pay. Danny Thomas dream became a reality when St Jude Children’s Research hospital finally opened. It was designed by an African American architect by the name of Paul Revere Williams. St Jude Children’s Research Hospital is an integrated hospital that was built and open its doors in February 1942 in Memphis Tennessee (stjude, 2017). It was integrated with the local hotels in Memphis Tennessee. Hotels had to agree to the fact that they will house any family regardless of their race. During the 1960’s when St Jude Children’s Research Hospital open, the survival rate for a child with cancer was less than 20 percent, and for child that had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) which is a common form of childhood cancer, their survival rate was less than 4 percent (stjude, 2017). The reason I choose to use St Jude Children’s Research Hospital as my organization is because I have always found St Jude to have a special place in my heart. St Jude Children’s Hospital is the leading children’s hospital that treats children’s and pediatrics and defeats childhood cancer and other life-threatening diseases. When I was a child and seeing the television commercials, I always wanted to be able to help the children when I became an adult. Now that I am an adult, I would like to one-day work on the administrative side to help the children’s family to provide any assistance that I could. I know that the assistance that I provide to the family would also be helping the children since the family could focus on the child and I can leave the parents knowing they don’t have to worry, but to focus on the child. I would also like to create a marathon to help continue to raise money since they are a not-for- profit hospital.

St Jude Children’s Research Hospital originated in Memphis Tennessee, but has eight other affiliate locations. They have locations in Charlotte NC, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Huntsville Alabama, Johnson City, Tennessee, Peoria, Illinois, Shreveport, Louisiana, Springfield, Missouri and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Novant Health Hemby Children’s Hospital one of the affiliates located in Charlotte, NC. Novant Health Hemby Children’s Hospital is the only St Jude hospital in the Carolinas that also offer it services to Virginia and Georgia. They provide the highest quality of care to children in young adults in the Carolinas. The children that are be treated at Novant Health Hemby Children’s Hospital are receiving the best care due to all of the staff has extensive training in blood disorders and children who has cancer. St. Jude Baton Rouge Affiliate Clinic is located in Baton Rouge Louisiana. They provide their services to patients in Louisiana and beyond. St Jude Rouge Affiliate clinic provides patient care to pediatric patients with hematology-oncology. The first hematology-oncology is located in north Alabama, St. Jude Affiliate Clinic at Huntsville Hospital for Women and Children. They have the only Pediatric Intensive Care (PICU) and the only emergency room for pediatrics located in the northern part of Alabama.  St. Jude Tri-Cities Affiliate Clinic is located in Johnson City Tennessee. It’s pediatric hematology/oncology program was started in 1990 by East Tennessee State University College of Medicine. 1n 2000, they became affiliates of St Jude Children’s Research Hospital to provide therapy to children with cancer and blood disease (stjude, 2017). In 1972, the first St Jude Children’s Research affiliate hospital was established in Peoria. The Jim and Trudy Maloof St. Jude Midwest Affiliate Clinic was dedicated to Jim and Maloof in August, 2010 (stjude, 2017). The Children’s Hospital of LSU Health Sciences Center at Shreveport was established in 1996 (stjude, 2017). It was established to provide primary care or tertiary to child in the Ark-La-Tex area. Established in 2009, Mercy Children’s Hospital is currently a joint effort of St Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis (stjude, 2017). They provide cancer care to children and their families so they don’t have to travel far to receive cancer care. The staff at Mercy Children’s Hospital works closely with the staff of St Jude’s Memphis to provide excellent care in oncology/hematology to the pediatric and young children. Established in 2016, St. Jude Affiliate Clinic at The Children’s Hospital at Saint Francis is the eighth affiliate of St Jude’s Children Research hospital. They have St. Jude Affiliate Clinic at The Children’s Hospital at Saint Francis been providing oncology/hematology to patients and their families in Oklahoma since 1987 (stjude, 2017).

The mission of St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital is to advance cures, and means of prevention, for pediatric catastrophic diseases through research and treatment. Consistent with the vision of our founder Danny Thomas, no child is denied treatment based on race, religion or a family’s ability to pay (stjude, 2017). Since St Jude Children’s Research Hospital opened it door over 50 years ago. When St Jude Children’s Research hospital opened in 1962, the childhood cancer survival rate was at 20%.  Today, the childhood cancer survival rate for child and young adults is more than 80% (stjude, 2017). The goal of the organization is to have the childhood cancer survival rate at 100%. Danny Thomas thinks that no child should have to die in the dawn of light (D.Thomas, n.d.). St Jude Children’s Research Hospital would like to find ways to cure cancer and save children lives.  At St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, there is no cost to the family and families never receive a bill. All treatments, travel, housing and food is covered by St Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Danny Thomas didn’t think families should have to worry about nothing but helping their child to stay alive. He wanted every family to be treated equally no matter what their race, religion, creed, or ability to pay. He integrated with the local hotels in Memphis and they had to agree to the fact that they will house all families no matter what their race is. St Jude Children’s Research Hospital is a not-for- profit hospital. It is operated solely off the majority of donations or contributions from individuals. The community has a large impact on St Jude Children’s Hospital. If the community or individuals does not make contributions to the hospital, it would be nearly impossible for the hospital to operate since they operate mainly off contributions from individuals. St Jude Children’s Hospital is a patient base hospital. The main mission is to find a cure for children with cancer or other diseases.  Since, St Jude’s Children Hospital hired their first CMO in September 2009, they have taken their fund raising to new levels (Shadyac, R. J. (2011). They now uses social media, on air mention, media coverage, etc to help with the mission to raise money so no family has to pay for medical coverage regards of their income or race.

St Jude Children’s Research Hospital has many cancer center programs. There are also at present 55 clinical trials being under-taken at St. Jude’s. They range from a Phase I trial of bendamustine in combination with clofarabine and etopo-side in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory hema-tologic malignancies to a Phase II study of ipilimumab in children and adolescents (12 to <18 years) with previously treated or untreated Stage III or Stage IV malignant mela-noma (Paris, J. J., & Hawkins, A. (2015). They also support five different research programs with the intent to find a cure for cancer in children. Three of the programs are disease oriented programs. These three programs are: Developmental Biology & Solid Tumor Program, Hematological Malignancies, and Neurobiology and Brain Tumors. Cancer Prevention and Control Program is looking at ways to improve the quality of life is people that has survive childhood cancer. Finally, the Cancer Biology Program is a basics cancer research program that interacts with the disease-oriented program and the lab resources. Developmental Biology & Solid Tumor Program focus on the growth of solid tumors in children and adolescents, drug reaction and drug resistance, diagnosis and clinical therapy. The Hematological Malignancies Program focus on the study of leukemia in children with cancer. This program focusses on the clinical and translational research, and treatment options for children with leukemia. The goal of the Hematological Malignancies Program is to locate a cure for childhood leukemia, while slowing late sequelae and acute of therapy in children. This program has focused on five major areas to do research on: latest clinical trials, effects of late treatment, pharmacodynamics and experimental therapeutics, pharmacogenomics and drug metabolism, and leukemia biology and minimal residual disease detection (stjude, 2017). Hopefully these five programs could help with locating a cure for leukemia in childhood cancer.  The Neurobiology & Brain Tumor Program is comprised with world leading physician, cancer scientist, and neuroscientists. The common goal of the Neurobiology & Brain Tumor Program is to improve the outcome of children with brain tumors. The most common cause of cancer death in children is from a brain tumor. Brain tumors impairs the functions of survivors with brain tumors. The purpose of the Neurobiology & Brain Tumor Program is to look for ways to decrease the mortality and mobility of children with brain tumors with the development of new and improved treatment plans. The Cancer Prevention and Control Program consist of several highly trained individuals from seven different departments or divisions within the organization. The goal of the Cancer Prevention and Control Program is to focus on the research for outcome and intervention of cancer among pediatric and young adults.   St Jude Children’s Research Hospital is in the process of expanding the Cancer Prevention and Control Program by adding six institutions to participate in the Cancer Prevention and Control Program. The final cancer treatment program is the Cancer Biology Program. The goal of the Cancer Biology Program is to The goals of the Cancer Biology program are to define the critical cellular pathways involved in normal cellular regulation and the pathways that are altered in transformed cells (stjude, 2017). They are using three areas to focus their research on. These three areas include: Cell Stress and Metabolism, Signaling Networks and Therapeutics and Genome Structure and Function (stjude, 2017). The main goal of the program is to develop therapeutic approaches to see why normal cell are transformed during their development. These are the five cancer center programs that St Jude Children’s Research Hospital are using to conduct cancer research. St Jude first partner Red Frog Events, has raised more than $13.5 million toward a $25-million commitment made to the hospital in 2013. They opened first proton therapy center in the world that is dedicated solely to children (Health & Medicine Week; Atlanta,2016).

St Jude Children’s Research Hospital was founded by Danny Thomas. Mr. Thomas has a mission to find a cure for cancer in children. He wanted all families to be treated equally and no one to be turned away from treatment. He also wanted no family to receive a bill for any treatment for care, food, shelter, etc. With Mr. Thomas vision and mission, St Jude Children’s Hospital is a not for profit hospital on a mission to find a cure for cancer in children. He would like for no child to die from cancer. With the continued research program, and the survival rate of more than 80%, I think we may one day in the near future get to the 100% and fulfill Mr Thomas dream.

St Jude Children’s Research Hospital is a research hospital that provides treatment to patients not matter what their race, creed, color, or income status is. At St Jude, no family will ever see a bill for the services that has been provided to the patient. Also, no family should have to worry about anything with the exception of keeping their family member alive. I have been asked to analyze various facets and provide a detailed picture of St Jude Children’s Research Hospital. I will be looking at the financial aspect of the hospital, looking at their funding methods and also their reimbursements. I will be conducting research on the different types of accreditation, awards, regulations and ethical issues regarding who can receive care. Finally, I will be looking at the different styles of marketing and brands and how the community and employees are involved.

St Jude Children Research hospital is a not-for-profit children’s hospital. St. Jude receives more than half of its total operating revenues (totaling approximately $167 million in 1998) from volunteer contributions raised by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (“ALSAC”), a not-for-profit foundation established in 1957 that operates in support of St. Jude Children Research hospital (Thornton, M. 1999). Approximately 55% of the operating expenses with the exception of the reduction of value due to wear and tear were covered through American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC) philanthropic support (Thornton, M. 1999). The balance of the fund to operate St Jude comes from third party payers. Some of the third party payers that help to keep St Jude Children’s Research Hospital operating are Champus and Medicaid programs, they receive research grants from National Institute of Health, investments, fund raisers and other different sources. St Jude also provides a large amount of charity care to children. Most of the care provided by St Jude is to a large amount of children which are not eligible for Medicare coverage. For this reason, St Jude does not participate in the Medicare program. However, St Jude does participate in the Medicaid program which is a state and federal program which covers children’s, elderly, poor and blind. St Jude is allowed to bill Medicaid for no cost sharing amount on children ages eighteen and under. St Jude’s affiliates participates in Medicare, Medicaid, and Champus programs (Thornton, M.1999), but all most of all the Federal programs who pays a share of the payment made against a claim must refrain from filing a legal document to Medicaid under the billing policy.  The billing policy for St Jude is not advertised to patients, families nor physicians. They do not bill patients or families. Their billing policy is not a part a price reduction agreement between its Affiliates nor third party payers. All deductibles are paid by American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC) to St Jude’s affiliates. St Jude also rely on the 340B which is a US federal government drug discount program. 340B requires drug manufacturers to provide outpatient drugs to covered entities and healthcare organization that are eligible at a very low reduced price. The 340B drug discount program is used to provide cancer care to low income patient (Becker, J.J.n.d.).

St Jude’s Children Research hospital is a not for profit hospital. One of the largest charities in the United States, St Jude receives about three quarters of the funding that helps to keep St Jude in operation comes from donations (Morella, M. 2015).

St Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital Department of Pathology has been name the first children’s hospital to be accredited by College of American Pathologists (CAP) 15189SM Accreditation Program. This program is approved by Medicare and Medicaid services. CAP 15189SM is a voluntary, non-regulatory accreditation to the ISO 15189:2012 Standard as published by ISO (PRNewswire, 2016). St Jude was recognized by College of American Pathologists (CAP) for providing the highest quality of patient care to its patients and their families. The purpose of the program is to provide strengthen quality standards and to improve patient care while reducing the number of errors and risk and controlling cost. St Jude’s Children Research hospital is also has accreditation with The Joint Commission International (JCI). St Jude Children’s Research hospital developed a program to treat childhood cancer is low income area. Only a few of the nurses had skills or had been trained to treat pediatric oncology patients. They developed a nursing program to promote the use of quality nursing care. They developed a book and described the impact that the program had on 20 selected Joint Commission International (JCI) quality standards at the National Pediatric Oncology Unit in Guatemala (Howard, S. C. (2013). They used the standard of The Joint Commission International (JCI) to focus on creating ways to improvement and focus on nursing care. They used these standards to gain access to hospitals in poverty area. As a result of using the standards of the Joint Commission International (JCI) they have received the gold standard of international quality evaluation. Prior to implementation of the Joint Commission Internal(JCI) standards in 2006, they were not meet or barely meeting and of the standard of quality patient care. Once they compared the number of standards of the Joint Commission International (JCI) in 2009, they were fully meeting the standards of quality care ((Howard, S. C. (2013). The improvement to the standard of quality care were contributed to a number of different factors.

St Jude’s Children Research Hospital has received many different types of awards for the services that they provide to patients. They have received several awards in a number of different years for receiving an award in the Fortune magazine as one of the best places to work from 2011-2017 (stjude, 2017). They were named One of the “30 Best Workplaces in Health Care” by Fortune magazine in 2017 (stjude, 2017). St Jude Children Research Hospital was also name as One of the “100 Best Workplaces for Women” by Fortune magazine in 2016 (stjude, 2017). U.S. News & World Report (2008-2017) that they are a top children’s cancer hospital in the U.S., Best Children’s Hospital rankings (stjude, 2017). They have also been awarded by people magazine (2017) as One of the “50 Companies That Care” (stjude,2017). These are some of the institutional awards that has been awarded to St Jude Children Research hospital within the past couple of years. They have been awarded several other awards by other magazines and institutions. St Jude Children Research hospital has also received different awards for team and group from 2009-2015. Some of the awards that were awarded are, Magnet Recognition, American Nurses Credentialing Center (2015) for the nursing department (stjude,2017). They have been awarded American Association for Cancer Research AACR Team Science Award (2009) that was awarded to several different recipients (stjude,2017). Also during the year of 2009 and 2010, their intensive care unit was awarded the Beacon Award for Critical Care Excellence, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (2009, 2010) (stjude,2017). Many of the physician that works for St Jude Children’s Research hospital has receive many different individual awards for the services that they provide.

St Jude Children Research hospital treats approximately 8000 children annually. Since 2009, they have relied on AHRQ which is a “Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture”, to help with quality improvement, understand and improve the culture of the hospital and collect data from it’s on research team (AHRQ, 2014). The survey is not send to all the employees that are employed, but only send to employees that provide patient care. The survey is send out to employees every two years. Tools provided by AHRQ help hospitals to track any changes, evaluate patient safety inventions and check patient safety culture. The purpose of the survey is to help St Jude stay focus on patient care at all time. It also gives them insight on items that they may not know existed.

St Jude Children Research hospital founder Danny Thomas never want any family to receive a bill for any treatment that the patient receives. No matter a person race, creed, culture or race, he believes that all patients should receive treatment. He also believes that families should be able to focus on their family member and keeping them alive should not have to worry about a bill.

At St Jude Children’s Research hospital, they are a not for profit hospital. St Jude uses many different strategies and brand to receive contributions to keep the hospital in operation. They use national media coverage as one of their ways to receive contributions. They also have The St Jude Thanks and Giving campaign were many A-list celebrities make donations to their foundation. They also have nearly 60 best known and well- known companies and brand in America that are integrated partnerships (ana,2017). One of St Jude Children’s Research hospital top corporate fundraiser sponsor are Kmart. Kmart has been in partnership with St Jude Children’s Research hospital since 2006. With the support of employees and associates, $1 donation from the store and online purchases, Kmart has raised over $92 million dollars for St Jude Children’s Research hospital to help the families and patients that receive treatment at their hospital (Kmart,2017).

In conclusion, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital provides care to all patients not matter what their race, creed, color or income status. They are running on donations, contribution for fund raiser, media coverage and their A-lister. They also accept Medicaid and other third party payers. No patient or family member will never see a bill from St Jude. The only thing that family members need to focus on is keeping their family alive. St Jude receives accreditation from AHRQ which is a Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. They have received many different awards for the exceptional care that is provided by the hospital, staff and physicians. St Jude Children’s Research Hospital has many different styles of marketing and brands to continue to receive donations and contributions for operations.

Section 3

St Jude Children Research hospital has national and world impact on the services that they provide to all patients. They provide excellent patient care by holding to the standards of their organizational model. Former President Obama pass the Affordable Care Act of 2010 which allows cancer survival patients and patients with chronic illness not to be denied healthcare insurance or charge a higher rate due to pre-existing conditions. With all the regulations that St Jude has in place, they will continue to comply with rules and regulations through their policies and procedures.

St Jude Children Research hospital is known for helping children from all 50 states and all around the world. Many of the children has come to St Jude Children Research hospital for treatment for cancer HIV/AIDS, sickle cell disease, genetic diseases and other deadly diseases, but many children from around the world has also benefited from the research at the children’s hospital (Park, J. 2013). Due to the quick result that St Jude provides from their discoveries at their laboratory, to doctors and children’s all around the world, by saving one child’s life at St Jude, many more children are saved from the discoveries worldwide. When St Jude Children Research hospital opened in 1962, the survival rate for a child that had cancer was less than 20 percent (Park, J. 2013). With the stellar work that is performed by the physicians and scientist for treatment at St Jude, the survival rate for children today with cancer is more than 80 percent (Park, J. 2013). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia which is the most common form of childhood cancer, the survival rate has risen to 94 percent today, when back in 1962, the survival rate was only about 4 percent (Park, J. 2013).

The University of Memphis conducted a study of St Jude for their operation there and showed that the children hospital has had an economy impact on the community by creating more than $2 billion for the economy for their activity in the community. St Jude has helped to increase the economic in Memphis by creating more than 14,000 jobs. With the continue care that St Jude provides, they have also generated over 70,000 visitors to the city (Park, J.2013). St Jude along with ASLC has also create more than 4000 together with the creation of fundraisers and awareness organizations (Park, J. 2013).

Many children hospital’s around the country operator from revenue from payments or revenue from insurance companies. However, St Jude Children’s hospital is a non-profit hospital which it operators off the majority of public supports and fundraisers. It cost an average of $1.8 million a day to run St Jude Children Research hospital (Parker, J. 2013).

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego, and the Hospital General de Tijuana (HGT) wanted to improve the survival rate of children and their clinical care for children in Baja California. The survival rate for a child acute leukemia in this area was 10 percent in Baja California but, the survival rate for children in the United States was 88 percent back in 2007 (PMC, 2015). St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego, and the Hospital General de Tijuana (HGT) all stakeholder implemented a transcultural partnership to create a pediatric oncology program. The purpose of creating a pediatric oncology program was to improve the clinical care and the survival rate of children in this area. After their first assessment to see what they needed, they created a 5-year plan. The stakeholder established a fully functional pediatric oncology unit with 60 new healthcare providers after their 6 year (PMC, 2015). After the implementation of the transcultural partnership to create a pediatric oncology program, more than 600 patients benefited from the partnership of the pediatric oncology program. The 5-year survival for leukemia rise from 10 to 43 percent, a rise in new cases diagnosed per year from 21 to 70, a reduction in the treatment abandonment rate from 10 percent to 2 percent, and a 45percent decrease in the infection rate (PMC, 2015). With the partnership between the hospitals in the United States and the Mexican borders, they have reduced the gap between the survival rate among children with cancer.

St Jude Children hospital is a non-profit hospital. The majority of the revenue to pay for care for patients and their families comes from donations and fundraisers. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) created a 501(r) section which is part of the Internal Revenue Service that requires all non-profit hospitals to make sure that they provide charity patient care to all patient who are in need of care (Cohen, R. 2015). Under the section 501(r) it is required that non-profit hospitals make their charity care policy clear and well communicated. The 501(r) section also requires that non-profit hospitals charge charity patients a reasonable rate for patient care and stop unusual debt collection practices.   All hospitals were notified well in advance before legislation passed back in 2010 (Cohen, R. 2015). Once the bill was passed, many of the non-profit hospitals were not prepared for section 501(r) charity care provision policies and procedures.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will expand health insurance options for cancer survivors in the United States (ncbi, 2012). The 2010 Patient Protection and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has made many different provision for adults to expand healthcare coverage and improve primary patient care for people with chronic health conditions (ncbi, 2012). Also by 2014, smaller companies will be able to participate in state-run insurance and exchanges and the expansion to Medicaid could help benefit people who has a chronic health condition (ncbi, 2012).  However, many childhood cancer survivals are faced with the barrier of not being able to afford insurance without the help of their employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI). Many of the survivals on employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) were denied healthcare insurance due to childhood cancer. By the employees have being survivals of childhood cancer, their condition is considered pre-existing conditions and were not able to obtain healthcare insurance through their employer. Many of the survival were scared that if they were to lose their employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI), they would not be able to afford to pay for health insurance. Also, many of the survivals were afraid of transiting to a new career due to losing their employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI). Even though the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is offering insurance to childhood cancer survivals, many are still faced with not being able to afford healthcare insurance without the help of their employer.

Many patients that were diagnosis with cancer in the pass were denied healthcare insurance due to their diagnosis which would make the individual uninsurable. Now with the help of former President Obamas healthcare laws, no patient can be denied healthcare insurance or charged a higher rate for healthcare insurance. Insurance carriers can no longer place a lifetime barrier on patients who has been diagnosis with cancer. In order to keep their premiums low, many insurers have decreased the number of hospital and doctors. Many of the exchange policies offers less than Medicare, private insurance or insurance through their employee. St Jude Children Research hospital provides clinical research and knowledge to provide patient care. Hospital such as St Jude Children Research hospital has a unique role for cancer care and they are recognized under Medicare. Many insurance companies are included in their states exchange included them as a network provider. Four hospitals have access through all insurance. Not all insurers include all cancer centers on their low-cost plan. The best known is St. Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tenn. Treatment there is free as long as children have a referral (nypost, 2014).

There are many regulations that are followed at St Jude Children Research hospital. St Jude is regulated by the Environmental Health and Safety to make sure that they provide a safe and healthy research and clinical environment. These services are provided to patients, staff, families and visitors. Some of the services that are provided are by the Environmental Health and Safety are employee safety training, online access to the material datasheets, investigator assistance to biochemical issues, etc. (stjude, 2017). St Jude strides to provide a safe work environment to patients, staff, families and visitors by developing and enforcing its policies and procedures, conducting drill and compliance audits (stjude, 2017). Some of the services that are provided from the General Safety Committee are JCAHO compliance, fire and safety, occupational safety, etc. (stjude, 2017). Also, St Jude Children Research hospital are in compliance with Notice of Privacy Practices (HIPPA). The Notice of Privacy Practices (HIPPA) explains how a patients Protected Health Information (PHI) may be disclosed to other medical staff, volunteers, clinic, etc. for payment, treatment, and other purposes allowed or by law (st.jude, 2017). St Jude Children Research hospital also has a General Safety Officer (GSO) that assist in a variety of different department to make sure that they are providing a safe work place. The General Safety Office (GSO) is responsible for conducting training, investigating incidence, granting approval and providing information (st.jude, 2017). The General Safety Officer (GSO) is also responsible for taking action whenever needed to avoid hurt, harm or danger to individuals or property. These are some of the regulations that St Jude Children Research hospital are in compliance with.

St Jude Children Research hospital is a non-profit hospital that will continue to provide excellent patient care. The way that I see St Jude Children Research hospital in the future is continuing with clinical research and reducing the survival rate for its cancer patient and patients with chronic illness to less than 1 percent. Also I can see St Jude Children Research hospital continuing to providing patient care where no patient nor their family members receiving a medical bill for services that were provided to them regardless of their race, creed, color or financial status.

St Jude Children Research hospital has and national and world impact on the services that they provide to all patients. They will continue to support their organizational model. Due to the Healthcare reform bill pass by the former President Obama, cancer survival patients are able to receive medical insurance without being charge a higher rate or being denied due to pre-existing conditions. With all the regulations that St Jude has in place, they will continue to comply with rules and regulations through their policies and procedures.

Danny Thomas opened St Jude Children hospital with dream of treating all children no matter what their race, creed, religion or ability to pay. With the countless hours of research, they have been able to improve the survival rate from 4 percent to 20 percent over the years. He hopes to one day increase the survival rate to 80 percent (stjude, 2017). With the integration of national and world impact, working with doctors and hospitals in the United States and the Mexican borders they have also been to increase the survival rate of children and adults and also reduce the gap between the survival rate among children with cancer. With the clinical research, technology and continuing to follow the rules and regulations through their policies and procedures, St Jude Children Research hospital will continue to increase the survival rate of children with cancer and other chronic illness.

References:

Section 1:

Timeline: From Dream to Reality; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/about-st-jude/history/timeline.html

St. Jude Affiliate Clinic at Novant Health Hemby Children’s Hospital; retrieved from; https://www.stjude.org/treatment/affiliate-clinics/charlotte-north-carolina.html

The St. Jude Baton Rouge Affiliate Clinic; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/treatment/affiliate-clinics/baton-rouge-louisiana.html

The St. Jude Affiliate Clinic at Huntsville Hospital for Women and Children; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/treatment/affiliate-clinics/huntsville-alabama.html

St. Jude Tri-Cities Affiliate Clinic; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/treatment/affiliate-clinics/johnson-city-tennessee.html

The Jim and Trudy Maloof St. Jude Midwest Affiliate Clinic; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/treatment/affiliate-clinics/peoria-illinois.html

The St. Jude Affiliate Clinic at the Children’s Hospital of LSU Health Sciences Center at Shreveport; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/treatment/affiliate-clinics/shreveport-louisiana.html

The St. Jude Affiliate Clinic at Mercy Children’s Hospital—Springfield; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/treatment/affiliate-clinics/springfield-missouri.html

St. Jude Affiliate Clinic at The Children’s Hospital at Saint Francis; retrieved from:  https://www.stjude.org/treatment/affiliate-clinics/tulsa-oklahoma.html

Developmental & Biology Solid Tumors Program; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/research/comprehensive-cancer-center/programs/developmental-biology-and-solid-tumor.html

Hematological Malignancies Program; retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/research/comprehensive-cancer-center/programs/hematological-malignancies.html

Cancer Prevention and Control Program; Retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/research/comprehensive-cancer-center/programs/cancer-prevention-and-control.html

Red frog events; red frog events commits 1 percent of profit to st. jude children’s research hospital(R). (2016). Health & Medicine Week, , 55. Retrieved from http://lib.kaplan.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1828232013?accountid=34544

Shadyac, R. J. (2011). PR brings new life to St. Jude’s mission. PR Week (US), (8)., Retrieved from: http://lib.kaplan.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsggo&AN=edsgcl.264922285&site=eds-live

Paris, J. J., & Hawkins, A. (2015). Ethics Consults in Pediatrics and Neonatology Are More Varied and Complex Than Those Reported at St. Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital. American Journal Of Bioethics, 15(5), 29-30. doi:10.1080/15265161.2015.1021972

Section 2:

Under the Microscope; Retrieved from: https://www.memphisdailynews.com/news/2013/may/18/under-the-microscope//print

https://oig.hhs.gov/fraud/docs/advisoryopinions/1999/ao99_6.htm

The Story of St Jude Children Research Hospital; Retrieved from: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/hospital-of-tomorrow/articles/2015/09/23/the-story-of-st-jude-childrens-research-hospital

St. Jude becomes first children’s hospital in U.S. to earn CAP ISO15189 accreditation; Retrieved from: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/st-jude-becomes-first-childrens-hospital-in-us-to-earn-cap-iso15189-accreditation-300285926.html

Honor and Awards, Retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/about-st-jude/honors-and-awards.html#432b82218e0f4cde534ae75e287eb2f978195721b60b381be45fe659a3d3003d=2

Day, S. W., McKeon, L. M., Garcia, J., Wilimas, J. A., Carty, R. M., de Alarcon, P., & … Howard, S. C. (2013). Use of Joint Commission International standards to evaluate and improve pediatric oncology nursing care in Guatemala. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 60(5), 810-815. doi:10.1002/pbc.24318; Retrieved from: http://search.ebscohost.com.lib.kaplan.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=23015363&site=eds-live

St. Jude Relies on AHRQ’s Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture; Retrieved from: https://www.ahrq.gov/policymakers/case-studies/cquips1402.html

Integrated Marketing @ St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (Members Only Conference); Retrieved from: http://www.ana.net/membersconference/show/id/MOCMAY12C2

St Jude Children Research Hospital The Giving Hat; Retrieved from: http://www.kmart.com/st-jude-childrens-research-hospital-the-giving-hat-8482/p-046W001446059001P

Section 3:

St. Jude: Local Resource With Global Impact; Retrieved from: https://www.memphisdailynews.com/news/2013/apr/9/st-jude-local-resource-with-global-impact/

Improving Pediatric Cancer Care Disparities Across the United States–Mexico Border: Lessons Learned from a Transcultural Partnership between San Diego and Tijuana; Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4476311/

Problems Getting Nonprofit Hospitals to Comply Fully with the ACA; Retrieved from: https://nonprofitquarterly.org/2015/11/04/problems-getting-nonprofit-hospitals-to-comply-fully-with-the-aca/

Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Coverage Limitations: Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study; Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887442/

Nation’s elite cancer hospitals off-limits under Obamacare; Retrieved from: http://nypost.com/2014/03/19/nations-elite-cancer-hospitals-off-limits-under-obamacare/

Notice of Privacy Practices (HIPAA), Retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/legal/notice-of-privacy-practices.html

St Jude Children Research Hospital, Retrieved from: https://www.stjude.org/research/shared-resources/environmental-health-safety.html

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