Table of Contents
An evaluation of the prior existing literature is very crucial in any academic project .An effectual literature review lays a rigid foundation for advancing and understanding the knowledge regarding the topic .It allows in new idea development, closes the area where many previous works exist ; uncovers and helps to understand the areas where research is needed .The process requires the selection of existing literature ,analyzing critically ,abstract from the text and incorporate into the writing with citations (Webster and Watson, 2002)
The literature analysis will help the researcher to gain the necessary knowledge about the proposed topic- ‘Factors causing stress and stress coping strategies among the teachers of secondary and primary schools in Karnataka’ and helps to outline the set of questionnaire needed for the research. Even though there have been numerous studies on the topic, very little research has been done on teachers in India, especially Karnataka. This part of the research would utilize different types of secondary sources like books, journals, online resources etc. for grabbing the required information that are mainly related to the research topic
Stress is a warning sent from the most primitive part of our reptilian brain which actually warns us about a situation which is farther ahead of our potential and makes us anxious and vexatious. Even though it is irritating and worrisome ,it has always been present and is advantageous . Westernized nations has recently faced an increase in the level of pressure faced by labourers in every sector .It forces individuals to boost their performance. Stress expose labourers to danger of feeling downgraded, not having the capacity to achieve futile targets, being cross examined amid presentations, repaying some portion of their compensation for not having accomplished targets, being contrasted with coworker and so forth. These compulsions put individuals under gigantic stress. Shockingly, it isn’t amazing to know that this causes an ever increasing number of instances of melancholy, wear out and the utilization of tension drug etc.(Radiguès, Minutes and Probert, 2015)
Humans has many biological, psychological and social needs. When these are not attained stress occurs (Ravichandran and Rajendran, 2007) define stress as an imbalance in organic equilibrium due to an external factor or internal drive. If an individual sense something dangerous is going to happen ,he will get tensed That perceived worry is a stressor which ignites physiological responses (Berchtold, Wokocha and Nosike, 2012) . Stress can be categorized as type of feeling, an automatized reaction to the impression of danger. There are two different types of stress:- eustress, which is good and distress, which is bad .The effect of stress depends is directly related to the lack of control over the threats created. ( Kyriacou and Sutcliffe, 1978) pointed out that potential stressors may be primarily physical in nature, psychological, or a combination of both. The interactional viewpoint conceptualizes stress as the result of a perplexing exchange between a persons’ needs/resources and ecological requests and limitations (Boyle et al., 1995;Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2007). Stress alludes to the mix of physiological and mental responses that adversely influence a person because of ecological conditions. Factors causing Stress are normally characterized as (1) the external environmental factors (2) people’s emotional states; or (3) a communication variable underlining the connection amongst people and their surroundings .(Mark and Smith, 2008)
As opined by (Motowidlo, Packard and Manning, 1986) the main cause of stress is either work or personal traits . Stressful occasions are more regular in some activity circumstances than others.Individuals with specific attributes are more probable than others to carry on in ways that increase or reduce the recurrence with which such stress happen. Individuals who finds an occasion seriously stressful in some circumstances are probably going to discover it similarly stressful in different circumstances. Consequently, individuals who discover a few occasions seriously stressful are probably going to discover others strongly stressful as well. According to (Austin, Shah and Muncer, 2005) stress has diverse ramifications for every person .It is an aggregate reaction to one’s environmental needs. It is an unavoidable part of life which everyone needs to manage The mental consequences of stress results in anxiety ,irritability, uneasiness, sorrow, and psychosomatic grumblings. Intrapersonal characteristics such as enduring personality traits may interact with an individual’s perceptions of stressful stimuli, so that stress reactions will vary differentially among individuals, even when the objective external conditions are the same.
(Cox and Griffiths, 1995) states that, there are just three unique types of approaches in identifying nature of stress. Engineering approach, where stress is viewed as a boost or stimulus created in the environment in accordance with the level of existing demand . Second is the physiological approach, where the meaning of pressure depends on the physiological or organic changes that happen in the individual when they are in a stress due to neuroendocrine activation . The third view is named the psychological where stress is not produced by any of the above but it is a dynamic procedure that happens as an individual interfaces with their environment.
As indicated by (Kyriacou and Sutcliffe, 1978) stressors are normally connected with an assortment of individual, social, and physical occasions, incorporating relational encounters. The human body, be that as it may, does not have the ability to separate between the different sorts of stressors. This clarifies why physical stress can’t be isolated from mental pressure, similarly as individual stress can’t be separated from professional stress Since individual reactions to and circumstances fluctuate essentially, factors causing stress in one individual may be a factor of enthusiasm for others (Robinson CHE and Robinson, 1989).
(Dewe and Cooper, 2012) concluded that there are diverse measurements of stress, and it comprises of numerous factors and procedures which differs from individual to individual. Impacts of stress on people, which are called strains, can be sorted as physiological, mental, and social impacts. Physiological impacts of stress are stomachache, migraine, being worn out, ulcer issues, physical weariness, expanded heart rate, excessive sweating, chest ache, spinal pain, and being winded; a portion of the mental/enthusiastic impacts are uneasiness, outrage, despondency, fatigue, disappointment, job dissatisfaction, emotional depletion, antagonistic vibe, burnout, short temper, being tense, being forlorn, no time for relaxation or family, decreases in assurance and general prosperity, feeling miserable about employment, aggravated intellectual working, feeling alarmed, pulling back from retionships, powerlessness to focus, not having the capacity to mentally unwind from work amid recreation time, poor basic leadership and awful judgment. A portion of the behavioral impacts are eagerness, over/under eating, use of cigarette, liquor and medications, taking drugs, sick leave, lateness, and sleeping issues (Öztürk, 2011; Griffith, Steptoe and Cropley, 1999)
Working life is essential for all people, it adds to a man’s prosperity, causes individuals to have social relations, create abilities, and win their living. Professional life may likewise affect people negatively ; physical and psychosocial parts of work may have a few dangers for people(Öztürk, 2011)
Research into Occupational stress has been a continuous activity which is in prevalence for decades.(Desouky and Allam, 2017) stated that occupational stress (OS) is the laborer’s reaction when confronting demands and pressure in work which is not aligned with his skills ,resources and adaptability .Workplace stress has pushed to a great degree today.There are various contributors to this .In previous literatures , different speculations have been propounded that endeavor to clarify stress emerging at work environment. These includes transactional theory of psychological stress and coping job characteristics framework , effort-reward imbalance concept person-environment fit theory and job demand-control model etc (Parihar and Mahmood, 2016; Mark and Smith, 2008)A Cambridge University research reports a few reasons for occupational stress includes workload, work perspectives, job insecurity, relationship with colleagues, available resources ,communication, a legitimate harmony amongst work and individual life, salary and perks. It includes some ecological elements like downsizing, privatization ,redundancy, shift work, cost cutting ,odd work etc. (Parihar and Mahmood, 2016)
According to (Pettegrew and Wolf, 1982),there exists two types of stress which is stress based on work related task and stress based on workplace role . Stress based on workplace role for teachers includes the lack of resources for proper functioning ,how their expectations regarding the workplace vs actual and real responsibilities which their job demands Stress based on work related includes dealing with student misconduct and all the duties and task related with teacher profession .
According (Kyriacou, 2001) there is a mutual relationship between these two stress and job satisfaction and his studies have confirmed it .The results show that high level stress causes dissatisfaction of jobs in people and this dissatisfaction plays a role in decreasing extra stress and functioning. Here there is the need to mention that job satisfaction on the one hand is a symmetrical result of factors such as individual specifications (necessity, affection, motivation) and on the other hand jobbing characteristics (type of job, job environment) Furthermore Kyriacou and Sutcliffe trust that the conduct motion of a man, the focal point of control and the strategy for restricting to stress are persuasive factors in the alteration of the connection between job satisfaction and stress(Soleimani and Moinzadeh, 2012).In this manner it appears that stress, with its high effect on a man’s skill and working, additionally impacts the measure of job satisfaction. Teachers unlike others are exposed to more stress factors since their job is very troublesome, tough, has a high obligation, heavy workload and low measure of social support The level of stress teachers are exposed to is high compared to other jobs and this influence their job satisfaction as well.
Globalization and improvements in innovation have had impacts on associations and furthermore on employees working conditions. Education is an essential issue for the improvement of nations. Teachers have a critical part in the advancement of nations, since they teach new generations . Enhancing the working conditions in schools may emphatically influence educators’ physiological and mental prosperity, A study on the teachers from Turkey and Sweden revealed that recent innovation had impacts on working conditions of teachers Apart from this the change in role have also contributed to stress in teacher’s .Stress negatively effects the physical and psychologiocal welfare of teachers which has detrimental effect on school potency and student performance (Öztürk, 2011)
The increased attrition among teachers has became a serious problem and hence attracts more research studies in the same topic Surveys conducted among teachers shows that nearly one third of them find their activities stressful. This shows that teaching has been related to huge levels of burnout .Stressors in education environment consist of heavy work load, role ambiguity, deficient assets, poor working conditions, absence of expert professionalism, low compensation, absence of contribution in decision making , low recognition , staff clashes, and student misconduct (Boyle et al., 1995)(Dick and Wagner, 2001)
Various reason’s contributes to the stress teachers encounters in their work .It incorporates behavioral problems of students, parent teacher affiliation, rivalry between coworkers, new teaching method adaption, school reforms etc . According to (Soleimani and Moinzadeh, 2012) stress producing factors in teaching includes : logical inconsistency between partners, the state of the workplace, student’s unacceptable conduct, lack of inspiration among students ,heavy work load , low monetary and social condition.
Studies conducted in a group of teachers in Manzini region in Swaziland shows that the main stress factor there is low pay and teachers are more stressed compared to Head teachers (Berchtold, Wokocha and Nosike, 2012) According to (Dawn et al., 2016) female teachers are more prone to stress and as the workload increases the stress also increases . In their study they found that as they advance through the education and hierarchy level from primary to secondary the level of stress increases .Male head teachers has more stress than female head teachers .
Most teachers adapt effectively to work stress, for example, through dynamic critical thinking, social and enthusiastic help from associates, revamping the showing circumstance, coordinating with guardians, or changing their teaching technique. Be that as it may, However, burnout might be the endpoint of adapting unsuccessfully to constant stress. (Berchtold, Wokocha and Nosike, 2012)
School is a domain of consistent cooperation and social relations which may produce a psychosocially stressful workplace for teachers. Changes in teachers’ job and role have impacts on teachers’ job stress. Teachers not only have to teach the students for now but also for the future and have to motivate them for their individual learning as well .Teachers need to deal with requests and demands from society, media, students, guardians, school principals, and associates, and those requests may cause job conflict for teachers. Steady changes in curriculum and syllabus is also another major cause of stress, since teachers need to gain new skills at an unlikely speed (Goddard, 2000)
Teaching is one of the most stressful profession as it demands constant communication with students ,parents , colleagues and school officials (Kyriacou and Sutcliffe, 1977). It is an imperial profession which has lot of hope from parents regarding their children’s future and advancement This is a major contribution of stress. Teaching is acknowledged as the most critical component of advancement. Schools as social associations have great effect on teachers. Working conditions of teachers are characterized as the physical and psychosocial parts of schools. A few cases of the physical conditions are assets of school, number of students per class, and noise level at school. A portion of the psychosocial conditions are relations with students , guardians, colleagues and school principals, steady changes, time pressure , workload, and role Both physical and psychosocial parts of the work put have awesome significance on teachers’ prosperity which has consequences for students ‘ prosperity (Öztürk, 2011)
Teacher stress are mainly categorized into three mental (job dissatisfaction ), physiological (e.g., hypertension), and behavioral (e.g., absenteeism) . Over the long haul these stress impose psychological and biological effects like coronary heart disease. Apart from this self confidence ,social support perception and individual character traits also influence the process . (Dick and Wagner, 2001) Stressors which arise among teachers are divided into two categories based on Blasé’s model first order and second order stressors .First order involves with the teachers direct effort in attaining the positive outcomes with students eg: indiscipline ,absenteeism etc. and second is indirectly related with teachers efforts such as low pay ,poor working conditions etc. ) (Blase, 1982)
As per the survey completed by the Swedish Teachers’ Union, around 35,000 qualified teachers between 20-55 years of age, who filled in as teachers before are no longer working in the state funded schools; men left on account of low pay, and ladies as a result of high stress levels (Öztürk, 2011) said physical and emotional fatigue as the most essential stress results for teachers.Stress levels of teachers are subject to the individual teacher and the individual school, what is stressful for one teacher in a particular school may not be stressful for another one in an another school. In accordance with his study on few teachers in Turkey and Sweden (Öztürk, 2011)suggest that a some teachers stress is related to policies , assessments, students , work over-burden, poor relations with associates, low pay, career progression , noise ,deadline pressure , printed material, stuffed classrooms, educational policies , lighting, no extra time, role complexity , low status, ventilation, cleaning, deficient assets and offices, incorporated organization, instructional issues, no part in decision making , insufficient teaching hours, bureaucracy, parent teacher student relationship, responsibility for students , higher pressure and demand on teachers, law regulatory and parental help, hierarchical structure and authoritative climate and poor appreciation about the educating profession . (Öztürk, 2011)
Stress in teachers are mostly based on organizational factors which are linked to the expectations schools put on them .The main stressors are absurdly set time spans, micro management , farfetched due dates and alarming value judgement etc .The various types of physical stressors in teachers are individual ,environmental and work related .Working environment stress includes noise ,overcrowded classrooms, size of the classroom or school , security and savagery among youth and in addition managerial pressure ,little help from managers and job insecurity .Individual stressors includes personality .age, sex, sexual orientation ,ability to work in team ,adaptability ,work dissatisfaction etc .It can also be linked to the personal characteristics and educational values ,desire to prosper, affectability ,competitiveness, multiple job roles for women etc. (Agai-Demjaha et al., 2015)
.(Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2007) opined that perception of stress and reaction differs from individuals even though the external causes are the same .The physiological and biological changes due to stress leads to ulcers ,coronary heart disease and even affect the mental status .It contributes to reduced immunity ,hypertension ,diabetes, faulty lipoprotein metabolism, and atherosclerosis etc. and hence inserts so much of danger and seek high attention
(Younghusband, 2005) specified that as the teachers experienced pressure and demands without satisfactory resources and backings, they had physical, and mental/emotional impacts of stress. Stress antagonistically influences teachers` work execution, it might cause work disappointment, low profitability level, focus issues, having issues in overseeing time and meeting due dates. The association with colleagues is likewise adversely influenced by work stress; not being willing to coordinate, low level of inspiration, job struggle, not being willing to have cooperate , having forceful and irritative sentiments, withdrawn, failure to speak with associates, and having conflicts . Teachers likewise have conduct issues because of occupation stress, for example, poor appetite, over use of liquor, cigarettes, coffee etc. resting issues, having bad dreams, inability to feel relaxed and being excessively particular. . A few cases of physiological impacts of teachers’ activity stress are medical issues, sore throat, feeling chest torment and spinal pain, hypertension, loss of voice, acid reflux, ulcers, headache, stomach related disarranges, cerebral pain, weariness, psychosomatic ailment, strong strain, and skin infection; mental impacts are uneasiness, pressure, disappointment, outrage, antagonistic vibe, work disappointment, diminishments in spirit, burnout, passionate and mental fatigue, poor individual relations, failure to think, crabbiness, low inspiration, absent mindedness, cynicism, unwillingness, dejection, poor participation, and feelings of incompetence. There are additionally some authoritative impacts of occupation stress, for example, low level of execution and profitability, an excessive amount of costs for medical issues, turnover, non-attendance, disappointments and mischances at work,
The study done among teachers in Sweden showed that activity stress may cause physiological issues, for example, heart sicknesses, psychosomatic disease, weakness, muscular strain, heartburn; mental and passionate issues, for example, tension, disappointment, despondency, wretchedness, dread and dissatisfaction, burnout, defenselessness, frailty, powerlessness and insufficiency, general uneasiness, fractiousness, enthusiastic weariness, disdain towards organization, negative self-idea and low confidence, apprehension, forcefulness, fixation challenges, and detachment; social issues, for example, hunger issue, exorbitant smoking and drinking liquor, tranquilize manhandle, savagery, and failure to rest (Öztürk, 2011)
Teaching is very stressful and its been assessed that between 5% and 20% of teachers in US are burned out at some point of time . Correlating with other jobs ,teachers demonstrate abnormal states of fatigue , skepticism and extensive burnout .A study on teachers in Finland revealed that teachers have high burnout rate compared to others .But studies also shows that majority of teachers are not restless, stressed, unmotivated, or worn out .Very despite what might be expected, most by far are content and excited and find their work fulfilling and rewarding (Hakanen, Bakker and Schaufeli, 2006) Teachers who revealed that they had supportive bosses and showed that they got positive feedback concerning their aptitudes and capacities from others were less exposed to burnout. (Russell, Altmaier and Van Velzen, 1987) Burnout was utilized as an idea to operationalize one imperative part of educator stress, specifically the experience of negative effect .As indicated by the three-dimensional structure of the burnout disorder as proposed by (Maslach and Jackson, 1981) this pessimistic influence alludes to depersonalization of students , feelings of diminished individual achievement, and passionate depletion. (Dick and Wagner, 2001) It is a consequence of long haul word related stress, especially among human administration laborers, including teachers .(Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2007)
Burnout is a mental disorder of passionate, depersonalization, and diminished individual achievement that can happen among people who work with other individuals. A key part of the burnout disorder is increased emotional exhaustion, as enthusiastic assets are drained, low self confidence etc . It give way to low work turnover, non-attendance, and low morale. Besides, burnout is by all accounts connected with different self-traits of individual dysfunction, including physical weariness, sleeping disorder, increased use of liquor and drugs, and family issues(Maslach, Jackson and Leiter, 1997).Most of the studies done conceptualize burnout as a reaction to stress at work described by contrary states of mind and sentiments toward the general population with whom one works (depersonalization mentalities) and toward the job (absence of individual satisfaction at work), together with a sentiment of being emotionally depleted (Maslach and Jackson, 1981)All the more as of late, stress is characterized burnout as a determined and negative mental express that is basically described by the enthusiastic depletion that goes with distress, a sentiment of lessened capability, little motivation, and development of attitudes at work. Studies recommend that stressors which cause teacher stress, and thusly burnout, are the after effect of external elements and individual manners . (Dick and Wagner, 2001).
Burnout is completely different from depression .Three main types of burnout are (1) worn-out teachers; (2) frenetic (“burned-out”) teachers; (3) underchallenged teachers.The most effective way to overcome burn out is by changing the nature of function of the school. According to Farber worn out teachers performs work in a spur of the moment way, when gone up against with a lot of pressure and too little delight; works progressively hard, to the point of depletion, in quest for adequate satisfaction to coordinate the degree of stress experienced; and an “underchallenged’ sort of burnout wherein an individual is confronted not with an inordinate level of pressure essentially (i.e., work over-burden) but instead with dreary and unstimulating work conditions that neglect to give adequate rewards(Farber, 1991)
Psychological coping alludes to the procedure of evaluation of risk and the preparation of subjective and conduct methodologies to deal with the issue and its emotional associates (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984) . Coping reactions are known to influence the effect of stress on mental prosperity and on physiological reactions. The manner by which individuals adapt likewise influences situational evaluation and the significance of difficulties, consequently modifying the view of stress.(Maresz, 2011) contended that higher stress discernment was related with infantile coping approach.(Griffith, Steptoe and Cropley, 1999)
(Lazarus and Folkman, 1984)characterize coping as `constantly changing psychological and social endeavors to oversee particular outer or potentially inner requests that are evaluated as burdening or surpassing the resources of an individual. (Dick and Wagner, 2001).The impacts of stressors are intervened by coping mechanisms . (C. Kyriacou and Sutcliffe, 1978) in a study made a distinction between stressors which are principally physical and mental for example difference between number of students and relationship between peers. Coping endeavors can manage stressful circumstances, but in the event that coping attempts goes wrong, stress happens. Contrasts between the stress‐related zones were estimated utilizing the Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed rank test for hierarchy.. The discoveries inferred that ‘escape avoidance ‘, ‘tolerating responsibility’ and ‘uncontrolled aggression ‘ are negative coping mechanisms and exercise is the only be a powerful method for coping . (Austin, Shah and Muncer, 2005)
A significant extent of teachers portray their occupations as stressful . Much research has endeavored to distinguish the specific stressors in educating, and their effect on wellbeing and prosperity. Work load, scarcity of resources, poor relationship with companions, insufficient compensation, student bad conduct, difficult communications with guardians and desires for other staff have been identified as wellsprings of stress(Travers and Cooper, 1993)These issues have been related with increased depression ,mental trouble,/burnout etc. (Dewe and Cooper, 2012)classified coping strategies adapted by teachers into two as direct action strategy (used less)and palliative (used more ).The main coping strategies used by teachers are low level exercise ,yoga, meditation All holidays and hobbies relates to lower level of burn out .(Dewe and Cooper, 2012) (Cooper and Kelly, 1993) found that teachers utilize palliative coping techniques, for example, liquor, smoking and drug revealed more noteworthy stress emerging from work over-burden and peer relationships, and that these impacts were emphasized among male teachers.
Teachers with high coping ability both internal(self confidence ) and external (school resources ) will have less difficulties in achieving their objectives and be less affected by stress and burn out and vice versa compared to teachers with less coping ability (Betoret, 2006).Coping projects to reduce teacher stress includes arrangements for expanded school supplies , qualified work force for student support (analysts, language teachers, special needs teachers, and so forth.) and help teachers to improve their self-adequacy . Besides, a change in communications with school higher authorities, with colleagues, and with families could likewise demonstrate generally helpful. Training the teachers in communication and interpersonal skills may enable them to enhance such cooperation. In any case, the execution of treatment programs must consider that most individual mediations are unsuccessful due to an absence of consideration given to the authoritative level . “Healthier schools can be achieved by, first, enhancing teachers’ sense of professional self-efficacy, and second, by improving organizational environment” (Betoret, 2006).
The capability of learning vary from person to person. Some learn by logical analysis, some learn in group ,some using theories and some by practical application. Unfortunately the education system is India is not so accommodating .Indian classroom learning style is assimilating which means students learn by watching and thinking .Theoretical knowledge is mainly focused compared to practical. To advance to university one has to study a major and later restricted from entering another domain .This is unlike from the Liberal Arts system prevalent in the US and many European countries. Another major problem is annual exams and grades scored .Getting into a job is the main motive in the society nowadays (Maresz, 2011) .
India additionally have the additional issues of low pay and a genuine absence of educators, with numerous schools in the nation running in incapacitated built up with scarcely maybe a couple teachers. These can be amazingly upsetting to the teachers who work in those schools .Schools neglect to offer the fundamental requirements to teachers like planning and preparation time ,substitute teachers ,materials for reference and advancement .According to Frank ,assessing teachers on the grades secured by the students,not giving them the freedom to select their class, students etc are the major cause of burn out .In India another major cause is the low salary and not adequate staff to manage .Some schools run with two or three teachers which gives additional workload to teachers . (Education Today News, 2017).
For instance some private schools in the country offers a monthly salary between Rs.8000- Rs.10000 to teachers .In India mainly the private primary school teachers are more stressed compared to those teaching in government schools .After reviewing many studies Pandey concluded that in India higher age groups has more burn out .Occupational stress is moreover similar to all age groups and the main factors for work stress are working environment ,age ,job security ,role conflict ,technological changes etc (Pandey and Saxena, 2015)
The workplace pressure is one of the significant factors that create the dissatisfaction among the teachers of secondary and primary school in Karnataka. The dissatisfaction of the teacher mainly found to be one of the most important barriers in the management process for improvement of the workplace. As said by (Reilly et al. 2014), the teachers of both secondary and primary schools are pressurized by their salary. Many school teachers do able to cope up pressure because their action does not gets proper recognition. There was a lack of management according to the decision provided by the authorities that had increased the overall pressure of the respective teachers. It could be found that the overall process had an adverse impact on the development of the structure from the schools of Karnataka. As said by Vesely et al. (2014), the teacher was also being forced to do other works apart from the teaching their students. The teacher does not get the pay according to their extra work provided in the school. The stress could rise through many factors that could either indirect or direct influence of the industry of performance management according to the intensity of teachers. The main potential cause of the creation of stress was mainly the increase in both internal and external factors like the individual in the infrastructural management, government pressure, personnel management, and workplace.
According ( Robertson and Dunsmuir ,2013), the excessive working hours they had to provide after their normal school timing is one of the cause of stress which affects the work life balance of teachers . Other major stressors according to him was excessive workload, high class strength and low number of teachers ,poor management etc.. As said by Flook et al. (2013), stated that misbehaviour of the pupil in school also cause stress in teachers There are many threats that can be used for identifying the stress was self-analysis.
According to (Yu et al. 2015), the first factor that mainly involves that affects the quality of education is uncertainty. The uncertainty is mainly the infrastructural problem for the school that mainly influenced directly according to the performance of teachers of secondary and primary schools of Karnataka. The majority of the significant factor is situated at school in the rural schools that are not being improved by the government. This is because the government has less interested for improvement of the rural places. Majority of the children went to the school to grab the free food provided by the schools in rural areas. The uncertainty in the management provides great amount of disadvantage because it reduces the overall capacity of teachers so that the teacher could able to provide right education to their students through respective pathway. As said by (McCarthy et al. 2015), the management in the rural areas does not provide the proper pay to their teachers that are why many teachers does not want to teach in rural areas. Also the teacher in government school in Karnataka does not get proper attention by the management. This creates great negative impact on the respective students because they does not get the right education As said by (Zurlo et al. 2013), the main desire that had been found that the desires of the teachers were not meets properly according to the external factors. This also reduces the eagerness of the individual’s work. It could be found that the right management is required in the workplace for improving the mentality of the teacher and student for providing the best course.
Necessary steps are required to lower the overall stress of the teachers so that they could improve their overall job satisfaction. In the majority of the case in India, many individuals who are working as the teacher does not get satisfied with their work because of very low salary. As said by (Nathaniel et al. 2016), the government of the state must be well aware of the salary structure for the teacher so that they could able to get the right satisfaction while teaching their students. Many talented individuals do not choose teaching profession because of very low salary structure in the school premises. That is why there is no proper teacher in the school who will provide proper studies to their students. As said by (Tahseen ,2015), the next most important thing that needs to consider for lowering the stress among the teacher is the development of the overall infrastructure of the school. The teacher must have a proper communication with their colleague for the overall reduction of the frustration that had gained while over working in the school. As opined by (Nathaniel et al. 2016), the management must provide additional pay for the teachers when they are providing extra work to them. The extra work could be taking extra classes when the teacher was not present. Sometimes the extra work could involve checking the copies of other secretion where he does not teach. The school must provide proper development in the teaching techniques and adequate time for planning and preparation . As said by (Bermejo-Toroand Prieto-Ursúa 2014), the management must provide right environment inside the school premise so that there is no involvement of risk for creating the uncomfortable situation among the teachers and students. The management must provide health camps for the benefit of students and teachers. The management must provide minimum class strength so that the teacher could able to focus to teach all the students. More the number of students more the stress raises among the teachers because of the pressure in the classroom. It must be the duty of the management of the school to provide proper facilities for the teachers and peaceful environment for working like the clean bathroom, clean classroom and clean staff rooms for the teacher. As said by (Jones et al. 2013), the management must create the group of teachers so that they could able to work together with proper communications among them. The group must maintain a friendly atmosphere in the school and be reducing the false comment and rumors. The management must not show their concern to only one teacher they must work ethically for encouraging the management and circulation of their respective members for providing equal treatment in the school..
(Pithers and Fogarty, 1995) opined that workload is the prime stressor in teachers while (Boyle et al., 1995)evaluated that workload and student misconduct are the two main stressors According to (Chan and Hui, 1995)men are reluctant to seek advice and social support while females seek it more often . .A study by van (Dick and Wagner, 2001)on German teachers revealed that the predictors of the stress model hold true: work load and mobbing lead to stress reactions, whereas principal support, beliefs of self- efficacy, and use of appropriate coping strategies reduces the perception of work load and mobbing.. Teachers expressed dissatisfaction in implementing new policies and changing the curriculum. Teachers with high social support has less stress and has more physical and mental wellbeing . (Berchtold, Wokocha and Nosike, 2012)
(Dewe and Cooper, 2012) concluded that contractual problems are the most stressful causing element in work and the main stressors are job insecurity ,lack of decision making power,I incentives ,low salary ,quick changes ,shortage of skilled teachers etc .Least stressors are physical and sexual abuse , strife amongst individual and school faith, unresponsive manager, spousal disposition towards accomplice’s work, work life balance , work demands on educator’s private life, collegial relationship, complaints from guardians or society , feeling undervalued, absence of help from guardians, claims from parent and an excessive amount of supervision
Decreasing or lightening stress starts with attention to factors that are most inclined to causing stress . Teachers ought to be constantly mindful of early symptoms of stress. Circumstances that yield high tension ought to be kept away from. Teachers , who fear assessments, prepare well utilizing all available materials or feel overpowered with due dates, are more subject yto stress . Self-desires regularly turn out to be progressively hard to meet. A few teachers constantly aim for more themselves and intentionally put themselves in high pressure circumstances. The outcome is stress (Robinson CHE and Robinson, 1989) The management must not overlord work to the respective teachers. The main objective of the researcher was to find out the specific factors that cause stress in their colleagues. The teacher must identify the mental and physical impact that had been caused by the stress. The teacher needs proper meditation in their daily life because they are management many numbers of students in one day. Proper maintenance of the teacher and student ratio must be done by the management so that the teacher does not feel any stress. These were the information that had been gained with the help of the secondary journal. From the overall study, it could be found that in India the main problem that had been faced by the teacher is the lack of proper management in the school. Majority of the management in the school pay very less salary to their teachers. The management also makes the teacher work over time with very less pay in their salary. The teacher does not get properly recognized by the management that is why it does not motivate the teacher a lot. In the government schools, the teachers have to reach the huge number of students in one classroom where the number exceeds more than 70 due to lack of infrastructure provided by the government. The teacher must be provided proper training on the management of the time for adoption of the situations
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