Table of Contents
Executive Summary……………………………………………………………………….. 3
Company Overview/Content of Analysis….………………………………………………. 4
Porter’s Five Forces………………………………………………………………………..
Tata Motors Group is a currently one of the biggest automakers operating both in India and globally. They are currently changing from the inside of the company by building modern manufacturing facilities to enhance the production efficiency to cut costs when they can and also to embrace the innovation culture. However, there are many challenges ahead of them. Tata Motors Group need to develop a comprehensive solution and execute it seriously to retain and gain market share. Tata Motors is actively investing R&D on new technologies for electric and natural gas vehicles. Auto industry market is rapidly changing with constant moving trends.
Company Overview/Context of Analysis
Tata group is an multinational company based in India. It has 695,699 employees worldwide and has been around for about 150 years and now operates in more than 100 countries covering six continents exporting its products in more than 150 countries. The entrepreneur and philanthropist Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata founded in 1886 a private trading firm that became known as Tata Group with headquarters in Mumbai, India. They made their first industrial entry in 1877 with “Express Mill” a textile company and got their “first move advantage” by incorporating the Indian Hotels Company in 1902 that built Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay, the first luxury hotel in India the year after. The promotion of the Tata products was made by the management agency called “Tata industry” which later had a broader mission: To promote Tata’s entry into new business and to invest in operating companies to facilitate growth. In 2004, Ratan Tata, then Chairman of Tata Sons, described Tata group’s efforts to internationalize its operations thus: “I hope that a hundred years from now we will spread our wings far beyond India, that we become a global group, operating in many countries, an Indian business conglomerate that is at home in the world, carrying the same sense of trust that we do today.” (Tata.com,2018). Today Tata group is a name that can be matched with India’s industrialization taking into consideration what they have accomplished from the beginning to become the India’s brand name. They invest in many sectors locally and internationally: Communication, manufacturing, realty and infrastructure, consumer and retail, services, Defense & Aerospace. Tata group had international revenues of $64.40 billion, 64.1 percent of its total revenues, with the UK and the US being the two main overseas revenue contributors in 2016-2017. Tata motors group is the new name after several modifications from the initial name
“Locomotive and engineering company limited” that has been manufacturing cars in India since 1945 in collaboration with Daimler AG, a German company. Until 1991 they were manufacturing only commercial vehicles but in 2004, the same year that it was listed as the first Indian company in the New York Stock Exchange, it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company, South Korea’s second largest truck maker. In 2005, it sets up a joint venture with FIAT Group and Automobiles to produce Fiat and Tata cars in Fiat powertrains. Nano is the world’s cheapest car introduced in 2008 and the same year, they went luxury when they acquired the Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford Motor Company that allowed them to own three major manufacturing and two advance design and engineering facilities in UK. Besides manufacturing passenger cars, utility vehicles, light and heavy commercial vehicles, they also partner with India’s military to manufacture defence Vehicles. l.”( NDTV,web)
Tata has been ranked number one international wholesale voice provider, second largest IT services and tea companies, and top 10 in commercial vehicle manufacturing and steelmaker.
Tata Motors Porter’s five forces Analysis
The five forces were identified by Michael Porter of Harvard University. The Porter’s five forces analysis provides Tata Motors significant information on the competitive environment, attractiveness of the industry, and the potential profitability of the company. The first Porter’s force is the threat of new entry which shows the level of potential threat of new companies entering the auto industry. Some of the barriers for new entry might include economies of scale, high up-front capital requirements, preexisting customer preferences or loyalty, government regulation, trademarks, patents, advanced technologies, etc. Since Tata Motors operate in the industry that requires significant cost up front, great understanding of government regulations, high cost of advanced technologies, etc…; we can conclude that the barriers of entry are high for new companies. Therefore, the threat of new entry is weak but still exist for the auto industry such as recently Google and Apple are making a powerful entry into the industry.
Tata Motors has been established for more than seven decades. They are always excellent at understanding government regulations for the industry. They have been also famous for cutting edge technology, being home to world class engineering and many research facilities. Tata Motors along with Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) ranks an impressive 13th position globally on R&D spending for the last fiscal year (2017-2018). They understand that the improvement of the products not only attracts new customers but also retains old customers to stay loyal to Tata Motors. Tata Motors acquiring JLR also generates significant economies of scale (the cost per unit decreased due to an increased quantity of production) for the company. The economies of scale are an another significant barrier for new entry. Because the new companies not only have to face with high quality requirements but also the cost expectations.
The second Porter’s force is the existence of rivalry. This is considered the most significant among the five forces. Mr. Guenter Butcheck, the Chief Executive Officer at Tata Motors stated that “the problem with our business is that if you miss the dynamics of the market in terms of new products, you will take a hit. And then it gets difficult to recalibrate your efforts and get them in line with what the market demands” (Guenter Butschek, 2017, web). It is true that if the competitors are able to respond quickly to changes in regulation, technology, consumer expectations, etc…, the intensity of competition is high for Tata Motors. In 2008, Tata Motors acquired the two leading premium British car brands, Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford. In 2013, Tata Motors merged them into a single company called Jaguar Land Rover (JLR). This acquisition helps Tata Motors to increase market share and to better differentiate their products. Tata Motors operates in a very competitive, challenging industry and has to compete against many large companies globally as well as locally. Even though, Tata Motors is a large Indian automotive company, it is facing a stronger competition than ever. Because India is currently one of the world’s fastest growing economy, this draws greater attention than before. In order to deal with a strong existence of competitors, Tata Motors needs to develop a comprehensive solution to deal with this strong force of competitors. In the spring of 2018, Tata Motors’ Jaguar brand signed an agreement with Waymo, a self-driving technology development company, for designing and engineering autonomous vehicles. Their goal is to place 20,000 self-driving Jaguar I-Pace for testing in 2018. The long-term goal for this collaboration is to make their products safer, smarter and cleaner.
The third Porter’s force is the existence of substitutes. There are a lot of substitutes products existing for Tata Motors, and the buyers are easily switching to a different brand. Therefore, the existence of substitutes is a strong force. If Tata can increase efficiencies in its production process to lower the cost but still offer great value to their products, the threat of substitutes is lower for Tata. Ashok Leyland is one of the main competitor of Tata Motors in India’s commercial vehicles. If Tata Motors is able to lower its prices due to increased efficiencies in its production process, and consumers view their commercial vehicles car models as comparable, there is a substantial threat that Ashok Leyland could lose the market share because switching costs are not significant. Also two-wheelers are the main substitute for Tata motors. Since the two-wheelers are mainly dominating the auto industry in India, the affordability plays an important role for Indian population to change to cars. This can be an opportunity as well as a challenge for Tata Motors. They not only have to make their products affordable, fuel efficiency but also safe for their customers.
The fourth Porter’s force is bargaining power of the customers which is the influence that customers can have on your products. When many alternative products exist, more information are available for customers, cost of switching products is low, the bargaining power of customers is strong. In order to deal with this strong force, Tata Motors not only need to make their products that satisfy the customers’ preferences but they also have to concentrate on customer services by listening and responding to customers’ feedback and concern. Tata Motors in general and Jaguar Land Rover specially use the five customer –first principles to continuously improve their products and services. The five customer-first principles are easy to do business with, dependable, personalized, make me feel special and transparent. The fifth Porter’s force is the bargaining power of the suppliers. Currently, the bargaining of suppliers is weak for Tata Motors due to a variety of suppliers available. Tata Motors need numerous of different components to make their products. One of the main material used is steel. Tata Motors has a great advantage in this area because Tata Group who owns Tata Motors also owns Tata Steel. Tata Steel is the main supplier for Tata Motors.
Tata Motors VRIO Framework
Tata Motors is the largest automotive manufacturer by revenue in India. By analyzing its VRIO framework which stands for value, rarity, imitability, and organizational aspects we will understand their competitiveness in the industry. In order for a company to have a sustained competitive advantage, all four aspects must be in place as a whole package.
Beginning with the value of the company, Tata Motors are the innovators of the car industry constantly trying to upbeat their competitors. With revenue of 45.2 billion USD, they are India’s largest engine manufacturing company with approximately 4,500 engineers, designers, technicians, and scientists. Tata Motors is constantly trying to find new ways to have a better competitive advantage. Due to their global market and manufacturing process, they have capabilities of producing high innovative technological products. With facilities in more than 20 areas around the world such as Asia, Europe, and Africa, they have an advantage in economies of scale. Labor cost is low in India which is a huge benefit to the company. Manufacturing costs are also not as expensive as in other countries, allowing them to make profits. For example, if prices are too high in a certain area, they have the ability to export and import products from country to country where they are able to obtain at a lower cost. They manufacture their own top of the line engines and have an even higher advantage since they also own Tata Steel which is one of their resources used in manufacturing. Their BS-IV engines use a selective catalytic reduction and an exhaust gas recirculation which helps lower costs of the consumers (Tata Motors ready with BS-IV engines, 2017). Recently, Tata Motors has improved their manufacturing process by applying a new “modular” platform.
They will be going from six platforms to only two to increase their economies of scale. The two new modular platforms are the Omega Arch for passenger vehicles and the Intra Platform for commercial vehicles. This new platform is an advanced architectural platform that allows them to produce new products with many options for consumers to choose from. It is flexible by having the ability of changing the sizes of the vehicles and able to be moved easily and quickly (Borpuzari, 2018).
In 2012, Tata Motors began working with Westport Fuel Systems for development and supply research. Together they worked on developing natural gas for vehicles, all while trying to reduce emissions and the cost of fuels. In January 2, 2018, they announced that they would be working on developing certified natural gas spark-ignited engines due the new Indian Government emission standards taking effect in April 2020. Not only would this be benefiting consumers, it would also control India’s air level which is highly polluted. (Tata Motors and Westport Fuel Systems Announce Development and Supply Agreement, 2018).
A different route the company took was when Tata bought Jaguar and Land Rover for 2.3 billion in June 2008. Although sales were not great for those companies when it was purchased, sales have increased with Tata ownership. Tata was able to get into the luxury brand market and has been doing great in sales by producing more efficient engines. Their 3 focus areas were to improve liquidity, new products and cost control (How Ratan Tata brought life to Jaguar Land Rover – Triumph over humiliation, 2018).
Additionally, Tata’s commercial vehicle sales increased tremendously in the domestic market, increasing their market share by 43.95% FY 2018 from 42.79% FY2017. After dedicating their time into commercial vehicles, Tata had a goal of revamping their commercial vehicles. They reduced cost production, launched products on time, quick volume delivery, and debottlenecking. This strategic strategy helped them drive sales (“PTI,” 2018).
When it comes to rarity, Tata Motors was rare at one point it time when they produced the Nano in 2003, making it the only car no other manufacturer had ever created. It was known as the world’s cheapest car at a price of US $2,500. Competitors wanted to know how they were able to produce such a cheap car. However, that quickly declined when safety standards were not up to par and there was no demand (Gosh, 2018). Today there are many auto companies doing similar manufacturing such as Maruti, Hyundai, Volkswagen, Honda, etc who also have similar resources and capabilities as Tata.
Moving along to imitability, the production of the Nano has only motivated competitors to produce more economical yet efficient cars that meet safety standards. Of course they would not want to produce the Nano but something that would be economically better to the average consumer. For example, Toyota and Honda have created hybrid cars which is good on fuel. With gas prices going higher, there could be a time where all innovated cars no longer require fuel but alternative renewable resources. For example, Tesla has come up with electric cars that involve solar panels and renewable resources as well as Hyundai Kona Electric. However, Tata has recently added its new Jaguar I-Pace SUV that is fully electric premium. Although Tesla’s Model X beat the Jaguar I-Pace with better mileage recently, the I-Pace just shows that Tata is always evolving with its competition (Glucker, 2018).
Recently, Tata Motors has been going through an organization change. To gain competitive advantage, they have cut off excess staff and have moved employees around the company for restructuring purposes. They want to be more effective with decision-making and focus more on the customers. The new organizational change involves eliminating some middle management and calling the new internal structure organization effectiveness, going from 14 to five organisational levels. They want to focus on accountability and having strong practical leadership. They even hired consultants from firms Accenture and Roland Berger to guide them in improving their competitiveness (Thakkar, 2016).
Overall, Tata Motors is valuable but not rare and can be imitated due to the extensive resources of its competitors. Its organization is currently going through a change so this puts Tata Motors at a competitive parity but not at sustained competitive advantage.
Tata Motors: Resources-Based View
As all companies, Tata Motors has resources and capabilities they use to better themselves as company and maintain a standard. Resources and capabilities is defined as “The tangible and intangible assets a firm uses to choose and implement its strategies” (p 98-99). Over time, Tata Motors have established themselves as a known automotive manufacturing company, however, throughout that time Tata Motors has endured several issues they continue to struggle with year after year. Recently, Tata Motors market shares dropped 15.7% causing many negative effects to occur. The main source of the problem is the fact that JLR caused 9,000 employees to be out of work for two weeks because they shut down their Solihull Plant. By losing “nearly a sixth of its market capitalisation a day after subsidiary Jaguar Land Rover announced a two-week shutdown at one of its factories because of weak demand,” Tata Motors chance of achieving sustained competitive advantage has decreased (Mundy, 2018). For example, for 4-5 years Tata Motors lost market share, not only because of struggles with ensuring Foreign Trade Policies are being met, but because Tata Motors needed to ensure other concerns to their consumers were being fulfilled. “Commercial vehicles had lost share in the domestic market, down 44.4 percent” (PTI, 2018) big losses in a company such as this can be worked on to improve market share and create a consistently increasing one. Even though there was an increase in sales when Tata Motors merged with JLR, the fact that Tata Motors is at a competitive parity level proves how the lack of a resource-based view, such as VRIO, the company has affected the company negatively. Tata Motors is heavily dependent on JLR which is why the company has, weak demand, less flow of money, and loss of market shares, key issues Tata Motors is struggling with. The best thing that Tata Motors could do to improve as a car manufacturing company is ensure that their products are valuable, rare, inimitable, and continues to operate their organization to which they are successful.
Tata Motors: Market Selection & Entry Mode Choice
Electric Vehicles (EVs) is a market option that has recently taken interest to multiple car manufacturing companies. An additional aspect Tata Motors struggled with as a company, is evolving as a company to incorporate EVs. Chandrasekaran claims, “The Indian auto industry is not without its challenges, including adapting to a structural shift towards electric vehicles (EVs)” (Thakkar, 2018). Electric vehicles are up and coming, many car manufacturing companies have been incorporating EVs into their options or car choices such as, Tesla and General Motors in 2017 (Hoium, 2017). By not incorporating Electric Vehicles sooner and failing to be agile for future markets, Tata Motors will continue to be at a competitive parity instead of a sustained competitive advantage. When other car manufacturing companies are incorporating and displaying evolving qualities and Tata Motors fails to show the same qualities, the company will fall behind and show lack of risk, be adherent, and persistently show only “average” performance. The best thing Tata Motors can do in this situation is enter the market strong by creating a memorable marketing strategy. Coming up with a plan to best display the Electric Vehicle being manufactured and providing that information to consumers in a way that allows them to connect to Tata Motors, will help increase demand. “The company is planning to develop a 320 volts battery with a range of 300 plus kilometres which will deliver faster acceleration, efficiency, including fast charging” (Thakkar, 2018). To ensure their pledge to incorporate EVs, Tata Motors delivered on their contract within four months. Tata Motors originally struggled to be agile in the Electric Vehicle market but because of the consistent push to include Electric Vehicles into their line of automobiles, they are bettering themselves as a company and attending to consumers desires. These are the continuous steps Tata Motors needs to take in order to become a better company, increase in market share and enter the market strong.
Tata Motors: Mergers and Acquisitions
Tata Motors is known for their ambitious nature to be consistently growing and expanding. One of the ways they have been able to advance and evolve is through M&As (Mergers and Acquisitions). The phrases “M&A’s” (“Mergers and Acquisitions”) are often used in business and are used reciprocally. Be that as it may, it is presumable that when speaking of M&As it is often alluding to acquisitions due to its dominance in cross-border deals. An actual merger occurs when there are combined forces of two separate entities to create a new, combined organization as equal partners. However, what usually occurs is that one firm takes over the other therefore no longer technically considered a merger but an acquisition. For this reason, the volume of “real” mergers is extremely low (at only 3% of all M&As). On the other hand, acquisitions take about 97% of M&As. Emerging market-based firms from countries such as India where Tata is located, take up a remarkable portion of the global cross-border M&As. In the case of Tata Motors, the acquisition route was taken when they acquired JLR (Jaguar Land Rover). This acquisition played a vast role in propelling Tata Group to become the number-one private sector employer in the United Kingdom. However, the success didn’t not occur without facing difficult challenges in the initial stages.
Ideally, some key issues and solutions for acquisition failures will be uncovered in analyzing the pre-acquisition phase of Tata Motor’s with JLR. Unequivocally, Tata Motor’s acquisition of JLR began because of a particular motive and the same occurs for all institutions who acquire or consider acquiring. Motives can be good or bad, successful or unsuccessful. Generally, in the pre-acquisition phase acquisitions are initiated based on one or more of the following motives; synergistic, hubristic and/or managerial motives. Tata Motor’s motivation behind the acquisition was to complete its product portfolio by entering the luxury cars and premium sports utility vehicles (SUV) portion. Previously the company was limited to economical utility vehicles, low-end vehicles, and commercial transporting vehicles. In support of this motivation, the resource-based view says one of the synergistic motives for acquiring is to gain access of beneficial resources. Tata’s acquisition occurred after several months of due diligence (investigation prior to signing contracts). In early 2007 was when Ford and Tata motors started building a relationship, planning for the acquisition, and doing internal due diligence.
Nevertheless, it is stated that firms can often fall into a “synergy trap” where overpayment for targets occur (p.389). According to an article in Times Magazine (2009), analysts said this was the case for Tata Motors when they acquired JLR (their target) from Ford Motors for a total of $2,300,000 in June 2008; only a few months before the stock market crash. Moreover, according to the NY Times, many analysts and investors had said that Tata Motors was making “an expensive mistake” at the time of the acquisition. Just prior to the deal with Tata Motors Jaguar Land-Rover had reported an annual profit; this was the first time they made profit since it had been acquired by Ford Motors. Overpayment of targets usually occur because of hubris and/or managerial motives. A hubristic motive under a resource-based view, stems from an excessive amount confidence in one’s own capabilities and in an institution-based view this motive is described as herd behavior; following norms and pursing trends of M&As. Continuing with the institution-based view, managerial motives are led by informal benchmarks and observations. Managers with these motives pursue outcomes such as empire-building and are driven by self-interest. Conclusively, synergistic motives according to an institution-based view react to formal institutional constraints and transitions.
All things considered, the evidence regarding the acquisition between Tata Motors and JLR point in the direction of having been stemmed from a resource-based view of synergistic motives. It is apparent that Tata Motors main motivation was to leverage superior resources when acquiring UK’s largest car manufacturer–– Jaguar Land Rover, iconic producer of luxury cars and premium SUVs. In addition, Tata took their time in performing their due diligence with Ford in the pre-acquisition phase and did well in the post-acquisition phase by avoiding a hubris approach and by adopting a management style where the bulk of the decision-making was allocated to JLR managers. They also allowed JLR’s operations to remain in the UK even though there were more economical manufacturing locations in India and China because Tata understood the success of JLR vehicles worldwide was due to their high-quality design, engineering and manufacturing. Due Tata’s approach, and their cognizant strategy they were able to avoid some of the pre-acquisition and post-acquisition problems for cross-border M&As (referenced below in table 12.4, p.389). Tata empowered JLR by giving them independence and by choosing to be selective on shared aspects which was part of the strategy throughout. In addition, both Tata and JLR kept their existing practices while maintaining the goodwill of existing management
Through our analysis of Tata Motors, we have evaluated that Tata Motors has been evolving throughout the years but it needs some improvements. By being more efficient with their products, they have a possibility of increasing their market share. They must work with their suppliers to improve and maintain the quality of the materials being used. Also, they should have better relationships with suppliers to make sure they have table sources of inputs. Without such resources they will have a negative impact on their production process. Their manufacturing process is currently going through improvements but other companies have already started such changes. They need to concentrate on their marketing strategies to the point where people think of the company it automatically comes up with economical. Consumers must be aware of its consumer cost that would attract someone to buy the car. In order to export and be more international, they can hire public figures for advertising and even have one as an Ambassador that would cause people to see what company Also, if you were to ask Americans about Tata Motors they probably have no clue what company is. Marketing your product correctly will bring a good name for the company. At the moment, they are doing great in India but not necessarily in other countries. By being diverse with its advertising, they could have higher sales within those countries. One key point is building customer relationship. If they were to improve brand loyalty they can have free marketing by word of mouth.
Tata Motors laid off thousands of workers when they went through their organizational change. When it comes to their ethics, there can be some improvement. By laying off thousands of workers, this can impact the companies reputation as one that is not ethical.
Since Tata Motors is a global company, it must be in regulation with its trade policies. If no done correctly, the company can be fined and lose money. They must follow the standards of each country.
Moreover, their ties with Westport Fuel Systems has been an active role in reducing pollution and reducing consumer costs. Their manufacturing of electric vehicles is also another strategy to help them evolve.
In conclusion, we feel Tata Motors should not ever feel settled with their innovation but continue because the competition is always there. They must be aware of what is happening with their competitors and be quick with their advances. They must know how to utilize their resources and capabilities to be more competitive in the automotive industry locally as well as globally. They have the products for different consumers so they must use that to their advantage.
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