Tourism is the movement of people to destinations away from their place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation, remunerated from within the country visited for a period of more than 24hours. It is one of the world’s fastest growing industries and an important source of foreign exchange and employment for many developing countries. Since crossing many of the primary needs of the population, when harnessed it can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion and given to its sustained growth and resilience, can also contribute to facing the main global challenges of our societies
Mozambique is a country with a great potential to become a tourist destination at regional and international levels which origins from the relevant characteristics of its natural resources, cultural and historic value. But, despite the country’s tourism potential, the increase in investments and number of international tourist’s arrivals as well as its proximity to South Africa which is one of the world’s top tourist destinations, it still far from the expected and has little expression to the regional and international levels as a tourist destination.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding on tourism market in Mozambique as a tourist destination by analyzing the tourism market development from 2004 to 2009. The research study was based in literature review for theory and problem discussion and the data collected from the Mozambique’s Tourism Ministry reports on tourism demand from 2004 to 2009.
The study shows that the high costs of tourism services for the local people and their small capacity of investment are the main factors for the slow development of domestic tourism. The tourism development in Mozambique is different when analyzing each province and type of tourists. Leisure and holidays is the main reason for visiting the country, followed by business and conference and, lastly visit relatives and friends. It also shows that its important to create guidelines to brand destinations differently and design specific tourism plans, according to specific characteristics of the tourist zones, create new marketing strategies which aim not only international tourists but also domestic tourists and specific policies for domestic tourism development, create incentive programs which stimulate and encourage the use of local architecture design and materials by local and foreign investors, create policies that stimulate and facilitate participation of the local communities in tourism projects, employment, training food furnishings and crafts and, complementary products.
Tourism is the movement of people to destinations away from their place of residence for any reason other than following an occupation, remunerated from within the country visited for a period of more than 24hours (wikibooks.org). It is one of the world’s fastest growing industries and an important source of foreign exchange and employment for many developing countries. With destinations not only in industrialized countries, but also in less developed countries in East Africa, Central America and South East Asia, when harnessed, tourism can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion, since crossing many of the primary needs of the population.
(World Tourism Organization, 1996).
According to Salgado e Cravo (1999), tourism industry employs about 204.000.000 persons in all over the world, generates 655.000 millions of dollars in taxes and pays 1.7000.000 millions in salary which make it a very important activity in the world. Due to the income generated by the consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism, it has become vital for many countries and a popular global leisure activity(www.sidestore.com/) and also a factor of social stability, mutual understanding among individuals and peoples and acquired an important cultural and moral dimension.
Tourism can be an efficient tool to advance international peace and understanding. It is growing steadily and needs to be viewed in its social, cultural and ethical dimensions and therefore in its potential to alliance of civilizations. It shares with religions and civilizations values such as tolerance, respect of diversity, respect of nature, rediscovery of oneself and of the others. Given its sustained growth and resilience, the sector is in fact, in ideal position to contribute to facing the main global challenges of our societies (www.world tourism.org). According to the manila declaration, 1980, tourism is an essential activity for the life of nations due to its direct effects on cultural, social, educational and economic sectors of the national societies and their international relationships. Its contribution to national economy and international trade makes it a significant factor in world development and one of the main economic activities in the world through its function in national economy, international transactions and in securing balance of payments equilibrium.
Tourism that focuses on natural environments is a large and growing part of the tourism industry. While it can contribute in a positive manner to socio-economic development and environmental protection, uncontrolled tourism growth can also cause environmental degradation, destruction of fragile ecosystems, and social and cultural conflict, undermining the basis of tourism.
The intangible nature of tourism industry services makes its quality control difficult but crucial and more difficult for potential costumers to evaluate and compare service offerings. In addition, instead of moving the product to costumer, the costumer must travel to the product which means spent money and time. As an industry, tourism has many components comprising to the overall travel experience. Along with transportation, it includes accommodations, food and beverage services, shops, entertainment, aesthetics and special events. To overcome this hurdle tourism, related businesses, agencies and organizations need to work together to package and promote tourism opportunities and align their efforts to assure consistency in product quality (Mahoney and Warnell, 1987). The different definitions of tourism in each country, the difference in census techniques, the great mobility of tourists and its several motivations, the heterogeneity tourism types are some reasons which make the tourism a difficult statistic object in definition and measurement (Salgado e Cravo, 1999).
Manila declaration 1980 says that tourism resources (space facilities and values) are available in various countries in risk of deterioration and destruction and belong to heritage mankind. The development of tourist activities cannot be prejudicial to economic and social interests of the population in tourist areas, to the environment and to the natural resources. The national and international communities and the states are responsible for preservation and conservation of historical, cultural and religious sites at all times.
In order to maximize tourism’s poverty reduction potential, multiple strategies may be required that combine action at the destination, at national policy level, and internationally. Since one organization cannot operate effectively at all three levels, complementary actions by different stakeholders are required at all levels to enhance the positive outcomes of tourism. The destination level relies primarily on initiatives by private companies, NGOs, and the communities themselves. Nationally the governments can reduce obstacles to informal sector participation. Internationally, the promotion of responsible consumer and business behavior and the establishment of enforceable international industry codes of conduct can also contribute towards poverty reduction potential of tourism (Ashley, Boyd and Goodwin, 2000, p6).
1.1. Significance of the research
Mozambique is a country with a great potential to become a tourist destination at regional and international levels which origins from the relevant characteristics of its natural resources, cultural and historic value. Its distinct local style consists of a blend of African, Arab and Portuguese influences and provides a contrast to the other southern African countries, offering an unique historical and cultural heritage, tropical beaches, coral reefs, spectacular landscapes, intriguingly rich architecture and small desolated islands close to the coast, Mozambique is one of the most enticing tourist destinations in Southern Africa.
In 2001, the country received about 400 thousands tourists, about 80% of the arrivals in Tanzania which is a country with the same natural characteristics and product lines but without the same proximity and access routes to south africa (one of the world’s top tourist destination). In the same period, South Africa received 6 million of tourists and according to WTO, is expecting to receive 30 million tourists in 2020.The tourism contribution to the Gross Domestic Product in Mozambique was also relactively low (1,2% in 2001). In 2002, the country received 900 thousands tourists mostly from the neihgboring countries. In south Africa, the sector contributes with about 8% to the national economy, in Sub-Saharian Africa with about 6.5% of the GDP and in the world with 10.2% of the GDP.
According to tourism in Mozambique.wikipedia.The free encyclopedia, by the end of 1990s tourism was the best growing sector of Mozambique’s economy and in 2005 the country registered the fastest growth rate in the world. Despite the country’s tourist potential, the obvious increase in investments and number of international tourist’s arrivals as well as its proximity to South Africa, it stills far from the expected and has little expression to the regional and international levels as a tourist destination, so, this research intends to analyze the tourism market development in Mozambique as a tourist destination from 2003 to 2008 and identify how to attract new tourist markets.
1.2. Problem discussion
Tourism is an attractive tool for economic development, especially in the developing world and has assisted many developing countries to move away from a dependency on agriculture and manufacturing (Tooman, 1997 cited by Kabia, 2005). Chosen for its ability to bring in needed foreign exchange earnings, income and employment; it has become a popular addition to economic development policies in many African, Asian, South and Central American countries. Although it seems to be adding substantially to the economic growth of many of these regions, many developing countries are not reaping to full benefits from tourism. More than two thirds of the revenue from international tourism never reaches the local economy because of high foreigner exchange leakage. Understanding the many ways that tourism profits can leak out of an economy and, devising strategies to minimize could make tourism a more effective economic development agent (kabia, 2005).
Worldwide, international tourist arrivals in 1999 are estimated at approximately 700 million, resulting in over $500 billion in tourist receipts and tourism generates nearly 250 million jobs worldwide (kabia, 2005).the increasing fascination potential economic benefits for destination areas(kabia, 2005).In the past two decades increased attention to the negative social, cultural and environmental impacts of tourism has also emerged, calling for more careful planning and management of tourism development (WTO, 1996). According to (Harrison & Husbands, 1996 cited by kabia, 2005) achieving sustainable tourism (the one that maintains economic benefits and limits associated negative impacts), lie in minimizing negative impacts by strategies such as environmental and social impact analysis, community control and segmenting markets.
The potential economic benefits of tourism are a major attraction for developing countries due to three pro-tourism arguments: the trend in demand for international travel is projected to continue at astonishing rates due to the economic stability and travel preferences of people in the developed regions such as Europe, Asia and North America ; the income elasticity of demand for tourism means that the household incomes of people in the developed world increase, more disposable income will be directed towards travel and, developing countries are in need of foreign exchange earnings to support their economic development initiatives and to satisfy the demands of their residents (kabia, 2005).
Today traveling for pleasure (leisure, recreation holidays and visiting friends and relatives) is the most common form of traveling. People have a number of different motivations for traveling. Some people travel for sun, sand and sea while others, are most interested in cultural and sporting activities associated with the travel. When surveyed people tend to list the following reasons for travel (Walker, 2004):
– To experience new and different surroundings
– To experience different cultures
– To rest and relax
– To visit friends and family
– To view or participate in sporting recreational activities
According to the same author, longer life spans (people live longer and have better health), flexible working hours, early retirement, greater ease of travel, tendency to take shorter but more frequent trips and increase on standard of living are factors contributing to an increase on number of traveling in the coming years. The future travel patterns are vary hard to predict but there are number of trends and factors that will definitely impact on how, where, when and why we are going to travel.
Visitors often come from particular socioeconomic layer of the population of industrialized countries and capital surplus, which requires relatively sophisticated market research to identify and analyze and profiles the preferences of these visitors. Although in these countries a prosperous minority exists that is capable of undertaking domestic tourism, many inhabitants lack the income and wherewithal to travel, so, the research must not focus only on measurement of domestic tourism but on ways and means to improve access of underprivileged layers of the population to holidays and travel, and on devising economical, but adequate means of supply (accommodation and transportation) to achieve this aim (kabia, 2005)
As we know, when harnessed, tourism can be a key instrument to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic promotion, since crossing many of the primary needs of the population.
1.3. Research approach
According to Denscombe, 1998, the research approaches can be divided in two: qualitative and quantitative. A quantitative study is associated with numbers as the unit of analysis, analysis, large scale studies, a specific focus, researcher detachment and a predetermined research design while a qualitative study is associated with words as the unit of analysis, description, small scale studies, holistic perspective, researcher involvement and an emergent research design. This thesis is a research quantitative since it uses numbers as unit of analysis of the tourism market as a tourist destination in Mozambique. According to Fretchling (2001), the careful forecaster will inquire into how the data to be used was collected and processed to understand what measurement anomalies may be present and how much of the variation through time is due to sampling error. My study was based in already existing data records, which made it difficult to predict and prevent eventual mistakes occurred during the data collection process, but some studies indicate that is difficult to determine the economic performance of the tourism sector in Mozambique due to difficulties in collecting data and statistical indicators of some revenue like, average rates of occupancy and international flows in the country.
1.4. Outline of the thesis
The presented thesis is basically composed by four parts:
Introduction – this part introduces the area of study, presents the significance of the research, problem discussion, research approach, outline of the thesis and finally the purpose of the thesis.
Methodology – this part gives a brief and clear description of the methods used when conducting the study.
Mozambique’s tourism sector overview – this part presents a general description on tourism in Mozambique
Findings, conclusions and recommendations – the final part, reaches and describes the research purpose by analyzing, commenting and suggesting on how to improve the performance of the tourism sector in Mozambique.
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